m6ceb Ham Radio Station


CB Radios – News You Can Use


The CB radio (aka Citizen Band Radio) was introduced in the 1940's, and is used for short distance communication between individuals on a selection of 40 channels within the 27MHz (11 m) band.   Only one station may transmit at a time, so other stations must listen and wait for the shared channel to be available.  The CB was invented in 1945 by Al Gross, who also invented the walkie-talkie.  It took about 20 years to gain popularity. 

CB services began in 1945 to permit citizens a radio band for personal use.  In 1948, the original "Class D" CB Radios were to be operated on the 460 MHz–470 MHz UHF band.  Radios at that time were expensive and not practical for the average consumer.  In 1958, the Class D of CB Radios was released and was opened at 27 MHz.  There were 23 channels; then 40 channels came out in 1977.  Most of the 460 MHz–470 MHz band was reassigned for business and public safety uses.   Channel  9  was reserved for emergency use only in 1969.

By the late 1960's, advancements in technology gave the general public access to the CB radio by decreasing the weight, size and cost of the radios.  It became a popular tool for trade business such as truckers, carpenters, plumbers, as well as radio hobbyists.   Many CB clubs were formed, and the special CB slang language evolved, including the 10-codes similar to those used in emergency services today.

In the 70's, a licensing fee was required along with the use of a "call sign."  That was reduced to in the late 70's, but when the CB craze was at its peak, many people ignored these requirements and others including antenna height, distance restriction for communications, and allowable transmitter power.   After the FCC started receiving over 1,000,000 license applications a month, the license requirement was dropped entirely.    


We all know the CB radio is a favorite tool of truckers to communicate locations of service stations, troubles on the road, police speed traps, or just to keep each other company.   However, it's also a favorite tool for businesses and homeowners, especially in remote areas where cell and internet service is not readily available.   With the introduction of cell phones and the internet, CBs have declined somewhat in popularity, but they are still very much in demand by truckers and businesses and also as a hobby.    Handheld models are especially popular among hunters and outdoorsmen who find themselves in remote areas.  Just imagine being lost in the woods with no means of communicating – except you have a CB radio and can call for help.



CB radio use is regulated by the FCC (Federal Communication Commission).  No license is required to operate a CB radio.  In fact, anyone can operate a CB radio unless that person is forbidden by the FCC (or other governing agency) or if they are from a foreign country.   The FCC requires the use of certified equipment, and modifications are not allowed.  There are severe consequences for anyone violating the FCC rules and regulations, and that goes for retailers as well as the consumer.  The output power is restricted to four watts for an AM transmitter.  Up to 12 watts of output power is allowed on an SSB (single sideband transmitter).  Also, the antennas should not be more than 60 feet from ground level or 20 feet from the point of mounting.

Operators must communicate in plain language that is understood by anyone listening to that channel.  The use of "ten-codes" or "handles" is permitted, but the use of any veiled communication is not allowed.  It's also illegal to broadcast obscene or profane materials or any communications with regard to illegal activity.  Also, any communication that doesn't relate directly to the operator's life or household, such as music or updates about a third party are prohibited.


There are a few things to consider when purchasing a CB Radio, but it need not be a nightmare.  Here are a few considerations:

  What are you going to use it for? This will help determine what features are needed for your intended use.  For instance, if it's for your personal use or hobby, you may want a unit with a wide range of frequencies.  Truckers or long distance travelers may require a full featured unit, while business owners or tradesmen may require only limited features but will want powerful, clear transmission.
 What's your price range?  Higher pricing does not necessarily mean more power or a better quality sound.  All CB radios, whether cheap or expensive, have exactly the same power output, 4watts. The difference in power or clarity mostly depends on the antenna and microphone.  So your price range will be dictated by the intended use and features you require. 
 Which antenna should you use?  As far as length, basically, the longer the antenna, the better the communication. The optimum length is 8½ feet or 102 inches which is ¼ the wavelength. If your intended use means an antenna this length is not practical (mounted on a vehicle) you might consider a coil based antenna which will have the length of wire coiled at its base making it more practical to handle. Handheld units will obviously use a small antenna, usually about 8 inches.  However, you might want to upgrade the antenna with a booster unit.  With regard to location, the higher the better, and avoid having any part of your vehicle or building block the antenna. Many land based antenna are mounted on high poles and secured with guy wires for stability while vehicle mounted units are usually located on the roof or hood.  As for tuning, ideally the antenna and radio unit should be the same brand to minimize compatibility issues, and be sure to have the antenna correctly tuned to the radio unit.
 Which microphone should you use?  This is important!  It makes no sense to purchase a fantastic antenna and then use an inferior microphone for transmission.  The difference in clarity is huge when a good microphone is matched to a good antenna, and this factor may be critical, if you are using your radio to transmit important instruction on a regular basis.
 What other features do you need?  Again, this is determined by your intended use.  For instance, if this unit is on your boat or exposed to outside elements, of course you'll want it to be waterproof.  For a vehicle-installed radio, a "Noise Blanker" or "Automatic Noise Limiter" will be important. This will reduce or remove static noise when your cigarette lighter outlet is being used for accessories. If you're sight impaired, you may want a backlit screen with bright digitals.  So you can see the features are limitless and are determined by your intended use and personal needs.
I think the best tip I can offer when purchasing a CB Radio is "Buyer Beware".  Do your homework and purchase from a reputable source.  Be sure to check out the warranty offered by the retailer and the manufacturer.  If you purchase online, be sure they are a legitimate, active online business with a way to contact them, if need be.

 Hope you find these tips helpful, and enjoy your CB Radio.

After working several years in the legal, medical and insurance fields, Karen VanSprange has become an entrepreneur working from home.  She is writer and administrator of http://www.RadarDetectorsPro.com, an online store offering a wide variety of radar detectors, cb radios, 10 meter amateur radios and other electronics.

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How to make a FREE Internet Radio Station

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2-meter band

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(Redirected from 2 Meters)
The 2 meter amateur radio band is a portion of the VHF radio spectrum, comprising frequencies stretching from 144.000 MHz to 148.000 MHz in ITU Regions 2 (North & South America plus Hawaii) and 3 (Asia and Oceania) and from 144.000 to 146.000 MHz in ITU Region 1 (Europe, Africa, and Russia). The license privileges of amateur radio operators include the use of frequencies within this band for telecommunication, usually conducted locally within a range of about 100miles (160km).
Operating on 2 meters
Because it is local and reliable, and because the licensing requirements to transmit on the 2-meter band are easy to meet in many parts of the world, this band is one of the most popular non-HF ham bands. This popularity, the compact size of needed radios and antennas, and this band's ability to provide easy reliable local communications also means that it is also the most used band for local emergency communications efforts, such as providing communications between Red Cross shelters and local authorities. In the U.S., that role in emergency communications is furthered by the fact that seemingly every amateur-radio operator has a 2 meter mobile radio or walkie-talkie.
Much of 2-meter FM operation uses a radio repeater, a radio receiver and transmitter that instantly retransmits a signal over a longer distance. However, even without repeaters available, it provides reliable crosstown communications throughout smaller towns and that makes it ideal for emergency communications. Simple radios for FM repeater operation have become plentiful and inexpensive in recent years. A fully-functional FM transceiver and antenna can be obtained for under US0 new and far less used for a modern one.


While 2 meters is best known as a local band, there are many opportunities for long distance (DX) communications. Occasionally, bending in the atmosphere's troposphere (ducting) can allow 2-meter signals to carry hundreds of miles. This is called a lift.
In rare cases, Sporadic E propagation can bring contacts well over a 1,000miles (1,600km). 2 meters is also utilized in conjunction with 70cm (Mode B or V/U) on some amateur radio satellites, giving distances of up to around 3,000miles (4,800km) with a Low Earth Orbit satellite.

