Hypertension is the term doctors use for high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and usually given as 2 numbers. For example, 140 over 90 (written as 140/90). The top number is the systolic pressure, the pressure created when your heart beats. It is considered high if it is consistently over 140. The bottom number is the diastolic pressure, the pressure inside blood vessels when the heart is at rest. It is considered high if it is consistently over 90. Either or both of these numbers may be too high.  Pre-hypertension is when the systolic blood pressure is between 120 and 139 or the diastolic blood pressure is between 80 and 89 on multiple readings. If you have pre-hypertension, you are more likely to develop high blood pressure at some point.
Blood pressure measurements are the result of the force of the blood produced by the heart and the size and condition of the arteries.
Many factors can affect blood pressure, including how much water and salt you have in your body, the condition of your kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels, and the levels of different body hormones. High blood pressure can affect all types of people. You have a higher risk of high blood pressure if you have a family history of the disease. High blood pressure is more common in African Americans than Caucasians. Most of the time, no cause is identified. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that results from a specific condition, habit, or medication is called secondary hypertension. Too much salt in your diet can lead to high blood pressure. Secondary hypertension may also be due to: Adrenal gland tumor, Alcohol poisoning, Anxiety and stress, Appetite suppressants, Arteriosclerosis, Birth control pills, Certain cold medicines, Coarctation of the aorta, Cocaine use, Cushing syndrome, Diabetes, Kidney disease, including: Glomerulonephritis (inflammation of kidneys), Kidney failure, Renal artery stenosis, Renal vascular obstruction or narrowing, Migraine medicines, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, Obesity, Pain, Periarteritis nodosa, Pregnancy (called gestational hypertension), Radiation enteritis, Renal artery stenosis, Retroperitoneal fibrosis and Wilms' tumor.
Most of the time, there are no symptoms. Symptoms that may occur include: Confusion, Chest pain, Ear noise or buzzing, Irregular heartbeat, Nosebleed, Tiredness and Vision changes. If you have a severe headache or any of the symptoms above, see your doctor right away. This may be a signs of a complication or dangerously high blood pressure called malignant hypertension.
CAM Theray for hypertension
Many homeopathic remedies are successfully used to control hypertension. They are prescribed based on a)totality b)physiology. Totality based remedies are given in high potencies like 30, 200, etc. and the later are often given in low potency.
Totality based remedies for hypertension
Arnica montana affects the blood and vascular system. Symptoms occur after any trauma or overuse. It is indicated for hypertension with cardiac dropsy with dyspnoea, angina pectoris, feeble and irregular pulse, cardiac asthma. Aurum muriaticum is indicated for cardiac symptoms of varied nature, arteriosclerosis, valvular lesions and hypertension. It acts on palpitation and tachyarrhythmia. Ignatia amara is useful in hypertensive patients of sensitive excitable nature, and helps overcome grief and worry. It is indicated for depression, nervousness, trembling, sleep disorders, constrictive feeling in throat and chest. Natrum muriaticum is a remedy often used by homoeopaths to people with fluttering of the heart, with the weak faint feeling worse by lying down. Heart pulsation shakes the body. Losing flesh while living well. Secale cornutum is indicated for hypertension with congestive pain in head. It also helps to alleviate dyspnoea and oppression of chest, and palpitation with intermittent pulse. Nosebleed due to high blood pressure is also controlled. Veratrum album is indicated for collapse, weakness and extreme coldness. It covers cold extremities, cold sweat on forehead, paleness, feeble pulse, and palpitation with anxiety and rapid audible respiration.
Physiology based remedies for hypertension
Cactus grandiflorus acts on muscular fibres of the heart and is indicated for high blood pressure with anxiety due to heart affections, congestive headaches, constriction in the chest, acute stabbing pains in the heart and weak heart. It is also indicated for low blood pressure. Crataegus oxyacantha is used for stage 2 and 3 hypertension and its symptoms like extreme dyspnoea and exhaustion at the least exertion, angina pectoris, valvular murmurs, irregular pulse, cyanosis, cold extremities and oedema. Convallaria majalis increases the heart’s action and renders it more regular. It is used when ventricles are over distended or dilated and venous stasis is marked. It is indicated for dyspnoea, dropsy, tobacco heart, orthopnoea, angina pectoris, palpitation and tachyarrhythmia. Coffea cruda is indicated for hypertension with palpitation and suppression of urination. It acts on violent irregular palpitations especially after sudden stress, intolerance of pain, restlessness and sleeplessness. Lobelia inflata is a vaso-motor stimulant and helps to increase blood pressure. It increases the activity of all vegetative processes. It is indicated for conditions with constriction of the chest and epigastrium, leading to dyspnoea, vertigo, nausea and vomiting, and arrhythmia. Prunus spinosa is indicated for hypertension with tachycardia, which is exacerbated with the slightest motion, dyspnoea, feeling of oppression of the chest and angina pectoris. It has been used to treat problems of urination and shooting headache. Rauvolfia serpentina is an Indian medicine, used for hypertension without atheromatous changes in the vessels in the form of mother tincture. Spartium scoparium is used as palliative to combat arterial hypertension in large doses of mother tincture. Valeriana officinalis is indicated for over-sensitiveness, nervous affections, spasms and convulsive movements of the diaphragm. Viscum album lowers the blood pressure. It has a calming effect on palpitation and accelerated pulse. It also relieves weight and oppression of heart and dyspnoea. It is used for cardiac hypertrophy with valvular insufficiency.