For academics, journalists and fiction writers alike, Canada is a subject of constant fascination and study. Bruce Hutchison, a prominent newspaper editor and author, once described Canada as "The Unknown Country." To a large extent, Canada, with its complex weave of languages, cultures and regions, is a geopolitical conundrum.
Canadian Studies: A Guide to the Sourcesby John D. Blackwell, Director, Research Grants Office, St. Francis Xavier University,
& Laurie C.C. Stanley-Blackwell, Professor, Department of History, St. Francis Xavier University
This bibliographic essay originally appeared as "Canadian Studies: A Core Collection," CHOICE: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries 35 (September 1997): 71-84, and since June 1999 has been regularly updated for the International Council for Canadian Studies World Wide Web Service. Reprinted with permission from CHOICE. Copyright © 1997-2006 by the American Library Association and the authors. All rights reserved. Comments and suggestions are welcome. [Latest update: 20 November 2006.]
- Introduction: Canada, the Unknown Country
- The Evolution of Canadian Studies
- Due North: Finding One's Way in the Literature
- Exploring Canada's Past
- The Many Solitudes
- The Canadian Literary Canon
- Culture High and Low
- The Canadian-American Entente
- The True North Strong and Free?: Canada Now and in the 21st Century
- Conclusion: The Future of Canadian Studies
- Works Cited
Introduction: Canada, the Unknown CountryNo one knows my country, neither the stranger nor its own sons.
--Bruce Hutchison, 1942.
Mythologies and stereotypes abound concerning the Canadian landscape and people. To outsiders, Canada is a land of snow, hockey, Mounties, wildlife, untamed spaces, maple trees, peacekeepers, Tim Horton doughnut shops, universal health care, Quebec separatism, and congenial, reserved people (except, perhaps, for that redheaded rebel, Anne of Green Gables). Canadians themselves seem perplexed about their cultural identity. The quest for some elusive definition of Canadianness is a national pastime for many Canadians. They may not know who they are, but they do know who they are not. They will readily tell you that they are not American, British or French. Canadians do not think, talk or act like their American, British or French cousins, but will admit, often begrudgingly, that they have been very much influenced by them. And at a quick glance, it is sometimes difficult to discern these subtle differences.
In reality, Canada is an improbable country -- a land of immense geography, extreme climate, vast resources, and a small but ethnically diverse population, overshadowed by the most powerful nation on earth. No list of clichés can presume to define this collage of multilayered identities. The country is too varied, too vast, too hybrid. And yet, Canada is one of the great national success stories of modern history, a country where people from all over the world have found opportunity for individuality and community. For seven consecutive years (1994-2000), the United Nations' Human Development Report ranked Canada as having the best quality of life on the globe. Canada's subsequent Human Development Index rankings have been: 2001 and 2002 (third place), 2003 (eighth), 2004 (fourth), and 2005 (fifth).
This essay attempts to delineate a core collection of print and electronic sources suitable for undergraduate use in Canadian Studies. Like most bibliographic endeavours, the resulting list of works cited is highly selective in its scope. The primary emphasis is on accessible titles originating in Canada and dealing with cultural subjects. Little attention is given, for instance, to business, economics or science. Although a few classics and out-of-print works are included, most titles are quite recent. Several have just appeared. While most sources are in English, some French-language materials are also mentioned. It is regrettable that space constraints have necessitated the exclusion of so many good sources, but these can be located in the bibliographies discussed below.
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The Evolution of Canadian StudiesCanada is an alternative. It is not the northern United States nor the North American Switzerland or Belgium. Canadian studies will give students in this country an opportunity to examine the alternatives we have, by our history, our geography, our climate, our mistakes, and our victories, created.
--Thomas H.B. Symons, 1975.
Canadian Studies, which now seems to encompass almost every facet of the Canadian experience, began as a formal discipline about 30 years ago. Much of the impetus stemmed from the euphoric Centennial celebrations of Canadian Confederation in 1967. The Journal of Canadian Studies was launched at Trent University in 1966, and this publication remains an important forum for scholars from many specialties. The first undergraduate Canadian Studies programme was established at Mount Allison University in 1969 with an endowment from Edgar and Dorothy Davidson of Montreal; the first director was George F.G. Stanley (1907-2002), a distinguished historian and author, and designer of the country's maple leaf flag.
There is now a network of Canadian Studies programmes at universities across Canada (see the Directory to Canadian Studies in Canada). A useful discussion of early developments in the field appears in the Commission on Canadian Studies' To Know Ourselves by Thomas Symons, Some Questions of Balance by Symons and James Page, and in James Page's Reflections on the Symons Report. The most significant recent initiative has been Charles and Andrea Bronfman's $10 million endowment to create the Institute for the Study of Canada (1994) at McGill University; the founding director was historian Desmond Morton.
With support from the Canadian government, Canadian Studies centres or programmes have also been set up in Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Cuba, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Venezuela. The umbrella agency for this multinational array of activities, the International Council for Canadian Studies (founded 1981), publishes the International Journal of Canadian Studies and the International Directory to Canadian Studies; the Council's Web page provides links to Canadian Studies organizations at home and abroad. The Directory to Funding Sources for Canadian Studies, issued by the federal Department of Canadian Heritage, offers detailed information on obtaining support for research and cultural endeavours. (For details about scholarships and research funding from various sponsors, also consult Canadian Studies Funding Programmes.)
Of particular interest to North American scholars are the Association for Canadian Studies (1973), which publishes Canadian Issues / Thèmes canadiens and Canadian Diversity / Diversité canadienne, and the Association for Canadian Studies in the United States (1971), which produces The American Review of Canadian Studies. In addition, the American Council for Québec Studies (1980) sponsors Québec Studies; the Association internationale des études québécoises (1997), IAPÉTUS: Bulletin de liaison scientifique afro-québécois; the British Association for Canadian Studies (1975), the British Journal of Canadian Studies; the Association française d'études canadiennes (1976), Études canadiennes; and the Association for Canadian Studies in Australia and New Zealand (1982), Australian-Canadian Studies.
Over the years, several introductory textbooks have appeared in the field. A Passion for Identity, edited by David Taras and Beverly Rasporich, Profiles of Canada, edited by Kenneth Pryke and Walter Soderlund, and Understanding Canada: A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Canadian Studies, edited by William Metcalfe et al., have served for some time as standard surveys. The newest contender in this exclusive domain is Canadian Culture: An Introductory Reader, edited by Elspeth Cameron. Another useful overview is Interdisciplinary Approaches to Canadian Society: A Guide to the Literature, edited by Alan Artibise, which ably reflects the complex, multidisciplinary nature of the field. But however skilful the compilers, the fact remains that the parameters of Canadian Studies are too broad to be encompassed adequately in a one-volume anthology.
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Due North: Finding One's Way in the LiteratureA country's literature is a crystal ball into which its people may look to understand their past and their present, and to find some foretaste of their future.
--Robertson Davies, Edinburgh, 1988.
One is struck initially by the sheer extent and eclectic quality of the literature in Canadian Studies. This discipline bridges diverse methodologies and areas of study, affording scholars an enlarged interpretive Canadian framework. Fortunately, there is also a profusion of dependable reference works. Library and Archives Canada (LAC) maintains an excellent Web site of wide-ranging resources, including AMICUS, LAC's online catalogue of published materials, and has long published a comprehensive national bibliography entitled Canadiana. (See also LAC's Canadian Subject Headings (CSH), a listing of over 6,000 subject headings for topics of relevance to Canada and Canadians; these are used in Canadiana and are compatible with Library of Congress Subject Headings.) Ernest Ingles has compiled Canada, a convenient, one-volume annotated bibliography, for the World Bibliographical Series; his massive Bibliography of Canadian Bibliographies, compiled with Gordon Adshead, is indispensable for locating sources on specialized subjects. Also useful is André Senécal's regularly updated Canada: A Reader's Guide.
Canadian Reference Sources, compiled by Mary Bond and Martine Caron, is an expansive retrospective tool for reference, history and the humanities, but does not cover the social sciences, science or technology (for the latter two fields, see Science and Technology in Canadian History: A Bibliographic Database). The Guide to Reference Materials for Canadian Libraries, edited by Kirsti Nilsen and Alanna Kalnay, is wide-ranging, but contains many non-Canadian titles. Anyone undertaking in-depth research will also need to consult Jesse Dossick's Doctoral Research on Canada and Canadians, 1884-1983, and Canadian Studies: Foreign Publications and Theses, and its supplements, compiled by Linda Jones. Of particular interest for finding local resources and assessing various collections' strengths are the Canadian Studies Guide to Libraries in Canada (which includes archival holdings), by Angela Kabiru, Linda Jones and Ginette Hébert, and Canadiana in United States Repositories, compiled by William Gosling.
