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Chronology

The Thain's Book
An encyclopedia of Middle-earth and Numenor

People of Gondor


Kings of Gondor
Stewards of Gondor
Other People of Gondor


Kings of Gondor


Elendil

See the full-page entry for Elendil.


Anárion

Decipher card of Anarion
AnarionSecond King of Gondor through whom the line of Kings descended. Anarion was born in Numenor in 3219 of the Second Age. He was the son of Elendil and he had an older brother Isildur. Anarion had four children. The three eldest were most likely daughters, and the fourth was a son named Meneldil who was the last man born in Numenor in 3318.

Anarion and his family were among the Faithful who rejected the efforts of Sauron to corrupt the Men of Numenor. Sauron convinced Ar-Pharazon, King of Numenor, to wage war against the Valar in a misguided attempt to attain immortality. When Ar-Pharazon's fleet set out for the Undying Lands in 3319, the Faithful remained in Numenor. The fleet was destroyed and Numenor sank beneath the Sea, but the Faithful had prepared their own ships and were able to escape to Middle-earth.

Anarion had two ships of his own, Isildur had three, and Elendil had four. Elendil's ships landed in northern Middle-earth and Anarion and Isildur sailed to south to the Bay of Belfalas and up the Anduin. In 3320, the North-kingdom of Arnor and the South-kingdom of Gondor were founded. Elendil was the High King and lived in Arnor, while Isildur and Anarion jointly ruled Gondor in the south.

The capital of Gondor was Osgiliath on the Anduin. Isildur and Anarion each had a throne there in the Great Hall. Anarion built the stronghold of Minas Anor in the region of Anorien on the west side of the Anduin. He kept the palantir called the Anor-stone there.

Unknown to Isildur and Anarion, Sauron had returned to Mordor. In 3429, Sauron attacked Gondor and captured Isildur's stronghold Minas Ithil. Isildur went north to Arnor to consult with Elendil. Anarion remained behind to defend Gondor. He was able to hold Osgiliath and drive Sauron's forces back to Mordor for the time being, but he feared he would not be able to withstand another assault.

Elendil formed the Last Alliance with Gil-galad of the Elves. They came south in 3434 and joined with Anarion's forces and fought the War of the Last Alliance against Sauron. The Last Alliance defeated Sauron's forces in the Battle of Dagorlad and entered Mordor. They besieged Sauron in Barad-dur for seven years. Sauron attacked the siege army from above with fire and projectiles.

In 3440, Anarion was killed by a stone cast from the Dark Tower that crushed his helmet. The Siege of Barad-dur ended the next year in 3441 when Sauron came down and fought Elendil and Gil-galad, who were both killed. Sauron also fell and Isildur took the One Ring from him, which allowed Sauron's spirit to survive.

Isildur intended to be High King of both Gondor and Arnor and to live in the North-kingdom while Anarion's son Meneldil directly ruled Gondor. But Isildur was killed by Orcs in the Gladden Fields in the year 2 of the Third Age. Isildur's only surviving son Valandil was still a child, and when he came of age he took up the kingship of Arnor but did not claim the High Kingship.

Meneldil therefore remained the sole ruler and Anarion's descendants continued to rule Gondor until the line of Kings ended with Earnur in 2050. At the end of the Third Age, the kingship was resumed by Aragorn who was a direct descendant of Isildur but was also a descendant of Anarion through Firiel, daughter of King Ondoher of Gondor, who married Arvedui of the North-kingdom.

Names & Etymology:
The name Anárion means "Sun son" in Quenya from Anar meaning "the Sun" and the masculine ending -ion denoting "son of."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
The Silmarillion: "Akallabeth," p. 272, 279-80; "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age," p. 290-97
The Fellowship of the Ring: "The Council of Elrond," p. 256-58; "The Great River," p. 409
The Two Towers: "The Window on the West," p. 278, 286
The Return of the King: "The Pyre of Denethor," p. 130
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Numenorean Kings," p. 317; "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 323 note 1; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 324, 329-30; "The Stewards," p. 336-37
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 365
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for NAR and YON
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 191-92, 195, 197
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 271, 279 note 10


Isildur

See the full-page entry for Isildur.


Meneldil

Third King of Gondor. Meneldil was born in 3318 of the Second Age. He was the son of Anarion and the grandson of Elendil. He had three older siblings. It seems likely that they were all females. If any were males, they must have died before Meneldil became King.

Meneldil was the last man to be born in Numenor.* Numenor was destroyed in 3319, the year after his birth. Meneldil was brought to Middle-earth by his father Anarion and they lived in Minas Anor. Anarion and his brother Isildur jointly ruled Gondor, while their father Elendil was High King and lived in the North-kingdom of Arnor.

In 3434, the Men of Gondor and Arnor joined forces with the Elves to wage war against Sauron. Anarion was killed during the Siege of Barad-dur in 3440. Elendil was killed in 3441, but Sauron was defeated. Isildur took the One Ring and Sauron's spirit went into hiding in the East.

Isildur intended to be High King of both Gondor and Arnor and live in the North like Elendil had. He committed the direct rule of Gondor to Meneldil. Isildur remained in Gondor for about two years to order the realm and instruct Meneldil. Together they journeyed through all the lands of Gondor. They buried the remains of Elendil on Halifirien and Isildur advised Meneldil that he and his heirs should occasionally visit the hallowed place.

Isildur set out for Arnor on September 5 of the year 2 of the Third Age. Meneldil was courteous and bid Isildur farewell, but he was glad to see him go and he hoped that Isildur would not interfere too much in the rule of Gondor.

Isildur and his three eldest sons were killed by Orcs during his journey home. Isildur's youngest son Valandil was still a child. When Valandil came of age in the year 10, he assumed the Kingship of Arnor but did not claim to be High King of Gondor and Arnor. Meneldil was therefore left on his own to rule Gondor and the Crown passed to his descendants.

Meneldil died in 158 and was succeeded by his son Cemendur.

*Note: In an earlier draft of the chronology, Meneldil's birth date was given as 3299 while Isildur's eldest son was said to be the last man born in Numenor in 3318 (HoME XII, p. 208). But in a later draft it is Meneldil who was the last born in Numenor in 3318 (HoME XII, p. 191, 197).

Names & Etymology:
The name Meneldil means "heaven friend" or "astronomer" in Quenya from menel meaning "heaven" and the ending ndil meaning "friend, devoted to."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "The Council of Elrond," p. 265
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329-30
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 271, 279 note 10; "Cirion and Eorl," p. 308
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 191, 197, 208, 212
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for menel and ndil
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297 (meaning of Meneldil)


Cemendur

Fourth King of Gondor. Cemendur was born in 3399 of the Second Age. He was the son of King Meneldil. Cemendur became King after his father's death in 158 of the Third Age. Cemendur died in 238 and was succeeded by his son Earendil.

Names & Etymology:
The name Cemendur means "Earth servant" from kemen or cemen meaning "earth" and the ending ndur meaning "to serve." Also spelled Kemendur, as it is pronounced.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for kemen and -(n)dur
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297 (-ndur)


Eärendil

Fifth King of Gondor. Earendil was born in the year 48 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Cemendur. Earendil became King after his father's death in 238. He ruled until his death in 324 and was succeeded by his son Anardil.

Names & Etymology:
The name Eärendil means "lover of the Sea" in Quenya. The word eär means "the Sea" and the ending ndil means "devotion." Eärendil was the name of a famous mariner in the First Age.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297


Anardil

Sixth King of Gondor. Anardil was born in 136 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Earendil. Anardil succeeded his father as King in 324 and ruled until his death in 411. He was followed by his son Ostoher.

Names & Etymology:
The name Anardil means "Sun friend" in Quenya from Anar meaning "the Sun" and the ending -dil meaning "devotion."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for nar and (n)dil


Ostoher

Seventh King of Gondor. Ostoher was born in the year 222 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Anardil. Ostoher became King in 411. From 420 to 430, he rebuilt and enlarged Minas Anor and it became customary for the Kings to live there during the summer instead of in the capital of Osgiliath.

In 490, Gondor was attacked for the first time by the Easterlings. Ostoher died two years later in 492 at the age of 270 and was succeeded by his son Tarostar, who defeated the Easterlings in 500 and took the name Romendacil I.

Names & Etymology:
The name Ostoher is composed of the Quenya words osto meaning "fortress" and her from heru meaning "lord." This may be a reference to the rebuilding of Minas Anor during Ostoher's reign.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 324
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197; "The Tale of Years of the Third Age," p. 228
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for os(t) and heru


Rómendacil I

Eighth King of Gondor. Romendacil I's birth name was Tarostar. He was born in 310 of the Third Age. His father was King Ostoher.

In 490, Gondor was attacked by hostile Men from the East known as Easterlings. Tarostar led the defense of Gondor in place of his elderly father. Ostoher died two years later in 492 and Tarostar succeeded him as King. In 500, Tarostar defeated the Easterlings and drove them out of Gondor. He took the name Romendacil meaning "East-victor."

Romendacil I was the first King to appoint a Steward. One of the duties of the Steward was to remain in Gondor while the King went to war. Romendacil I also began the tradition of leaving written instructions to be used by the King's heir in case of the King's untimely death.

In 541, the Easterlings attacked again and Romendacil I was killed in battle. He was succeeded by his son Turambar, who avenged his father and won territory for Gondor in the East.

Names & Etymology:
The first element in the name Tarostar is tar meaning "high, noble" in Quenya. The second element ostar is unclear. In early works, the word Ostor meant "the East" - which could be a reference to his future victory over the Easterlings - but the word for "East" was changed to Rómen in later works. It seems more likely that ostar is from the root ost meaning "fortress" as in the name of his father Ostoher. In one source (BoLT 2, p. 336) the word ostar is said to mean "township."

The name Rómendacil means "East-victor" from Rómen meaning "East" and dacil from nacil meaning "victor." Also spelled Rómendakil as it is pronounced. He was the first King of that name.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 324
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 308-9, 319 note 53
The History of Middle-earth, vol. I, The Book of Lost Tales Part One: "Appendix - Names in The Lost Tales Part One," p. 264
The History of Middle-earth, vol. II, The Book of Lost Tales Part Two: "Appendix - Names in The Lost Tales Part Two," p. 336
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for romen
Quenya Affixes


Turambar

Ninth King of Gondor. Turambar was born in 397 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Romendacil I. Romendacil I was killed in battle with the Easterlings in 541. Turambar succeeded his father as King and avenged him by conquering territory in the East. He died in 667 and was followed by his son Atanatar I.

Names & Etymology:
The name Turambar means "master of doom" in Quenya from tur meaning "power, mastery" and ambar meaning "doom." Turin Turambar was the name of a legendary figure in the First Age.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 324
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for amarth and tur


Atanatar I

Tenth King of Gondor. Atanatar I was born in 480 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Turambar. In 541, Gondor was attacked by Easterlings and Atanatar's grandfather King Romendacil I was killed in battle. Atanatar's father Turambar defeated the Easterlings and gained territory for Gondor in the East. Atanatar I succeeded his father as king in 667. He ruled until his death in 748 and was followed by his son Siriondil.

Names & Etymology:
The name Atanatar means "father of Men" in Quenya from Atani meaning "Men" and atar meaning "father." He was the first King of that name.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197
The Silmarillion: Index, entries for Atanatari, Atani; "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for atar
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Siriondil

Eleventh King of Gondor. Siriondil was born in 570 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Atanatar I. Siriondil had at least two sons. The elder was Tarannon and the younger was Tarciryan.

Siriondil succeeded his father as King in 748. During Siriondil's reign, his son Tarannon expanded Gondor's territory westward and southward along the coasts. Siriondil died in 830. Tarannon became King but had no children of his own and was followed by Tarciryan's son Earnil I.

Names & Etymology:
The name Siriondil might mean "friend of the Great River." The ending ndil means "friend, devotion." The Sirion was a river in Beleriand. Its name meant "great river" in Sindarin. The names of the Kings of Gondor were in Quenya, but the root sir meaning "flow" is also found in Quenya. Siriondil's name could be an allusion to the Anduin which also means "great river."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318
The Silmarillion: Index, entry for Sirion; "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarion Names," entry for sir
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for SIR
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197


Tarannon Falastur

Twelfth King of Gondor. Tarannon was born in 654 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Siriondil and he had a brother Tarciryan. Before he became King, Tarannon served as Captain of the Hosts. Tarannon won many victories and he expanded Gondor's territory westward and southward along the coasts of the Bay of Belfalas.

When Tarannon became King in 830, he took the name Falastur meaning "Lord of the Coasts." He was the first of the four Ship-kings who increased Gondor's fleets and sea power. Tarannon Falastur lived near the Sea south of Pelargir in a house that stood on arches in the waters of the Anduin.

Tarannon Falastur married a woman named Beruthiel who may have been of Black Numenorean descent. The ancestors of the Black Numenoreans were Men of Numenor who were corrupted by Sauron and turned to evil. They lived along the southern coasts in Harad and particularly around Umbar, which was not under the control of Gondor at that time.

It was highly unusual for one of the Kings of Gondor - who were descendants of the Faithful of Numenor - to marry a Black Numenorean. How this came about is not known. Beruthiel may have deceived Tarannon Falastur about her identity. Or perhaps the marriage may have been an attempt at an alliance or reconciliation with the inhabitants of the southern coasts. If so, it was unsuccessful.

Tarannon Falastur and Beruthiel were unhappy together. Beruthiel hated the Sea, and she left her husband's house on the water and went to live alone in the King's House in Osgiliath. There she reverted to the evil ways of her people and she began to spy on the people of Gondor with the help of her cats. Eventually Tarannon Falastur banished her from Gondor and set her and her cats adrift on a ship sailing southward past Umbar.

Tarannon Falastur had no children. He was the first King of Gondor to have no direct successor. This was later seen as an early warning sign of the eventual decay of the bloodline of Gondor. When Tarannon died in 913, he was succeeded by his brother Tarciryan's son, Earnil I.

Names & Etymology:
The name Tarannon may mean "King's gift" in Quenya. The element tar means "high, noble" and was used as a prefix to the names of the Kings of Numenor. The element annon may be a form of the word anna meaning "gift."

The name Falastur means "Lord of the Coasts" from falassë meaning "coast" and tur meaning "power, mastery."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; 'Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 324-25
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197
Unfinished Tales: "The Istari," p. 401-402 note 7
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for anna, falas, tar, tur
"The Realms of Tolkien" by Daphne Castell in New Worlds, November, 1966, p. 147-148. Online text at Fantastic Metropolis. (Interview with Tolkien mentioning Queen Beruthiel as a Black Numenorean.)
A Journey in the Dark: Reflections on the Identity of Queen Beruthiel by Chris Seeman


Eärnil I

Thirteenth King of Gondor. Earnil I was born in 736 of the Third Age. He was the son of Tarciryan, the second son of King Siriondil of Gondor. Siriondil's older son and heir Tarannon Falastur had no children, so when he died in 913 his nephew Earnil succeeded him as King.

Earnil I was the second of the four Ship-kings. He built a great navy for Gondor and he repaired the havens at Pelargir. In 933, Earnil I led a force by land and Sea to besiege the Havens of Umbar on the coast of Harad. Many inhabitants of Umbar were descended from the Black Numenoreans who had been corrupted by Sauron. They hated the people of Gondor, who were the descendants of the Faithful of Numenor.

Gondor's forces captured Umbar but many lives were lost in the battle. Earnil I fortified Umbar and it became an important port for Gondor.

Just three years later in 936, Earnil I perished at Sea along with the crews of many ships when they were caught in a storm off the coast of Umbar. Earnil I was succeeded by his son Ciryandil.

Names & Etymology:
The name Eärnil is a contraction of Eärendil, meaning "lover of the Sea." The word eär means "the Sea" and the ending ndil means "devotion." Earnil I was the first King of Gondor of that name.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 325
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Ciryandil

Fourteenth King of Gondor. Ciryandil was born in 820 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Earnil I who was lost at Sea in 936. As King, Ciryandil continued building up the great navy begun by his father. He was the third of the four Ship-kings.

In 1015, the Men of Harad attacked Gondor's stronghold at Umbar, which had been taken from the Haradrim during the reign of Earnil I. Ciryandil was killed in battle and Umbar was besieged. His son Ciryaher eventually defeated the Haradrim and took the name Hyarmendacil I.

Names & Etymology:
The name Ciryandil means "ship friend" in Quenya from cirya meaning "ship" and the ending ndil meaning "devotion." Also spelled Kiryandil as it is pronounced.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 325
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for kir and ndil


Hyarmendacil I

Fifteenth King of Gondor. Hyarmendacil I was born in 899 of the Third Age. His name at birth was Ciryaher. He was the son of King Ciryandil.

In 1015, Ciryandil was killed in battle with the Men of Harad, who wanted to recapture the Havens of Umbar from Gondor. The Haradrim then besieged Umbar for 35 years. Ciryaher waited and gathered his strength and then in 1050 he attacked the siege army of the Haradrim by sea and by land. The Haradrim were defeated and their kings were forced to acknowledge the overlordship of Gondor and to send their sons there as hostages.

