case against pangea
it’s important to understand that this is the most profound
disagreement in all of science in a century and a half…
and, even so, it is the tip of the iceberg, the ramifications
of this disagreement will change everything we know in
science, top to bottom.
begin with basic stuff.
All science knows…
The earth has two crusts. One…the mostly
basalt lower crust or the oceanic crust which is 2 – 4
miles deeper down than the higher upper continental crust. This
lower crust, essentially covers the Earth. It … this crust
is being made daily at rift cracks
that snake around the earth’s mid- oceans. But how could
all these rifts continually spread apart…without the Earth
growing? Ah….that is the question….isn’t
Sitting on or “in”
and “as part of” the oceanic crust
is the second higher upper crust or the Continental Crust
rising for the most part out of the water. It
is made mostly of granitic rock, which is 2.5 times the weight
edge area of the Continental Crust or Plate dips into and under
the sea level of the ocean. This area is what we call the Continental
Shelf. So as you go out into the ocean and the water gets gradually
deeper … that is the Continental Shelf.
At a given distance out into the ocean the ocean floor suddenly
drops off and goes down like a plummet… 2 ½ to
4 miles to the deep ocean floor, where we find the second lower
crust, the Oceanic Crust made mostly of basalts which are 3.0
– 3.3 times the weight of water. So to make it visually
clear, if you took the water away what you would see as you go
out into the ocean a distance is, the Continental Shelf would
suddenly drop away and down like a ridge in Arizona., except
it would go straight down for two to three miles, as if it was
suddenly broken off. The other side of that broken off ridge
is across the ocean thousands of miles in Europe, or Africa and
west to Australia and Asia.
did the two sides of this higher crust spread apart?
or eruptive cracks in the ocean floor provide new material in
the form of molten magmic rock that rises up at a rift area and
the oceanic plate spreads apart and the two sides move away from
each other smoothly and regularly, and so the continents welded
within the oceanic plates also move apart as
the ocean bottom spreads…. Now if this happens …
and it does, all over the world, logically speaking, this Earth
… I … argue that, that this outer crust originally
covered the whole of a smaller Earth and the Earth sphere grew.
The outer crust, therefore, had to crack and spread to accommodate
a growing Earth…which…it apparently did.
further argue that if you were to shrink the sphere of Earth
… by letting the oceanic plate re-enter the rifts they
erupted from, over time … the continental crust would
easily and completely fit back together, and this solution
satisfies all questions of tectonics, science, geology, paleontology,
theoretical and practical physics, cosmology, and subatomic physics.
Pretty simple actually.
this is the current Pangea theory which insists … that
the continents float willy, nilly about the Earth, spinning,
sliding, bumping, and crashing like bumper cars in a carnival.
(That’s a common description … which some geologists
are currently backing away from… in small
numbers.) The Pangea theory says the Earth was assembled 4.5
billion years ago in a “universal instant” from debris
… that was collected in our galaxy, to this
size, (by a method that is never … I repeat never
explained, why this assembly of material mysteriously ended at
exactly this time, and didn’t continue to provide more
material is a brutally illogical contradiction. Sometime in the
previous 9 billion years, this stuff collected. Yet, for the
last 4.5 billion years no new stuff collected, according to our
150 year old theory. How can that be? There is no possible explanation
for this contradiction. It’s almost silly. It’s certainly
naïve, but still it is one hundred and fifty years old.
are told this material is ‘star stuff’, from novas
or super novas. If this wasn’t presented seriously, it
would be funny. Why?
are told meteorites, comets and asteroids are left over material
from this time, only less is going around now.
Less … that the shoe-maker levy planets
killer that struck Jupiter. Twenty one of them? Billion years
ago they were bigger. But meteorites aren’t
loosely assembled. They’re solid. Some are solid unrustable
iron! This from a super-nova? Gigantic meteorites
… floating around, waiting for gravity to come along?
clear some thing up. The only kind of meteorites
that we’ve identified to be 4.5 billion years old are colondrite
meteorites. Condrite meteorites are assembled from mineral dust
and pencil tip tiny meteorites called chondrules. More importantly,
chondrite meteorites cannot assemble, accrete
on a gravitational body … like a planet
or a sun! So where did they come from? Where did all the other
meteorites come from?
upon contradiction, upon contradiction. It’s a wrong theory.
