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Fleet Owner/Operator Drivers/private users General: technology, financial, legal

Glossary / Definition of Terms

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Definition of terms

Additives


Chemicals added to fuel in very small quantities to improve and maintain fuel quality. Detergents and corrosion inhibitors are examples of gasoline additives.

Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV)


A vehicle that combines new engine/power/drive train systems to significantly improve fuel economy. This includes hybrid power systems and fuel cells, as well as some specialized electric vehicles.

Alternative fuel


This Term is derived from the so called biofuel directive 2003/30/EC and includes:
bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas (from biomass gasification or digester), bio methanol (toxic!), biodimethylether, bio-ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether) as additive, bio-MTBE (methyl-tertio-butyl-ether) as additive, synthetic biofuels (either gasoline or diesel type), bio hydrogen (hydrogen from renewable sources - electrolysis via power from the grid or via hydrogen reformer working on bio methanol), pure (straight) vegetable oil

Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV)


As defined by the Energy Policy Act, any dedicated, flexible-fuel, or dual-fuel vehicle designed to operate on at least one alternative fuel.

Alternative propulsion


This term goes beyond alternative fuels. It includes "non fuels" like thermodynamic storage (pressure, temperature or melting energy), electrochemical storage of energy (capacitator, secondary battery) or mechanic storage (flywheel) and combinations of each other and with internal combustion engines (ICE)

B100


100% (neat) biodiesel.

B20


A blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel where 20% of the volume is biodiesel.

Battery Electric Vehicle BEV


Vehicle storing its energy in secondary batteries on board. Power is produced by electric motor(s).


Bi-Fuel Vehicle


A vehicle with two separate fuel systems designed to run on either an alternative fuel, or gasoline or diesel, using only one fuel at a time. Bi-fuel vehicles are referred to as "dual-fuel" vehicles in the Clean Air Act Amendments and Energy Policy Act.

Biofuels Directive


DIRECTIVE 2003/30/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
of 8 May 2003 on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport.
compliance reporting download

Bio-SNG


Synthetic natural gas made out of biomass.

Biodiesel


A biodegradable transportation fuel for use in diesel engines that is produced through transesterification of organically derived oils or fats. Biodiesel is used as a component of diesel fuel. In the future it may be used as a replacement for diesel.

Biofuel Blending


Add an amount of biofuels to fossil fuels. This is possible for Ethanol and Biodiesel (Diester).
E85 means 85% Ethanol, rest gasoline
B20 means 20% Biodiesel, rest diesel

Biomass


Renewable organic matter such as agricultural crops; crop waste residues; wood, animal, and municipal waste, aquatic plants; fungal growth; etc., used for the production of energy.

Captive fleet


A fleet to transport goods or passengers on a given route - with the special case of producing a continuous goods stream between source and sink.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)


Natural gas that has been compressed under high pressures, typically 2000 to 3600 psi, held in a container. The gas expands when used as a fuel.

Converted or Conversion Vehicle


A vehicle originally designed to operate on gasoline or diesel that has been modified or altered to run on an alternative fuel.

Drive Train


That combination of gears, clutches, shafts, etc., that transmits the engine power to the driven wheels. Typically the transmission, driveshaft, and differential in a rear wheel driven vehicle.

E10 (Gasohol)


Ethanol mixture that contains 10% ethanol, 90% unleaded gasoline.

E85


Ethanol/gasoline mixture that contains 85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline, by volume.

E95


Ethanol/gasoline mixture that contains 95% denatured ethanol and 5% gasoline, by volume.

Electric Vehicle


A vehicle powered by electricity, generally provided by batteries. EVs qualify in the zero emission vehicle (ZEV) category for emissions.

Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE)


A fuel oxygenate used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and reduce engine knock.

Evaporative Emissions


Hydrocarbon vapours that escape from a fuel storage tank or a vehicle fuel tank or vehicle fuel system (carburettor).

FFV


Flexible Fuel Vehicle

Fischer-Tropsch


A method discovered in 1923 by the German coal researchers Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch, for the synthesis of hydrocarbons and other aliphatic compounds. A mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is reacted in the presence of an iron or cobalt catalyst. Much heat is evolved and products such as methane, synthetic gasoline and waxes, and alcohols are made. Water or carbon dioxide is its by-product.

Flexible-Fuel Vehicle (FFV)


A Vehicle with a common fuel tank designed to run on varying blends of unleaded gasoline with either ethanol or methanol.

Fuel Cell


An electrochemical engine with no moving parts that converts the chemical energy of a fuel, such as hydrogen, and an oxidant, such as oxygen, directly to electricity. The principal components of a fuel cell are catalytically activated electrodes for the fuel (anode) and the oxidant (cathode) and an electrolyte to conduct ions between the two electrodes.

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)


A vehicle powered by two or more energy sources, one of which is electricity. HEVs may combine the engine and fuel of a conventional vehicle with the batteries and electric motor of an electric vehicle in a single drive train.

Internal-Combustion-Engine


Any engine, either reciprocating or rotary, in which the fuel is consumed in the interior of the engine Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Compressed natural gas that is cryogenically stored in its liquid state.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)


A mixture of hydrocarbons found in natural gas and produced from crude oil, used principally as a feedstock for the chemical industry, home heating fuel, and motor vehicle fuel. Also known by the principal constituent propane.

Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV)


A vehicle that meets EPA\'s CFV or LEV standards or CARB\'s California LEV standards.

Methane (CH4)


The simplest of the hydrocarbons and the principal constituent of natural gas. Pure methane has a heating value of 1,012 Btu per standard cubic foot.

Methanol (also known as Methyl Alcohol, Wood Alcohol, CH3 OH)


A liquid fuel formed by catalytically combining CO with hydrogen in a 1 to 2 ratio under high temperature and pressure. Commercially, it is typically manufactured by steam reforming natural gas. Also formed in the destructive distillation of wood.

Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)


A fuel oxygenate used as an additive to gasoline to increase octane and reduce engine knock. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, MTBE has been detected in ground water across the country, sometimes contaminating drinking water. Recent work by EPA and other researchers is expected to help determine the potential for health effects from MTBE in drinking water.

Natural Gas (NG)


A mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, primarily methane, occurring naturally in the Earth and used principally as a fuel.

Power Train


The power train converts the linear motion of the pistons into rotational motion of the crankshaft.

Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME)


Processed rapeseed oil to allow usage in one tank systems.

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