Ciryaher took the name Hyarmendacil, meaning "South-victor." In the south, Gondor's territory extended to the River Harnen and along the coast to Umbar. Gondor's borders also stretched east to the Sea of Rhun, west beyond the Misty Mountains to the Greyflood, and north to the Field of Celebrant and the edge of Mirkwood.

Gondor was at the height of its power during the reign of Hyarmendacil I. He was the fourth and last of the Ship-kings and he maintained a great fleet and made Umbar an important port of Gondor. Mordor was closely guarded from the forts maintained on its borders. Gondor's enemies were subdued and the land was at peace.

Hyarmendacil I ruled for 134 years, which was the second-longest reign of any King. (Tarondor had the longest reign.) Hyarmendacil I died in 1149 and was succeeded by his son Atanatar II.

Names & Etymology:
His birth name Ciryaher means "Ship lord" in Quenya from cirya meaning "ship" and heru meaning "lord." Hyarmendacil means "South-victor" from hyarmen meaning "south" and dacil from nacil meaning "victor." He was the first King of that name.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 325
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for heru, hyarmen and kir
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197-98, 210; "The Making of Appendix A," p. 260
Quenya Affixes


Atanatar II Alcarin

Sixteenth King of Gondor. Atanatar II was born in 977 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Hyarmendacil I. During his father's reign, Gondor reached the height of its power and covered its largest territory. When Atanatar II came to the throne in 1149, Gondor extended north to the Field of Celebrant and the edge of Mirkwood, east to the Sea of Rhun, south to the River Harnen and along the coast to Umbar, and west beyond the Misty Mountains to the Greyflood.

But Atanatar II did nothing to add to his father's achievements. He was content to enjoy the wealth of his great realm without working to maintain it. He lived a life of leisure and was called Alcarin, "the Glorious," not because of his deeds but for his luxurious lifestyle. He replaced the helm of Isildur, which had been used as the Crown of Gondor, with a Crown of silver and jewels. Gondor began to decline during his reign, and its defenses and vigilance weakened.

Gandalf the Grey may have visited Gondor for the first time during the reign of Atanatar II.

Atanatar II had two sons, Narmacil and Calmacil. Narmacil's son Minalcar took an active role in the councils during Atanatar's reign. When Atanatar II died in 1226 he was succeeded by Narmacil, but Narmacil had no children of his own and was later succeeded by Calmacil. Both of them turned over the duties of Kingship to Minalcar (known as Romendacil) who served as their Regent.

Names & Etymology:
The name Atanatar means "father of Men" in Quenya from Atani meaning "Men" and atar meaning "father." He was the second King of that name.

The word Alcarin means "glorious" from alcar meaning "glory, brilliance, splendor."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 323 note 1; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 325
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 198; "The Making of Appendix A," p. 260
Unfinished Tales: "The Istari," p. 400
The Silmarillion: Index, entries for Atanatari, Atani; "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for aglar and atar
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Narmacil I

Seventeenth King of Gondor. Narmacil I was born in 1049 of the Third Age. He was the oldest son of King Atanatar II. He had a younger brother named Calmacil.

Narmacil I became King after his father's death in 1226. Like his father, Narmacil I preferred a life of leisure and had no interest in governing the realm. In 1240, he appointed his nephew Minalcar, son of Calmacil, as Regent. Narmacil remained King in name only while Minalcar took over all his duties.

Gondor was troubled by Easterlings from beyond the Sea of Rhun. In 1248, the Regent Minalcar defeated them and took the name Romendacil, or "East-victor." Romendacil withdrew Gondor's northern border east of the Anduin to the Emyn Muil and built forts along the western side of Anduin. Romendacil also strengthened relations with the Northmen who lived along the frontier with Rhun.

Narmacil I had no children. When he died in 1294 his younger brother Calmacil became King though Romendacil continued to rule as Regent.

Names & Etymology:
The name Narmacil is composed of nar meaning "fire" and macil meaning "sword." Also spelled Narmakil as it is pronounced. He was the first King of Gondor of that name.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 325-26
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for MAK and NAR
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 198


Calmacil

Eighteenth King of Gondor. Calmacil was born in 1058 of the Third Age. He was the second son of King Atanatar II. He had an older brother Narmacil. Narmacil and Calmacil both took after their father and were more concerned with their own comfort than in working for the benefit of Gondor.

Calmacil had two sons named Minalcar and Calimehtar. The elder son Minalcar was a man of great vigor who acted as Regent when his uncle, King Narmacil I, decided to relinquish all his duties. After Narmacil's death in 1294, Calmacil officially became King, but he too ruled in name only and left the work of governance to his son.

Calmacil died in 1304 and Minalcar was crowned King under the name Romendacil II. Calmacil's younger son Calimehtar was the grandfather of Castamir who usurped the throne of Gondor during the reign of Eldacar in 1437.

Names & Etymology:
The name Calmacil is composed of cal meaning "shine" and macil meaning "sword." Also spelled Kalmakil as it is pronounced.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 325-26
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for KAL and MAK
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 198-9; "The Making of Appendix A," p. 259-60


Rómendacil II

Nineteenth King of Gondor. Romendacil II was originally named Minalcar. He was born in 1126 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Calmacil and he had a younger brother Calimehtar.

Minalcar's grandfather Atanatar II, his uncle Narmacil I, and his father Calmacil all neglected their duty to Gondor in favor of their own comfort. Minalcar, however, took after his great-grandfather Hyarmendacil I. Minalcar was strong and vigorous and he took great interest in Gondor's affairs. He was an active and valued participant in councils during the reign of Atanatar II.

After Narmacil I succeeded Atanatar II, Minalacar took on an even more active role. Narmacil I wanted to be relieved of the duties of Kingship, so he appointed Minalcar as his Regent in 1240. His official title was Karma-kundo meaning "Helm-guardian." Minalcar had complete control of the military and the defense of Gondor, and he had full authority to act in the name of the King in all other matters.

Easterlings from Rhun began to attack Gondor. Minalcar was troubled by the fact that some of the Northmen who lived on the frontier with Rhun sided with the Easterlings. The Northmen were allies of Gondor and Minalcar realized that their continued friendship was an important factor in the defense of Gondor's eastern border.

In part to prevent the defection of the Northmen, Minalcar launched an attack on the Easterlings in 1248. He defeated a great army of Easterlings and destroyed their settlements. Minalcar then took the name Romendacil, meaning "East-victor," as his ancestor Tarostar had done.

Romendacil fortified the western bank of the Anduin between the Emyn Muil and the Limlight, and he erected the Argonath as a marker south of which strangers were not permitted to pass uninvited. He also strengthened relations with the Northmen. Many Northmen entered his service and some gained high ranks in Gondor's army. This move was resented by some of the people of Gondor.

In 1250, Romendacil sent his son Valacar as an ambassador to the court of the most powerful Northern leader, King Vidugavia of Rhovanion. Valacar fell in love with Vidugavia's daughter Vidumavi. Romendacil gave them permission to marry to avoid jeopardizing relations with the Northmen, but he was concerned about the ramifications of this union and he summoned Valacar and his new family home to Gondor in 1260.

In 1294, King Narmacil I died. He had no children and was succeeded as King by his brother Calmacil, who was Romendacil's father. Calmacil did not want the responsibilities of Kingship either, so Romendacil continued as Regent until he was finally crowned King Romendacil II after Calmacil's death in 1304.

Vidumavi died in either 1332 or 1344. Her lifespan was short compared to the people of Gondor. Those who had opposed the marriage of the King's heir with one of the Northmen saw this as confirmation of their fears that the line of Kings would be weakened. Some dissidents believed that Valacar's son Eldacar should not become King because of his mixed blood. Romendacil was deeply troubled about what would happen after his death.

Romendacil II died 1366 and was succeeded by Valacar. Rebellion grew during Valacar's reign, and when Eldacar succeeded him in 1432, the civil war of the Kin-strife began. The rebels were led by Castamir, who was the grandson of Romendacil II's younger brother Calimehtar.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of the name Minalcar is uncertain. It could be composed of minya meaning "first" with the connotation "eminent, prominent" and alcar meaning "glory, brilliance, splendor." Also spelled Minalkar.

The name Rómendacil means "East-victor" from Rómen meaning "East" and dacil from nacil meaning "victor." Also spelled Rómendakil as it is pronounced. He was the second King of that name.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 325-27
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for MINI
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 198-9; "The Making of Appendix A," p. 259-61
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for aglar and romen
"The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor," by J.R.R. Tolkien, edited by Carl F. Hostetter, commentary by Christopher Tolkien, in Vinyar Tengwar #42, July 2001, p. 24
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist
Quenya Affixes


Valacar

Twentieth King of Gondor. Valacar was born in 1194 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Romendacil II.

In 1250, Valacar was appointed by his father to be Gondor's ambassador to the court of King Vidugavia of Rhovanion. Vidugavia was the most powerful leader of the Northmen. Romendacil II wanted to strengthen relations with the Northmen because they lived east of Mirkwood on the border of Rhun - the land of Gondor's enemies the Easterlings.

Valacar learned the language and culture of the Northmen and he came to love the land and its people. He also fell in love with Vidugavia's daughter Vidumavi. Romendacil reluctantly gave Valacar permission to marry Vidumavi because he did not want to offend the Northmen, but he was concerned about the effects this marriage might have.

Valacar and Vidumavi had a son in 1255. They named him Vinitharya in the language of the Northmen and Eldacar in the language of Gondor. They also had at least one more child. Valacar and his family returned to Gondor in 1260 at Romendacil's request and they brought a number of Northmen with them. Upon his return, Valacar became a council member and military leader in Gondor.

At first, Vidumavi and her children were welcomed in Gondor. She adapted well to her new homeland, but some people of Gondor disliked the fact that their future King had married a woman who was not of Numenorean descent. Their main concern was that the bloodline would be weakened and the lifespan of the Kings would decrease. When Vidumavi died in 1332 or 1344 at a relatively young age compared to the people of Gondor, dissent began to grow.

Valacar became King in 1366. He was a strong and vigorous leader, but by the end of his reign there was open rebellion in the southern provinces of Gondor by those who opposed his son Eldacar succeeding him as King. Valacar died in 1432 and the civil war of the Kin-strife began. Eldacar was deposed in 1437 but regained the throne in 1447.

Names & Etymology:
The name Valacar means "helm of the Valar." The Quenya word for helm or helmet is karma from kár meaning "head." Also spelled Valakar.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318-19; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 326-27
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for KAS
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 198-9; "The Making of Appendix A," p. 260-61


Eldacar

Twenty-first King of Gondor. Eldacar was born in 1255 of the Third Age. His father was Valacar, son of King Romendacil II. Eldacar's mother was Vidumavi, the daughter of King Vidugavia of Rhovanion, the most powerful leader of the Northmen. Eldacar was born in Rhovanion and he was originally named Vinitharya in the language of the Northmen. He was given the name Eldacar upon his family's return to Gondor in 1260. Eldacar had at least one sibling.

Eldacar and his mother were initially welcomed in Gondor. But there were those who did not want Eldacar to become King because of his mixed blood. They thought the Northmen were inferior, and they feared that the royal bloodline would be weakened and that the lifespans of the Kings would decrease. These dissidents believed their fears were confirmed when Vidumavi died in 1332 of 1344 at what was considered a relatively young age by the people of Gondor. (Her age is not given but she appears to have been at least 100 years old.)

Rebellion broke out in the southern provinces as Valacar's reign drew to an end. When Valacar died in 1432, the civil war of the Kin-strife began. The rebels opposed Eldacar's accession to the throne, saying: "Vinitharya is his right name. Let him go back to the land where he belongs!" (HoME XII, p. 261)

Eldacar was strong and valiant and he had inherited a fearless spirit from the Northmen. He resisted the rebels for many years. His supporters included Northmen as well as Men of Gondor, especially those from the northern provinces. In 1437 they were besieged in Osgiliath. After a long struggle, Eldacar's forces were overcome by starvation and the superior manpower of the rebels. Eldacar and some of his followers fled to Rhovanion.

The rebel leader Castamir usurped the throne of Gondor. He was the grandson of Romendacil II's younger brother Calimehtar. Castamir captured Eldacar's oldest son Ornendil and had him killed. On Castamir's orders, many other people were slain and Osgiliath was burned. Castamir's cruelty made him unpopular with the people in the regions near Osgiliath, and many were prepared to turn against him.

Eldacar remained in Rhovanion for ten years. In 1447, he judged that the time was right for him to reclaim his throne. He brought a great army from Rhovanion which was joined by forces from Ithilien, Anorien, and Calenardhon. They fought Castamir's forces in the Battle of the Crossings of Erui in which many lives were lost. Eldacar killed Castamir and became King once more.

Some of the rebels led by Castamir's sons escaped to Pelargir where they were besieged until 1448. The rebels then escaped by ship to the Havens of Umbar and they and their descendants became the Corsairs.

After the war, a number of Northmen settled in Gondor at Eldacar's invitation. The population of Gondor had been diminished during the Kin-strife, and many of the survivors now intermarried with the newcomers.

Eldacar lived to the age of 235, unaffected by his mixed heritage. In time the lifespans of the people of Gondor did decrease, but this was mainly due to their separation from Numenor where the gift of long life had been a reward for the service of their ancestors in the war against Morgoth many millennia ago.

In addition to Ornendil - who died during the Kin-strife - Eldacar also had a son named Aldamir and a daughter. When Eldacar died in 1490, Aldamir succeeded him as King.

Names & Etymology:
The name Vinitharya may be of Gothic origin. It is similar to Vinitharius of the Ostrogoths whose name meant "conqueror of the Venedi" - a Slavic people - but this obviously has no relation to Middle-earth history.

The name Eldacar means "Elf helm" in Quenya from Elda meaning "Elf" and karma meaning "helmet" from kár meaning "head." Also spelled Eldakar.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 326-28
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for EL and KAS
The History of Middle-earth, vol. VII, The Treason of Isengard: "The Great River," p. 366 note 18 (meaning of Eldacar)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 198-9; "The Making of Appendix A," p. 260-61
The Tolkien Language List


Castamir the Usurper

Twenty-second King of Gondor who usurped the throne from Eldacar. Castamir was born in 1259 of the Third Age. He was the grandson of Calimehtar, who was the second son of King Calmacil of Gondor. His parents' names are not known. Castamir was a Captain of Ships. He was a cruel and arrogant man.

Castamir became a leader of the faction who did not want Eldacar as their King because his mother Vidumavi was one of the Northmen. Castamir and his followers deemed the Northmen inferior to the Men of Gondor, and they believed that the royal bloodline would be weakened and that the lifespans of the Kings would decrease.

Castamir attracted a large number of followers in the southern coastal provinces where he was well known as a naval captain. They began to openly rebel as the reign of Eldacar's father Valacar drew to an end. When Valacar died in 1432, the civil war of the Kin-strife began.

Eldacar's forces put up a strong resistance for five years. But in 1437, Castamir and the rebels besieged Eldacar in Osgiliath. The rebels had greater numbers, and they wore down the defenders by cutting off supplies to the city.

When Castamir captured Osgiliath, Eldacar and some of his supporters escaped to Rhovanion. But Eldacar's eldest son Ornendil was caught and Castamir had him killed. Castamir also ordered the unnecessary slaughter of many Osgiliath's defenders and the wanton burning and destruction of the city. The Dome of Stars was destroyed and its palantir was lost in the Anduin.

Castamir claimed the throne of Gondor. His cruelty continued throughout his reign and many people began to turn against him, particularly those who lived near Osgiliath in Anorien and Ithilien. The people in the northern provinces were also unhappy because Castamir had no interest in the land but instead focused on building up Gondor's fleets. He moved the capital to the southern port of Pelargir.

In 1447, after Castamir had reigned for ten years, Eldacar returned with an army of Northmen and Men from the northern provinces of Gondor. At the Battle of the Crossings of Erui, Eldacar killed Castamir and reclaimed the throne. Castamir's sons and some of their followers escaped to Umbar and they and their descendants became the Corsairs who continued to trouble Gondor for centuries to come.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of the name Castamir is unknown. The first element could be related to the root kas meaning "head." The ending mir may be from mîrë meaning "jewel." Also spelled Kastamir. He was known as Castamir the Usurper. A usurper is someone who seizes power by force or without legal right.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 326-28
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for KAS and MIR
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 198-9; "The Making of Appendix A," p. 260-61


Aldamir

Twenty-third King of Gondor. Aldamir was born in 1330 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Eldacar. Aldamir had an older brother Ornendil and an older sister. Ornendil was killed by Castamir the Usurper during the civil war of the Kin-strife, so when Eldacar died in 1490, Aldamir succeeded him as King.

In 1540, the Kings of Harad joined forces with the Corsairs of Umbar and rose up against Gondor. Aldamir was killed in battle. He was succeeded by his son Vinyarion, who won a victory over the Corsairs and Haradrim and took the name Hyarmendacil II.