For information on the Canadian experience, there is no better starting point than The Canadian Encyclopedia, edited by James Marsh. Now updated annually on CD-ROM and containing over 10,000 articles, the encyclopedia was begun as a print publication in 1985 by the eminent Canadian nationalist, Mel Hurtig. This state-of-the art multimedia resource has received much-deserved acclaim from reviewers; a one-volume third print edition appeared in November 1999 and a free online version was made available in 2000 by the Historica Foundation. The Canadian Almanac & Directory, published continuously since 1847, and Associations Canada, which supplies organizations' e-mail and Web addresses, are other vital sources of current information. Jean Weihs's Facts about Canada, Its Provinces and Territories is also handy for quick reference, and the Statistics Canada Catalogue and Canada Year Book are invaluable guides for locating statistics on almost any topic imaginable.
The Canadian Internet Directory, compiled by Jim Carroll and Rick Broadhead, although inevitably outdated, gives a good overview of selected Internet sites. For the latest, high-quality online sources, one should consult Canadian Information by Subject, a WWW site of Library and Archives Canada. Among the most inclusive Web directories is Stewart Clamen's Canadiana: The Canadian Resource Page, which offers an ever-expanding array of links to academic, business, government and popular information. Sympatio.ca, a leading national search engine, provides access to millions of Internet and Web documents. Many specialized Web sources can be efficiently located through Mike Madin's Canadian Studies: An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources on Canada and David Lucking's CanLinks: Directory of Web Resources Relevant to Canadian Studies. The two leading electronic information lists in the field are: Contact ICCS-CIEC, a weekly electronic newsletter distributed by the International Council for Canadian Studies; and ACNJDG, a list sponsored by the Australian-Canadian-New Zealand Studies Librarians' Discussion Group of the Association of College & Research Libraries.
There are various tools for locating Canadian monographs, serials and periodical articles. Canadian Books in Print is the standard source for monographs. However, one should also check online for Books on Canada, a site developed by the Association for the Export of Canadian Books, and Canadian Government Publishing, the Government of Canada's catalogue of current titles. The Association of Canadian Publishers and the Antiquarian Booksellers' Association of Canada maintain useful online directories with links to their members' email addresses, Web sites and catalogues. Quill & Quire specializes in reviewing new books about Canada, and Library and Archives Canada has an online New Books Service (formerly Forthcoming Books). Canadian Book Review Annual, edited by Joyce Wilson, is the most convenient source for obtaining a review of an English-language title. The Canadian Serials Directory, edited by Gordon Ripley, and Serials Canada, edited by Wayne Jones, give an overview of the periodical trade in Canada. The Canadian Periodical Index, long the unchallenged leader in its field, now faces strong competition from the Canadian Index, which has the advantage of also covering several national and regional newspapers. Recent issues of some newspapers, magazines and journals are now freely available online. For an online listing of historical newspapers, one should consult Library and Archives Canada's Canadian Newspapers on Microfilm (see also the Checklist of Indexes to Canadian Newspapers).
Biographical works are another important source for Canadian Studies. Although now in need of major revision, the standard one-volume compendium remains The Macmillan Dictionary of Canadian Biography, edited by Stewart Wallace and W.A. McKay. The multivolume Dictionary of Canadian Biography has now been completed up to the early 20th century and is undeniably the most scholarly national biographical dictionary in the world; a CD-ROM edition appeared in 2000 and a free online version was launched in 2003. Extensive information on Canadians past and present is available at several Web sites (e.g., Memorable Canadians, Canadian Personalities, and Well Known People Who Happen to be Canadian). For living Canadians, one should consult the venerable Canadian Who's Who and the relatively new Who's Who of Canadian Women, which redresses omissions in the former. The CD-ROM Contemporary Canadian Biographies is a useful source for 20th-century figures. Debrett's Illustrated Guide to the Canadian Establishment, edited by Peter Newman, is a revealing glimpse at the lives of the privileged in a reputedly egalitarian nation. Of course, there are also numerous biocritical studies of notable Canadians, such as Margaret Atwood, Emily Carr, Leonard Cohen, Robertson Davies, Timothy Findley, Northrop Frye, Jacques Godbout, Glenn Gould, Tomson Highway, Michael Ignatieff, Yousuf Karsh, Margaret Laurence, Stephen Leacock, Marshall McLuhan, Antonine Maillet, W.O. Mitchell, Farley Mowat, Michael Ondaatje, Oscar Peterson, Bill Reid, Mordecai Richler, Gabrielle Roy, and Pierre Trudeau; unfortunately, there is insufficient space to mention even a few of these in a brief overview.
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Canada was the idealist's end of Empire -- a people united in reconciliation, a colony emancipated, a wilderness civilized, the principles of parliamentary democracy transferred in triumphant vindication from an ancient capital to a new.
There are many credible surveys of Canadian history. Several of the better include Canada: A People's History (also a major television series available on video) by Don Gillmor and Pierre Turgeon, Canada, Confederation to Present (an interactive CD-Web history), by Bob Hesketh and Chris Hackett, The Illustrated History of Canada, edited by Craig Brown, and A Short History of Canada by Desmond Morton. A solid general collection of essays is Contemporary Approaches to Canadian History, edited by Carl Berger. Canadian History: A Reader's Guide, edited by Brook Taylor and Doug Owram, is an indispensable two-volume companion to the historiography by leading authorities in various fields. Still valuable for accessing early, often obscure, monographs and articles is Claude Thibault's one-volume Bibliographia Canadiana. Brook Taylor, in Promoters, Patriots, and Partisans, and Carl Berger, in The Writing of Canadian History, offer comprehensive analyses of historical writing in English Canada during the 19th and 20th centuries respectively. Creating Historical Memory: English-Canadian Women and the Work of History, a collection of essays edited by Beverly Boutilier and Alison Prentice, explores the role of several early women historians.
Some of the best historical monographs have appeared in the relatively new fields of professional and women's studies. Essays in the History of Canadian Law, a series edited by David Flaherty et al. and published by the Osgoode Society, Essays in the History of Canadian Medicine, edited by Wendy Mitchinson and Janice McGinnis, and Desmond Morton's A Military History of Canada (see also From Colony to Country: A Reader's Guide to Canadian Military History and Canadian Military History Gateway), explore the evolution of three pivotal professions. The Canadian Labour History Bibliography provides an excellent overview of this essential area of historiography. Diana Pedersen's Changing Women, Changing History is the leading bibliographic guide for the history of women (see also LAC's Celebrating Women's Achivements). It is an essential complement to the survey text, Canadian Women: A History, by Alison Prentice et al. Representative works from this abundant literature include N.E.S. Griffith's The Splendid Vision: Centennial History of the National Council of Women of Canada, 1893-1993, which shows how this leading women's organization has influenced social reforms, Constance Backhouse's Petticoats and Prejudice, which examines the contested legal terrain of 19th-century Canadian women, and Changing Roles of Women within the Christian Church in Canada, edited by Elizabeth Muir and Marilyn Whiteley, which illustrates the impact of women on Canadian religious institutions.
Anyone searching for historical esoterica would do well to consult Historical Statistics of Canada, edited by F.H. Leacy, and The Fitzhenry & Whiteside Book of Canadian Facts and Dates, compiled by Jay Myers and James Musson. Archival sources may be located through the Directory of Canadian Archives, the Union List of Manuscripts in Canadian Repositories, which has lamentably been discontinued, and ArchiviaNet, Library and Archives Canada's online series of databases and research guides (including thousands of digitized images). Canada's Visual History CD-ROM, which contains 2,400 digitized images, along with expert textual commentary, is a particularly valuable teaching tool. One should also delve into the CanPix Gallery, an online image base of over 6,500 pictures and audiovisual resources arranged by subject and time period, and Images Canada, a searchable database of 75,000 images held by participating Canadian museums, archives and libraries. For the latest and liveliest guide to the wealth of Canadian historical resources on the Web and in print, see Will Ferguson's Canadian History for Dummies. Finally, H-CANADA, a Canadian history Internet forum with about 1,000 subscribers worldwide, and the Canadian Heritage Information Network, a Web site with a wide range of historical links, provide dynamic media for bringing together students of Canada's past.
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To live in Canada, to live as a Canadian, is to experience multiple loyalties and in some measure to inhabit different spheres of identity.
--David Cameron, 1996.
A half century ago, the Canadian novelist Hugh MacLennan wrote about the two (English and French) cultural solitudes in Canada; in fact, it now has many. Canada's multicultural character is the result of numerous waves of immigration. The Making of the Mosaic, by Ninette Kelley and Michael Trebilcock, provides an expansive historical survey of the often exclusionary policies of government.