It’s an old outworn theory, and it contradicts itself.
then say, that once assembled into planets,
moons, and suns…this activity gave us a molten (from all
the friction of assembly) differentiated Earth.
Differentiated … like in a caldron…melted in that,
the lightest material rose to the surface … which was
presumably granitic rock … then down to basalts …
then heavier silicates at the bottom, or core, you have iron
and the heavier elements.
us say we accepted this whole wrong scenario
… The Earth finished, cools in time … The Earth
must then be coated completely by a 2 – 4 mile crust of
light granitic rock, and under that we find basalts.
that to today’s world we find an Earth
that merely has pieces of this granitic crust. We went from an
Earth completely covered with a relatively thick outer crust
of granitic rock to a few, seven, scattered pieces that we call
continents…. Where is the rest of the crust?
only time geologists admit to us that massive crust is gone is
when they come up with theories like the one where a rogue planet
comes barreling through space and grazes Earth. Rips off a massive
chunk … or “peels off the crust” …
that’s one of my favorites, and deposits it in orbit to
be our moon. Unlike all the other moons in our
solar system, which were made by what? Other rogue planets? Ming
the Merciless? …Rogue planets? This is fantasy.
together these continental upper plate areas
cover only between one third to one quarter of the Earth. Where
is the rest of the outer crust? Three quarters of it seems to
be missing. It has to be somewhere, This much stuff can’t
disappear. If we got it back it would give us four times the
continental surface and mass
than we have now!
think the continental crust … is the whole crust of a
smaller Earth. In fact, it all does fit together on a smaller
rock cannot subduct as geologists insist the oceanic plate does,
because it’s too light! This is fact!
alone disproves the pangea theory! Granitic rock cannot subduct.
Yet, three quarters, twenty one continents worth, is gone! Simply
gone. No explanation!
say this: Earth was progressively smaller as we go back in time
over 4 – 5 billion years it grew from a small planetesimal
to a planet the size of Mars. The increasing speed of growth
increased exponentially. The heat under the crust from this growth
increased as it grew and the thin thick crust cracked more profoundly,
and 2 – 4 miles deep, and over the final 200 million years
rifted the ocean to reveal new deeper basalt plate until we have
the Earth we see today.
An aside….you may fairly ask how this matter can be created.
It’s created at the plasma core of all planets, moons,
and suns by a process that is so common that science has a name
for it, “pair production!” It’s how all matter
is made from energy.
Pangeaists…insist…against all reasonable symmetries,
that all the continents moved to one side of Earth about 600
million years ago, (pick your own time, (it’s all a “guessing
game”) they gathered together on one side of the Earth,
and for some unexplained reason stayed on that side for 400 million
to 600 million years. Sound incredible?
in an desperate attempt to explain the clear fact that all the
continents fit perfectly together geologists say,… that
in some magical other unnamed time, and for
some unnamed reason, all the continents, once-upon-a-previous-fictional-made-up-time,
gathered and connected in the Pacific, again,
into one giant island that they named Rodinia. The continents
gathered to form Rodinia, in the Pacific, then broke apart and
zipped around the planet to gather, and then form Pangea in the
Atlantic! You can see why timing is everything
in this. How could the two giant islands exist
at the same time? What intellectual terror prevents science from
the obvious conclusion that Rodinia and Pangea happened at the
same time on a smaller Earth, I cannot explain. This, in the
face of facts that the ocean floor in all oceans of the world
is the same progressive age and none of it,
none, is older than 180 million years old. Apparently it’s
easier to believe that continents travel around the planet than
it is to consider that the Earth grew.
to Pangea then: For no explainable reason, this Pangea island
broke in half, and one half rode to and over
the South Pole, and the other half rode to and over the North
Pole, over a period of about 60 million years. Once there inexplicably
they broke up again, and spread around the Earth and the poles,
and the pieces are currently riding toward each other, north
to south to eventually crash back together in
the middle. No…not east to west. Simply north to south.
it’s Rodinia, Pangea, Godswana, and Laurasia. Then Asia,
Africa, North America, South America, Australia, Europe and Antarctica.