Names & Etymology:
The name Aldamir appears to be composed of the Quenya word alda meaning "tree" and the ending mir from mîrë meaning "jewel."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 367
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 199
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for alda and mir


Hyarmendacil II

Twenty-fourth King of Gondor. Hyarmendacil II was originally named Vinyarion. He was born in 1391 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Aldamir.

Vinyarion became King in 1540 after his father was killed in battle with the Corsairs of Umbar and the Men of Harad. To avenge his father, Vinyarion launched an attack against Harad and Umbar in 1551 and defeated them. He took the name Hyarmendacil II, meaning "South-victor," as his ancestor Ciryaher had done.

Hyarmendacil II died in 1621 and was succeeded by his son Minardil.

Names & Etymology:
The name Vinyarion appears to be composed of the Quenya word vinya meaning "new" and the masculine ending -ion.

Hyarmendacil means "South-victor" from hyarmen meaning "south" and dacil from nacil meaning "victor." He was the second King of that name.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 367
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 199
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for hyarmen
Quenya Affixes


Minardil

Twenty-fifth King of Gondor. Minardil was born in 1454 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Hyarmendacil II, who won a great victory over the Men of Harad and Umbar in 1551. Minardil had two sons named Telemnar and Minastan.

Minardil became King in 1621. His Steward was Hurin of Emyn Arnen. Since the defeat of the Haradrim and Corsairs, Gondor's vigilance against their southern enemies had decreased. In 1634, the Corsairs launched a surprise attack on Pelargir after learning that Minardil was there. The Corsairs were led by Angamaite and Sangahyando, the great-grandsons of Castamir the Usurper. Minardil was killed and the city was sacked.

Minardil was succeeded by Telemnar who ruled for only two years until his death during the Great Plague of 1636. Telemnar was followed by his brother Minastan's son Tarondor.

Note:
In Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings (p. 328), Minardil is mistakenly referred to as the son of Eldacar.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of the name Minardil is unknown. The first element could be from minya meaning "first" with the connotation "eminent, prominent" or it could be a form of minas meaning "tower." The ending appears to be -dil meaning "friend, devotion."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 328
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 367
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for minas and (n)dil
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for MINI
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 199-200, 202-3
"The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor," by J.R.R. Tolkien, edited by Carl F. Hostetter, commentary by Christopher Tolkien, in Vinyar Tengwar #42, July 2001, p. 24
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Telemnar

Twenty-sixth King of Gondor. Telemnar was born in 1516 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Minardil and he had a younger brother named Minastan.

In 1634, Minardil was killed by Corsairs who sacked Pelargir. Telemnar became King and he retained his father's Steward, Hurin of Emyn Arnen, who was of great help during the tumultuous period that followed. Telemnar began to build a fleet in order to avenge his father and attack the Corsairs' stronghold at Umbar. But these plans were abandoned in 1636 when a deadly sickness came to Gondor out of the East.

The Great Plague was devastating to Gondor. It was probably sent by Sauron for the purpose of weakening his enemies. Many of the people of Gondor died and there was no longer enough manpower to maintain Gondor's defenses or keep watch on Mordor.

King Telemnar and all his children were among the casualties. When Telemnar died, the White Tree of Gondor also died. Telemnar was succeeded as King by his nephew Tarondor, son of Minastan.

Names & Etymology:
The name Telemnar means "silver flame" in Quenya from telep meaning "silver" and nar meaning "fire, flame."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 328
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 199-200, 203
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for celeb (telep) and nar
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Tarondor

Twenty-seventh King of Gondor. Tarondor was born in 1577 of the Third Age. His father Minastan was the second son of King Minardil. Tarondor was Minastan's eldest son.

King Minardil was succeeded by his eldest son and heir Telemnar. But in 1636, the Great Plague came to Gondor and King Telemnar and all his children died. Telemnar's nephew Tarondor was his closest surviving relative and he became King of Gondor.

The Great Plague devasted Gondor and many lives were lost. The capital Osgiliath was hardest hit. The inhabitants who survived left the city and settled in Ithilien and elsewhere, and Osgiliath began to fall into ruin. In 1640, Tarondor moved the capital to Minas Anor. There in the Citadel he replanted a seedling of the White Tree, which had died at the same time as Telemnar.

Because of the decrease in population, Gondor no longer had the manpower to keep watch on Mordor. It was later thought that Sauron had sent the Plague for this very purpose. Sauron had fled Mordor after the War of the Last Alliance and had built the stronghold of Dol Guldur in Mirkwood, but he was preparing to reclaim his realm.

Tarondor ruled for 162 years which was the longest reign of any King of Gondor. He was preoccupied with restoring order to Gondor and slowly rebuilding its strength. He was helped by his Steward, Hurin, who had served both Minardil and Telemnar.

Tarondor died in 1798 and was succeeded by his son Telumehtar.

Names & Etymology:
The name Tarondor appears to mean "Lord of Gondor" from tar meaning "high, noble" and ondor from Ondonore, the Quenya form of Gondor, where ondo means "stone." Curiously, there was also a King of Arnor named Tarondor, which makes this translation somewhat questionable.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 328
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for GOND and TA, TA3
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 200
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist
The Tolkien Language List


Telumehtar Umbardacil

Twenty-eighth King of Gondor. Telumehtar was born in 1632 of the Third Age. His father was Tarondor, who became King in 1636 after the Great Plague killed King Telemnar and all his children. Telumehtar succeeded his father in 1798.

During Telumehtar's reign, Corsairs began to raid Gondor's coasts as far west as Anfalas. The Corsairs were descendants of the rebels led by Castamir, who had usurped the throne of Gondor several centuries earlier in 1437. The Corsairs had killed Telumehtar's great-grandfather King Minardil in 1634.

In 1810, Telumehtar attacked the Corsairs' base of Umbar on the coast of Harad. The last descendants of Castamir were killed in the battle. Umbar was in the possession of Gondor once more, and Telumehtar took the name Umbardacil to commemorate his victory. But in the troubled years that followed Telumehtar's reign, Umbar fell into the hands of the Haradrim.

Telumehtar had two sons named Narmacil and Arciryas. When Telumehtar died in 1850, his elder son succeeded him as Narmacil II. Several generations later, when the direct line of succession ended with Ondoher, Arciryas's great-grandson Earnil became King.

Names & Etymology:
The name Telumehtar means "warrior of the sky" from the Quenya telume meaning "roof, canopy" used for "the heavens" and ohtar meaning "warrior." Telumehtar was a name for the constellation Orion which was also called Menelvagor.

The name Umbardacil means "Umbar victor." The element dacil is from nacil meaning "victor." Also spelled Umbardakil.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 328-29
Appendix E of The Lord of the Rings: "Writing and Spelling," p. 391
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 282 note 17 (meaning of ohtar)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XI, The War of the Jewels: "Quendi and Eldar," p. 411 note 15 (meaning of Telumehtar)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 200
Quenya Affixes


Narmacil II

Twenty-ninth King of Gondor. Narmacil II was born in 1684 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Telumehtar and he had a brother named Arciryas. Narmacil II succeeded his father as King in 1850. He ruled Gondor for only six years.

In 1851, a hostile group of Men came out of Rhun in the East and attacked Gondor. They were incited to do so by emissaries of Sauron. These Men were known as the Wainriders because they travelled in wains, or wagons, and used chariots in battle. Gondor's allies the Northmen lived on the border of Rhun and many were killed in the first assault of the Wainriders.

Narmacil II led a great army to meet the Wainriders on the plains between Mirkwood and Mordor in 1856. Gondor's forces were joined by a group of Northmen led by Marhari. The Wainriders were victorious in the Battle of the Plains. Narmacil II was killed and his forces withdrew. Marhari was also slain while leading the rearguard covering the retreat.

After the defeat, Gondor relinquished its territory east of the Anduin except Ithilien. Eight of the Nazgul may have returned to Mordor around this time. Some of the surviving Northmen led by Marhari's son Marhwini settled in the Vales of the Anduin and became known as the Eotheod.

Narmacil II was succeeded by his son Calimehtar, who avenged his father's death with a temporary victory over the Wainriders in 1899. The Wainriders were finally defeated by Earnil - the great-grandson of Narmacil's brother Arciryas - in the Battle of the Camp in 1944.

Names & Etymology:
The name Narmacil is composed of nar meaning "fire" and macil meaning "sword." Also spelled Narmakil as it is pronounced. He was the second King of Gondor of that name.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329-30
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 289, 311-12 note 8
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for MAK and NAR
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 200, 215


Calimehtar

Thirtieth King of Gondor. Calimehtar was born in 1736 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Narmacil II. Calimehtar had a son named Ondoher and a daughter.

Calimehtar became King in 1856 after Narmacil II was killed in the Battle of the Plains against the Wainriders. In 1899, Calimehtar learned from Marhwini of the Eotheod that the Wainriders were preparing to cross the Anduin and invade Gondor's northern province of Calenardhon. Marhwini also reported that his kinsmen the Northmen of Rhovanion who were enslaved by the Wainriders were ready to revolt.

Calimehtar and Marhwini joined forces to stop the Wainriders. Their plan was to draw the full strength of the Wainriders away from their settlements so the revolt of the Northmen could succeed. Calimehtar led his army out of Ithilien, making sure the Wainriders knew he was coming. He then fell back as the enemy forces approached, drawing them further onward.

The armies of Calimehtar and the Wainriders joined in battle on Dagorlad, the great plain near the Black Gate of Mordor. Neither side had the advantage until Marhwini and his horsemen along with cavalry of Gondor arrived and attacked the Wainriders from the rear and on their flank. The Wainriders were defeated and they fled back to their settlements in Rhovanion.

Meanwhile, the revolt of the Northmen had failed. They had set fire to some of the homes, storehouses, and wagons of the Wainriders. But most of the Northmen were killed by the women, boys, and old men who had remained behind in the Wainriders' settlements.

Calimehtar returned home. In 1900, he built the White Tower in Minas Anor to house the palantir. Gondor was at peace from the Wainriders for the remainder of his reign. Calimehtar died in 1936. He was succeeded by his son Ondoher, who was killed just eight years later during a new invasion by the Wainriders.

Names & Etymology:
The name Calimehtar means "bright warrior" in Quenya from calima meaning "bright" and ohtar meaning "warrior." Also spelled Kalimehtar.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 367
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 282 note 17 (meaning of ohtar); "Cirion and Eorl," p. 288-90, 294
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for KAL
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 200


Ondoher

Thirty-first King of Gondor. Ondoher was born in 1787 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Calimehtar, and he had a sister. Ondoher had two sons named Artamir and Faramir and a daughter Firiel.

Calimehtar won a victory over the Wainriders in 1899. The Wainriders were Men from Rhun in the East who rode in wains - or wagons. Although Calimehtar defeated their army, the Wainriders continued to occupy part of Rhovanion between Mirkwood and the Sea of Rhun.

Ondoher became King in 1936. During his reign, communication resumed between Gondor and Arnor after a long period of silence. Just as Gondor was troubled by the Wainriders and other enemies, the North-kingdom was under constant threat of attack from Angmar. Ondoher and his counterpart King Araphant realized that they were being targeted by a common enemy, though they did not know it was Sauron.

Ondoher and Araphant took counsel with one another - probably via the palantiri - but neither could spare aid to the other. In 1940, Ondoher's daughter Firiel married Araphant's son Arvedui.

In 1944, Ondoher learned from Forthwini of the Eotheod that the Wainriders in Rhovanion were regrouping and might be receiving aid from their homeland of Rhun. In fact, the Wainriders of Rhun had made an alliance with the Men of Khand and Harad and were plotting to attack Gondor on two fronts, but this was not known in Gondor until it was nearly too late.

Ondoher gathered and trained as great an army as his resources would allow. He became aware of enemy movements in the south, so he divided his forces into a Northern Army and a Southern Army. Ondoher was a loved and respected military leader and he commanded the Northern Army himself. A captain named Earnil was the leader of the smaller Southern Army based at Pelargir.

News of the enemy's approach reached Gondor in July of 1944. Earnil and the Southern Army were positioned north of River Poros on the southern border of Ithilien to meet the oncoming Haradrim. Ondoher led the Northern Army north through Ithilien, intending to meet the Wainriders on the Battle Plain of Dagorlad before the Black Gate of Mordor.

Ondoher was accompanied by his eldest son Artamir. He ordered his younger son Faramir to remain behind to act as Regent as was customary. But Faramir disobeyed and he rode to war in disguise with Gondor's allies the Eotheod.

On July 12, Ondoher learned that the Wainriders were coming sooner than expected. And as the Northern Army approached the Black Gate, Ondoher discovered that the Wainriders were not coming across the plains from the northeast but instead had hidden themselves in the shadows of the Ash Mountains on the northern border of Mordor.

Ondoher was unprepared for the sudden assault of the Wainriders. He and his Guards were at the front and they bore the brunt of the attack. Ondoher positioned his Guards on a low hill in front of the Black Gate, but it was no protection against the charge of the Wainriders' chariots and cavalry. Ondoher's banner was captured and his Guards were nearly wiped out. Ondoher and Artamir were killed and their bodies were never recovered. Faramir was also killed while fighting with the Eotheod.

Ondoher's nephew Minohtar, Captain of the Northern Army's Right Wing, took command and tried to organize a retreat. But the Wainriders pressed forward and Minohtar was slain and the Northern Army was scattered. The Wainriders made camp and were celebrating their victory when Earnil and the Southern Army took them by surprise. The Wainriders were defeated in the Battle of the Camp and they never troubled Gondor again.

With the deaths of Ondoher and both his sons, Gondor was left without a King. Pelendur - Ondoher's Steward - ruled Gondor during the brief interregnum period, assisted by the Council of Gondor.

Arvedui of the North-kingdom tried to claim the throne of Gondor based on his marriage to Ondoher's daughter Firiel and his own descent from Elendil through the line of Isildur. But Pelendur and the Council rejected his claim because the kingship in Gondor passed through the male line only, and because Gondor was ruled by the heirs of Elendil's son Anarion, not Isildur.

In 1945, the victorious Captain Earnil was crowned as King Earnil II. He was a member of the Royal House whose great-great-grandfather was King Telumehtar, and his claim was unanimously approved by the Dunedain of Gondor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Ondoher means "stone lord" in Quenya in reference to Gondor (Quenya Ondonore) meaning "stone land." The word ondo means "stone" and heris from heru meaning "lord."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329-30
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 367
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 289-95
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 200-201, 203, 215-16
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for gond and heru


Eärnil II

Thirty-second King of Gondor. Earnil II was born in 1883 of the Third Age. He was not the son of the King of Gondor, but he was of the Royal House. His father was Siriondil, whose grandfather Arciryas was the brother of King Narmacil II.

Earnil was a man of valor and wisdom. He became the Captain of the Southern Army of Gondor, and he was stationed at Pelargir on the Anduin.

In 1944, Gondor was attacked on two fronts by Men from the East known as the Wainriders and their allies, the Men of Khand and Harad. Earnil learned that the Haradrim were planning to invade Ithilien from the south. He positioned his forces 40 miles north of the Poros which was the southern border of Ithilien. He allowed the enemy forces to cross the river and then attacked and defeated them.

Earnil then led his Southern Army northward through Ithilien. The Northern Army had been routed by the Wainriders near the Black Gate of Mordor. King Ondoher and both his sons had been slain. Earnil gathered as many of the survivors as he could find. On the night of July 13, Earnil attacked the Wainriders' camp.

The Wainriders were taken by surprise because they thought they had eliminated Gondor's entire army. They were celebrating their victory when they were attacked. Earnil's forces burned the Wainriders' wagons and defeated them in the Battle of the Camp. Many of the Wainriders fled into the Dead Marshes where they perished, and the rest were driven from Ithilien.

After the battle, Gondor was without a King. Arvedui, the son of King Araphant of Arthedain in the North-kingdom, tried to claim the Crown of Gondor. He argued that his wife Firiel was the daughter and only remaining child of King Ondoher, and that he himself was descended from Elendil - the first High King of Gondor and Arnor - through the line of Isildur. But the Council of Gondor led by Pelendur the Steward rejected the claim because in Gondor the kingship was not passed through the female line and the Kings were descended from Elendil's son Anarion, not Isildur.

In 1945, Earnil claimed the Crown of Gondor, and he was accepted by the Council. Earnil was a member of the Royal House and a hero of Gondor, and he had the unanimous approval of the Dunedain of Gondor. He sent word to Arvedui that he would help the Dunedain of the North in time of need.

Pelendur continued to serve as the King's Steward until his death in 1998. He was succeeded by his son Vorondil, who in turn was succeeded by his son Mardil in 2029.

In 1973, Earnil received a request for aid from Arvedui, who was by that time the King of Arthedain. Arthedain was being threatened by the Witch-king of Angmar. Earnil sent a fleet commanded by his son Earnur, but they did not arrive in the North until 1975. Arvedui was already dead, and Fornost had been captured by the Witch-king. Earnur joined forces with the Elves and the Dunedain of the North, and together they defeated the Witch-king in the Battle of Fornost.