The Native peoples of Canada have a diverse heritage which is gaining popular and scholarly profile, particularly with the creation of the new territory of Nunavut ("our land"), the launching of the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN), and the establishment of the First Nations University of Canada (see also the Aboriginal Canada Portal). Bruce Trigger's Natives and Newcomers examines the early, often catastrophic, contacts between Aboriginals and Europeans. Also still useful is George Stanley's classic, The Birth of Western Canada, which has been in print almost continuously for the past 65 years. Canada's First Nations, by Olive Dickason, Skyscrapers Hide the Heavens, by J.R. Miller, Native Peoples, edited by R. Bruce Morrison and C. Roderick Wilson, and As Long as the Sun Shines and Water Flows, a Native Studies reader edited by Ian Getty and Antoine Lussier, add to our understanding of the complex historical issues facing Aboriginals. Daniel Francis's Imaginary Indian: The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture and J.R. Miller's Shingwauk's Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools are two outstanding thematic studies. The literary voices of Canada's Native peoples are recorded in An Anthology of Canadian Native Literature in English, edited by Daniel Moses and Terry Goldie. However, the Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, whose CD-ROM edition, For Seven Generations, includes submissions and research reports, is of unparalleled significance in the field of Native Studies; it proposes a comprehensive and innovative framework for redressing First Nations' constitutional and land claims.
Many of Canada's most important institutions, even in Quebec, can trace their origins to the United Kingdom. The literature on this inheritance is immense. This crucial connection is explored in Carl Berger's The Sense of Power, a landmark study of Canadian imperialism prior to World War I, and in Imperial Canada, 1867-1917, a fine collection of essays edited by Colin Coates. More specialized monographs include Patrick Dunae's Gentlemen Emigrants and R.G. Moyles and Doug Owram's Imperial Dreams and Colonial Realities. Manuscripts and Government Records in the United Kingdom and Ireland Relating to Canada, compiled by Bruce Wilson and Anita Burdett, is one of many ambitious publications issued by Library and Archives Canada and an essential tool for anyone researching the vast archival legacy of colonialism.
France, of course, is the other major European founding nation in Canada. Quebec's rich historical and literary heritage can now be easily accessed using the CD-ROM bibliography, Amérique française. Also essential for the literary scholar is the multivolume Dictionnaire des oeuvres littéraires du Québec, edited by Maurice Lemire. Paul André Linteau et al.'s companion studies, Quebec: A History, 1867-1929 and Quebec Since 1930, outline the province's cultural and socio-economic transformation in its turbulent quest for political autonomy. Serge Courville, Jean-Claude Robert, and Normand Séguin's Le pays laurentian au XIXe siècle: les morphologies de base offers an important geographical perspective. Researchers interested in the Acadian culture of the Maritime provinces will find numerous online resources in Acadie.Net.
The polarized debate between Canadian federalists and Quebec sovereigntists, and the politics of language nationalism, overshadow much of the literature on Quebec. Two noteworthy collections are Ramsay Cook's Canada, Québec, and the Uses of Nationalism and Quebec Since 1945, edited by Michael Behiels. Futile attempts in recent years to arrive at a new constitutional accord between Canada and Quebec have generated a steady stream of publications. In A Canadian Myth, for instance, William Johnson presents an unflattering portrait of a Quebec driven by narrow ethnic allegiance and Anglophobia. Beyond Quebec, edited by Kenneth McRoberts, and The Secession of Quebec and the Future of Canada, by Robert Young, confront the possibility of a Canada without Quebec. Also of interest is Robert Chodos and Eric Hamovitch's Quebec and the American Dream, which examines French Canada's relationship with the United States.
Officially bilingual and multicultural, Canada is becoming more and more a pluralistic reality within a still predominantly bilingual framework. Jean Burnet and Howard Palmer's Coming Canadians provides a cogent historical overview of the immigrant experience in Canada. Contemporary writers have begun to acknowledge that there is no unified image of Canadian culture. Canada remains "a nation of many loyalties." Ethnicity and Culture in Canada, edited by J.W. Berry and J.A. Laponce, offers an up-to-date interpretation of ethnicity in Canadian society. Also revealing is Pauline Greenhill's Ethnicity in the Mainstream, which presents case studies of three Ontario communities. Perhaps the most outspoken recent books have been Arnold Itwaru and Natasha Ksonzek's Closed Entrances: Canadian Culture and Imperialism and Neil Bissoondath's Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada. The former discusses how ethnic minorities have been excluded from the mainstream, and the latter debunks the whole premise of official multiculturalism. Canadian multicultural literature has enjoyed marked growth and recognition in the past few years. Two of the best anthologies of fiction and poetry to date are Making a Difference, edited by Smaro Kamboureli, and Other Solitudes, edited by Linda Hutcheon and Marion Richmond.
Geography is another omnipresent determinant in Canada. The most remarkable document of the country's physical and cultural landscape is the three-volume Historical Atlas of Canada, edited by R. Cole Harris et al.; it is one of the best thematic atlases ever produced. For a contemporary cartographic profile, see The National Atlas of Canada Online and Alan Rayburn's Dictionary of Canadian Place Names. Canada: A Regional Geography, by John Warkentin, Espace et culture, edited by Serge Courville and Normand Séguin, Growth and Dualism, by Roderic Beaujot and Kevin McQuillan, and Heartland and Hinterland, edited by Larry McCann and Angus Gunn, explore the continuities of culture, demography, economics and geography. Certainly, the mystique of the land has been an archetypal theme in the nation's art and literature.
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In a sense, we haven't got an identity until somebody tells our story. The fiction makes us real.
Canadian writing, both English and French, has always been a reliable barometer of the populace's shared experience. Many classics from the past two centuries are reprinted in McClelland & Stewart's "New Canadian Library" series (fiction), edited by David Staines, and in the "Carleton Library Series" (non-fiction), now handled by McGill-Queen's University Press. ECW Press has also made a large contribution to publishing in the field of Canadian writers and writing. Not yet superseded, the encyclopedic Literary History of Canada, edited by Carl Klinck et al., Reginald Watters's A Checklist of Canadian Literature and Background Materials, 1628-1960, and The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature, edited by Eugene Benson and William Toye, remain useful entrées to the field. Margaret Atwood's Survival, although a dated polemic in literary nationalism, has provided a compelling interpretation of "Can. Lit." for the past quarter century. Margaret Turner in Imagining Culture and Gaile McGregor in The Wacousta Syndrome explore the impact of Canada's physical essence on its fiction writers. Other key works include The Canadian Imagination, edited by David Staines, A Few Acres of Snow, edited by Paul Simpson-Housley and Glen Norcliffe, and O Canada: Essays on Canadian Literature and Culture, edited by Jørn Carlsen. Three recent collections, At the Edge, edited by Richard Sherwin, Seymour Mayne, and Ruth Amossi, Beyond the Provinces by David Staines, and The Guises of Canadian Diversity, edited by Serge Jaumain and Marc Maufort, portray the postcolonial state of Canadian literature. And finally, Survival of the Imagination, an engaging volume of lectures edited by Brett Balon and Peter Resch, surveys contemporary issues in Canadian book culture. CANLIT-L is a bilingual discussion group on Canadian literature, drawing participants from all dimensions of the national literary scene.
Some of the most interesting literary scholarship is currently being done in the relatively new field of histoire du livre (see History of the Book in Canada). For instance, The History of the Book in Canada , compiled by Mark Bartlett, Fiona Black and Bertrum MacDonald, contributes an excellent pioneering bibliography of the secondary sources. George Parker's The Beginnings of the Book Trade in Canada and Fraser Sutherland's The Monthly Epic: A History of Canadian Magazines, 1789-1989 survey two of the main formats of early publishing. Another major study is Carole Gerson's A Purer Taste, which examines fiction writing and reading habits in 19th-century English Canada. Three notable projects have given impetus to work on the history of the book. First of all, the Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions (CIHM) has microfiched over 90,000 pre-1901 broadsides, pamphlets, monographs and serials; the catalogue of these titles may be searched on CIHM's Web site (9,100 full-text books and pamphlets -- over 1.6 million pages -- are also freely available and searable online in CIHM's Early Canadiana Online). Secondly, Thomas Vincent's splendid, but little-heralded, CD-ROM Index to Pre 1900 English Language Canadian Cultural and Literary Magazines has at last provided bibliographical control over this rich cache of early periodical literature. Finally, Library and Archives Canada has launched the Canadian Poetry Archive, a searchable digitized collection of English and French Canadian poetry from the 19th and early 20th centuries; it features over 1,500 poems by more than 100 early Canadian poets, and includes biographies of some of the period's leading poets.