And now back to crash together. I say this is ludicrous and scientifically
(I) say this: These conclusions defy reason and common sense.
Scientifically they have no basis in fact, only theory that gets
stronger every year! Granitic rock and basalt is, on average,
three times heavier than water. Let’s
suppose Pangea is on one side of the Earth as the Pangeaists
say. Let’s add that if today we can say the land masses
rise on average, half mile above sea level, that equals a mile
and a half of water, then the pangea side of Earth is
four and one half times heavier than the water
shift results in a natural shift of the center of gravity to
the Pangea side. Not much for the whole Earth, but quite enough
to sink most of Pangea into the sea. It’s also enough to
raise the middle of the Pacific out into the air.
addition, at this configuration, the continents could not move.
Pangea is in a hole … as it were …
gravity wise. Everything else is up hill!
is not quantum physics here, it’s simple. You learn this
kind of math in grade school. This is undeniable and clear. Pangea
could not have existed as described.
Pangeaists insist that the concept of subduction disproves a
growing Earth because … they say, the oceanic plate subducts,
or dives under the continental plate,… on a sort of conveyor
belt that carries crust down and under, to somehow join the plastic
material below. At a moment of discovery in 1964, Kiyoo Wadati
and Hugo Benioff discovered a chunk of Oceanic Plate angling
downward just east of the island of Tonga in the South Pacific
trench areas. With some relief they and others announced that
this “subduction” principle alone explained the apparent
disappearance of excess crustal material of Earth. This view
was enhanced and supported by the appearance and extent of the
under sea trenches around… what became known as the “Ring
of Fire.” A volcanic arch of island and trench areas around
the western pacific, but far from the continental plate.
world of science, and specifically geology, breathed a collective
sigh of relief that the growing Earth theory proposed by the
brilliant geologist, Professor Samuel Warren Carey, of Australia,
was not true and no longer would science have
to deal with the possibility of a growing Earth … and
its ramifications, and their … now 150 year old theory
of a constant size Earth was secure, along with the non-sensical
theory that Earth and the solar system coalesced 4.5 billion
years ago out of what they call “star stuff.” (Sigh)
secondary goal here is to rid ourselves of this old unrealistic
and simplistic and wrong theory of solar system assembly completely
and utterly. A theory that insults intelligence and the facts
of “real science,” and was born of ignorance and
desperation, long ago by intelligent, yet time ignorant men.
150 years is a very long time. And this theory has served its
purpose … time to fix it.
what, in fact, is subduction, and what is it not?
Continents do not subduct under other continents as originally
proposed! Geology has come to slowly agree with this.
know this for many reasons, the most important being that the
granitic rock of the continents cannot subduct, because it is
too light to do so.
sit on and in oceanic plates like cups welded
to growing, spreading plates.
continent is not capable of independent movement or
growing, their function is done. They may crack
apart if rifting dictates, but only the lower oceanic plates
gain new edges … and grow outward.
subduction and tectonic movement was originally proposed to be
fueled by the convection (roiling and boiling) of an ocean of
molten rock under the crust of the Earth, like a pot of boiling
water on a stove.
is now known, and has been discovered by seismic scanning, that
only 4% of the asthenosphere (under the crust) is molten and
most of that, if not all, is located under the rifts. Some is
under volcanic areas, to be sure, but they are the exception
that proves the rule.
concept of convection has been altered into near disuse because
of recent discovery.
convection requires the heat to be under the
bottom of the pot… little survives of the stubborn convection
concept. Super heated gases rise to the highest areas under the
crust and collect there.
creates a problem! If new material erupts from the rifts to the
new sea floor… where does this new material
come from? What space inside the Earth is being emptied out to
provide this new stuff? There’s no convection
conveyor belt to bring new material.