The Witch-king was the Lord of the Nazgul, and unknown to the Men of Gondor he returned to Mordor in 1980 and gathered the other Nazgul there. In 2000, the Nazgul attacked Minas Ithil, a stronghold of Gondor on the border of Mordor. Minas Ithil was captured in 2002. It was occupied by the Lord of the Nazgul and became known as Minas Morgul.

Earnil II died in 2043. He was succeeded by Earnur, who was the last King of Gondor until Aragorn, King Elessar.

Names & Etymology:
The name Eärnil is a contraction of Eärendil, meaning "lover of the Sea." The word eär means "the Sea" and the ending ndil means "devotion." Earnil II was the second King of Gondor of that name.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329-32
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 291-95
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 201
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Eärnur

Thirty-third King of Gondor; last until Aragorn, King Elessar. Earnur was born in 1928 of the Third Age. He was the son of King Earnil II. Earnur was strong and valorous, but he was not as wise as his father and he had a hot temper. He enjoyed fighting and he excelled at contests of arms. No one in Gondor could beat him. Earnur did not marry and had no children.

In 1975, Earnur led a fleet to help the Dunedain of the North-kingdom who were under attack by the Witch-king of Angmar. The ships filled the harbors in the Gulf of Lune. Earnur's forces were well-armed and well-provisioned and included both Men of Gondor and cavalry from Rhovanion.

Earnur joined forces with the Dunedain of the North and the Elves of Lindon to form the Host of the West. They marched east toward Fornost, which the Witch-king had captured. On the plain between the North Downs and Lake Evendim they fought the Battle of Fornost.

The forces of Angmar were routed, and the Witch-king tried to retreat, but he was pursued by Earnur. Earnur was joined by Glorfindeland an army of Elves from Rivendell, and together they finished off the Witch-king's forces. The Witch-king turned on Earnur and rode straight at him full of wrath. Earnur tried to stand his ground but was unable to control his terrified horse. The Witch-king laughed as Earnur was borne away by his steed.

Then Glorfindel approached, and the Witch-king fled into the night. Earnur wanted to pursue him, but Glorfindel said, "Far off yet is his doom, and not by the hand of man will he fall." (LotR, App. A, p. 332) Earnur complied, but he was angry and embarrassed and he wanted revenge on the Witch-king.

Earnur returned to Gondor, and the Witch-king went to Mordor. He was the Lord of the Nazgul, and he gathered the other eight Nazgul to him. In 2000, the Nazgul besieged Minas Ithil - a stronghold of Gondor on the border of Mordor. They captured Minas Ithil in 2002 and it was renamed Minas Morgul.

Earnur succeeded his father as King of Gondor in 2043. The Witch-king issued a challenge of single-combat to Earnur, mocking him for his failure to stand and fight at the Battle of Fornost. Mardil, the Stewardof Gondor, restrained Earnur and convinced him to turn down the challenge.

But in 2050, the Witch-king renewed his challenge, and this time Earnur could not be dissuaded. He left the Crown of Gondor on his father's tomb in the House of the Kings and he rode to Minas Morgul with a small company of knights. Earnur and his companions were never seen again. It was not known what had become of Earnur - whether he had been slain or whether he remained for a time as a prisoner in torment.

Earnur left no heir, and there was no claimant to the throne of Gondor. Thus the line of Kings ended, and Mardil became the first Ruling Steward. The Stewards ruled Gondor in the absence of a King until 3019, when Aragorn became King of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Eärnur is a contraction of Eärendur which is Quenya meaning "Sea servant" or "(professional) mariner" from Eär meaning "the Sea" and the ending ndur meaning "to serve." Earendur was a Captain of Gondor as well as King of Gondor.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
The Two Towers: "The Window on the West," p. 278
The Return of the King: "The Steward and the King," p. 245
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 331-33
The Silmarillion: "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age," p. 297
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 201-202
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297 footnote
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Aragorn - King Elessar

See the full-page entry for Aragorn.


Eldarion

Son of Aragorn and Arwen. Eldarion's date of birth is not known. He was the only son and heir of Aragorn, King Elessar. Eldarion had several sisters whose names are not known.

In the year 120 of the Fourth Age, Aragorn perceived that his life was coming to an end and that his son was ready to assume kingship of Gondor and Arnor. Eldarion accompanied his father to the House of Kings in the Silent Street and received the Winged Crown of Gondor and the Sceptre of Annuminas from him. Then Eldarion said goodbye to his father and Aragorn died. Eldarion's mother Arwen then bid him farewell and went to Lothlorien where she died a year later.

Eldarion was the second King of the Reunited Kingdom. According to one source, he may have ruled until at least the year 220 of the Fourth Age. It was foretold that Eldarion's realm would be great and that it would endure under the rule of his descendants for a hundred generations of Men.

Names & Etymology:
Eldarion means "Son of the Eldar." The Eldar, or "People of the Stars," is another name for the Elves. The ending -ion is a masculine ending meaning "son of." Eldarion's name refers to his Elvish heritage.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen," p. 343-44
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 202, 217-18; "The Tale of Years of the Third Age," p. 244-46; "The New Shadow," p. 410, 419-20
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #338 (reference to Eldarion's reign lasting 100 years)
 

Sadwyn Brophy
as Eldarion
in the New Line film
Eldarion


Stewards of Gondor


Húrin of Emyn Arnen

Steward of Gondor; founder of the House of Hurin. Hurin of Emyn Arnen was a Man of Gondor of pure Numenorean descent. His ancestors were akin to the Royal House of Gondor. Hurin came from the hills of Emyn Arnen in Ithilien.

Hurin served as Steward to three Kings of Gondor. He began as Steward to Minardil, who was killed by Corsairs in 1634 of the Third Age. Minardil was succeeded by Telemnar who ruled for only two years before he died in the Great Plague of 1636, which also killed many others in Gondor. Telemnar was followed by Tarondor. Thoughout this chaotic period, Hurin worked hard to rebuild Gondor's strength and maintain order in the realm.

All the subsequent Stewards of Gondor were descended from Hurin of Emyn Arnen. The House of Stewards became known as the House of Hurin, or the Hurinionath.

Names & Etymology:
The name Húrin is composed of hûr meaning "readiness for action, vigor, fiery spirit" and inn meaning "inner thought, meaning, heart." Hurin was the name of a hero of the First Age, and it was also the name of two later Ruling Stewards of Gondor.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Stewards," p. 333
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 309
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 202-203


Pelendur

Steward of Gondor. Pelendur was born in 1879 of the Third Age. His father's name is not known, but he was a descendant of the Steward Hurin of Emyn Arnen.

Pelendur served as Steward to King Ondoher. He may have become Steward in 1940. In 1944, Ondoher and his sons Artamir and Faramir were killed in battle against the Wainriders. There was no direct heir to the throne of Gondor. Pelendur temporarily ruled Gondor while the Council of Gondor considered who the next King would be.

A claim to the throne was made by Arvedui, the son of King Araphant of Arthedain in the North-kingdom. Arvedui was descended from Elendil, the first High King of Gondor and Arnor, through the line of Elendil's eldest son Isildur. Arvedui was also married to Ondoher's daughter Firiel. But Pelendur and the Council rejected Arvedui's claim because the Kings of Gondor were descended from Elendil's younger son Anarion and because the kingship in Gondor did not pass through the female line.

In 1945, the throne was claimed by Earnil, a member of the Royal House who had defeated the Wainriders in the Battle of the Camp. Earnil's claim was unanimously approved. Pelendur served as Steward to King Earnil II.

Pelendur died in 1998. He was succeeded as Steward by his son Vorondil and from that time on the office of Steward became hereditary, passing from father to son or a close male relative.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of the name Pelendur is uncertain. The ending -ndur means "servant" in Quenya. The word pel means "go around, encircle, fence" but "fence servant" does not appear to be a meaningful or suitable translation.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329-30; "The Stewards," p. 333
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 2-3-204, 215-18
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297


Vorondil

Steward of Gondor. Vorondil was born in 1919 of the Third Age. He was the son of the Steward Pelendur. Vorondil was a great hunter. He slew one of the wild kine that lived near the Sea of Rhun and made the Great Horn out of one of its horns. The Great Horn was borne by the heirs of the Stewards of Gondor through many generations until it was cloven in two during Boromir's last stand.

Vorondil succeeded his father as Steward to King Earnil II in 1998. He served until his death in 2029 and was in turn succeeded by his son Mardil, who became the first Ruling Steward of Gondor when the line of Kings ended with Earnur in 2050.

Names & Etymology:
Vorondil means "faithful friend" in Quenya from voro meaning "ever" and ndil meaning "devotion." He was sometimes called Vorondil the Hunter.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 27
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile - The Stewards," p. 319 and note
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for (n)dil
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for BOR
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204, 218-19


Mardil Voronwë

First Ruling Steward of Gondor. Mardil Voronwe was born in 1960 of the Third Age. His father was Vorondil, who served as Steward to King Earnil II. When Vorondil died in 2029, Mardil became the King's Steward. King Earnil II died in 2043 and was succeeded by his son Earnur.

Mardil continued to serve as Steward to King Earnur. In 2043, Mardil advised King Earnur to refuse a challenge from the Lord of the Nazgul, who hated Earnur for helping defeat him at the Battle of Fornost. The Lord of the Nazgul renewed his challenge in 2050, and King Earnur accepted against Mardil's advice. Earnur rode to Minas Morgul and was never seen again.

Earnur left no heir, and in the absence of a King, Mardil assumed the rule of Gondor. He was the first of a long line of Ruling Stewards, who took an oath to "rule in the name of the King, until he shall return." The Ruling Stewards bore a white rod as a symbol of their office, their standard was a plain white banner, and they sat in a chair at the foot of the dais where the King's throne stood empty.

In 2060, Mardil introduced a revised calendar system known as the Stewards' Reckoning which came to be used by most of the people of Middle-earth who spoke the Common Speech, except for the Hobbits who continued to use their own Shire Reckoning.

In 2063, the era known as the Watchful Peace began when Sauron left his stronghold of Dol Guldur in Mirkwood and went into hiding in the East. During this time, Gondor was free from attack by Sauron's minions and the Nazgul remained quiet in Minas Morgul. The Watchful Peace lasted four centuries until Sauron returned to Dol Guldur during the reign of the Steward Denethor I in 2460.

Mardil died in 2080 and was succeeded as Ruling Steward by his son Eradan.

Names & Etymology:
The name Mardil means "devoted to the House (of the Kings)" in Quenya. The word mar means "house" and the ending dil means "to love, be devoted to."

Mardil was also called the Good Steward and Mardil Voronwë, meaning "steadfast."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 332-33; "The Stewards," p. 333
Appendix D of The Lord of the Rings: "The Calendars," p. 386-87
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 309, 317 note 44, 319-20 note 54
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for bar and (n)dil
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for BORON
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil" p. 201-204
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297 (etymology)


Eradan

Second Ruling Steward of Gondor. Eradan was born in 1999 of the Third Age. His father was Mardil Voronwe, who assumed the rule of Gondor after King Earnur disappeared in Minas Morgul in 2050. Eradan succeeded his father as Ruling Steward in 2080. He died in 2116 and was followed by his son Herion.

Names & Etymology:
The name Eradan may be composed of er meaning "one, alone" and adan meaning "man."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for adan and er
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204


Herion

Third Ruling Steward of Gondor. Herion was born in 2037 of the Third Age. His father was the Steward Eradan. Herion ruled Gondor as Steward from 2116 to 2148. He was succeeded by his son Belegorn.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of the name Herion is not known. It may be related to the verb herio meaning "to begin suddenly and vigorously."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for KHOR (herio misprinted as heno)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204


Belegorn

Fourth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Belegorn was born in 2074 of the Third Age. He was the son of the Steward Herion. Belegorn succeeded his father as Steward in 2148. He died in 2204 and was followed by his son Hurin I.

Names & Etymology:
The name Belegorn may mean "mighty tree" from beleg meaning "mighty" and orn meaning "tree."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for beleg and orn
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204


Húrin I

Fifth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Hurin I was born in 2124 of the Third Age. He was the son of the Steward Belegorn. Hurin I was Steward of Gondor from 2204 until his death in 2244. He was succeeded by his son Turin I.

Names & Etymology:
The name Húrin is composed of hûr meaning "readiness for action, vigor, fiery spirit" and inn meaning "inner thought, meaning, heart." There was a previous Steward named Hurin but Hurin I was the first Ruling Steward of that name.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for KHOR and ID
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204


Túrin I

Sixth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Turin I was born in 2165 of the Third Age. He was the third child of the Steward Hurin I. Turin I married twice. He had several daughters and one son, Hador, who was his last child, born in 2245. Turin I ruled as Steward from 2244 until his death in 2278. He was succeeded by Hador.

Names & Etymology:
The name Túrin is composed of the element túr meaning "power, mastery, victory" and inn or ind meaning "mood, heart, inner thought."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for ID and TUR
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204


Hador

Seventh Ruling Steward of Gondor. Hador was the son of Turin I. He was born in 2245 of the Third Age. Hador was the last child of his father's second wife, and he had several older sisters.

Hador became Steward in 2278. During Hador's reign, an adjustment was made to the Stewards' Reckoning, which was the calendar used in Gondor. An extra day was added to the year 2360 to make up for a deficit of eight hours that had accrued over the course of the centuries.

Hador died in 2395 at the age of 150. He was the last man of Gondor to live that long and after him the lifespans of his descendants decreased. Hador was succeeded as Steward by his son Barahir.

Names & Etymology:
The name Hador means "thrower (of spears or darts)." Hador was also the name of the head of one of the Three Houses of the Edain in the First Age.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
Appendix D of The Lord of the Rings: "The Calendars," p. 386-87
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for KHAT
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204


Barahir, Ruling Steward of Gondor

Eighth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Barahir was the son of Hador. He was born in 2290 of the Third Age. He had a son named Dior and a daughter named Rian. Barahir became Steward after his father's death in 2395. Barahir died in 2412 and was followed by Dior.

Names & Etymology:
Barahir means "fiery lord" from bara meaning "fiery" and hîr meaning "lord." Barahir was also the name of the father of Beren in the First Age.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for heru
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for BARAS
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204


Dior

Ninth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Dior was born in 2328 of the Third Age. He was the son of the Steward Barahir, and he had a sister named Rian. Dior became Steward after his father's death in 2412. Dior had no children, so when he died in 2435 he was succeeded by Rian's son Denethor I.

Names & Etymology:
The name Dior means "successor" from the root ndew meaning "to follow, come behind." Dior was also the name of the son of Beren and Luthien.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for NDEW
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204


Denethor I

Tenth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Denethor I was born in 2375 of the Third Age. His mother was Rian, who was the sister of the Steward Dior. Dior had no children of his own, so when he died in 2345, his nephew Denethor succeeded him as Steward.

In 2460, the Watchful Peace ended when Sauron returned from hiding in the East to his stronghold of Dol Guldur in Mirkwood. Gondor was once again under attack by Sauron's minions. In 2475, Ithilien was invaded by Uruks from Mordor led by the Nazgul. They captured Osgiliath and the bridge spanning the Anduin was broken. Denethor's son Boromir led an army to retake Ithilien and the Uruks were driven back to Mordor. But Osgiliath was ruined and deserted, and Boromir received a Morgul-wound that weakened him and shortened his life.

Denethor I died in 2477 and was succeeded by Boromir, who ruled for just twelve years until his death in 2489.

Names & Etymology:
The name Denethor means "lithe and lank" from dene meaning "thin and strong, pliant, lithe" and thara meaning "tall (or long) and slender." He was the first Steward of that name, the second being Denethor II who was the Steward of Gondor during the War of the Ring. There was also an Elf in ancient times named Denethor.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XI, The War of the Jewels: "Quendi and Eldar," p. 412, note 17 (meaning of Denethor)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204-205


Boromir, Steward of Gondor

Eleventh Ruling Steward of Gondor. Boromir was born in 2410 of the Third Age. He had two older sisters. Their father was the Steward Denethor I. Boromir was a strong and noble man and a great captain.

In 2475, Ithilien was invaded by black Uruks led by the Nazgul. The Uruks captured Osgiliath and broke the great bridge that spanned the Anduin. Boromir and his men defeated them and drove them back to Mordor. Ithilien was reclaimed, though Osigiliath was ruined and abandoned. Boromir was a great warrior and even the Lord of the Nazgul feared him, but during the battle Boromir was wounded by one of the Nazgul.

The Morgul-wound caused Boromir great pain and illness and it shortened his life. He became Steward in 2477 and ruled for just twelve years until his death in 2489. Boromir was succeeded by his son Cirion.

Names & Etymology:
The world bor means "endure" and boron means "steadfast, trusty man, faithful vassal." The word mir means "jewel, precious thing, treasure."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p 319; "The Stewards," p. 333
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for BOR, BORON and MIR
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204-205


Cirion

Steward who gave Rohan to Eorl the Young. Cirion was born in 2449 of the Third Age. His father was the Steward Boromir. In 2489, Boromir died of the lingering effects of a Morgul-wound he had received in the defense of Osgiliath. Cirion succeeded his father as the twelfth Ruling Steward of Gondor.

