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Languages of Iran

Islamic Republic of Iran, Jomhouri-e-Eslami-e-Irân. 67,503,205. National or official language: Western Farsi. Literacy rate: 70% to 75% among those 6 years old and over (1995–1996 Iran Statistical Center). Also includes Eastern Farsi (1,000,000), Hulaulá (300), Tajiki, Turkish (2,570), people from Afghanistan (3,000,000), Kurds from Iraq (120,000), Shi'a Arabs from Iraq. Information mainly from E. Drower 1939; R. Macuch 1965; I. Garbell 1965; T. Sebeok 1969, 1970; G. Doerfer et al. 1971; R. Oberling 1974; D. L. Stilo 1981; R. D. Hoberman 1988a, b. Blind population: 200,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf population: 3,978,055. Deaf institutions: 50. The number of languages listed for Iran is 77. Of those, 75 are living languages and 2 are extinct.

Living languages

Aimaq

[aiq] 170,000 in Iran (1993 Johnstone). Mazanderan Province. Dialects: Teimuri (Teimurtash).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian 
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Alviri-Vidari

[avd]  Near Saveh, Markazi Province. Dialects: Alvir (Alviri), Vidar (Vidari). Related to Gozarkhâni and Vafsi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Arabic, Gulf Spoken

[afb] 200,000 in Iran (1993). Southern coast; Khamseh nomads live in eastern Fars Province; other Arab nomadic groups in several southcentral provinces of Iran. Alternate names: Khaliji, Gulf Arabic.  Dialects: Al-Hasâ, Khamseh.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken

[acm] 1,200,000 in Iran. Khuzestan Province, southwest side of Zagros Mountains, along the bank of the Shatt al Arab. Alternate names: Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic, `Arabi, Arabi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Armenian

[hye] 170,800 in Iran (1993). Northern Iran, Azerbaijan Provinces around Khoi, Shahpur, Ahar, Tabriz, Tehran, Esfahan, Shiraz. Alternate names: Haieren, Somekhuri, Ermenice, Armjanski, Armani, Erâmani.  Dialects: Eastern Armenian, Agulis, Astrakhân, Jolfâ (Dzhulfa), Karabagh Shamakhi, Khoi-Salmst (Khvoy), Urmia-Maragheh.  Classification: Indo-European, Armenian 
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Ashtiani

[atn] 21,099 (2000 WCD). Ashtiyan and Tafresh, Markazi Province. Alternate names: Astiani, Ashtiyani.  Dialects: Ashtiani, Tafresh. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh. Dialects may be separate languages. Very close to Vafsi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

[aii] 10,000 to 20,000 in Iran (1994). Ethnic population: 80,000 (1994). Reza'iyeh (Rizaiye, Urmia, Urmi). Most in TehranTehran. Dialects: Iranian Koine (General Urmi).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern 
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Azerbaijani, South

[azb] 23,500,000 in Iran (1997). Population includes 290,000 Afshar, 5,000 Aynallu, 7,500 Baharlu, 1,000 Moqaddam, 3,500 Nafar 1,000 Pishagchi, 3,000 Qajar, 2,000 Qaragozlu, 130,000 Shahsavani (1993). Population total all countries: 24,364,000. East and West Azerbaijan, Ardebil, Zanjan, and part of Markazi provinces. Many in a few districts of TehranTehran. Some Azerbaijani-speaking groups are in Fars Province and other parts of Iran. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Turkey (Asia), USA. Alternate names: Azeri, Torki.  Dialects: Aynallu (Inallu, Inanlu), Karapapakh, Tabriz, Afshari (Afshar, Afsar), Shahsavani (Shahseven), Moqaddam, Baharlu (Kamesh), Nafar, Qaragozlu, Pishagchi, Bayat, Qajar. Distinctive linguistic differences between the Azerbaijani of the former USSR (North) and Iranian Azerbaijani (South) in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords. Teimurtash (7,000 in Mazanderan; possibly the same as Teimuri, Timuri, Taimouri) and Salchug (in Kerman Province) may be dialects. Qashqa'i may be a dialect. Part of the Qizilbash merchant group speak the Afshari dialect, which is strongly influenced by Persian. The dialect spoken in Syria is different from Kirkuk of Iraq, and may be closer to Turkish (Osmanli) than to Azerbaijani. There is a gradual transition of dialects from Turkish to Azerbaijani from central to western Turkey.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani 
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Bakhtiari