And quite telling… there is no evidence even that oceanic
plate subducts under the actual continental
plates at all!! Is this a surprise to you? None
has been seen. In fact, the concept is nearly impossible to actually
imagine based on facts. The continents, themselves, are plus
or minus 30 to 40 miles thick! The oceanic plates are only 4
to 5 miles thick. The continents are not only solid and 35 miles
thick, they become part of the increasingly dense asthenosphere
beneath making it solid into solid. In other words, a total
barrier to subducting plates. Not exactly what you have
been led to believe is it?
may think that what I’m saying contradicts the observed
truth itself, that the Ring of Fire, and the
trenches you have heard about are up against the continents.
They are not! They are, in fact, on average,
hundreds of miles from continents, (see for yourself! Hardly
like the drawings they show in books is it?) Subduction zones
and trenches generally line the edges of newly created volcanic
islands. In fact, this is exactly what we see … trenches
pushing down along side volcanic islands that are pushing
upwards! The continents play no part
in this process. The continents are too thick and old
us consider… away from the continents we find volcanic
island chains pushing upward out of the oceans,
and right next to these volcanic islands… we find trenches,
which indicate subduction or pushing down. Sort
of makes sense, doesn’t it?
geologists say these two phenomenon’s are directly
related. Sure they are!!!
this folding… under pressure?
we say the Earth is growing and we point to uneven
growth from rifting and spreading,… it is reasonable to
assume great pressures from this growth are being applied, and
not evenly, and regularly, everywhere.
along some edges compression and folding are reasonable and logical,
especially where there’s little or no rifting.
On the upper surface of the continental plates
compression results in folding and mountaining. In fact, compared
to mountaining subduction and volcanic islands are new
and only just beginning.
instead of a conveyor belt we have, simply some compression and
look at the Western Pacific … Here along the west side
is the Ring of Fire way out into the ocean. Next is a chain of
volcanic islands. These, like Hawaii, are pushed up high as if
compressed and folded, because the ocean bottom pushes against
them. As proof we have these trenches, evidence on new
is a vast expanse on our moon, we call it Valles Ibrium. This,
like the western pacific, is receiving outward pressure and holding
pressure from nearby spreads. Can you see how the crater’s
edges are dealing with the pressure by collapsing and folding?
is similar to the Ring of Fire folding edges.
you hold that in your mind let’s look at another phenomenon.
Geology tells you that mountains are created by continents bumping
and crashing into each other. A preposterous idea.
fact is most, if not all, the mountains on Earth were created
since 200 million years ago, and most of them are 60
million years old and younger.
Rockies are under 60 million.
Andes are under 60 million.
the massive Himalayas are under 60 million years old. During
all the ages of dinosaurs there were
literally no mountains. Please let that sink in.
They told you different? There is folded land and theories, but
no true mountains, after all.
that thought … carefully now, Pangea stayed whole
for 300 million years and then only broke apart … yes
… where is the bumping and crashing that made the mountains
if it stayed whole??? Serious question here. One island …
How did we get mountains with no crashing?
is how the mountains are really made and why they are so young.
Earth is growing
the skin of the growing Earth is stretched as the Earth grows
a hair breadth per year, the cool dry crust will stretch …
crack and repair, and in time gently slide apart un-dramatically.
Cracks will appear and slide apart, and water will settle in
these shallow spread areas. But three things happen.
One, with added growth the heat of this growth increases under
Two, the crust thickens.
Three, the growth of the Earth increases exponentially.
me remind you that a growing sphere changes it’s geometry.
It’s surface re-curves to a flatter surface.
that surface stretches like a balloon to the bigger size, this
re-curving is made up by stretching.
But, if any
section holds its shape and the edges crack and rift down to
a deeper level…a plastic lower level that can continue
to stretch, then the upper piece is broken free … sitting
on the surface … like a continent, now broken free,
it no longer stretches, to flatten out.
separate surface continental plate sits un-stretched on a sphere
that is continuing to get bigger and to re-curve flatter.
curvature of that continent is no longer the same as the sphere
… so it must somehow flatten out. Re-curve.
remember, as crust it has now thickened to 20
-30 miles thick. 200 million years ago it was only 4 –
5 miles thick, now it’s 20 miles thick.
it re-curves the edges crack and split (into bays and inlets
and under sea “V’s” forms
and the upper surface of the main body wrinkles and folds …
is how we get nearly all our mountains.
