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Language peer sets for ALGOL 68:
International
International/1968
Designed 1968
1960s languages
Third generation
High Cold War
Genus True ALGOL68s
Numerical Scientific
True ALGOL68s
Generation of Algol 68
Algol family
True ALGOL68s/1968
Generation of Algol 68/1968
Algol family/1968
True ALGOL68s/International
Generation of Algol 68/International
Algol family/International
Numerical Scientific
Numerical Scientific/1968
Numerical Scientific/aa

ALGOL 68(ID:311/alg019)

3rd generation ALGOL 

alternate simple view
Country: International
Designed 1968
Published: 1968
Genus: True ALGOL68s
Sammet category: Numerical Scientific


1968 Adriaan van Wijngaarden et al.

Discussed from 1963 by Working Group 2.1 of IFIP.

Definition accepted Dec 1968.

ALGOL 68 was complex, and posed difficulties for both implementors and users. But it was also the first truly universal language.

Structural equivalence. Automatic type conversion, including dereferencing. Flexible arrays. Generalized loops (for-from-by-to-while-do-od), if-then-elif-fi, integer case statement with 'out' clause, skip statement, goto. Blocks, procedures and user-defined operators. Procedure parameters. Concurrent execution (cobegin/coend) and semaphores. Generators heap and loc for dynamic allocation. No abstract data types, no separate compilation.

a) In designing the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 68, Working Group 2.1 on ALGOL of the International Federation for Information Processing expresses its belief in the value of a common programming language serving many people in many countries.

b) ALGOL 68 is designed to communicate algorithms, to execute them efficiently on a variety of different computers, and to aid in teaching them to students.

Ob Dict - despite the fury of the Algol 60 afficianadoes in the face of Algol 68, it was a very well thought through experiment in language design. It is instructive to read the disgust that SHARE memebers like Bernstein felt at the arrival of Algol 60 after the beauty of Algol 58, which they thought required so little to fix it up!

An imperative read is Lindsay 1972, which is a large introductory article that is also a fully functional Algol 68 Program


Structures:
Related languages
ALGOL 60 RevisedALGOL 68   Evolution of
ALGOL WALGOL 68   Influence
ALGOL XALGOL 68   Evolution of
ALGOL YALGOL 68   Evolution of
Generalized ALGOLALGOL 68   Evolution of
  ALGOL 68ALGOL 68 Revised Revision
  ALGOL 68Algol 68 with areas Augmentation of
  ALGOL 68ALGOL 68+ Superset
  ALGOL 68ALGOL 68C Variant
  ALGOL 68ALGOL 68-R Subset
  ALGOL 68ALGOL 68S Subset
  ALGOL 68Algol H Extension of
  ALGOL 68ALGOSIM Based on
  ALGOL 68B Influence
  ALGOL 68Buckle data structure language Incorporated some features of
  ALGOL 68BUILD Based on
  ALGOL 68ELAN Implementation
  ALGOL 68FLACC Implementation
  ALGOL 68GNOSIS Preprocessor for
  ALGOL 68GRAAP Extension of
  ALGOL 68Icon Augmentation of
  ALGOL 68IFP Influence
  ALGOL 68LINUS Influence
  ALGOL 68Mary Superset
  ALGOL 68Mesa Implementation
  ALGOL 68Minority report Algol 68 Reaction to
  ALGOL 68NB Incorporated some features of
  ALGOL 68OREGANO Implementation
  ALGOL 68PACOL Influence
  ALGOL 68Pascal Influence
  ALGOL 68PEARL Based on
  ALGOL 68RTL/2 Subset

Samples:
  • Primes
  • Tree merging
  • Matrix multiplication

References:

1963

1969

1970

  • Berry, Daniel M. (1970) Berry, Daniel M. "The importance of implementation models in ALGOL 68: or how to discover the concept of necessary environment" pp14-24 Extract: doi Abstract Extract: THe necesary environment
          in [SIGPLAN] (1970) SIGPLAN Notices 5(09) September 1970
  • Golde, H. (1970) Golde, H. review of A. van Wijngaarden et al 1969 Abstract
          in (1970) ACM Computing Reviews 11(10) October 1970

1971

1972

1973

  • Sammet, Jean E. (1973) Sammet, Jean E. "Roster of Programming Languages for 1973" p147
          in (1974) ACM Computing Reviews 15(04) April 1974

1974

1976

  • Branquart et al. (1976) Branquart et al. "An Optimized Translation Process and Its Application to ALGOL 68", LNCS 38 Springer-Verlag 1976
  • Houssais B., Production syst�matique de tests comm (1976) Houssais B., Production syst�matique de tests command�e par une grammaire. Application � la validation d'un compilateur Algol 68. Th�se, IRISA, Universit� de Rennes, 1976
  • Pagan, F.G. (1976) Pagan, F.G. "A Practical Guide to Algol 68", Wiley, 1976
  • Pagan, FG (1976) Pagan, FG "On interpreter-oriented definitions of programming languages" Abstract Online copy
          in (1976) The Computer Journal 19(2) May 1976
  • (1976) The Higher Order Language Working Group (HOLWG) Working Paper on 23 exisitng programming languages
  • Wichmann, B. A. (1976) Wichmann, B. A. "Ackermann's function: a study in the efficiency of calling procedures" BIT 16 (1976), pp103-110 Abstract Extract: Introduction Extract: Ackermann's function Extract: Acknowledgements Extract: Results of tests (altered to include authors where known) Extract: Program listing Extract: Properties of the algorithm Extract: Notes on the results and Factors influencing the execution speed Extract: Conclusion