[bqi] 1,000,000 (2001). 350,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000,000 (2001). Southwestern Iran: western Chahar-Mahal va Bakhtiari, eastern Khuzestan, eastern Lorestan, and western Esfahan. Masjed-e Soleiman, Shahr-e Kord, Dorud. Alternate names: Lori-ye Khaveri, Luri, Lori.  Dialects: Haft-Lang, Charlang, Chelgerd, Kuhrang (Kohrang). Bakhtiari is on a dialect continuum between Northern Luri and Southern Luri. Farsi dialects in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province are mutually intelligible with Bakhtiari. Close to Kumzari. Lexical similarity 75% with Southern Luri (Mamasani), 86% with Southern Luri (Boyerahmadi), 73% with Northern Luri (rural), 78% with Northern Luri (Khorramabadi), 76% with Western Farsi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri 
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Balochi, Southern

[bcc] 405,000 in Iran. Southern Sistan va Baluchistan Province. Alternate names: Baluchi, Baluci, Baloci.  Dialects: Makrani (Lotuni).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi 
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Balochi, Western

[bgn] 451,000 in Iran (1986). Northern Sistan va Baluchistan Province. Half are settled in cities and villages, half are nomadic. Alternate names: Baluchi, Baluci, Baloci.  Dialects: Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi 
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Bashkardi

[bsg] 7,033 (2000 WCD). Eastern Hormozgan, Southern Kerman, and possibly southwestern Sistan va Baluchistan provinces. Alternate names: Bashaka.  Dialects: Northern Bashaka, Southern Bashaka.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi 
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Brahui

[brh] 10,000 in Iran (1983). Central Sistan and Baluchistan provinces, including Zahedan. Alternate names: Brahudi, Birahui, Kur Galli.  Dialects: Jharawan, Kalat, Sarawan.  Classification: Dravidian, Northern 
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Dari, Zoroastrian

[gbz] 8,000 to 15,000 (1999). Yezd and Kerman areas. Alternate names: Dari, "Gabri", "Gabar", "Yazdi".  Dialects: Related to Parsi-Dari and Nâyini.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Dezfuli

[def]  Dezful, northern Khuzestan Province. Alternate names: Dezhfili, Dizfuli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Unclassified 
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Domari

[rmt] 1,338,271 in Iran (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 1,876,116. Kurbat and Luli are in western Iran. Mehtar is in Fars and Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Province. Karachi is in northern Iran. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Libya, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Russia (Europe), Sudan, Syria, Turkey (Europe), Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene, Gypsy, Luti, Mehtar.  Dialects: Kurbati (Ghorbati), Qinati, Yürük, Koli, Karachi, Luli, Maznoug, Nawar. A number of the dialects in Iran may be highly divergent from one another. Not intelligible to Romani speakers.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom 
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Dzhidi

[jpr]   Alternate names: Judeo-Persian, Djudi, Judi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian 
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Eshtehardi

[esh]  Eshtehard and environs, Karaj District, Markazi Province. Dialects: Close to Takestani. Eshtehardi may be the same language as some other dialects spoken to the southwest of Qazvin.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Fars, Northwestern

[faz]  Scattered in isolated pockets of Fars Province. Dialects: Close to Sivandi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Fars, Southwestern

[fay]  Central Fars Province: Somghun, Papun, Masarm, Buringun, Kondazi, Davâni, others. Alternate names: "Tajik".  Dialects: Related to Lari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars 
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Farsi, Western

[pes] 22,000,000 in Iran (1997). Population includes 800,000 Eastern Farsi in Khorasan, Gilan, Tat, Bakhtiari, Lur. Population total all countries: 24,316,121. Throughout Iran. Most heavily concentrated in central, south central, and northeastern Iran. Also spoken in Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iraq, Israel, Netherlands, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Tajikistan, Turkey (Asia), Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, USA, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Persian, New Persian, Parsi, Irani.  Dialects: Ketabi, Tehrani, Shirazi, Old Shirazi, Qazvini, Mahalhamadani, Kashani, Esfahani, Sedehi, Kermani, Araki, Shirazjahromi, Shahrudi Kazeruni, Mashadi (Meshed), Basseri, Yazdi, Bandari. The literary language is virtually identical in Iran and Afghanistan, with very minor lexical differences. Zargari may be a dialect used by goldsmiths (also see Balkan Romani in Iran). Dialect shading into Dari in Afghanistan and Tajiki in Tajikistan. Many of the dialects may be separate languages.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian 
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Gazi