Andes are a unique case. South America lies east of the most
profound and rapidly growing rift area on Earth. The pressure
of this growing rift against South America prevents
South America from flattening out easily. This pressure drives
a trench along South America’s coast as a barrier to westward
movement, so like on the moon. Remember? …The…edge
of South America folds more profoundly like waves against a barrier
it cannot pass! No other place on Earth is quite like this.
let us look at the western pacific.
western Pacific has no rifting to speak of. Yet rifting is all
over the rest of the planet spreading and holding the western
pacific in a circular vice.
world rifts and grows all around the un-growing Pacific creating
vice-like pressure. All areas push in multiplying pressure. Now
the Earth re-curves. The oceanic plate, in the western pacific,
is pushed on around the edges and also down
by the re-curve. Down, right?!!.
islands rise up…next outward, pushes downward …
not near the super thick continents, but outward in the ocean
creating a ring of pressure, a ring of fire.
folding has only happened … like mountaining, in the last
30 – 60 million years.
phenomenon … yes.
A conveyor belt … nonsense!
We are not floating on a sea of magma. Certain
areas are folding up and down, under the pressure of Earth’s
growth. That’s all. We have examined descending slabs seismically.
There are some slabs, but not the whole ocean floor descending
for hundreds of millions of years. In the last 200 million years
are there enough slabs to account for 2/3rds of the old ocean
from all directions? Of course not! It’s nonsense, we’d
see it clear as a bell if it happened. The Antarctic Ocean completely
surrounds Antarctica. It’s as big as the Atlantic Ocean,
according to how you measure it … and it encircles Antarctica.
It has no subduction to eat up its ocean floor … which
is only about 60 million years old. No subduction!!
How then can it grow? It grows because the Earth grows!
are told by geology that the southern continents are traveling
upward to join the descending northern continents.
this to be so, the oceanic plates must be subducting in the middle
some where. Search with me to find a subducting
trench or any sign that the two sides are moving towards each
that can’t be true. The whole Pangea concept rests on this
examine this more closely. The northern and southern continents,
that they named Gondwana and Laurasia, pulled and went over the
poles and separated 1000 to 2000 miles apart.
Listen carefully, please. The northern continent split in two.
The southern continent broke into 4 continents.
is not possible for North America to join with South America
exactly at Panama. T’s a needle in a haystack.
Africa could not, could not join Eurasia at
exactly the same place that it split away. There is no way to
justify this. There are no odds that make this possible.
The first proof. How South America fits perfectly into Africa.
Easy enough to recognize . They said that a child could see it.
But here’s the thing.
It’s not true.
you settle South America to Africa, in the north there is a 25
degree split between the two. They do not fit!
If you try to fit downward coasts, there is a 25 degree split
at the top.
is only one way these two continents will fit together properly.
you make a globe 50% smaller … and re-curve these two
continents on to that globe…
fact geologists will tell you that South America’s tail
wrapped under Africa. The story of this fact
is recorded in the under sea geology for anyone to see. Both
Antarctica and South America have tails that pulled apart from
watch what happens when we put these on a smaller globe.
we’ll go to India.
tell you in books, and on television, that India was once attached
to Africa. That for some reason, and at a mysterious time, India
tore off of Africa … it rode up the Indian Ocean, and
slowly, inexorably crashed into Asia. It proceeded to push so
hard against Eurasia they say that it up the Himalayas …
the greatest mountain range on Earth.
This little peninsula … India … crush Eurasia?
get the rules straight: Continents don’t move. Only the
Oceanic Plate that they sit in, moves!
order for India, the upper plate, to crash into Eurasia…
India’s oceanic plate would have to subduct under Eurasia.
we have established… that oceanic plate cannot subduct
under a continental plate… because a
continental plate is well over 30 miles thick. This halts the
process. It can’t happen!
imagine there’s no leading plate edge on the Indian northern
edge … which … would be impossible. But let’s
forget this impossibility. Say we can shove India up against
Eurasia, it would then stop or become part of Eurasia, like Europe.