During his rule, Cirion was hard pressed to defend the borders of Gondor. The southern coastline was harried by the Corsairs, while the line of the Anduin was threatened by a group of Men from Rhun called the Balchoth. The Balchoth had been growing in numbers. They made frequent raids on settlements along the eastern side of the Anduin until most of the inhabitants fled.

Cirion feared that the Balchoth would soon cross the Anduin and invade the sparsely populated province of Calenardhon. He sent watchmen to the forts along the Anduin which had been neglected during the centuries of the Watchful Peace. He also sent spies into enemy territory to gather intelligence. From them he learned that a great force was gathering south of Mirkwood.

In 2510, Cirion prepared to lead an army to defend the line of the Anduin, leaving his son Hallas in command of Minas Tirith. But he knew his forces would not be sufficient to withstand the greater numbers of the Balchoth. Cirion sent messengers north through hostile territory to the source of the Anduin to request help from the Eotheod, who were allies of Gondor. Of the six messengers, only Borondir reached his destination.

The Balchoth crossed the Anduin on rafts and boats and swept away the defenses on the western shore. When Cirion led his army into Calenardhon, they were cut off by the Balchoth and were driven north over the River Limlight into the Field of Celebrant. There they were suddenly attacked from the west by Orcs from the Misty Mountains.

All seemed lost for Cirion's forces, but then the Eotheod arrived from the North led by Eorl the Young. Together the forces of the Eotheod and Gondor defeated the Balchoth and the Orcs in the Battle of the Field of Celebrant. Borondir died defending Cirion. The Eotheod drove the enemy forces back across the Limlight and hunted them over the plains of Calenardhon until none remained.

Three months after the battle, Cirion brought Eorl to the summit of Halifirien in the Firien Wood. There he gave Eorl and his people the land of Calenardhon, which became Rohan. Eorl responded by swearing an oath to remain a friend and ally of Gondor.

In granting the Gift of Cirion, the Steward considered both the needs of the Eotheod who had done Gondor a great service and the needs of his own realm which needed a strong ally on its borders. Thus Cirion forged a vital and lasting alliance which benefited Gondor many centuries later when the Rohirrim rode to defend Minas Tirith in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields.

Cirion died in 2567 and was succeeded by his son Hallas.

Names & Etymology:
The name Cirion means "shipman, sailor" in Sindarin from kir meaning "ship" and the masculine ending -ion.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
The Two Towers: "The Window on the West," p. 287
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Stewards," p. 333-34; "The House of Eorl," p. 344-45
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," passim
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for KIR and YO, YON
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 205


Hallas

Thirteenth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Hallas was born in 2480 of the Third Age. He was the son of the Steward Cirion. When Cirion went north to fight the Battle of the Field of Celebrant in 2510, Hallas remained in command of Minas Tirith. Afterwards, Hallas accompanied his father to Halifirien, where Cirion gave the land that became Rohan to Eorl the Young and Eorl swore an oath of friendship to Gondor. It was Hallas who came up with the names Rohan and Rohirrim - meaning "horse country" and "horse lords" in Sindarin.

Hallas succeeded his father as Steward in 2567. He ruled until his death in 2605 and was followed by his son Hurin II.

Names & Etymology:
The name Hallas is most likely derived from hall meaning "exalted, high" or halla meaning "tall." It's not clear whether the final element is derived from las meaning "leaf."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 297, 302, 307
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
Appendix E of The Lord of the Rings: "Writing and Spelling," p. 401 note 1
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for KHAL and LAS
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 205


Húrin II

Fourteenth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Hurin II was born in 2515 of the Third Age. He was the son of the Steward Hallas. He ruled until his death in 2628 and was succeeded by his son Belecthor I.

Names & Etymology:
The name Húrin is composed of hûr meaning "readiness for action, vigor, fiery spirit" and inn meaning "inner thought, meaning, heart." Hurin II was the second Ruling Steward of that name.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for KHOR and ID
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 205


Belecthor I

Fifteenth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Belecthor I, son of Hurin II, was born in 2545 of the Third Age. He had a daughter named Morwen and a son named Orodreth, who was born in 2576. Belecthor I became Steward after his father's death in 2628. Belecthor I died in 2655 and was succeeded by Orodreth.

Names & Etymology:
The name Belecthor may mean "mighty eagle" from beleg meaning "mighty" and thor or thoron meaning "eagle."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for BEL and THOR, THORON
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 205


Orodreth

Sixteenth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Orodreth was born in 2576 of the Third Age. He was the son of Belecthor I, and he had a sister named Morwen. Orodreth became Steward in 2655 and ruled until his death in 2685. He was succeeded by his son Ecthelion I.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Orodreth is uncertain. It includes the word orod meaning "mountain" but the second element is unclear. There was also an Elf named Orodreth.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p 319
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 205; "The Shibboleth of Feanor," p. 350


Ecthelion I

Seventeenth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Ecthelion I was born in 2600 of the Third Age. He was the son of the Steward Orodreth. Ecthelion I succeeded his father as Steward in 2685.

Ecthelion I repaired and rebuilt the White Tower at the summit of Minas Tirith. It was afterwards known as the Tower of Ecthelion. The Tower was completed in 2698.

Ecthelion I died that same year. He had no children and no direct heir. He was succeeded as Steward by Egalmoth - the grandson of his father's sister Morwen.

Names & Etymology:
The name Ecthelion is probably derived from the Sindarin word ecthel meaning "spear," as found in the Etymologies in HoME V, combined with the masculine ending -ion. However, a note in HoME XI suggests the name contains the word thel meaning "intend, mean, purpose, resolve, will." In addition, the word ecthel is translated as "fountain" in an early lexicon accompanying "The Fall of Gondolin" where the character Ecthelion of the Fountain is introduced.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 369
The History of Middle-earth, vol. II, The Book of Lost Tales Part Two: "Appendix: Names in The Lost Tales - Part Two," p. 338
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for EK, EKTE, and STELEG
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XI, The War of the Jewels: "Maeglin," p. 318-19
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 205


Egalmoth

Eighteenth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Egalmoth was born in 2626 of the Third Age. He was the grandson of Morwen, who was the sister of the Steward Orodreth. Orodreth's son, the Steward Ecthelion I, had no children. When Ecthelion I died in 2698, Egalmoth was his closest male relative and therefore became Steward.

In 2710, King Deor of Rohan sent word to Egalmoth that Men from Dunland had taken over Isengard - a stronghold of Gondor on the western border of Rohan. But Egalmoth was unable to spare any forces to retake the impregnable stronghold, so Isengard remained in the hands of the Dunlendings for the time being.

Egalmoth died in 2743 and was succeeded by his son Beren.

Names & Etymology:
The name Egalmoth is said to mean "pointed helm-crest" from the original form Aegamloth. The element êg means "thorn" and the element amloth is said to be derived from ambalotse meaning "uprising flower." This apparently refers to a flower used as a crest on a pointed helmet.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
Unfinished Tales: "The Battles of the Fords of Isen," p. 372-73
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for EK, EKTE
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XI, The War of the Jewels: "Maeglin," p. 318-19
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 205


Beren

Nineteenth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Beren was the son of Egalmoth. He was born in 2655 of the Third Age. He became Steward of Gondor in 2743. In 2758, Gondor was attacked by three fleets of Corsairs from Umbar and Harad. The enemy landed along Gondor's southern coast and the west coast as far as the River Isen. Beren sent his son Beregond to take charge of the defense of Gondor, and Beregond successfully drove out the invaders.

At the same time, Rohan was invaded by the Men of Dunland. Frealaf of Rohan expelled the Dunlendings, and Beregond sent aid to the Rohirrim. In 2759, Beren agreed to let Saruman take up residence in Isengard - a stronghold on Rohan's western border that belonged to Gondor. Gondor no longer had the resources to maintain Isengard, and Beren believed that the Wizard's presence would help protect Rohan from an invasion in the future.

Beren died in 2763 and was succeeded by Beregond.

Names & Etymology:
The name Beren means "bold, daring." Beren was the name of a great hero of the First Age who married the Elf-maiden Luthien.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "The Stewards," p. 334; "The House of Eorl," p. 348
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for BER
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 205


Beregond, Steward of Gondor

Twentieth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Beregond was born in 2700 of the Third Age. He was the son of the Steward Beren. Beregond was one of the greatest captains in Gondor's history. He led the defense of Gondor when the coasts were attacked by Men of Umbar and Harad in 2758. Beregond drove out the invaders and sent aid to Rohan, which had also been invaded. In 2763, Beregond succeeded his father as Steward and Gondor began to regain strength. Beregond ruled until his death in 2811. He was succeeded by his son Belecthor II.

Names & Etymology:
The element ber means "valiant" and the element gond means "stone."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "The Stewards," p. 334-35
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for BER and GOND
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 205, 220


Belecthor II

Twenty-first Ruling Steward of Gondor. Belecthor II was born in 2752 of the Third Age. He was the only child of the Steward Beregond. After Beregond's death in 2811, Belecthor became Steward. When Belecthor died in 2872, the White Tree of Gondor also died. Belecthor was succeeded by his son Thorondir.

Note:
Belecthor's date of death is incorrectly given as 2852 in "The Tale of Years" in Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings. The correct date is 2872, as given in Appendix A.

Names & Etymology:
The name Belecthor may mean "mighty eagle" from beleg meaning "mighty" and thor or thoronmeaning "eagle."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "The Stewards," p. 334
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 369
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for BEL and THOR, THORON
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 205-206


Thorondir

Twenty-second Ruling Steward of Gondor. Thorondir, son of Belecthor II, was born in 2782 of the Third Age. He became Steward in 2872 after his father's death. At that time, the White Tree of Gondor also died, but no seedling could be found so the Dead Tree was left standing in the Court of the Fountain. Thorondir ruled only ten years until his death in 2882. He was succeeded by his son, Turin II.

Names & Etymology:
The name Thorondir is composed of thoron meaning "eagle" and dir meaning "man."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "The Stewards," p. 334
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for DER and THOR, THORON
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 206


Túrin II

Twenty-third Ruling Steward of Gondor. Turin, son of Thorondir, was born in 2815 of the Third Age. He became Steward after his father's death in 2882. During Turin's reign, Gondor was increasingly troubled by enemies. Sauron had not yet returned to Mordor, but his armies were amassing in preparation.

Sauron's allies the Haradrim occupied the region called South Gondor, and there was fighting along the River Poros on the border between South Gondor and Ithilien. In 2885, the Haradrim crossed the Poros and invaded Ithilien. The Rohirrim helped the Men of Gondor fight the Haradrim, and there was a great battle at the Crossings of Poros. Folcred and Fastred, the sons of King Folcwine of Rohan, were killed, but the Haradrim were defeated and were driven out of Ithilien. Turin sent King Folcwine a weregild of gold in compensation for the loss of his sons.

Ithilien was also under frequent attack by Orcs and Uruks from Mordor. By 2901, most of the people living in Ithilien had fled. Turin had a number of secret refuges made including Henneth Annun for the use of the Rangers who remained to guard Ithilien. Turin also fortified the island of Cair Andros in the Anduin to protect the river crossing.

Turin II died in 2914 and was succeeded by his son Turgon.

Names & Etymology:
The name Túrin is composed of the element túr meaning "power, mastery, victory" and inn or ind meaning "mood, heart, inner thought."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "The Stewards," p. 335; "The House of Eorl," p. 350
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 369
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for ID and TUR
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 206


Turgon

Twenty-fourth Ruling Steward of Gondor. Turgon was born in 2855 of the Third Age. His father was the Steward Turin II. Turgon had a son named Ecthelion, born in 2886. Turgon became Steward after his father's death in 2914.

During Turgon's reign, Thengel, the heir to the throne of Rohan, came to live in Gondor. Turgon was served honorably by Thengel.

In 2951, Sauron revealed that he had returned to Mordor. Sauron began to gather power and to rebuild Barad-dur. Turgon died just two years later in 2953. After Turgon's death, Saruman claimed control of Isengard - where he had been living with the permission of the Stewards - and began to fortify the stronghold. Turgon was succeeded by his son Ecthelion.

Names & Etymology:
Turgon means "masterful commander" from tur meaning "power, mastery" and gon from kanomeaning "commander." The King of Gondolin was also named Turgon.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319; "The Stewards," p. 335
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 370
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for kano and tur
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 206


Ecthelion II

Twenty-fifth Ruling Steward of Gondor; father of Denethor II. Ecthelion, son of Turgon, was born in 2886 of the Third Age. He succeeded his father as Steward of Gondor in 2953.

Ecthelion was a wise Steward. He strengthened Gondor's defenses against the possibility of attack from Mordor, where Sauron had begun rebuilding his forces in 2951. Ecthelion fortified the island of Cair Andros in the Anduin, as well as the port city of Pelargir farther downstream.

Ecthelion also took many valiant men into his service, including one called Thorongil. Unknown to Ecthelion, Thorongil was actually Aragorn, the heir to the throne of Gondor. Ecthelion thought highly of Thorongil and esteemed him more than his own son Denethor.

Ecthelion heeded Thorongil's advice in many matters. He welcomed Gandalf and distrusted Saruman. When Thorongil warned Ecthelion that the Corsairs of Umbar posed a threat to Gondor from the south, the Steward gave him permission to launch a preemptive strike. Thorongil defeated the Captain of the Haven of Umbar and burned many ships of the Corsairs' fleet. But afterwards, Thorongil did not return to Gondor, and he sent Ecthelion a message of farewell.

Ecthelion II died in 2984 and was succeeded by his son Denethor II, the last Ruling Steward of Gondor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Ecthelion is probably derived from the Sindarin word ecthel meaning "spear," as found in the Etymologies in HoME V, combined with the masculine ending -ion. However, a note in HoME XI suggests the name contains the word thel meaning "intend, mean, purpose, resolve, will." In addition, the word ecthel is translated as "fountain" in an early lexicon accompanying "The Fall of Gondolin" where the character Ecthelion of the Fountain is introduced.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p 319; "The Stewards," p. 335-36
The History of Middle-earth, vol. II, The Book of Lost Tales Part Two: "Appendix: Names in The Lost Tales - Part Two," p. 338
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for EK, EKTE, and STELEG
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XI, The War of the Jewels: "Maeglin," p. 318-19
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 206


Denethor II, Steward during the War of the Ring

See the full-page entry for Denethor II.


Faramir, son of Denethor II

See the full-page entry for Faramir.


Elboron

Son of Faramir and Eowyn. Elboron became the Steward of Gondor and the second Prince of Ithilien after the death of his father in the year 83 of the Fourth Age. Elboron may have been the father of Barahir - the grandson of Faramir - who wrote The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen.

Names & Etymology:
Elboron may mean "Enduring Star" from the word el meaning "star" and boron meaning "long-lasting, enduring."

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Prologue - Note on the Shire Records," p. 24
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 221, 223


Barahir

Grandson of Faramir. Barahir was the author of The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen about Aragorn, King Elessar, and the Elf-maiden Arwen who forsook her immortality to marry him. The Tale was written after Aragorn's death in 120 of the Fourth Age. A shortened version of the Tale was added to The Thain's Book.

Barahir may have been the son of Elboron, who was the only known child of Faramir and Eowyn. If so, then Barahir may have become Steward of Gondor, provided he had no older brothers.

Names & Etymology:
Barahir means "fiery lord" from bara meaning "fiery" and hîr meaning "lord." Barahir was also the name of a Ruling Steward of Gondor. It appears that this later Barahir would not have been styled Barahir II if he became Steward because he was not a Ruling Steward - as evidenced by Hurin of Emyn Arnen, a non-ruling Steward, who was later followed by two Ruling Stewards styled Hurin I and Hurin II.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Prologue - Note on the Shire Records," p. 24
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for heru
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for BARAS


Other People of Gondor


Adrahil (I)

Military leader from Belfalas during the war against the Wainriders. Adrahil was the Captain of the Left Wing of the Northern Army of Gondor. In 1944 of the Third Age, Gondor was attacked by hostile Men from Rhun known as the Wainriders. King Ondoher of Gondor led the Northern Army toward Dagorlad to engage the enemy, but the Wainriders ambushed them near the Black Gate.

Ondoher was killed in the first assault and command of the Northern Army was assumed by Minohtar, Captain of the Right Wing, who sent orders to Adrahil. Adrahil retreated with the Left Wing and the rear portion of the Right Wing to guard the narrow passage between Cair Andros and the Mountains of Shadow in an attempt to keep the Wainriders from reaching Minas Anor. Adrahil also sent messengers in search of Earnil, the commander of the Southern Army.

Minohtar was killed in battle and the survivors of his forces retreated to Adrahil's position. Command of the Northern Army presumably fell to Adrahil, but his fate is not recorded. The remnants of the Northern Army joined forces with the Southern Army and Earnil led them to victory over the Wainriders in the Battle of the Camp.