[gzi] 7,033 (2000). Gaz. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Georgian

[kat] 50,000 in Iran. Fereydan and Fereydunshahr provinces, Esfahan, Najaf Abad, Shahin Shahr, Yazdanshahr. Alternate names: Kartuli, Gruzin.  Dialects: Fereydan (Ferejdan).  Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian 
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Gilaki

[glk] 3,265,000 (1993). Population includes 2,000 Galeshi. Gilan Region, coastal plain, south of Talish. Galeshi is a mountain dialect. Alternate names: Gelaki, Gilani, Guilaki, Guilani.  Dialects: Galeshi, Rashti. Close to Mâzanderâni.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian 
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Gozarkhani

[goz]  Gozarkhan (northwest of Qazvin); Tajrish, north of Tehran; Alamut area. Dialects: Close to Maraghei, as well as Semnani languages.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Harzani

[hrz] 28,132 (2000 WCD). West Azerbaijan Province: Qalingie, between Marand and Jolfa, northwest of Tabriz; related varieties in Galin Qaya, Babra, and Dizmar. Dialects: Close to Karingani and Talysh.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Hawrami

[hac] 22,948 in Iran (2000 WCD). For all speakers of Gurani group, several million; Hawrami dialect: 20,000 (Blau 1989). Western part of Kordestan province, near Iraqi border, in Hewraman, east of Sanandaj, also north of Kermanshah. Alternate names: Hewrami, Howrami, Hawramani, Awromani, Gurani, Gorani.  Dialects: Kakai (Macho), Hawraman-I Luhon, Hawraman-I Taxt, Kandula, Gawhara, Gurani (Gorani).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani 
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Hazaragi

[haz] 283,000 in Iran (1993). Population has increased significantly due to the influx of Hazaragi-speaking refugees from Afghanistan. Throughout Iran, especially urban centers. Alternate names: Hazara, Hezareh, Hezare'i.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian 
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Jadgali

[jdg]   Alternate names: Jatgali, Jatki, Jat.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi 
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Kabatei

[xkp]  Rudbar District, Gilan Province. Dialects: Kalas, Kabate. Close to Upper Taromi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Kajali

[xkj]  Khalkhal District in Eastern Azerbaijan Province, Kaqazkonan District, Kajal. Dialects: Close to Shahrudi and Koresh-e Rostam.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Karingani

[kgn] 17,583 (2000 WCD). East Azerbaijan Province, Dizmar District, Keringan village, and Hasanu District, northeast of Tabriz. Alternate names: Keringani.  Dialects: Various dialects. Very close to Harzani.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Kazakh

[kaz] 3,000 in Iran (1982). Gorgan City, Mazanderan Province. Alternate names: Kazak, Kazakhi, Gazaqi.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian 
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Khalaj

[kjf] 42,107 in Iran (2000 WCD). Also spoken in Azerbaijan. Dialects: Related to Kurdish and Talysh.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern 
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Khalaj, Turkic

[klj] 42,107 (2000 WCD). Northeast of Arak in Central Province. Alternate names: Khalaj.  Dialects: Not a dialect of Azerbaijani, as previously supposed. An independent language distinct from other extant Turkish languages (Doerfer 1971).  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani 
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Kho'ini

[xkc]  Kho'in District, Zanjan Province. Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Kabatei and Takestani. Closely related varieties spoken in the nearby villages of Balbavin, Sefidkamar, Halab, Sa`dabad, and other villages.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Khorasani Turkish

[kmz] 400,000 (1977 Doerfer). Northeast Iran, in the northern part of Khorasan Province, especially northwest of Mashhad. West dialect in Bojnurd Region; north dialect in Quchan Region (probably the largest), south dialect around Soltanabad near Sabzevar. Alternate names: Quchani.  Dialects: West Quchani (Northwest Quchani), North Quchani (Northeast Quchani), South Quchani. Midway linguistically between Azerbaijani and Turkmen, but not a dialect of either. Oghuz-Uzbek in Uzbekistan is reported to be a dialect.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish 
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Khunsari