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A Canadian Is Somebody Who
Thinks he knows how to make love in a canoe
Bets on the Toronto Maple Leafs
Enjoys Air Canada dinners, desserts and all
Distinguishes between Wayne and Shuster
Attends the concerts of Anne Murray and Liona Boyd
Boasts Donald Sutherland was born in New Brunswick
Possesses "a sound sense of the possible"
Is sesquilingual (speaks one and a half languages)
Has become North American without becoming
Either American or Mexican
Knows what the references in this poem are all about.
--John Robert Colombo, 1984.
(Copyright © 1984 by John Robert Colombo. Reprinted with permission.)
Despite strong foreign competition, Canadian culture has persisted and sometimes even thrived; lately, the Canadian cultural community has shown unprecedented self-assurance and maturity. Maria Tippett in Making Culture surveys the arts in English Canada prior to the 1951 Massey Commission report, and Paul Litt in The Muses, the Masses, and the Massey Commission explores its aftermath, including the establishment of the Canada Council (1957), which has played such a major part in promoting cultural endeavors. The Cultural Industries in Canada, edited by Michael Dorland, brings developments in various areas up to the present. Two important general studies are Ideas of North: A Guide to Canadian Arts and Culture and The Maclean's Companion to Canadian Arts and Culture, both by Tom Henighan. For a decade, the Statistics Canada series, Focus on Culture, has been monitoring activity in this large and varied domain. Another series, entitled Canada's Culture, Heritage and Identity: A Statistical Perspective, now augments this survey. The Web sites CultureCanada, Canada's Digital Collections, and Canada's SchoolNet serve as gateways to information on the diverse dimensions of Canadian culture.
There is also an abundant literature on the history of Canadian academia. Two exceptional monographs are A.B. McKillop's Matters of Mind, which traces the evolution of Ontario's universities prior to the Massey Commission, and Carl Berger's Honour and the Search for Influence, which examines the long-standing but often ineffectual role of the Royal Society of Canada (founded 1882). (See also the Scholarly Societies Project.) Youth, University and Canadian Society, a collection of essays edited by Paul Axelrod and John Reid, glimpses into the history of student social and intellectual life in higher education. There are, as well, scholarly official histories of most Canadian universities.
Besides the country's literary tradition, which has already been considered above, there is a strong record of accomplishment in the fields of fine, applied, and performing arts. Loren Lerner and Mary Williamson's massive annotated bibliography, Art and Architecture in Canada, is the definitive guide for undertaking research in these two areas. (See also the National Gallery of Canada, The Portrait Gallery of Canada, and Canadian Centre for Architecture.) J. Russell Harper's Painting in Canada and Dennis Reid's A Concise History of Canadian Painting have long been the authoritative surveys of that subject. Among the numerous specialized studies of fine art, two of the most stunning are Charles Hill's Group of Seven, which examines the work of seven painters whose images have come to epitomize the rugged beauty of the Canadian Shield, and Maria Tippett's By a Lady, which rescues from obscurity 300 years of achievement by women artists in Canada. Harold Kalman's two-volume A History of Canadian Architecture is a masterful overview of the country's richly diverse architectural traditions. In their generously-illustrated Contemporary Canadian Architecture, Ruth Cawker and William Bernstein take a more comprehensive look at examples of Canada's post-1967 architectural idioms, both mainstream and experimental. Among the most engaging recent monographs in the field is Peter Ward's A History of Domestic Space: Privacy and the Canadian Home.
The Oxford Companion to Canadian Theatre, edited by Eugene Benson and L.W. Conolly, The Encyclopedia of Canadian Theatre, edited by Anne Nothof, and the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, edited by Helmut Kallmann, Gilles Potvin, and Kenneth Winters, serve as standard reference tools in these growing areas of scholarship; one should also consult the Bibliography of Theatre History in Canada, edited by John Ball and Richard Plant, Music in Canada: A Research and Information Guide, by Carl Morey, and the National Library's Canadian Music Periodical Index. Canadian Film and Video, by Loren Lerner, provides a comprehensive guide to the literature on this art form. Peter Morris's Embattled Shadows is a detailed account of Canada's cinematic tradition prior to World War II, while R. Bruce Elder's Image and Identity offers an analytic exploration of the philosophical dynamics of Canadian film. The National Film Board of Canada Film & Video Catalogue directs the researcher to film titles on Canadian subjects.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (founded in 1936) is one of the most important cultural institutions in Canada. The CBC's television and radio programming, both domestic and international, provides a strong and uniting medium for communicating the many facets of Canadian culture. The Corporation's extensive Web site now offers increased opportunities for audience feedback, marketing (e.g., transcripts of CBC Radio's erudite IDEAS series), and programming (CBC Radio also broadcasts on the Web). Fine recent studies of the CBC include Richard Collins's Culture, Communication, and National Identity, Knowlton Nash's The Microphone Wars, and Marc Raboy's Missed Opportunities.
Canadian popular culture has lately received greater attention in an eclectic mix of publications. A standard reference work in this area is A Bibliography of Canadian Folklore in English, compiled by Edith Fowke and Carole Carpenter. National Dreams: Myth, Memory and Canadian History, by Daniel Francis, critiques the central mythologies which have become staples of Anglophone popular culture in Canada. The most innovative recent contribution to this field is Ian McKay's The Quest of the Folk, which explodes widely held notions about Nova Scotia's putative Scottishness. The factual Concise History of Sport in Canada by Don Morrow et al. and Bruce Kidd's interpretive The Struggle for Canadian Sport are complementary surveys of one of the country's most important recreational pastimes. Canada Firsts, by Ralph Nader, Nadia Milleron, and Duff Conacher, lists the numerous and varied achievements for which Canadians have received global recognition. Living in a Material World, edited by Gerald Pocius, explores the realm of the physical artifact as nonliterary text. (See also the Canadian Museum of Civilization's Web site for extensive textual and visual information on material culture.) The Beaver Bites Back?, edited by David Flaherty and Frank Manning, assesses the influence of American popular culture in Canada. But perhaps the trendiest study is Geoff Pevere and Greig Dymond's Mondo Canuck, which chronicles the sizable impact of Canadian popular culture, particularly on the United States. The Toronto journalist, Robert Fulford, gives an eloquent meditation on this theme in an essay entitled Mary Pickford, Glenn Gould, Anne of Green Gables, and Captain Kirk: Canadians in the World's Imagination. One of the most noteworthy hallmarks of the Canadian identity is a distinctive tradition of humour, pervading the country's artistic endeavours in all media.
Culture in Canada has always been a highly politicized issue. For French Canadians, culture is defined in terms of language and regarded as the sine qua non of identity and survival. For some time, there has been grave concern, even among English-Canadians, about the fate of Canadian culture as it meets the challenges of cyberspace and globalization. One of the most thought-provoking studies is Tom Henighan's The Presumption of Culture: Structure, Strategy, and Survival in the Canadian Cultural Landscape, which critiques Canada's cultural subservience to American entertainment. Pierre Berton, Canada's best-selling nonfiction author, has published a lighthearted volume entitled Why We Act Like Canadians, but the cleverest and certainly most quotable study is John Gray's epigrammatic and sometimes quirky Lost in North America: The Imaginary Canadian in the American Dream. Gray argues that Canada needs to reclaim its national imagination from foreign control. Why I Hate Canadians, by former expatriate Will Ferguson, is a provocative, tongue-in-cheek perspective on modern Canada. Older works include Who's Afraid of Canadian Culture?, by S.M. Crean, and Linda Hutcheon's aptly titled Robarts Lecture, As Canadian as--Possible--under the Circumstances!
However, one of the most authentic expressions of Canadian culture may well be found in the people's own thoughts and words. John Robert Colombo's Famous Lasting Words, edited by John Colombo, The Dictionary of Canadian Quotations and Phrases, compiled by Robert Hamilton and Dorothy Shields, and CanQuotes: Great Canadian Quotations, for example, testify to the distinctive world views of Canadians. The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, edited by Katherine Barber, A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles, edited by Walter Avis et al., the Gage Canadian Dictionary, revised by Gaelan de Wolf et al., and the Guide to Canadian English Usage, by Margery Fee and Janice McAlpine, show the dialectal diversity in Canada. The Dictionary of Newfoundland English, edited by George Story, W.J. Kirwin and John Widdowson, documents the rich linguistic legacy of the country's youngest, but arguably oldest, province.
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Living next to you is in some ways like sleeping with an elephant; no matter how friendly and even-tempered is the beast, if I may call it that, one is affected by every twitch and grunt.
The 49th parallel does sometimes appear to be the boundary between self-confident and self-conscious.
