In ancient times the
seven-day week was not used. In the Pharaonic empire that existed
along the shores of the Nile about 4,500 years ago a ten-day week was used. That ten-day
week was prevalent in both Egypt and Greece, and even in Asia Minor
and the Euphrates-Tigris region, until after the death of Jesus. A
remnant of this method of dividing time is found in the astrological
decanates, a division of the zodiac signs into three parts of ten
degrees or days, each with a certain planet as ruler.
At the beginning of the first millennium B.C. in Assyria a five-day week was used. In ancient Israel, however, they used a seven-day week, but it is not known just how long they used this method of dividing time.
It was with the adoption and widespread use of the seven-day week throughout the Hellenistic world of mixed cultures that this heptagram was created. If we arrange the planets known at that time in order of the length of their orbital times (with the sun's orbital time on behalf of the geocentric perspective of astrology taking the place of the earth's) the result is the following: Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. If we place them in this order at each point of the heptagram, and then take a pen and follow the lines as if we were drawing a heptagram in one line without lifting the pen from the paper, we discover the planets that correspond to each of the seven weekdays in due order: , Sunday (dimanche, domingo); , Monday (lundi, lunes); , Tuesday, Tyr's day (in Latin countries Mars'day, mardi, martes); , Wednesday (Woden's or Odin's day in the Nordic countries Mercury's day, mercredi, miercoles, in Latin countries); , Thursday (Tor's day in Nordic countries Jupiter's day, jovedi, jueves, in Latin countries); , Friday (the day of the goddess Freja in the Nordic countries, Venus' day, vendredi, viernes, in Latin countries); , Saturday, Saturn's day (lördag lögare dag, bathing and washing day, in the Nordic countries samedi, sabado, in Latin countries).