[kfm] 21,099 (2000 WCD). Esfahan Province, Kashan and Esfahan areas. Dialects: Khunsari may be only one of a large complex of dialects in Esfahan Province. Other Northwestern dialects that have been described in the same area and which may be very closely related include those of Vonishun, Qohrud, Keshe, Zefre, Sedeh, Gaz, Kafran, Mahallat, So, Mejme, and Djaushaqan.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Koresh-e Rostam

[okh]  Eastern Azerbaijan Province, Koresh-e Rostam District. Dialects: Related to Shahrudi and Kajali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Koroshi

[ktl] 160 to 200 (1992 Mohamedi). 40 to 50 families. Fars Province. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi 
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Kurdish, Central

[ckb] 3,250,000 in Iran. Northwest Iran, primarily Kordestan, West Azerbaijan provinces, areas north of Kermanshah. Mukri is spoken around Mahabad, and Sineyi (Sine'i) is spoken around Sanandaj (Sine). Alternate names: Kordi, Korkora, Kurdi, Kurdy, Sorani, Mukri, Mokri, Sine'i, Wawa.  Dialects: Mukri, Sanandaji (Sine'i, Sina'i, Sineyi), Southern Jafi, Pijdari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish 
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Kurdish, Northern

[kmr] 350,000 in Iran (1988 Stanzer). North and west of Lake Urmia, extending to border with Azerbaijan. Some small communities live in the Caspian region (Mazandaran, Kalardasht [Fattah 2000]). Khorasani Kurmanji speakers live east of the Caspian Sea, in northern Khorasan Province, bordering Turkmenistan. Centers include Quchan and Bojnurd. Alternate names: Kurmanji, Kurmancî, Eastern Kurmanji, Kordi, Kurdi.  Dialects: Khorasani Kurmanji.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish 
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Kurdish, Southern

[sdh] 3,000,000 in Iran (2000 Fattah). Western Iran, Kermanshah, Ilam provinces; Eastern Iraq bordering these provinces including Xanaqin. Also spoken in Iraq. Dialects: Kolyai, Kermanshahi (Kermanshani), Kalhori, Garrusi (Bijari) Sanjabi, Malekshahi (Maleksh ay), Bayray, Kordali, Feyli, Luri.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish 
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Laki

[lki] 1,000,000 (2002 Fattah). 150,000 monolinguals. Population includes 10,000 Nahavand Lurs. Western Iran, Ilam, Lorestan provinces, cities of Aleshtar, Kuhdesht, Nurabad-e Dolfan, Khorramabad. Alternate names: Leki, Alaki.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Western Farsi, 78% with Luristani (Khorramabadi), 69% with Northern Luri (central rural dialects).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish 
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Lari

[lrl] 80,000. Ethnic population: 100,000. Throughout Lar District, South Fars Province; Shiraz; United Arab Emirates. Alternate names: Larestani, Achomi.  Dialects: Lari. Verbal system is quite distinct from Western Farsi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars 
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Lasgerdi

[lsa]  In Lasjerd, Semnan Province (40 km southwest of Semnan). Dialects: Related to Sorkhei.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani 
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Luri, Northern

[lrc] 1,500,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 1,700,000 (2001). Western Iran: Central and Southern Lorestan, Northern Khuzestan, Southern Hamadan Province, the southern edge of Markazi Province, some regions of Ilam, and possibly a small population in eastern Iraq. Populations also in Khorramabad, Borujerd, Andimeshk. Alternate names: Lori, Luri.  Dialects: Khorramabadi, Borujerdi, Nahavandi, Andimeshki, Bala-Gariva'i, Mahali (Rural), Cagani. The major Northern Luri dialects (Khorramabadi, Borujerdi, etc.) are found in Lorestan and Khuzestan. Some local regions in Ilam Province (Posht-e Kuh) are said to speak Northern Luri dialects. Mainly south Kurdish dialects are spoken in Ilam Province (Fattah 2000). Also, according to Fattah, there are a small number of villages in Iraq, where a dialect of Northern Luri may be spoken. Close to Kumzari. Lexical similarity of Mahali dialect 80% with Western Farsi, 69% with Laki, and 73% with Bakhtiari (Haflang); Khorramabadi dialect 85% with Western Farsi, 78% with Laki, and 75% with Bakhtiari (Haflang). Similarity to Western Farsi is due to language shift, but also to lexical borrowing.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri 
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Luri, Southern