It is a truism to say that the United States has had a profound effect on Canada's development as a nation; these countries do, after all, share the longest undefended border in the world (8,893 km or 5,526 imperial miles, including the border with Alaska). A popular American television comedy programme recently referred to Canada as "America, Junior"; however, one writer has described these national differences as "more real than apparent." The Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (1989) and the ensuing North American Free Trade Agreement (1994) have brought increased continentalism and a torrent of polemical literature on this long-standing international relationship. A perennial issue is Canada's "brain drain" to the United States. For Better or for Worse, by J.L. Granatstein and Norman Hillmer, and The Fight for Canada, by David Orchard, provide revealing historical overviews of the checkered course of Canada-US relations. Two collections of essays by leading scholars on each side of the border nicely balance one another: Southern Exposure: Canadian Perspectives on the United States, edited by David Flaherty and William McKercher, and Northern Exposures: Scholarship on Canada in the United States, edited by Karen Gould, Joseph Jockel and William Metcalfe. Other topical interpretations are found in Allan Smith's Canada--An American Nation?: Essays on Continentalism, Identity, and the Canadian Frame of Mind, and Borderlands: Essays in Canadian-American Relations, edited by Robert Lecker.
The classic statement from the Canadian perspective is George Grant's Lament for a Nation: The Defeat of Canadian Nationalism, which was first published in 1965; this bleak sentiment is echoed three decades later in Mel Hurtig's passionate autobiography, At Twilight in the Country. To a great extent, it seems that Canadians and Americans really do not know each other as well as they imagine. This fact is clearly borne out in two cross-border studies: Borderlines: What Canadians and Americans Should, But Don't, Know About Each Other, by Roger Sauvé, and Canada and the United States: Differences that Count, edited by David Thomas. Jack Granatstein argues in his highly controversial Yankee Go Home?: Canadians and Anti-Americanism that Canadians have defined themselves too much by anti-Americanism and that it is time to embrace the realities of continental integration. Anyone interested in this ongoing debate should read the Maclean's articles How Are Canadians Different from Americans? and American Lite: Is that our Future? and visit the CBC's special Web site What Border? The Americanization of Canada.
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Then listen to the voice of duty, of honour, of nature and of your endangered country. Let us form one body, one head and defend to the last warrior our country, our homes, our liberty, and the graves of our fathers.
The nineteenth century was the century of the United States. I think we can claim that it is Canada that shall fill the twentieth century.
The 20th century may not have belonged to Canada, but it is hard to think of a nation that approaches the 21st with brighter prospects. UN or no UN, this is quite simply the best nation on Earth.
Canadian politics has been dominated of late by issues of national unity, regional disparity, Aboriginal claims, cultural identity, military security, Canadian-American relations, same-sex marriage, marijuana decriminalization, health care, political transparency, sponsorship scandals, transfer payments, unemployment, public debt, government cutbacks, corporate realignments, Quebec sovereignty, and still occasional murmurings of constitutional reform. One of the best introductions to the Canadian political system is Politics: Canada, compiled by Paul Fox and Graham White. Anita Cannon's Canadian Government Information on the Internet is a comprehensive gateway to federal, provincial, territorial and municipal government Web sites, while Iza Laponce's Canadian Politics: Reference Resources on the Internet and Bibliography of Canadian Politics and Society provide invaluable access to a wide spectrum of electronic and print sources in the field. Nationalism without Walls: The Unbearable Lightness of Being Canadian by Richard Gwyn and The Canadian Revolution, 1985-1995, by Peter Newman, offer insightful interpretations on the recent political scene by two of Canada's leading journalists. Certainly the frankest exposés on Canadian politics have been Stevie Cameron's On the Take: Crime, Corruption and Greed in the Mulroney Years, which lays bare the political peccadilloes of the former Conservative federal government, and Marci McDonald's Yankee Doodle Dandy: Brian Mulroney and the American Agenda, which demonstrates how Mulroney's government and big business allied to sell off Canadian sovereignty for personal gain.
There is undoubtedly a malaise in Canadian public life and a widespread disillusionment about politicians and regional fragmentation. Belonging: The Meaning and Future of Canadian Citizenship, edited by William Kaplan, calls for a redefinition of citizenship that accommodates individual and group identities, as well as a more tangible affirmation of national allegiance. Reimagining Canada: Language, Culture, Community and the Canadian Constitution, by Jeremy Webber, Canadian Culture: Key to Canada's Future Development, by Paul Schafer (just one of his many publications on this theme issued by the UNESCO-sponsored World Culture Project), and Language, Culture and Values in Canada at the Dawn of the 21st Century, edited by André Lapierre, Patricia Smart, and Pierre Savard, maintain that protecting culture is central to Canada's survival as a nation. Important perspectives also appear in a volume from the first All-European Canadian Studies Conference, Canada on the Threshold of the 21st Century: European Reflections upon the Future of Canada, edited by C.H.W. Remie and J.-M. Lacroix.
In addressing this question, one must keep in mind that Canada has changed profoundly since the publication of John Porter's classic The Vertical Mosaic: An Analysis of Social Class and Power in Canada (1965). The Vertical Mosaic Revisited, edited by Rick Helmes-Hayes and James Curtis, explores the nation's transformation during the subsequent thirty years. Three of the most informative recent social analyses appear in The Bibby Report: Social Trends Canadian Style by Reginald Bibby, Canadian Society: Understanding and Surviving in the 1990s, edited by Dan Glenday and Ann Duffy, and Sex in the Snow: Canadian Social Values at the End of the Millennium by Michael Adams. Degrees of Freedom: Canada and the United States in a Changing World, a collection of essays edited by Keith Banting, George Hoberg, and Richard Simeon, examines the Canadian government's policy responses during a period of rapid globalization. Canada's traditional role as a respected international peacekeeper and diplomatic mediator, for instance, is assessed in Norman Hillmer and Jack Granatstein's Empire to Umpire: Canada and the World to the 1990s, and in Making a Difference?: Canada's Foreign Policy in a Changing World Order, edited by John English and Norman Hillmer. Postmodern Canada on the brink of the new millennium faces a problematical future with difficult challenges and decisions. These are briefly discussed in Anthony Westell's Reinventing Canada. For a more in-depth analysis, see John Ralston Saul's probing Reflections of a Siamese Twin: Canada at the End of the Twentieth Century and his LaFontaine-Baldwin Lecture, How We Will Make Canada Ours Again.
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Perhaps, then, Canada is not so much a country as magnificent raw material for a country; and perhaps the question is not "Who are we?" but "What are we going to make of ourselves?"
In his meticulous survey Taking Stock: Canadian Studies in the Nineties, David Cameron presents a tentatively optimistic prognosis for Canadian Studies. He sees this field of study, which continues to fend off marginal status at many universities, as an essential endeavour for helping Canadians, and indeed other parts of the world, to acquire "a knowledge and understanding of Canada." (Further perspective is offered in "Canadian Studies at the Millennium: The Journey Continues", the special Spring 2000 issue of The Journal of Canadian Studies.) A number of initiatives, supported by the federal Department of Canadian Heritage (see also A Sense of Place: A Sense of Being: The Evolving Role of the Federal Government in Support of Culture in Canada) and various private organizations, are attempting to keep the momentum going during a period of budgetary constraints. However, lacklustre government support of the Canada Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (which help support the arts, as well as much scholarly research and publishing), the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, and numerous other agencies is jeopardizing the viability of many long-established, cultural programmes in Canada.
In January 1996, Lucien Bouchard, the newly-installed sovereigntist premier of Quebec, declared that "Canada is not a real country." This rhetorical statement outraged other constituencies of the Canadian mosaic and brought to the surface overt expressions of nationalism that generally appear only in moments of crisis and celebration. The future configuration of Canada is unclear. But Canada is a remarkable 138-year-old national experiment, which has always existed against the odds, and remains a country of tremendous potential and growing self-confidence. The chronic debate over Quebec sovereignty and Canadian national unity, the increasingly multicultural character of Canadian society, the global inroads into Canada's cultural industries (particularly the media and publishing), and the question of Native land claims and self-determination are creating much début-de-siècle angst in the national psyche. However, these forces are also serving to keep Canadian Studies a vibrant discipline, both at home and abroad, and are providing Canadian writers, artists, academics, journalists, and foreign observers with abundant opportunities for discourse on the evolving nature of this still enigmatic northern land. The story of the "act of faith" called Canada continues.
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Adams, Michael. Sex in the Snow: Canadian Social Values at the End of the Millennium. Toronto: Viking, 1997.
All-European Canadian Studies Conference (1st: 1990: Hague, Netherlands). Canada on the Threshold of the 21st Century: European Reflections upon the Future of Canada: Selected Papers of the First All-European Canadian Studies Conference, The Hague, The Netherlands, October 24-27, 1990, ed. by C.H.W. Remie and J.-M. Lacroix. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1991.