A set of 2 long Yagi antennas for the 2 meter band fed in phase to obtain more gain and narrow main lobe of radiation (WA6PY)
By speeding up Morse code using an audio tape recorder, or using a computer, very short bursts of signal can be bounced off the ionized gas trail of meteor showers allowing DX. This is often called Burst transmission.
Another phenomenon that produces upper atmosphere ionization suitable for 2M DXing are the auroras. Since the ionization persists much longer than meteor trails, regular audio signals can be used, but the constant movement of the ionized gas leads to heavy distortion of the signals causing the audio to sound 'ghostly' and whispered.
To communicate over the longest distances hams use moonbounce. This involves high power and good antennas to reflect the VHF signals off the moon. VHF signals normally escape the earth's atmosphere, so using the moon as a target is quite practical. Due to the delay of the signal traveling to the moon and back, a person transmitting may hear the end of his own transmission returning.
Links to 2m propagation sites
DX-Sherlock's real-time 2m propagation maps
DX-Sherlock's real-time VHF&up propagation ticker
^ US Amateur Radio Frequency Allocations. http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/regulations/allocate.html accessed 12 May 2008.
^ RSGB UK band plan. http://www.rsgb.org/spectrumforum/bandplans/RSGB Band Plan master.pdf or http://www.rsgb-spectrumforum.org.uk/Papers/RSGB Band Plan master.htm Accessed 14 May 2008.
^ Sharing spectrum with other services a ham radio reality. The ARRL Letter, Vol. 20, No. 2. http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/01/1102/ Accessed 14 May 2008.
^ http://www.rsgb.org/getlicence/#foundation RSGB licensing guide
^ http://www.rsgb.org/emergency/ RSGB Radio Emergency & Public Service Communications website
Very high frequency (VHF) and ultra high frequency (UHF) amateur radio bands

6 m
4 m
2 m
1.25 m
70 cm
33 cm
23 cm
13 cm
50 MHz
70 MHz
144 MHz
219220 MHz
420 MHz
902 MHz
1.24 GHz
2.32.31 GHz
54 MHz
70.5 MHz
148 MHz
222225 MHz
450 MHz
928 MHz
1.3 GHz
2.392.45 GHz
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How to acquire started out With Ham Radios  

Article by Rani Fowler

Ham radios are two way radios that, in essence, converse to one one more devoid of the support of any outside force. The engineering have been near to for just about any very, astonishingly prolonged time. They really are a amazing method to turn into ready in circumstance of an emergency. right listed here are three useful factors concerning how you can acquire started out with ham radios.

1. You need a license!The law demands that you, as an novice operator, you need a license to possess the ability to legally run your device. Licenses are required offered that belonging in the direction of range of ham radios at the same time to the utilizes of them. in the celebration you do not know whatever you are executing and get using the way in which of an emergency operation, you can potentially take about harm in the direction of individuals involved. offered that of this, law demands which you have a license. Licenses are relatively uncomplicated to acquire as prolonged when you do your research. All you need to hold out is hint numerous types and hold a test. after you are executed using the test, you'll get your contact hint mailed for you after which you are set.

It does get quite a little bit much more intricate than what was just stated, but you'll locate out all the particulars you need after you start executing review for the test. To really include the complete subject of ham stereo licenses, this guidebook would need to turn into massively long!

2. Do your research!You will need to hold out a decent quantity of review before for you start in your ham stereo journey. For instance, what sort of units have you been on the way to need? There are cellular stations, bottom stations, and there are even handheld transceivers. To really solution this question, you 1st need to think about whatever you are on the way to take advantage of your ham stereo for. For example, if it is on the way to turn into utilized solely for emergencies, then you certainly must think about an HT. they are able to be the smallest and most cellular sorts of two way radios.

The review also applies to getting the test. There are completely different bands that ham radios can "talk" to. completely different bands need completely different quantities of certification. The reduced bands, for example the two meter band, need the lowest (and consequently simplest to get) license. The higher up you have using the bands shows the fact that radios can broadcast further. Communications units also gets much more pricey the higher up you go (as do the antennas), which provides up an amazing point!

3. What volume strap will you be using?This area is on the way to turn into relatively short offered that for me to really include all belonging in the direction of bands I would need several hours and several hours of your time. whatever you need to acquire away from this area is this. The reduced volume bands of ham stereo are for that novices as they do NOT broadcast as much at the same time to the license for mentioned bands is a complete whole lot simpler to get. The higher the band, the farther the signal will go. You must hold out your review which means you already know what strap should be perfect suited available for you as well as your needs!

Ham radios could possibly be intricate things, but do not allow your do it yourself turn into overwhelmed! The review has all been done; all you need to hold out is locate it.

About the Author

This area is on the way to turn into relatively short offered that for me to really include all belonging in the direction of bands I would need several hours and several hours of your time. whatever you need to acquire away from this area is this. The reduced volume bands of ham stereo are for that novices as they do NOT broadcast as much at the same time to the license for mentioned bands is a complete whole lot simpler to get. The higher the band, the farther the signal will go. You must hold out your review which means you already know what strap should be perfect suited available for you as well as your needs!