[luz] 875,000 (1999). 300,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 900,000. Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Province (Yasuj is center of Boyerahmadi, Dehdasht is center of Kohgiluyeh), eastern Khuzestan Province (Kohgiluyeh), Northwestern Fars Province (Nurabad is center of Mamasani, Shul is center of Shuli), Shiraz. Alternate names: Ruliy, Lori-ye Jonubi, Luri, Lur, Lor, Lori.  Dialects: Boyerahmadi, Yasuji (Yasichi), Kohgiluyeh, Mamasani, Shuli. Southern Luri is on a continuum between Bakhtiari and Western Farsi "dialects" such as Bushehri and Fars Province varieties. There is a non-Lur tribe in Fars Province called Kurdshuli, which is reported to speak a Southern Luri dialect. Their winter quarters are at Qasr-e Dasht near Sivand, which is 70 km from Sharaz on the Shiraz-Esfahan road (Ivanow 1959, unpublished). Close to Kumzari. Lexical similarity 75% with Western Farsi, 80% with Bushehri dialect of Western Farsi; Mamasani dialect 75% with Bakhtiari, Boyerahmadi dialect 86% with Bakhtiari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri 
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Mandaic

[mid] 500 (2001). Ethnic population: 23,000. Hoveiseh and other towns, Khuzestan. Alternate names: Mandaean, Neo-Mandaic, Modern Mandaic, Manda:yi, Mandi, Subbi, Sabean, Sabe'in.  Dialects: Ahwaz (Ahvaz), Shushtar, Iraqi Neo-Mandaic. Little dialect variation.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic 
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Maraghei

[vmh]  Upper Rudbar area (Rudbar-e Alamut). Dialects: Dikini. Various dialects. Close to Gozarkhani. Dialect in Kuhpayeh may be the same language.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Mazanderani

[mzn] 3,265,000 (1993). Northern Iran near Caspian Sea, southern half of Mazanderan Province. Alternate names: Tabri, Mazandarani.  Dialects: Mazanderani, Gorgani. Related to Gilaki. Qadikolahi (Ghadikolahi) and Palani may be dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian 
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Natanzi

[ntz] 7,033 (2000 WCD). Esfahan Province: Natanz, on the Esfahan-Kashan Road. Dialects: Natanzi may be part of a larger complex of Esfahan Province dialects including Yarani (Yarandi) and Farizandi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Nayini

[nyq] 7,033 (2000 WCD). Esfahan Province: Nayin and Anarak, 100 km east of Esfahan; Khuri is spoken in Khur (Khvor) and Mehrjan, 250 km northeast of Esfahan. Alternate names: Biyabanak.  Dialects: Nayini, Anarak, Khuri. Dialects listed may be separate languages. Khuri is distinct from other dialects. Related to Zoroastrian Dari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Parsi-Dari

[prd] 350,000 in Iran. Population total all countries: 700,000. Also spoken in Afghanistan. Alternate names: Parsee-Dari.  Dialects: Parsi-Dari is reported to not be inherently intelligible with Parsi of India, Pakistan, and other countries, but linguistically and ethnically related. They diverged 600 to 700 years ago or more. It is related to Dari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Pashto, Southern

[pbt] 113,000 in Iran (1993). Population does not include refugees. Khorasan on Afghanistan border east of Qa'en. Alternate names: Pashtu, Paktu, "Afghani".  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto 
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Persian Sign Language

[psc]   Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Qashqa'i

[qxq] 1,500,000 (1997). Southwestern Iran, Fars Province and Southern Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Province. Shiraz, Gachsaran, and Firuzabad are centers. Alternate names: Qashqay, Qashqai, Kashkai.  Dialects: Very close to Azerbaijani.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani 
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Razajerdi

[rat]  Qazvin and Kuhpayeh area, Razajerd. Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Takestani.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Romani, Balkan