Adrahil was said to be from Dol Amroth, but the city in Belfalas was not so named until after the drowning of the Elf-lord Amroth in the Bay of Belfalas in 1981. It is not clear whether Adrahil held a title. According to one story, the first Prince of Dol Amroth was Galador who lived after Adrahil's time, but according to another story the title of Prince dated back to the founding of Gondor at the end of the Second Age. Adrahil was probably an ancestor of the Prince of Dol Amroth of the same name who was the father of Imrahil.

Names & Etymology:
The name Adrahil is apparently of the Adunaic language of Numenor. It contains a common element with Imrahil. The meaning is not known.

Sources:
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 293-94, 316 note 39


Adrahil (II)

Father of Prince Imrahil of Dol Amroth. Adrahil was born in 2917 of the Third Age. He was the son of Prince Angelimir. Adrahil became the twenty-first Prince of Dol Amroth after his father's death in 2977.

Adrahil had three children. The eldest was a daughter named Ivriniel born in 2947. His daughter Finduilas, born in 2950, married Denethor II and was the mother of Boromir and Faramir. Finduilas died young in 2987. Adrahil's only son and heir Imrahil was born in 2955.

Adrahil died in 3010 and was succeeded by Imrahil.

Names & Etymology:
The name Adrahil is apparently of the Adunaic language of Numenor. It contains a common element with Imrahil. The meaning is not known.

Genealogy:
See Imrahil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Stewards," p. 336
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Appendix on Languages," p. 32; "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 220-23


Aglahad

Nineteenth Prince of Dol Amroth. Aglahad was born in 2827 of the Third Age. His father's name is not known. Aglahad died in 2932 and was succeeded by his son Angelimir.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Aglahad is unknown. It may be of the Adunaic language of Numenor.

Genealogy:
See Imrahil: Genealogy.

Source:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 223


Alphros

Twenty-fourth Prince of Dol Amroth. Alphros was the son of Prince Elphir and the grandson of Prince Imrahil. He was born in 3017 of the Third Age. Alphros succeeded his father as Prince of Dol Amroth in the year 67 of the Fourth Age according to the New Reckoning of Gondor. He died in the year 95. The name of his successor is not known.

Names & Etymology:
The name Alphros appears to contain the word alph meaning "swan" - the symbol of Dol Amroth - and ros meaning "foam."

Genealogy:
See Imrahil: Genealogy.

Source:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 221, 223


Amrothos

Son of Prince Imrahil of Dol Amroth. Amrothos was born in 2994 of the Third Age. He had two older brothers, Elphir and Erchirion, and a younger sister Lothiriel. His date of death is not known.

Names & Etymology:
The name Amrothos is related to Amroth. Dol Amroth was named after an Elf named Amroth whose name means "up climber, high climber" from am or amba meaning "up" and rath meaning "climb." The name is not a pure Sindarin form but was probably influenced by the Silvan language.

Genealogy:
See Imrahil: Genealogy.

Sources:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 221, 223
Unfinished Tales: "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn," p. 245, 255 note 16 (meaning of Amroth)


Anborn

A Ranger of Ithilien named Anborn in the New Line film
Anborn - movieRanger of Ithilien. Anborn was a member of Captain Faramir's company. On March 7, 3019 of the Third Age, Anborn reported to Faramir that he had seen a strange creature climb a tree and hiss at him. Anborn speculated that it might have been a large black squirrel.

In the early hours of March 8, Anborn saw the creature again at the Forbidden Pool. It was Gollum, seeking fish. Anborn asked Faramir whether he should shoot the creature since he had discovered their hidden refuge, but Frodo Baggins asked Faramir to spare Gollum's life since Gollum was bound to him and his quest. Faramir told Anborn to accompany Frodo down to the Pool. Anborn grunted but did as his Captain bid.

When Gollum came to Frodo, Anborn seized the creature by the nape of the neck and put a hood over his head. Anborn carried Gollum into the refuge and brought him before Faramir for questioning. Afterwards Faramir told Anborn to take Gollum away, with instructions to treat him gently but watch him closely.

Names & Etymology:
The name Anborn may mean something like "long enduring." The element and or ann means "long." The element bor means "endure" and boron means "enduring, long-lasting" and "steadfast, trusty man, faithful vassal."

Sources:
The Two Towers: "The Window on the West," p. 283-84; "The Forbidden Pool," p. 293-301
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for ANAD, ANDA and BOR and BORÓN


Angbor

Lord of Lamedon during the War of the Ring. Lamedon was a fiefdom of Gondor south of the White Mountains. On March 11, 3019 of the Third Age, Angbor and his Men were fighting the Men of Umbar and Harad at the fords on the River Gilrain near Linhir when Aragorn arrived leading the Dead. Men on both sides of the battle fled, but Angbor was brave enough to remain. Aragorn called him Angbor the Fearless and told him to summon his Men and come to Pelargir.

Angbor did as he was bid, arriving at Pelargir on the night of March 13. Then Aragorn sent him marching north to Minas Tirith at the head of a company of 4,000 Men of the South while Aragorn himself sailed the fleet seized from the Corsairs up the Anduin. The day after the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, Aragorn said he expected Angbor to arrive in two days on March 18. It is not known whether Angbor accompanied the Host of the West to the Black Gate or whether he remained to guard Minas Tirith.

Names & Etymology:
The name Angbor may mean "iron fist" in Sindarin from ang meaning "iron" and bor from paur meaning "fist." Called Angbor the Fearless by Aragorn.

Sources:
The Return of the King: "The Last Debate," p. 151, 153, 157
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," ANGA & KWAR entries
The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion by Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull: "The Last Debate," p. 588


Angelimir

Twentieth Prince of Dol Amroth. Angelimir was born in 2866 of the Third Age. He was the son of Aglahad. Angelimir succeeded his father as Prince of Dol Amroth in 2932. He ruled until his death in 2977 and was followed by his son Adrahil who was the father of Imrahil.

Names & Etymology:
The name Angelimir is incorrectly spelled Angelimar in Unfinished Tales. The meaning is uncertain. It could be of the Adunaic language of Numenor like Imrahil.

Genealogy:
See Imrahil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Unfinished Tales: "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn," p. 248
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 220-23


Aratan

Second son of Isildur. Aratan was born in Gondor in 3339 of the Second Age. He had an older brother Elendur and two younger brothers, Ciryon and Valandil.

In 3429, Sauron attacked Isildur's stronghold Minas Ithil. Isildur escaped with his wife and sons to Arnor where Isildur's father Elendil lived. Elendil and Gil-galad formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men in 3430. Isildur's youngest son Valandil was born that same year.

During the War of the Last Alliance, Aratan and Ciryon were assigned to guard Minas Ithil in case Sauron tried to escape from Mordor over Cirith Duath. Sauron was defeated in 3441, the last year of the Second Age. Elendil was killed and Isildur became High King of Gondor and Arnor.

In the year 2 of the Third Age, Elendur, Aratan, and Ciryon accompanied their father on a journey to Arnor where they intended to live. In the Gladden Fieldson October 4, they were attacked by Orcs. Ciryon was killed and Aratan was mortally wounded trying to save his brother. Elendur and Isildur were also killed. Valandil - who was still a child and had remained in Rivendell during the war - succeeded Isildur as King of Arnor though he did not claim the kingship of Gondor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Aratan is Quenya meaning "noble Man" from ar meaning "noble, royal" and atan meaning "Man." In an earlier version, his name was Eärnur.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 271, 274, 279-80 note 11
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 191-92, 208
The Silmarillion: "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age," p. 293, 295
Quenya-English Wordlist


Arciryas

Great-grandfather of King Earnil II of Gondor. Arciryas was the son of King Telumehtar. He had an older brother Narmacil II who succeeded their father as King. Arciryas had a son named Calimmacil whose son was Siriondil, father of Earnil II. Earnil II claimed the throne of Gondor after King Ondoher and both his sons were killed in battle in 1944 of the Third Age.

Names & Etymology:
The name Arciryas means "royal ship" in Quenya from ar meaning "noble, royal" and ciryas meaning "ship."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 330
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 216
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Artamir

Heir of King Ondoher of Gondor killed in battle with the Wainriders. Artamir was Ondoher's oldest child. He had a younger brother Faramir and a younger sister Firiel who was born in 1896 of the Third Age. The brothers' birthdates are not known.

In 1944, Gondor was attacked by hostile Men from Rhun called the Wainriders. Artamir accompanied his father and the Northern Army of Gondor as they marched toward Dagorlad to meet the enemy. But the Wainriders surprised the Northern Army near the Black Gate and Ondoher and Artamir were killed side by side in the onslaught. Their bodies were never found.

Faramir had disobeyed orders to remain behind as regent and he was also slain, leaving no direct heir to the throne of Gondor. Firiel's husband Arvedui of the North-kingdom tried to claim the kingship but the Council of Gondor turned him down. In 1945, Earnil - the captain who had defeated the Wainriders in the Battle of the Camp - became King of Gondor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Artamir means "exalted jewel" in Quenya from arta meaning "exalted, lofty" and mir meaning "jewel."

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329-30
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 201, 215; "The Shibboleth of Feanor," p. 354 (meaning of arta)
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 291-92, 294-95
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for mir


Baranor

Father of Beregond. Baranor may also have had another son named Iorlas. He probably lived in the mountain vales of Lossarnach.

Names & Etymology:
The name Baranor may contain the Sindarin word baran meaning "brown."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 33-34, 42-43
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for BARAN


Beregond, Guard of the Citadel

Guard of the Citadel loyal to Faramir. Beregond was the son of Baranor. His people originally came from the vales of the White Mountains - probably in Lossarnach - and before that from Ithilien. Beregond had a son named Bergil, who was ten years old at the time of the War of the Ring and who remained in Minas Tirith during the siege. Beregond also had a younger son named Borlas.

Beregond was a man of arms of the Third Company of the Citadel. He greatly admired Faramir, son of Denethor, the Steward of Gondor. Beregond perceived that Faramir was a brave warrior and great leader of men as well a learned man. Although he did not travel far from Minas Tirith, Beregond was well-informed about the situation throughout Gondor and the rest Middle-earth and the threat posed by Sauron.

On the morning of March 9, 3019 of the Third Age, Beregond had no duties to perform, so he was assigned to instruct Pippin Took - the newest member of the Guard of the Citadel - in the pass-words and other matters. Beregond was interested to meet Pippin, for he had never met a Hobbit before, and he was amazed to find that although Pippin was like a child in appearance he had been through more dangers than most Men of Gondor.

Beregond was greatly concerned when Faramir was pursued back to Minas Tirith by Winged Nazgul on March 10, and he feared for Faramir’s safety when Denethor sent his son back to guard the river crossing the next day. On March 13, Faramir was brought back to the City near death. That night Beregond saw a strange light in the tower, which he believed indicated that Denethor was confronting Sauron with his mind. Beregond was correct – it was the light of the palantir that he saw.

In the early hours of March 15, Beregond was on duty as the sentinel at the gate of the Citadel when Pippin came to tell him that Denethor intended to burn Faramir alive. Beregond had to choose between his duty to remain at his post and his love for his Captain. Beregond ran to the Silent Street to help Faramir. When he came to the Closed Door, the porter would not let him pass and Beregond was forced to kill him – an act he deeply regretted. At the entrance to the House of the Stewards, Beregond slew two of Denethor's servants who were trying to light the funeral pyre and he stood on the steps warding the others off with his sword until Gandalf arrived.

Gandalf rescued Faramir from the pyre, but Denethor drew a knife and advanced on his son. Beregond stepped forward to stop his lord from hurting Faramir. Denethor then committed suicide by setting himself on fire. Beregond helped carry Faramir to the Houses of Healing and Gandalf entrusted him with the key to the Closed Door.

Beregond reported his actions to the Chief of the Guard, and Gandalf recommended that Beregond should be assigned to guard Faramir in the Houses of Healing. Beregond was present when Faramir awoke and he was overjoyed.

On March 18, Beregond set out with the Host of the West to march to the Black Gate. At the Battle of the Morannon on March 25, he stood in the front rank with Pippin. A great Troll-chief stunned Beregond and nearly killed him, but Pippin slew the Troll and saved his friend's life.

After the coronation of Aragorn, King Elessar on May 1, Beregond was brought before the King to receive judgement for leaving his post and for killing the porter and Denethor's servants on hallowed ground. The penalty for these acts was death, but the King showed mercy because Beregond had done them out of love for Faramir and because he had fought bravely in battle. Beregond became the Captain of the Guard of Faramir called the White Company. He went to live in Emyn Arnen in Ithilien to serve his lord, Faramir the Prince of Ithilien.

Names & Etymology:
The element ber means "valiant" and the element gond means "stone."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 32-45; "The Siege of Gondor," p. 81-82, 84, 91, 100-101; "The Pyre of Denethor," passim; "The Houses of Healing," p. 142, 147; "The Black Gate Opens," p. 160, 168-69; "The Steward and the King," p. 247
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for BER and GOND
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "A New Shadow," p. 411, 421 note 15


Berelach

Grandson of Beregond. Berelach was the son of Borlas, the younger son of Beregond. He had an older sister. He lived in the Fourth Age during the reign of King Eldarion.

In his youth, Berelach lived with his father in Ithilien at Pen-arduin on the slopes of the Emyn Arnen overlooking the Anduin. Berelach joined the King's Ships - the navy of Gondor - and was initially stationed near his home at the Harlond of Minas Tirith. He was later given a promotion and moved to Pelargir.

According to an unfinished story called "A New Shadow," Berelach reported to his father that a ship and several sailors had disappeared. Berelach believed there had been an accident, but his friend Saelon implied that something more sinister had happened.

Names & Etymology:
The name Berelach appears to be composed of ber meaning "valiant" and lach meaning "leaping flame."

Sources:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for BER
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "A New Shadow," p. 416-17, 421 note 14
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for lhach


Bergil

Son of Beregond. Bergil was born around 3009 of the Third Age. His mother's name is not known. He had a younger brother named Borlas. Bergil lived in Minas Tirith, where his father was a Guard of the Citadel. Bergil's grandfather lived in Lossarnach, and Bergil enjoyed visiting there in the spring.

Bergil was ten years old at the time of the War of the Ring. At that age, he was nearly five feet tall. Though most of the women and children were evacuated from Minas Tirith, Bergil remained with some other boys in the Old Guesthouse on the Lampwrights' Street. On March 9, 3019, Bergil met Pippin Took and together they went outside the City gates to watch the arrival of the Captains of the Outlands who were coming to defend Minas Tirith.

During the Battle of the Pelennor Fields on March 15, Bergil ran errands for the Healers of the Houses of Healing. On the fourth level of the City, Bergil met Pippin, who was bringing his wounded friend Merry Brandybuck from the battlefield. Bergil ran to the Houses of Healing and Gandalf came down to find the Hobbits. Bergil was then sent to find athelas, and he brought six leaves of the plant to Aragorn who used them to heal Merry, Eowyn, and Faramir.

When the Host of the West set out for the Black Gate on March 18, Bergil and Merry watched them leave. After the War of the Ring, Bergil's father Beregond became the Captain of the Guard of Faramir. Bergil and his father went to live in Emyn Arnen in Ithilien.

Names & Etymology:
Bergil means "valiant star" from ber meaning "valiant" and gil meaning "star."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 40-44; "The Houses of Healing," p. 135, 141; "The Black Gate Opens," p. 159-60; "The Steward and the King," p. 247
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for BER and GIL
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "A New Shadow," p. 411, 421 note 15


Berúthiel

Nefarious Queen of Gondor known for her cats. Queen Beruthiel was the wife of King Tarannon Falastur who reigned from 830 to 913 of the Third Age. Tarannon Falastur expanded Gondor's territory along the southern coasts of Middle-earth.

Beruthiel may have been a Black Numenorean in origin. The Black Numenoreans lived in Harad in southern Middle-earth, particularly along the coasts around Umbar. Their ancestors were Men of Numenor who were corrupted by Sauron and turned to evil. It was highly unusual for a woman of Black Numenorean descent to become the wife of the King of Gondor. How it happened is not known.

Beruthiel's marriage to Tarannon was unhappy. They had no children and they lived in different cities. Tarannon had a house on the water near Pelargir, but Beruthiel moved to the King's House in Osgiliath because she hated the sound and smell of the Sea.

Beruthiel did not like colors or ornaments. She wore only black and silver, and her rooms were bare. There were tormented sculptures under the cypress and yew trees in her garden.

Beruthiel was a conniving and devious woman. She reverted to the evil ways of her people after leaving her husband's home to live alone in Osgiliath. She spied on other people to learn their secrets and gain advantage over them.

For this purpose Beruthiel used her ten cats. She had nine black cats and one white cat. She disliked cats and she tormented them, but they were useful to her because of their stealth and their ability to find their way in the dark. She was able to communicate with them and learn what they discovered on their nocturnal prowls. She had the white cat spy on the black cats to keep them in line.