An Anthology of Canadian Native Literature in English, ed. by Daniel David Moses and Terry Goldie. 2nd ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1998.
As Long as the Sun Shines and Water Flows: A Reader in Canadian Native Studies, ed. by Ian A.L. Getty and Antoine S. Lussier. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1983.
At the Edge: Canadian Literature and Culture at Century's End, ed. by Richard E. Sherwin, Seymour Mayne, and Ruth Amossi. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University, 1995.
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Backhouse, Constance. Petticoats and Prejudice: Women and Law in Nineteenth-Century Canada. Toronto: Women's Press, 1991.
Bartlett, Mark C., Fiona A. Black, and Bertrum H. MacDonald, comp. The History of the Book in Canada: A Bibliography. Halifax, N.S.: B.H. MacDonald, 1993.
Beaujot, Roderic, and Kevin McQuillan. Growth and Dualism: The Demographic Development of Canadian Society. Toronto: Gage, 1982.
The Beaver Bites Back?: American Popular Culture in Canada, ed. by David H. Flaherty and Frank E. Manning. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1993.
Belonging: The Meaning and Future of Canadian Citizenship, ed. by William Kaplan. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1993 (CH, May'93).
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--------. The Sense of Power: Studies in the Ideas of Canadian Imperialism, 1867-1914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970.
--------. The Writing of Canadian History: Aspects of English-Canadian Historical Writing Since 1900. 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986.
Berton, Pierre. Why We Act Like Canadians: A Personal Exploration of Our National Character. 1987 ed. Markham, Ont.: Penguin Books, 1987 (c1982).
Beyond Quebec: Taking Stock of Canada, ed. by Kenneth McRoberts. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1995.
Bibby, Reginald W. The Bibby Report: Social Trends Canadian Style. Toronto: Stoddart, 1995.
Bibliography of Theatre History in Canada: The Beginnings through 1984 = Bibliographie d'histoire du théatre au Canada: des débuts - fin 1984, ed. by John Ball and Richard Plant. Toronto: ECW Press, 1993
Bissoondath, Neil. Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada. Toronto: Penguin Books, 1994.
Bond, Mary E., and Martine M. Caron, comp. Canadian Reference Sources: An Annotated Bibliography: General Reference Works, History, Humanities = Ouvrages de référence canadiens: une bibliographie annotée: Ouvrages de référence généraux, histoire, sciences humaines. Vancouver: UBC Press/National Library of Canada, 1996 (CH, Dec'96).
Borderlands: Essays in Canadian-American Relations, sel. by the Borderlands Project; ed. by Robert Lecker. Toronto: ECW Press, 1991.
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Cameron, David. Taking Stock: Canadian Studies in the Nineties. Montreal: Association for Canadian Studies, 1996.
Cameron, Stevie. On the Take: Crime, Corruption and Greed in the Mulroney Years. Toronto: Seal Books, 1995.
Canada and the United States: Differences that Count, ed. by David Thomas. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press, 1993.
Canadian Culture: An Introductory Reader, ed. by Elspeth Cameron. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press, 1997.
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Canadian History: A Reader's Guide. v.1: Beginnings to Confederation; v.2: Confederation to the Present, v. 1 ed. by M. Brook Taylor; v. 2 ed. by Doug Owram. 2v. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994 (CH, Feb'95).
The Canadian Imagination: Dimensions of a Literary Culture, ed. by David Staines. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977 (CH, Sep'78).
The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, ed. by Katherine Barber. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Canadian Serials Directory = Répertoire des publications sériées canadiennes, ed. by Gordon M. Ripley. 3rd ed. Toronto: Reference Press, 1987.
Canadian Society: Understanding and Surviving in the 1990s, ed. by Dan Glenday and Ann Duffy. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1994.
Canadian Women: A History, by Alison Prentice et al. 2nd ed. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada, 1996.
Cawker, Ruth, and William Bernstein. Contemporary Canadian Architecture: The Mainstream and Beyond. Rev. ed. Markham, Ont.: Fitzhenry & Whiteside,1988.
Changing Roles of Women within the Christian Church in Canada, ed. by Elizabeth Gillan Muir and Marilyn Färdig Whiteley. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.
Chodos, Robert, and Eric Hamovitch. Quebec and the American Dream. Toronto: Between the Lines, 1991.
Collins, Richard. Culture, Communication, and National Identity: The Case of Canadian Television. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990.
Commission on Canadian Studies. To Know Ourselves: The Report of the Commission on Canadian Studies, by T.H.B. Symons. 3v. in 2. Ottawa: Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 1975-1984.
--------. Some Questions of Balance: Human Resources, Higher Education and Canadian Studies, by Thomas H.B. Symons and James E. Page. Ottawa: Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 1984.
A Concise History of Sport in Canada, by Don Morrow et al. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Contemporary Approaches to Canadian History, ed. by Carl Berger. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman, 1987.
Cook, Ramsay. Canada, Québec, and the Uses of Nationalism. 2nd ed. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1995.
Courville, Serge, Jean-Claude Robert, and Normand Séguin. Le pays laurentien au XIXe siècle: les morphologies de base. Sainte-Foy [Québec]: Presses de l'Université Laval, 1995.
Crean, S.M. Who's Afraid of Canadian Culture? Don Mills, Ont.: General Publishing Company, 1976.
Creating Historical Memory: English-Canadian Women and the Work of History, ed. by Beverly Boutilier and Alison Prentice. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1997.
The Cultural Industries in Canada: Problems, Policies and Prospects, ed. by Michael Dorland. Toronto: J. Lorimer & Company, 1996.
Debrett's Illustrated Guide to the Canadian Establishment, ed. by Peter C. Newman. Agincourt, Ont.: Methuen, 1983.
Degrees of Freedom: Canada and the United States in a Changing World, ed. by Keith Banting, George Hoberg, and Richard Simeon. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1997.
Dickason, Olive Patricia. Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times. 2nd ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1997 (CH, Jan'93).
The Dictionary of Canadian Quotations and Phrases, [comp.] by Robert M. Hamilton and Dorothy Shields. Rev. and enl. ed. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1979.
A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles: Dictionary of Canadian English, ed. by Walter S. Avis et al. Toronto: W.J. Gage, 1991.
Dictionary of Newfoundland English, ed. by G.M. Story, W.J. Kirwin, [and] J.D.A. Widdowson. 2nd ed. with supplement. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990.
Directory to Canadian Studies in Canada = Répertoire des études canadiennes au Canada. 4th ed. Montreal: Association for Canadian Studies, 1993.
Directory to Funding Sources for Canadian Studies. [Ottawa]: Canadian Heritage, 1996.
Dossick, Jesse J. Doctoral Research on Canada and Canadians, 1884-1983 = Thèses de doctorat concernant le Canada et les Canadiens, 1884-1983. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1986.
Dunae, Patrick A. Gentlemen Emigrants: From the British Public Schools to the Canadian Frontier. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1981 (CH, Jun'82).
Elder, R. Bruce. Image and Identity: Reflections on Canadian Film and Culture. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press/Academy of Canadian Cinema & Television, 1989 (CH, Jan'90).
Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, ed. by Helmut Kallmann, Gilles Potvin, and Kenneth Winters. 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992.
Espace et culture = Space and Culture, directed by Serge Courville and Normand Séguin. Sainte-Foy [Québec]: Presses de l'Université Laval, 1995.
Essays in the History of Canadian Medicine, ed. by Wendy Mitchinson and Janice Dickin McGinnis. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1988.
Ethnicity and Culture in Canada: The Research Landscape, ed. by J.W. Berry and J.A. Laponce. English and French. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994 (CH, Sep'94).
Fee, Margery, and Janice McAlpine. Guide to Canadian English Usage. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1997 (CH, Dec'98).
Ferguson, Will. Canadian History for Dummies. Toronto: CDG Books Canada, 2000.
--------. Why I Hate Canadians. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd., 1997.
A Few Acres of Snow: Literary and Artistic Images of Canada, ed. by Paul Simpson-Housley and Glen Norcliffe. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1992.
Fowke, Edith, and Carole Henderson Carpenter, comp. A Bibliography of Canadian Folklore in English. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (CH, Sep'82).
Francis, Daniel. The Imaginary Indian: The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1992.
--------. National Dreams: Myth, Memory and Canadian History. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1997.
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Gerson, Carole. A Purer Taste: The Writing and Reading of Fiction in English in Nineteenth-Century Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989.
Gillmor, Don, and Pierre Turgeon. Canada: A People's History. 2v. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2000-2001. Also a major television series available on video.