[rmn]   Dialects: Zargari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan 
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Rudbari

[rdb]  Sefid Rud Valley. Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional to Caspian languages and related to Vafsi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Salchuq

[slq]   Dialects: Probably a dialect of Azerbaijani.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani 
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Sangisari

[sgr]  Semnân Province. Alternate names: Sangesari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani 
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Semnani

[smy] 21,099 (2000 WCD). Semnan Province. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani 
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Senaya

[syn] 60 in Iran (1997 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 460. Tehran and Qazvin. Originally in Sanandaj, Kordestan Province. Some in western Europe. Also spoken in Australia, USA. Alternate names: Sena:ya, Christian Neo-Aramaic, Shan Sray, Lshan Sray, Soray, Sray, Shan Gyanan.  Dialects: The variety in Qazvin is slightly different from that spoken by Sanandaj-born people.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern 
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Shahmirzadi

[srz]  Shahmirzad, Semnan Province. Dialects: Close to Mazanderani and Gilaki.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian 
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Shahrudi

[shm]  Khalkhal District in Eastern Azerbaijan Province, Shahrud District, Shal, Kolur, Lerd. Dialects: Close to Kajali and Koresh-e Rostam. Different from Sharudi, a Western Farsi dialect.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Sivandi

[siy] 7,033 (2000 WCD). Sivand, Fars Province (70 km northwest of Shiraz on the Shiraz-Esfahan Road). Dialects: Related to Northwestern Fars varieties.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Soi

[soj] 7,033 (2000 WCD).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Sorkhei

[sqo]  Semnan Province: Sorkheh, 19 km southwest of Semnan. Dialects: Related to Lasgerdi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani 
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Takestani

[tks] 220,000. Zanjan, Qazvin and Markazi provinces: various towns and villages in the mainly Azerbaijani-speaking region from Khalkhal to Saveh, especially in Takestan and villages to the south and southeast. Alternate names: Takistani.  Dialects: Khalkhal, Tarom, Zanjan, Kharaqan, Ramand (Takestan). Close to Talysh, especially Khalkhal dialect. Transitional between Talysh and Semnani languages. Close to Eshtehardi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Talysh

[tly] 112,000 in Iran (1993). Northwest Gilan Province along Caspian coastal plain and adjacent mountainous areas from Masuleh, Masal, and Kapur-Chal (Kepri-Chal) (each about 50 km east of Rasht) to the Azerbaijan border. Northern Talyshi is centered around Astara and the Caspian littoral in Azerbaijan; Central Talyshi is centered in the Asalem-Hashtpar area along the Caspian littoral in Gilan Province; Southern Talyshi is centered around Shandermen, Masal, Masuleh, and surrounding mountainous areas in Gilan Province. Alternate names: Talyshi, Talish, Talishi, Talesh, Taleshi.  Dialects: Northern Talyshi, Central Talyshi, Southern Talyshi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Taromi, Upper

[tov]  Upper Tarom of Zanjan Province, Hazarrud, Siavarud. Dialects: Various dialects. Close to Kabatei.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Tat, Muslim

[ttt] 8,000 in Iran.  Alternate names: Mussulman Tati.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat 
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Turkmen

[tuk] 2,000,000 in Iran (1997). Northeast, mainly in Mazanderan Province, along the Turkmenistan border; important centers are Gonbad-e Kavus and Pahlavi Dezh. Alternate names: Torkomani.  Dialects: Anauli, Khasarli, Nerezim, Nokhurli (Nohur), Chavdur, Esari (Esary), Goklen (Goklan), Salyr, Saryq, Teke (Tekke), Yomud (Yomut), Trukmen.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian 
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Vafsi

[vaf] 18,000 (2003). Markazi Province, Arak District, Vafs, near Tafresh. Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh; very close to Ashtiani.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Extinct languages

Avestan

[ave] Extinct.  Alternate names: Pazend, Avesta.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern 
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Mandaic, Classical

[myz] Extinct. Also used in Iraq (Basrah) and small communities in the USA (New York) and Australia (300 Mandaeans in Sydney in 1995). Alternate names: Classical Mandaean.  Dialects: Appears to be the direct ancestor of Modern Mandaic.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic 
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