In the end, Tarannon banished Beruthiel from Gondor. He set her adrift in a ship on the Bay of Belfalas, alone except for her ten cats. A north wind carried Beruthiel's ship past Umbar, but what became of her after that is not known. Her name was stricken from the Book of Kings.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Berúthiel is uncertain. It could be derived from bereth meaning "Queen, spouse of the King" and the feminine ending -iel. However the construction Berúthiel instead of Berethiel is unusual. One theory by Patrick Wynne suggests that the name Berethiel was modified by the people of Gondor to include the word rûth meaning "anger" as a commentary on Beruthiel's nature.

In an earlier version of The Fellowship of the Ring she was named Margoliantë Beruthiel. The meaning of Margoliantë is unknown.

Sources:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "A Journey in the Dark," p. 325
Unfinished Tales: "The Istari," p. 401-402 note 7
The History of Middle-earth, vol. VI, The Return of the Shadow: "The Mines of Moria," p. 464 note 26 (Margoliante Beruthiel)
The Road Goes Ever On, p. 66
"The Realms of Tolkien" by Daphne Castell in New Worlds, November, 1966, p. 147-148. Online text at Fantastic Metropolis. (Interview with Tolkien mentioning Queen Beruthiel as a Black Numenorean.)
"Essitalmar" by Patrick Wynne in Vinyar Tengwar 6, June 1989, p. 10. (Theory on Beruthiel containing the word ruth = anger.)
A Journey in the Dark: Reflections on the Identity of Queen Beruthiel by Chris Seeman


Borlas

Younger son of Beregond. Borlas was a young child during the War of the Ring (3018-19). He had an older brother Bergil who was born around 3009 of the Third Age. Their father Beregond was a Guard of the Citadel in Minas Tirith. After the War, Beregond became the Captain of the White Company and the family relocated to Emyn Arnen in Ithilien. Borlas later joined the White Company.

Borlas lived to an old age. He was still alive during the reign of King Eldarion, who succeeded Aragorn, King Elessar, in 120 of the Fourth Age. Borlas outlived his wife by at least ten years. They had a daughter and a son named Berelach who joined Gondor's navy. Borlas lived in Pen-arduin on the western slopes of Emyn Arnen overlooking the Anduin.

According to an unfinished story called "A New Shadow," Borlas became concerned about a resurgence of evil that threatened to disrupt the peace that followed Sauron's defeat. He had a disturbing conversation with Saelon, a friend of his son Berelach. Saelon invited Borlas to meet him at night to investigate the rumors, but before he could do so Borlas felt an evil presence in his own house. The story ends at that point, and the fate of Borlas is unknown.

Names & Etymology:
The name Borlas is composed of the Sindarin bor meaning "steadfast" and las from glass meaning "joy." He was called Borlas of Pen-arduin.

Source:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for BOR and GALAS
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "A New Shadow," p. 409-421


Boromir, member of the Fellowship

See the full-page entry for Boromir.


Borondir

Messenger of Gondor sent to find Eorl the Young. Borondir was descended from a captain of the Northmen who had served the Kings of Gondor centuries earlier. In 2510 of the Third Age, Gondor was threatened by hostile Men from Rhun called the Balchoth. Cirion, the Steward of Gondor, sent six riders north to seek help from the Eotheod who were the remnants of the Northmen.

Borondir volunteered for the mission and was chosen because of his courage and endurance and his skill as a rider. The six riders were dispatched in pairs. Borondir and his companion were the first to depart on March 10. The riders memorized a message and each carried a stone bearing the Steward's seal.

The distance from Minas Tirith to the land of the Eotheod at the source of the Anduin was about 950 miles. The riders first travelled through Calenardhon west of the Anduin and then crossed the river at the Undeeps. There the journey became dangerous because the Balchoth patrolled the eastern bank of the river.

As they passed Dol Guldur in Mirkwood, Borondir and his companion were ambushed. Borondir's companion was killed by arrows but Borondir escaped. Enemy forces pursued Borondir to the Gladden Fields and others came out of the forest forcing him to detour. On the thirteenth day of his journey Borondir ran out of food.

Finally after fifteen days Borondir reached the Eotheod on March 25 and delivered his message. Eorl agreed to come to Gondor's aid and he set out with an army on April 6. Borondir rode with Eorl as a guide. As they passed Dol Guldur a dark shadow flowed toward them, but then a white mist came from Lothlorien across the Anduin and drove back the darkness and hid Eorl's army from view. Borondir speculated that Galadriel had sent the mist to help them.

On April 15, Eorl's army arrived at the Field of Celebrant where Cirion and the forces of Gondor were already fighting the Balchoth. Borondir was the first across the Limlight and he rode to Cirion's side. Borondir was killed defending Cirion during the Battle of the Field of Celebrant. He was buried in the Hallows of Minas Tirith and he was remembered in a song called Rochon Methestel - "Rider of the Last Hope."

Names & Etymology:
The name Borondir means "enduring man" from boron meaning "enduring" and the masculine ending dir. He was known as Borondir Udalraph meaning "Borondir the Stirrupless." In song he was called Rochon Methestel meaning "Rider of the Last Hope."

Sources:
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 296-99, 313 note 27
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for BORON and DER


Calimehtar

Grandfather of Castamir the Usurper. Calimehtar was the second son of King Calmacil of Gondor. He had an older brother Minalcar who became King Romendacil II.

The name of Calimehtar's son or daughter is not known, but his grandson was Castamir. In 1437 of the Third Age, Castamir usurped the throne of Gondor from Eldacar and ruled for ten years until Eldacar returned and killed him in the Battle of the Crossings of Erui in 1447. Castamir's descendants became the Corsairs of Umbar.

Names & Etymology:
The name Calimehtar means "bright warrior" in Quenya from calima meaning "bright" and ohtar meaning "warrior." Also spelled Kalimehtar. There was also a King of Gondor named Calimehtar.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 327
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 282 note 17 (meaning of ohtar)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for KAL
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 199


Calimmacil

Grandfather of King Earnil II of Gondor. Calimmacil was the son of Arciryas. Arciryas was the son of King Telumehtar and the younger brother of King Narmacil II. Calimmacil had a son named Siriondil who was the father of Earnil. Earnil II claimed the throne of Gondor after King Ondoher and his sons were killed in battle against the Wainriders in 1944 of the Third Age.

Names & Etymology:
The name Calimmacil means "Bright Sword" from calima meaning "bright" and macil meaning "sword."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 330
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for KAL and MAK
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 201, 216
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Ciryon

Third son of Isildur. Ciryon was born in Minas Ithil in 3379 of the Second Age. He had two older brothers - Elendur and Aratan - and a younger brother Valandil.

In 3429, Minas Ithil was attacked by Sauron. Isildur escaped to Arnor with his wife and sons. The youngest son Valandil was born the next year in Rivendell. Isildur's father Elendil formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men with Gil-galad.

The War of the Last Alliance against Sauron lasted from 3434 to 3441. Ciryon and his brother Aratan were assigned to guard Minas Ithil to prevent Sauron from escaping over Cirith Duath. In 3441, Elendil and Gil-galad were killed but Sauron was defeated and Isildur took the One Ring from him.

Isildur became High King of Gondor and Arnor. In the year 2 of the Third Age, he set out for Arnor with his three oldest sons and a company of 200 knights. They were attacked by Orcs in the Gladden Fields on October 4.

After nightfall, the company was surrounded. Ciryon was seized by Orcs and was killed, and his brother Aratan was mortally wounded trying to save him. Elendur and Isildur also perished and the Ring was lost. Valandil became the King of Arnor, though he did not claim the kingship of Gondor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Ciryon is derived from the Quenya word cirya meaning "ship." In an earlier edition he was named Veandur.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 271, 274, 279-80 note 11
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p.  p. 191-92, 208
The Silmarillion: "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age," p. 293, 295; "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for kir


Damrod

Alistair Browning as a Ranger of Ithilien named Damrod in the New Line film
Damrod - movieRanger of Ithlien. Damrod was one of the Dunedain of the South, descended from the Numenoreans of old. His people had once lived in Ithilien before it was deserted by all but the Rangers, who patrolled on the outskirts of Mordor and harried the Enemy forces they found there.

Damrod served as a member of Captain Faramir's company. He wore the green and brown clothing of the Rangers that served as camouflage, and he had a green hood and mask and green gauntlets. He was tall with fair skin, dark hair, and grey eyes. Damrod could speak both the Common Speech and a form of Elvish, and he knew of the Valar and called upon them in time of need.

On March 7, 3019 of the Third Age, Captain Faramir's company was preparing to ambush a regiment of Haradrim when they encounted Frodo Baggins and Sam Gamgee. Faramir assigned Damrod and Mablung to guard the Hobbits while his company proceeded with the attack. Afterwards, Damrod and Mablung were chosen to escort the Hobbits to Henneth Annun while Faramir questioned them about their quest. The two Rangers blindfolded Frodo and Sam before bringing them into the hidden refuge.

Names & Etymology:
The name Damrod means "hammerer of copper or metal" composed of dam meaning "hammer, beat" and rod meaning "copper" or "metal."

Sources:
The Two Towers: "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit," p. 264-70; "The Window on the West," p. 276-77, 281-82
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for NDAM and RAUTA


Derufin and Duilin

Archers of the Blackroot Vale. Derufin and Duilin were the sons of Duinhir. They were both tall.

During the War of the Ring, Derufin and Duilin accompanied their father and 500 archers to Minas Tirith to aid in the defense of the City. They arrived on March 9, 3019 of the Third Age. 

At the Battle of the Pelennor Fields on March 15, Derufin and Duilin led an attack on the great Oliphaunts. The brothers tried to get close to the creatures to shoot out their eyes, but both Derufin and Duilin were trampled to death by the giant beasts.

Names & Etymology:
The name Duilin may mean "river song" from dui or duin meaning "river" and lin meaning "sing."

The meaning of Derufin is not clear. Some of the elements it could contain are der meaning "man," rúnya or roina meaning "red, ruddy," fin meaning "hair," or rhufen meaning "east."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 43; "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields," p. 124-25
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for ruin
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for DER, DUI, LIN2, RO, ROY2, and SPIN

Decipher cards of Derufin (top)
and Duilin (bottom)
Derufin - movie

Duilin


Dervorin

Son of the Lord of the Ringlo Vale. Dervorin was from the river valley of the Ringlo in Lamedon in southern Gondor. On March 9, 3019 of the Third Age, Dervorin led 300 men to Minas Tirith to help defend the city against the forces of Mordor. The Battle of the Pelennor Fields was fought the next week on March 15.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Dervorin is not certain. The element der means "man." The element vorin may be derived from bor meaning "endure" or from voronda - alternate form vórima - meaning "steadfast in allegiance, in keeping oath or promise, faithful."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 43
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 317 note 43 (voronda/vorima)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for BOR and DER

Decipher card of Dervorin
Dervorin


Duinhir

Lord of the Blackroot Vale during the War of the Ring. Duinhir was a tall man. He had two sons named Derufin and Duilin. On March 9, 3019 of the Third Age, Duinhir came to Minas Tirith with his sons and 500 archers to help defend the City. They fought in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields on March 15. Both of Duinhir's sons died in the battle.

Names & Etymology:
Duinhir means "river lord" from duin meaning "river" and hîr meaning "lord." His name was probably a reference to the Blackroot River, or Morthond, which began in the Blackroot Vale. 

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 43; "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields," p. 124-25
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for duin and heru
 

Decipher card of Duinhir
Duinhir


Elendur

Oldest son and heir of Isildur. Elendur was born in Numenor in 3299 of the Second Age. He was a man of great strength and wisdom, and he was majestic withoug being proud. He closely resembled his grandfather Elendil.

Numenor was destroyed in 3319. Elendur escaped along with his father, his uncle Anarion, and his grandfather Elendil - leaders of the Faithful who had resisted the corrupting influence of Sauron. They founded the realms of Gondor and Arnor in Middle-earth.

Elendil was the High King and lived in Arnor while Isildur and Anarion jointly ruled Gondor. Isildur and his family lived in Minas Ithil. Elendur's younger brothers Aratan and Ciryon were born in Gondor in 3339 and 3379.

In 3429, Sauron attacked Minas Ithil. Isildur escaped with his family to Arnor. Elendur's youngest brother Valandil was born in Rivendell the next year. Elendil formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men with Gil-galad and they marched to war against Sauron. Elendur, Aratan, and Ciryon accompanied their father while the infant Valandil remained in Rivendell with his mother.

Elendur was at his father's side throughout the War of the Last Alliance from 3434 to 3441. He took part in the Battle of Dagorlad and the Siege of Barad-dur. Elendur was not with his father on the slopes of Mount Doom when Elendil, Gil-galad, and Sauron all perished, but he knew that Isildur had claimed the One Ring.

After the war, Isildur intended to claim the title of High King and live in Arnor as Elendil had done. Elendur was his father's heir. Gondor was left in the care of Anarion's son Meneldil.

Elendur, Aratan, and Ciryon began the journey north with their father in the year 2 of the Third Age. They were accompanied by 200 knights and soldiers including Elendur's esquire Estelmo. In the Gladden Fields on October 4, they were attacked by Orcs. Isildur and his men were able to repel the initial assault, but they were outnumbered ten to one and after nightfall the Orcs surrounded them.

Elendur suggested that Isildur use the One Ring to compel the Orcs to retreat, but Isildur was unable to use the Ring's power. The Orcs renewed their assault and Ciryon and Aratan were killed. Elendur begged Isildur to flee in order to prevent the Orcs from capturing the Ring.

Elendur died commanding the remaining troops. His esquire Estelmo was one of only three survivors of the company of 200. Estelmo was later found unconscious under Elendur's body and was able to tell his rescuers what had happened.

Isildur did not escape. He was killed and the One Ring was lost in the waters of the Gladden Fields. Valandil became King of Arnor and his descendant Aragorn, King Elessar, bore a strong resemblance in looks and character to Valandil's brother Elendur.

Names & Etymology:
The name Elendur means "Star servant." The word elen means "star" and is here probably a reference to the Elves, or Eldar, the People of the Stars. The ending ndur meaning "to serve." In an earlier version he was named Kiryandil.

Sources:
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 271-76, 279-80 note 11, 282 note 18, 283-84 note 26
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 191-92, 208
The Silmarillion: "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age," p. 293, 295
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #297 footnote
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Elphir

Son and heir of Prince Imrahil of Dol Amroth. Elphir was born in 2987 of the Third Age. He was Imrahil's oldest son. He had three younger siblings: Erchirion, Amrothos, and Lothiriel, who married King Eomer of Rohan.

Elphir was about 32 years old at the time of the War of the Ring but whether he participated in any battles is unknown. Elphir became the 23rd Prince of Dol Amroth after his father's death in the year 34 of the Fourth Age. Elphir died in 67 and was succeeded by his son Alphros.

Note:
In HoME XII, p. 223, Elphir's death date is incorrectly given as 57 F.A. in the table, while the correct date of 67 F.A. is given in the text. Also note that these Fourth Age dates are calculated in the New Reckoning of Gondor. According to the reckoning used in the Shire, Imrahil's date of death would be 33 F.A. and Elphir's date of death would be 66 F.A.

Names & Etymology:
The name Elphir may contain the element alph meaning "swan" - the symbol of Dol Amroth - and the ending hîr meaning "lord."

Genealogy:
See Imrahil: Genealogy.

Sources:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for ALAK, KHER, and PHIR
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 221, 223


Erchirion

Son of Prince Imrahil of Dol Amroth. Erchirion was born in 2990 of the Third Age. He had an older brother Elphir, a younger brother Amrothos, and a younger sister Lothiriel. His date of death is not known.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Erchirion is unknown. The masculine ending -ion means "son of." The first element may be er meaning "alone" or possibly ar meaning "noble." The middle element may be hîr meaning "lord" or possibly the root kir denoting "ship" where cirion means "sailor."

There is a word erch meaning "prickle" related to ereg meaning "holly tree" but this does not make much sense in this context.

Sources:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for ERE, EREK, KHER, KIR and YO, YON
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 221, 223


Faramir, son of Ondoher

Second son of King Ondoher of Gondor. Faramir had a brother named Artamir who was three years older. He also had a younger sister Firiel who was born in 1896 of the Third Age.

In 1944, Gondor was invaded by the Wainriders from Rhun. King Ondoher led the Northern Army to stop them accompanied by Artamir. Faramir was ordered to remain behind as regent because both heirs to the throne could not go to war at the same time. But Faramir disobeyed and he joined Gondor's allies the Eotheod in disguise.

The Wainriders defeated the Northern Army and the Eotheod. A company of the Eotheod retreated toward the Dead Marshes, and Faramir was mortally wounded. He died in the arms of the leader of the Eotheod who discovered Faramir's true identity from tokens that he carried.

Ondoher and Artamir were also killed in battle and there was no direct heir to the throne. Firiel's husband Arvedui of the North-kingdom made a claim to the throne but it was rejected by the Council of Gondor. Finally in 1945, Earnil - who had defeated the Wainriders in the Battle of the Camp - became King of Gondor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Faramir may mean "sufficient jewel" from phar meaning "suffice" and mir meaning "jewel."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329-30
Unfinished Tales: "Cirion and Eorl," p. 291, 294-95
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for MIR and PHAR,
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 201


Findegil

Scribe of Gondor. Findegil was a King's Writer who completed a fair copy of The Thain's Book in Minas Tirith in the year 172 of the Fourth Age. The copy was probably made at the request of the great-grandson of Thain Peregrin I and was brought to the Shire, where it was kept in the Great Smials at Tuckborough.