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Granatstein, J.L. Yankee Go Home?: Canadians and Anti-Americanism. Toronto: HarperCollins, 1996.
-------- and Norman Hillmer. For Better or for Worse: Canada and the United States to the 1990's. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman, 1991.
Grant, George. Lament for a Nation: The Defeat of Canadian Nationalism. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1995; orig. pub. Van Nostrand, 1965.
Gray, John. Lost in North America: The Imaginary Canadian in the American Dream. Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1994.
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Gwyn, Richard. Nationalism without Walls: The Unbearable Lightness of Being Canadian. New updated ed. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1996.
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--------. Skyscrapers Hide the Heavens: A History of Indian-White Relations in Canada. Rev. ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991.
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Morris, Peter. Embattled Shadows: A History of Canadian Cinema, 1895-1939. 1978. Reprint, with a new preface. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1992.
Morton, Desmond. A Military History of Canada: From Champlain to Kosovo. 4th ed. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1999.
--------. A Short History of Canada. 4th ed. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2001.
Moyles, R.G., and Doug Owram. Imperial Dreams and Colonial Realities: British Views of Canada, 1880-1914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988.
Myers, Jay, and James Musson, comp. The Fitzhenry & Whiteside Book of Canadian Facts and Dates. 3rd rev. ed. Markham, Ont.: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1996.
Nader, Ralph, Nadia Milleron, and Duff Conacher. Canada Firsts. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1992.
Nash, Knowlton. The Microphone Wars: A History of Triumph and Betrayal at the CBC. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1994.
Native Peoples: The Canadian Experience, ed. by R. Bruce Morrison and C. Roderick Wilson. 2nd ed. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1995.
Newman, Peter C. The Canadian Revolution, 1985-1995: From Deference to Defiance. Toronto: Viking, 1995.
Northern Exposures: Scholarship on Canada in the United States, ed. by Karen Gould, Joseph T. Jockel, and William Metcalfe. Washington, D.C.: Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 1993.
O Canada: Essays on Canadian Literature and Culture, ed. by Jørn Carlsen. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 1995.
Orchard, David. The Fight for Canada: Four Centuries of Resistance to American Expansionism. Toronto: Stoddart, 1993.
Other Solitudes: Canadian Multicultural Fictions, ed. by Linda Hutcheon and Marion Richmond. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1990.
The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature, ed. by Eugene Benson and William Toye. 2nd ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1997 (CH, Jul'84).
The Oxford Companion to Canadian Theatre, ed. by Eugene Benson and L.W. Conolly. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1989 (CH, Jul'90).
Page, James E. Reflections on the Symons Report: The State of Canadian Studies in 1980: A Report. Ottawa: Department of the Secretary of State, 1981.
Parker, George L. The Beginnings of the Book Trade in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985 (CH, Jan'86).
A Passion for Identity: An Introduction to Canadian Studies, ed. by David Taras and Beverly Rasporich. 3rd ed. Toronto: ITP Nelson, 1997.
Pedersen, Diana. Changing Women, Changing History: A Bibliography of the History of Women in Canada. 2nd ed. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1996 (CH, Jun'97).
Pevere, Geoff, and Greig Dymond. Mondo Canuck: A Canadian Pop Culture Odyssey. Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice Hall Canada, 1996.
Politics: Canada, [ed.] by Paul W. Fox and Graham White. 8th ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1995.
Porter, John. The Vertical Mosaic: An Analysis of Social Class and Power in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965 (CH, Nov'65).
Profiles of Canada, ed. by Kenneth G. Pryke and Walter C. Soderlund. 2nd ed. Toronto: Irwin Publishing, 1998.
Quebec Since 1930, by Paul André Linteau et al.; tr. by Robert Chandos and Ellen Garmaise. Toronto: J. Lorimer, 1991.
Quebec Since 1945: Selected Readings, ed. by Michael D. Behiels. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman, 1987.
Raboy, Marc. Missed Opportunities: The Story of Canada's Broadcasting Policy. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1990.
Rayburn, Alan. Dictionary of Canadian Place Names. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Reid, Dennis. A Concise History of Canadian Painting. 2nd ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Saul, John Ralston. Reflections of a Siamese Twin: Canada at the End of the Twentieth Century. Toronto: Viking, 1997.
Sauvé, Roger. Borderlines: What Canadians and Americans Should, But Don't, Know About Each Other--A Witty, Punchy, and Personal Look. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1994.
Schafer, D. Paul. Canadian Culture: Key to Canada's Future Development. Markham, Ont.: World Culture Project, 1995.
Senécal, André J. Canada: A Reader's Guide = Canada: introduction bibliographique, ed. by Linda M. Jones with the assistance of Ginette Hébert and Claudine Guenette. 2nd ed. Ottawa: International Council for Canadian Studies, 2000. Also on CD-ROM.
A Sense of Place: A Sense of Being: The Evolving Role of the Federal Government in Support of Culture in Canada: Ninth Report. [Ottawa]: Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage, 1999.
Serials Canada: Aspects of Serials Work in Canadian Libraries, ed. by Wayne Jones. New York: Haworth Press, 1995.
Smith, Allan. Canada--An American Nation?: Essays on Continentalism, Identity, and the Canadian Frame of Mind. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1994.
Southern Exposure: Canadian Perspectives on the United States, ed. by David H. Flaherty and William R. McKercher. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd., 1986.
Staines, David. Beyond the Provinces: Literary Canada at Century's End. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.
Stanley, George F.G. The Birth of Western Canada: A History of the Riel Rebellions. 1936. [Reprint] with a new introd. by Thomas Flanagan. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992.
Survival of the Imagination: The Mary Donaldson Lectures, ed. by Brett Balon and Peter Resch. Regina: Coteau Books, 1993.
Sutherland, Fraser. The Monthly Epic: A History of Canadian Magazines, 1789-1989. Markham, Ont.: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1989.
Taylor, M. Brook. Promoters, Patriots, and Partisans: Historiography in Nineteenth-Century English Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989 (CH, May'90).
Thibault, Claude. Bibliographia Canadiana. English and French. Don Mills, Ont.: Longman Canada, 1973.
Tippett, Maria. By a Lady: Celebrating Three Centuries of Art by Canadian Women. Toronto: Penguin Books, 1993.
--------. Making Culture: English-Canadian Institutions and the Arts before the Massey Commission. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990 (CH, Jan'91).
Trigger, Bruce G. Natives and Newcomers: Canada's "Heroic Age" Reconsidered. Kingston, Ont.: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1985 (CH, Mar'86).
Turner, Margaret E. Imagining Culture: New World Narrative and the Writing of Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1995 (CH, Apr'96).
Understanding Canada: A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Canadian Studies, ed. by William Metcalfe. New York: New York University Press, 1982.
Union List of Manuscripts in Canadian Repositories = Catalogue collectif des manuscrits des archives canadiennes. 6v. Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1975-1985.
The Vertical Mosaic Revisited, ed. by Rick Helmes-Hayes and James Curtis. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.
Ward, Peter. A History of Domestic Space: Privacy and the Canadian Home. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1999.
Warkentin, John. Canada: A Regional Geography. Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice Hall Canada, 1997.
Watters, Reginald Eyre. A Checklist of Canadian Literature and Background Materials, 1628-1960. 2nd ed., rev. and enl. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972 (CH, Jun'73).
Webber, Jeremy. Reimagining Canada: Language, Culture, Community and the Canadian Constitution. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1994 (CH, Sep'94).
Weihs, Jean. Facts about Canada, Its Provinces and Territories. New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1995 (CH, Mar'96).
Westell, Anthony. Reinventing Canada. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1994.
Wilson, Bruce G., and Anita Burdett, comp. Manuscripts and Government Records in the United Kingdom and Ireland Relating to Canada = Manuscrits et documents gouvernementaux aux Royaume-Uni et en Irelande concernant le Canada. Ottawa: National Archives of Canada, 1992.
Young, Robert A. The Secession of Quebec and the Future of Canada. Montreal: Institute of Intergovernmental Relations/McGill-Queen's University Press, 1995 (CH, Nov'95).
Youth, University, and Canadian Society: Essays in the Social History of Higher Education, ed. by Paul Axelrod and John G. Reid. Kingston [Ont.]: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1989.
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Associations Canada: The Directory of Associations in Canada. Toronto: IHS/Micromedia, 1991- . Annual. (CH, Mar'93). Also on CD-ROM, 1996- . Annual.
Canada Year Book = Annuaire du Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1905- . Biennial. Also on CD-ROM, 1995- .
Canada's Culture, Heritage and Identity: A Statistical Perspective. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1995- . Annual.
Canadian Almanac & Directory. Toronto: IHS/Micromedia, 1848- . Annual. Also on CD-ROM.