1977

  • Bennett, M. (1977) Bennett, M. W. Implementation of a PDP11/ICL1900 cross assembler in Algol 68R pp153-156
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Braid, I. C. and Hillyard, R. C. (1977) Braid, I. C. and Hillyard, R. C. "Geometric modelling in ALGOL 68" pp168-174 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Craven, P. G. (1977) Craven, P. G. "Derivatives without tears in Algol 68" pp19-26 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Foster, J. (1977) Foster, J. M. and Foster, P. D. Abstract data and functors pp161-167 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • (1977) Grune, Dick Towards the design of a super-language of ALGOL 68 for the Standard Prelude (Excerpt) pp78-81 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Hennell, M. A.; Hedley, D.; Woodward, M. R. (1977) Hennell, M. A.; Hedley, D.; Woodward, M. R. "Quantifying the test effectiveness of Algol 68 programs" pp36-41 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Housden, R.J.W. (1977) Housden, R.J.W. and Kotarski, N. Character string pattern matching in Algol 68 pp144-152 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • (1977) Houssais, Bernard Verification of an Algol 68 implementation pp117-128 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Hunter, R. B.; McGettrick, A. D.; Patel, R. (1977) Hunter, R. B.; McGettrick, A. D.; Patel, R. "LL versus LR parsing with illustrations from ALGOL 68" pp49-53
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Koch, Wilfried and Oeters, Christoph (1977) Koch, Wilfried and Oeters, Christoph "The Berlin ALGOL 68 implementation" pp102-108 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Pagan, Frank G. (1977) Pagan, Frank G. "Algol 68 as an implementation language for portable interpreters" pp54-62 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Prudom, A.; and Hennell, M. A. (1977) Prudom, A.; and Hennell, M. A. "Some problems concerning the automatic translation of Fortran to Algol 68" pp138-143
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • (1977) Ratcliff, Bryan ALGOL 68 and structured programming for learner-programmers pp157-160 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Rayward-Smith, V. (1977) Rayward-Smith, V. J. Using procedures in list processing pp179-183 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Simonet, M. (1977) Simonet, M. An attribute description of a subset of Algol 68 pp129-137 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Sz�ke, P�ter (1977) Sz�ke, P�ter "Some remarks on new instances and garbage collection" pp42-48 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Taupin, Daniel (1977) Taupin, Daniel "The ALGOL 68 compiler of Paris-XI University (Orsay)" pp109-116 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • van der Meulen, S. G. (1977) van der Meulen, S. G. "ALGOL 68 might-have-beens" pp1-18 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • van Vliet, J. (1977) van Vliet, J. C. Towards a machine-independent transput section pp71-77 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977
  • Vansina, C. F. (1977) Vansina, C. F. "Description of dynamic manipulation of ALGOL68 values using a generative grammar." pp63-70 Abstract
          in [Proceedings] (1977) Proceedings of the Strathclyde ALGOL 68 conference Glasgow, Scotland 1977

1978

1979

1980

  • Garside, GR and Pintelas, PE (1980) Garside, GR and Pintelas, PE "An ALGOL 68 package for implementing graph algorithms" pp. 237-242 Abstract Online copy Abstract Extract: Introduction
          in (1980) The Computer Journal 23(3) 1980
  • Hoare, CAR (1980) Hoare, CAR "The Emperor's Old Clothes" the ACM Turing Award lecture, 1980 Extract: The birth of Algol 68
          in [ACM] (1981) [ACM] CACM 24(02) February 1981

1993

1996

  • C.H. Lindsey (1996) C.H. Lindsey "A HISTORY OF ALGOL 68"
          in [HOPL] (1996) "History of Programming Languages", ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, New York (1996) ed Bergin and Gibson
  • Koster, Cornelis H. A. (1996) Koster, Cornelis H. A. "The Making of Algol 68" pp55-67 Extract: The Committee Extract: Mending the fences Extract: The North-Berwick meeting Extract: The IFIP 1968 Congress Extract: Towards Munich Extract: And after
          in [Proceedings] (1996) Proceedings of the Second International Andrei Ershov Memorial Conference on Perspectives of System Informatics LNCS 1161 Springer-Verlag, 1996
  • Ritchie, Dennis M. (1996) Ritchie, Dennis M. "The development of the C programming language" in "History of Programming Languages", ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, New York (1996) ed Bergin and Gibson

1998

2002

  • Bauer (2002) Bauer, Friedrich L. "My Years with Rutishauser" pdf Extract: Introduction Extract: Rutishauser’s way to Stiefel Extract: Stanislaus, Klammerausdr�cke, ALGOL Extract: Algol 60 and 68
          in (2002) Latsis Symposium 2002 on the 50th Anniversary of the Conjugate Gradient Algorithm
  • George Gray (2002) George Gray "UNIVAC and ALGOL" Unisys History Newsletter 6(2) June 2002 Extract: Information Online copy at UNISIS History

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