Why would it crumple up mountains? Even worse, these mountains
were made only 30,40,50 million years ago. When did India “crash”
into Eurasia, while the southern continents were a further 2000
miles to the south? That’s where the southern continents
were 50 million years ago. Or while 4 continents were at the
South Pole did India independently voyage north for 2500 miles?
All by itself?
let’s say India fused together with Eurasia. How does one
peninsula push into a continent and why? Once it stops that peninsula
has stopped. It has to overcome inertia in order to do anything.
If it’s truly against Eurasia … it would have to
back up and crash into Eurasia over and over again to overcome
inertia … that’s how physics works.
of physics … physics say every action has an equal and
opposite re-action, well we have established it’s the oceanic
plate that moves. The continental India is the
body of the thing. Think of it like a Volkswagen Beatle crashing
into a truck. No matter how that truck crumples … it’s
nothing compared to how crushed the Volkswagen would be.
same thing is true of India. India would be one vast mountain
range … it’s not.
worse…the Eurasian mountains are far too gigantic and
extensive to be crumpled by puny India.
closer. Examine the north of India. This is an impacting body.
Yet, the top of it is extensive flatland. So flat, in fact, that
it looks almost stretched out. How can this be an impacting body?
how do I explain all this with a growing Earth, and how can my
conclusion explain all the clues, and far, far better than this?
earth grew India was a part of both Africa and
Asia. The geometry of a smaller Earth makes this very simple.
India broke away from Africa … but stayed attached Eurasia.
As Africa pulled further away the distance simply increased.
That’s it. Explains everything.
mountains in Asia?
discussed how mountains are made. The thick continental plates
must re-curve to a growing planet. The greatest mountain range
on Earth should be … from compression folding …
at the center of the biggest continent on Earth. That would be
… the Himalayans.
important to understand how desperate the scientific and geologic
community is to avoid the logical conclusion that the Earth
the Earth, 200 million years ago, had no deep oceans, and all
the continents were seamlessly together as one land that covered
a smaller planet, then any variation of this story that’s
not true, will have to be explained, and re-explained as contradictions
must, and did, show up one after the other.
exactly what has happened!
has had to admit all the continents were together, because of
tectonic matching in the Atlantic, and animals and plants matching
on either side of the ocean. But it seemed no one asked about
how the Pacific could have bee so vast. This was incredibly ignored.
the question rose of how Antarctica could have ridden to the
South Pole … especially when the other southern continents
were wrapped around it with Antarctica in the center.
Then, of course, there was the North Pole.
geology made up another part of the story in which Pangea not
only broke up … but now Pangea broke in half and the two
halves rode to and over the poles.
then how to explain how the continents are more together than
new chapter … included continents moving back toward the
equator and each other … to one day crash
together. Shockingly now … no one objected and pointed
out the near unreal contradictions.
the worst possible thing happened, tectonic matching in the Pacific
showed undeniable coincidences of tectonics .. at one time the
Pacific was closed. So back to the drawing board
… the continents must have been joined
in the Pacific as well. Some explanation was needed fast!
course they couldn’t even suggest, in any way,
that this new massive island they named Rodinia, was assembled
at the same time as Pangea! So … they
assigned a time to it that would never be suspected to conflict
with Pangea. They said it was formed 11 to 12 hundred million
years ago, and it broke up 9, or 8, or 7 hundred million years
they have proof of these dates?
one tenth of proof. If I said this Rodinia had exactly the same
timings as Pangea … there is no proof … what-so-ever
that this isn’t true!
irresponsible … are Rodinia’s dates?
irresponsible…there is, in fact, no beginning
point for either Rodinia or Pangea.
we let that sink in? No provable beginning point!
When they say these islands formed at such and such time, it’s
fabrication based on no proof what-so-ever. It’s a lie!
is only one proof of age that’s verifiable, and that’s
the work that led to the Rainbow Map… And on the Rainbow
Map there is no square yard of the deep ocean that is older than
one hundred and eighty million years … Atlantic or Pacific.
So Rodinia began breaking up 180 million years ago, just as Pangea
did. No difference, and there is no evidence of deep ocean anywhere
in the world!