Canadian Book Review Annual, ed. by Joyce M. Wilson. Toronto: CBRA, 1975- . Annual. (CH, Oct'77).
Canadian Books in Print. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967- . Annual.
Canadian Index. Toronto: IHS/Micromedia, 1993- . Monthly. Also on CD-ROM and online (full-text) as Canadian Business and Current Affairs (CBCA) (CH, Nov'98).
Canadian Internet Directory. Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice Hall Canada, 1996- . Annual.
Canadian Periodical Index. Toronto: Gale Canada/Information Access Company, 1938- . Monthly. Also on CD-ROM as Canadian Periodical Index and online (full-text) as CPI.Q.
Canadian Who's Who. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1910- . Annual. Also on CD-ROM.
Canadiana: The National Bibliography = Canadiana: la bibliographie nationale. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1951- . 11/year. Also on CD-ROM and online.
See also Canadian Subject Headings (CSH)
Dictionary of Canadian Biography = Dictionnaire biographique du Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press/Sainte-Foy [Québec]: Presses de l'Université Laval, 1966- . Irregular. Also on CD-ROM.
Dictionnaire des oeuvres littéraires du Québec, ed. by Maurice Lemire. 2nd ed. Montreal: Fides, 1978- . Irregular.
Directory of Canadian Archives = Annuaire des dépôts d'archives canadiens. Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian Archivists, 1981- . Irregular.
Focus on Culture. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1989- . Quarterly.
Essays in the History of Canadian Law, ed. by David H. Flaherty et al. Toronto: University of Toronto Press/Osgoode Society, 1981- . Irregular.
International Directory to Canadian Studies = Répertoire international des études canadiennes. Ottawa: International Council for Canadian Studies, 1980/81- . Biennial.
National Film Board of Canada Film & Video Catalogue. Montreal: NFBC, 1951- . Irregular.
Note: NFB videos and films are distributed in the United States by the Canadian Film Distribution Center, SUNY Plattsburgh, NY.
Statistics Canada Catalogue. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1922- . Irregular.
Who's Who of Canadian Women. Toronto: Who's Who Publications, 1983- . Annual. Also on CD-ROM.
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ACS Bulletin = Bulletin AEC. Montreal: Association for Canadian Studies, 1979-1999. Quarterly.
The American Review of Canadian Studies. [Washington, D.C.]: Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 1971- . 4/year.
Australian-Canadian Studies. Bundoora, Victoria: Dept. of Sociology, La Trobe University, 1983- . Semi-annual.
British Journal of Canadian Studies. Edinburgh: British Association for Canadian Studies, 1986- . Semi-annual.
Canadian Diversity = Diversité canadienne. Montreal: Association for Canadian Studies, 2002- . Quarterly.
Canadian Issues = Thèmes canadiens. Montreal: Association for Canadian Studies, 1975-1999. Annual. 1999- . Bimonthly.
Études canadiennes = Canadian Studies. Talence: Association française d'études canadiennes, 1975- . Semi-annual.
IAPÉTUS: Bulletin de liaison scientifique afro-québécois. Québec: Association internationale des études québécoises, 1998- . Semi-annual.
International Journal of Canadian Studies = Revue internationale d'études canadiennes. Ottawa: International Council for Canadian Studies, 1990- . Semi-annual.
Journal of Canadian Studies = Revue d'études canadiennes. Peterborough, Ont.: Trent University, 1966- . Quarterly.
Québec Studies. [Hanover, N.H.]: American Council for Québec Studies, 1983- . Semi-annual.
Quill & Quire: Canada's Magazine of Book News and Reviews. Toronto: Key Publishers Co. Ltd., 1935- . Monthly.
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Amérique française: histoire et civilisation [computer file]. Montreal: Services documentaires multimedia, 1995.
Canada, Confederation to Present [electronic resource], by Bob Hesketh and Chris Hackett. Edmonton: Chinook Multimedia, 2001.
Canada's Visual History= L'histoire du Canada en images [electronic resource]. Ottawa: National Film Board of Canada/Canadian Museum of Civilization/Canadian Heritage Information Network, 1994.
The Canadian Encyclopedia = L'encyclopédie canadienne [electronic resource], editor-in-chief, James H. Marsh. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1995- . Annual. A free online version was also made available in 2000 by the Historica Foundation.
Contemporary Canadian Biographies [electronic resource]. Scarborough, Ont.: Gale Canada, 1998- . Annual.
For Seven Generations: An Information Legacy of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples [electronic resource]. Ottawa: Libraxus, 1997.
Index to Pre 1900 English Language Canadian Cultural and Literary Magazines [electronic resource], comp. by Thomas B. Vincent. Ottawa: Optim Corporation [now Nepean, Ont.: Dataware Technologies], 1994.
Senécal, André J. Canada: A Reader's Guide = Canada: introduction bibliographique [electronic resource], ed. by Linda M. Jones with the assistance of Ginette Hébert and Claudine Guenette. 2nd ed. Ottawa: International Council for Canadian Studies, 2000.
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Aboriginal Canada Portal
Aboriginal Links: Canada & U.S.
See also Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN).
About Canada [information about Canada, its people, environment and history].
Acadie.Net [an Acadian resource index].
ACNJDG [information list of Australian-Canadian-New Zealand Studies Librarians' Discussion Group, Association of College & Research Libraries].
American Lite: Is that our Future?
Association for Canadian Studies [Canada] (ACS).
Bibliography of Canadian Politics and Society.
Books on Canada [Association for the Export of Canadian Books (AECB)].
Canada's Digital Collections
Canadian Archives and Archival Resources.
Canadian Book Publishers [directory].
See also Canadian Antiquarian Booksellers [directory].
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC).
See also Radio-Canada [French-language network]
and Radio Canada International ["Canada's Voice to the World" -- real audio on the Web in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Ukrainian].
Canadian Centre for Architecture.
Canadian Embassies and Missions Abroad.
Canadian Government Information on the Internet.
Canadian Government Publishing.
See also Depository Libraries of Canadian Government Information.
Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN).
Canadian History: An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources on the History of Canada.
Canadian Information by Subject.
Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions (CIHM).
(CH, Supplement'97, Supplement'98)
See also Early Canadiana Online (ECO).
Canadian Labour History Bibliography.
Canadian Learned Journals Online.
Canadian Library Gateway.
Canadian Magazines Online.
Canadian Museum of Civilization.
Canadian Music Periodical Index.
Canadian Newspapers Online.
See also Canadian Newspapers on Microfilm
and Checklist of Indexes to Canadian Newspapers.
Canadian Poetry Archive.
Canadian Politics: Reference Sources on the Internet.
Canadian Politics on the Web.
Canadian Studies: An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources on Canada.
Canadian Studies Centres and Programmes [international directory].
See also Canadian Studies Associations [international directory].
Canadian Studies Funding Programmes.
See also Study in Canada.
Canadiana: The Canadian Resource Page.
(CH, Supplement'97, Supplement'98)
CanLinks: Directory of Web Resources Relevant to Canadian Studies.
CANLIT-L [Canadian literature discussion group].
CanPix Gallery [pictures and audiovisual resources].
CanQuotes: Great Canadian Quotations.
CultureCanada [a gateway to information on many aspects of Canadian culture].
The Encyclopedia of Canadian Theatre.
From Colony to Country: A Reader's Guide to Canadian Military History.
See also Canadian Military History Gateway.
H-CANADA [Canadian history forum].
See also H-CANADA Archives, February 1995 to present.
History of the Book in Canada.
How Are Canadians Different from Americans?
How We Will Make Canada Ours Again, by John Ralston Saul.
Images Canada [archival images].
International Council for Canadian Studies (ICCS).
See also Contact ICCS-CIEC [ICCS's weekly electronic newsletter].
Library and Archives (LAC) [formerly the National Library of Canada (NLC) and the National Archives of Canada (NAC)].
AMICUS [LAC's online catalogue of published materials]
Canadian Subject Headings (CSH)
Canadian Library Gateway
ArchiviaNet [LAC's series of online archival databases and research guides (including thousands of digitized images); also partially available on CD-ROM].
Mary Pickford, Glenn Gould, Anne of Green Gables, and Captain Kirk: Canadians in the World's Imagination, by Robert Fulford.
The National Atlas of Canada Online
See also Map of Canada
and Canadian Geographical Names.
National Gallery of Canada.
The Portrait Gallery of Canada.
Science and Technology in Canadian History: A Bibliographic Database.
Sympatico.ca [a leading Canadian search engine].
Telephone Directories for Canada.
See also Canadian Postal Code Directory.
La Toile du Québec [a Quebec resource index].
What Border? The Americanization of Canada.
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