Findegil's copy of The Thain's Book became an important source of information on the role of the Hobbits in the War of the Ring and was the only copy to include Bilbo's complete Translations from the Elvish, a history of the Elder Days which he compiled while at Rivendell between 3003 and
3018 of the Third Age.

Source:
The Fellowship of the Ring: "Prologue: Note on the Shire Records," p. 23-24


Finduilas

Wife of Denethor II, mother of Boromir and Faramir. Finduilas was born in 2950 of the Third Age. She was the second daughter of Prince Adrahil of Dol Amroth. She had an older sister named Ivriniel and a younger brother named Imrahil, who was the Prince of Dol Amroth during the War of the Ring.

Finduilas was a beautiful and gentle-hearted woman. In 2976, she married Denethor II, the Steward of Gondor. She bore him two sons: Boromir, born in 2978, and Faramir, born in 2983. But Finduilas was unhappy in Minas Tirith far from Dol Amroth and the Sea and she greatly feared the growing Shadow in Mordor across the Anduin. She died in 2988, and after her death her husband Denethor became more grim and remote.

Faramir gave a mantle that had once belonged to his mother to Eowyn of Rohan as they waited in the Houses of Healing while the Host of the West marched to Mordor in March of 3019. The mantle was of deep blue set with silver stars around the hem and collar and it reminded Faramir of his mother's beauty and the grief he felt at her loss.

Names & Etymology:
The name Finduilas may be Telerian in origin. The meaning is uncertain. The element fin means "hair" and the element las means "leaf."

Genealogy:
For the family tree of Finduilas, see Imrahil: Genealogy.

Sources:
The Return of the King: "The Steward and the King," p. 239-40
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion: The Stewards," p. 336-37
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for fin
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for LAS1
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Appendix on Languages," p. 36; "The Heirs of Elendil," genealogical chart of the Princes of Dol Amroth, p. 221


Fíriel

Queen of Arthedain in the North-kingdom of Arnor. Firiel was the daughter of King Ondoherof Gondor. She was born in 1896 of the Third Age. She had two older brothers named Artamir and Faramir.

King Ondoher formed an alliance with King Araphant of Arthedain - the only remaining Kingdom in Arnor. Gondor and Arnor had been separated for nearly 2,000 years, but Ondoher and Araphant realized that they were in danger from a common enemy and they took counsel with one another. In 1940, Firiel married Araphant's heir Arvedui and moved to the North-kingdom.

In 1944, Firiel's father and brothers were killed in battle against the Wainriders - a hostile race of Men from the East. There was no surviving male heir to the throne of Gondor.

Arvedui made a claim to the throne of Gondor based in part on his marriage to Firiel. He argued that women were able to inherit the throne in Numenor - where the ancestors of the Dunedain of Gondor and Arnor originated. He also argued that he himself was a descendant of Elendil, the first High King of Gondor and Arnor, through the line of Isildur.

But the Council of Gondor rejected Arvedui's claim. They replied that in Gondor the kingship passed through the male line only, and through the line of Elendil's son Anarion, not Isildur. Earnil II, a captain of the Royal House, became the King of Gondor instead.

Firiel and Arvedui had a son named Aranarth and at least one other son. Arvedui succeeded his father as King of Arthedain in 1964.

Arthedain was conquered by the Witch-king of Angmar in 1974. Arvedui fled north and was drowned in a shipwreck on the Icebay of Forochel. His children escaped west to Lindon, where a number of Elves lived. It is not known whether Firiel was with them or what became of her afterwards.

Aranarth took the title of Chieftain of the Dunedain of the North. Through his mother Firiel, he and his descendants had the blood of the Kings of Gondor as well as of Arnor. The last Chieftain of the Dunedain was Aragorn who became King of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor.

Names & Etymology:
Fíriel is a Quenya name meaning "mortal woman" from the word fir meaning "die, fade."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The North-kingdom and the Dunedain," p. 321-23; "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 329-30
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 367
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 195, 201-2, 215-16; "The Tale of Years of the Third Age," p. 232
"The Adventures of Tom Bombadil" in The Tolkien Reader: Preface, 192-93 and note 2
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Forlong the Fat

Lord of Lossarnach during the War of the Ring. Forlong was very large in girth, earning him the sobriquet Forlong the Fat. At the time of the War of the Ring, he was old and his beard was grey. Forlong was well-loved and admired by the people of Gondor.

Forlong came to Minas Tirith on March 9, 3019 of the Third Age. He wore mail and a black helmet and carried a long spear. With him came a company of 200 men to help defend the City. Forlong had to leave many of his men behind to guard Lossarnach from the threat of the Corsairs.

At the Battle of the Pelennor Fields on March 15, Forlong rode out from the City to the aid of the Rohirrim along with Prince Imrahil, Hurin of the Keys, and Hirluin of the Green Hills. Later on, Forlong lost his horse and became separated from his Men. He was killed by Enemy soldiers wielding axes.

Names & Etymology:
The name Forlong was not of Elvish origin but was instead from the time before the Numenoreans founded Gondor. The meaning is unknown.

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 43; "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields," p. 121, 124-25
Appendix F of The Lord of the Rings: "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age," p. 407


Galador

First Prince of Dol Amroth. Galador was born in Belfalas in 2004 of the Third Age. He had a sister named Gilmith. His father was Imrazor, a Man of Numenorean descent. His mother was Mithrellas, a Silvan Elf of Lothlorien.

Mithrellas was one of the companions of Nimrodel. They became lost on their way to the Elf-haven of Edhellond in 1981. Mithrellas was given shelter by Imrazor and married him, but after the births of their children she ran away and was not seen again.

The Princes of Dol Amroth who were descended from Galador had both the blood of Elves and of the Men of Numenor. Galador was the first Prince of Dol Amroth according to one story, although according to another story the title of Prince was granted to his ancestors by Elendil after the founding of Gondor. The discrepancy between the two versions may be due to the fact that Dol Amroth was not so named until Galador's time.

Galador died in 2129. The name of his successor is not known.

Names & Etymology:
The name Galador may contain the word galad meaning "radiant," although the word galadh meaning "tree" could be intended. The ending -dor may be from taur meaning "high, noble, lord."

Sources:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 220-22
Unfinished Tales: "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn," p. 248; "Cirion and Eorl," p. 316 note 39
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for GALAD, KAL, and TA, TA3


Gilmith

Lady of Dol Amroth. Gilmith was the daughter of Imrazor and Mithrellas. Imrazor was a Man of Numenorean descent who lived in Belfalas. Mithrellas was a Silvan Elf of Lothlorien who accompanied Nimrodel to Belfalas in 1980 of the Third Age in order to sail to the Undying Lands. Mithrellas became lost and was given shelter by Imrazor. They married and had two children, Gilmith and a son named Galador. But then Mithrellas ran away and was never seen again. Gilmith's brother Galador became the first Lord of Dol Amroth.

Names & Etymology:
The name Gilmith means "grey star" from gil meaning "star" and mith meaning "grey."

Sources:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 221
Unfinished Tales: "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn," p. 248
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for gil and mith


Golasgil

Lord of Anfalas during the War of the Ring. Golasgil ruled the coastal fiefdom in far western Gondor. His people were mainly hunters, herdsmen, and fishermen who lived in small villages. Golasgil brought a number of his Men to Minas Tirith on March 9, 3019 of the Third Age, to help defend the City against Sauron's forces. Most of the Men of Anfalas were poorly equipped except for those of Golasgil's household.

Names & Etymology:
The name Golasgil may be composed of the Sindarin words golas meaning "collection of leaves" and gil meaning "star," but this translation is uncertain.

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 43
The Silmarilllion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for gil
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien: Letter #211, #297


Hirluin

Lord of the Green Hills during the War of the Ring. Hirluin led a company of 300 green-clad Men from the Green Hills in southwestern Gondor to the defense of Minas Tirith. They arrived on March 9, 3019 of the Third Age. Hirluin fought at the Battle of the Pelennor Fields on March 15. He rode to the aid of Eomer and the Rohirrim along with Prince Imrahil, Hurin of the Keys, and Forlong. Hirluin of the Green Hills was killed during the battle and his name was remembered in a song written by a minstrel of Rohan.

Names & Etymology:
Also called Hirluin the Fair.

The meaning of Hirluin is not certain. The element hîr means "lord, master." The word luin means "blue" in Sindarin but it may also mean "pale" or "fair" in Doriathrin. Possible meanings of Hirluin are thus "blue lord" or "fair lord."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 43; "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields," p. 121, 124-25
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for KHER and LUG2
A Tolkien Dictionary by Robert Ireland


Hirgon

Messenger of Gondor. Hirgon and another messenger were sent by Denethor, the Steward of Gondor, to seek the help of the Rohirrim in the coming battle against the forces of Sauron. They arrived at Dunharrow on March 9, 3019 of the Third Age. Hirgon was tall and grey-eyed and he reminded Merry Brandybuck of Boromir. He wore a dark green cloak and a coat of mail and a helm with a small silver star.

Hirgon presented King Theoden with the Red Arrow, a token of war used to summon the Rohirrim to the aid of Gondor in time of need. It had not been seen in Rohan for many years. Hirgon told Theoden that Gondor was threatened by armies from the east and south and said that if Minas Tirith fell, Rohan would follow. Theoden agreed to come with at least 6,000 men but said it would take about a week to reach Minas Tirith. Hirgon was dismayed by this news, for he feared that Minas Tirith would be destroyed before then unless help came from elsewhere.

Hirgon spent the night in Dunharrow and witnessed the Muster of Rohan the next morning. Then he and his companion set out for Minas Tirith, but when they reached the outer wall of the city sometime around the night of March 12 they found that the forces of the Enemy were there before them. Hirgon and the other messenger turned westward to flee but they and their horses were killed and Hirgon was beheaded. When the Rohirrim passed through the Druadan Forest on March 14, they found his headless body still holding the Red Arrow, and they feared that news of their coming had never reached Denethor.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Hirgon is not certain. The element hîr means "lord, master." The ending -gon means "valor," as in the name Turgon. A possible meaning is therefore "valiant lord." Another possibility is "stone lord" from the word gond meaning "stone."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "The Muster of Rohan," p. 71-74; "The Ride of the Rohirrim," p. 109-110
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for GOND, KAN, and KHER


Húrin of the Keys

Warden of the Keys of Minas Tirith. Hurin held a position of importance in Gondor and was addressed as Lord Hurin. He fought at the Battle of the Pelennor Fields on March 15, 3019 of the Third Age. When Eomer and the Rohirrim were outnumbered and hard pressed, Hurin rode to their aid along with Forlong of Lossarnach, Hirluin of the Green Hills, and Prince Imrahil of Dol Amroth.

Hurin was left in command of the men of Gondor who remained in Minas Tirith when the Host of the West marched to the Black Gate. On May 1, Hurin and Faramir, the Steward of Gondor, came forth from Minas Tirith to meet Aragorn. Aragorn was crowned King Elessar, and Hurin pushed back the barrier at the Gate of Minas Tirith and the King entered the City.

Names & Etymology:
Also called Lord Hurin andHurin the Tall.

The name Húrin is composed of hûr meaning "readiness for action, vigor, fiery spirit" and inn meaning "inner thought, meaning, heart." Hurin was the name of a hero of the First Age, and it was also the name of three Stewards of Gondor.

Sources:
The Return of the King: "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields," p. 121; "The Steward and the King," p. 237, 244-46
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for KHOR and ID


Imrahil

See the full-page entry for Imrahil.


Imrazôr

Forefather of the Princes of Dol Amroth. Imrazor was born in 1950 of the Third Age. He was of Numenorean descent. His ancestors left Numenor before it was destroyed in 3319 of the Second Age and settled in Belfalas. They were akin to Elendil and they were among the Faithful who rejected Sauron's efforts to corrupt the Numenoreans.

In 1981 of the Third Age, Imrazor gave shelter to an Elf named Mithrellas who had become lost in the White Mountains while travelling to Edhellond with Nimrodel and Amroth. Imrazor and Mithrellas married and had two children - a son Galador, born in 2004, and a daughter Gilmith. Sometime after Gilmith's birth, Mithrellas left home and Imrazor never saw her again.

Imrazor died in 2076. His son Galador became the first Prince of Dol Amroth and his descendants had both Numenorean and Elvish blood.

Names & Etymology:
The name Imrazôr is from the Adunaic language of Numenor. The meaning is unknown. He was called Imrazor the Numenorean because he was of Numenorean descent.

Although Galador is said to be the first Prince of Dol Amroth, Imrazor may also have been a Prince. According to one story, Elendil gave the title of Prince to one of Imrazor's ancestors after the foundation of Gondor. It is not clear whether these two stories are contradictory or whether it is a matter of semantics in that Dol Amroth was not named until after Amroth's death in 1981.

Genealogy:
See Imrahil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Unfinished Tales: "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn," p. 248; "Cirion and Eorl," p. 316 note 39
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 220-23


Ingold

A Gondorian named Ingold in the New Line film
IngoldMan of Gondor. On March 9, 3019 of the Third Age, Ingold was the leader of a group of Men finishing the repairs on the Rammas Echor encircling Minas Tirith. At dawn, Gandalf the White arrived at Forannest - the north-gate - with Peregrin Took. Ingold gave Gandalf leave to enter but he was reluctant to let his companion pass without learning his identity. Pippin informed Ingold that he was a Hobbit and that he had news of the death of Boromir, son of the Steward. Gandalf vouched for Pippin and Ingold sent them through to bring the news to Denethor.

Sauron's forces breached the Rammas Echor on March 13, and Ingold led the last remnant of the guard from the wall to Minas Tirith. He brought news of Enemy battalions that had crossed the Anduin near Cair Andros and held the northward road. Ingold mistakenly surmised that the Rohirrim would no longer be able to come to the aid of Gondor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Ingold was a form of Ingoldo meaning "the Noldo; one eminent among the Elves of the Noldor." Noldor means "the Wise" from ngol meaning "wise, wisdom." Ingoldo was a name used for Finrod of the Noldor, and it was later adapted to Ingold by the Numenoreans and became a common name among the Men of Numenor and Gondor.

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 20-22; "The Siege of Gondor," p. 95
The Silmarillion: Index, entry for Noldor
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for NGOL
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Shibboleth of Feanor," p. 360


Ioreth

Ioreth with Aragorn
unused image from the New Line film
IorethWise-woman of Gondor. At the time of the War of the Ring, Ioreth was the eldest of the women who worked in the Houses of Healing in Minas Tirith. She was skilled at her work, but she had a tendency to chatter.

Ioreth worked long and hard helping the wounded after the Battle of the Pelennor Fields on March 15, 3019 of the Third Age. When Faramir was brought to the Houses of Healing, Ioreth wept.

"Alas! if he should die. Would that there were kings in Gondor, as there were once upon a time, they say! For it is said in old lore: The hands of the king are the hands of a healer. And so the rightful king could ever be known."
The Return of the King: "The Houses of Healing," p. 136
At her words, Gandalf realized that Aragorn should be brought in to tend Faramir, as well as Merry and Eowyn who were gravely ill as a result of their contact with the Lord of the Nazgul. Aragorn asked Ioreth for athelas. Ioreth recognized the plant by its common name, kingsfoil, for she had seen it growing in the woods near Lossarnach where she walked with her sisters. But she was unaware of any healing properties of the plant and told Aragorn that there was none in the Houses of Healing.

Aragorn sent Ioreth off to find some athelas and at last six leaves were found. Aragorn used the athelas to revive Faramir, Merry, and Eowyn. Ioreth was amazed and said the scent reminded her of the roses of Imloth Melui from her youth. She was equally amazed to learn that Aragorn was the rightful King. On May 1, Ioreth attended Aragorn's coronation with her kinswoman from Imloth Melui.

Names & Etymology:
The name Ioreth means "old woman." The stem ior comes from iaur meaning "old, ancient" while -eth is a feminine ending.

Sources:
The Return of the King: "The Houses of Healing," p. 136-37, 139-42; "The Steward and the King," p. 244-45
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for YA
The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion by Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull: "The Houses of Healing," p. 579


Iorlas

Uncle of Bergil. Iorlas was 29 years old at the time of the War of the Ring. It is not clear whether he was the brother of Bergil's mother or his father Beregond. If the latter, then Iorlas was the son of Baranor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Iorlas may mean "old joy." The element ior is from iaur meaning "old" and las may be from glas meaning "joy." The word las also means "leaf."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 41-42
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for GALAS and YA


Ivriniel

Sister of Prince Imrahil of Dol Amroth. Ivriniel was born in 2947 of the Third Age. She was the eldest child of Prince Adrahil of Dol Amroth. She had a younger sister Finduilas - wife of Denethor II, Steward of Gondor - and a younger brother Imrahil.

Names & Etymology:
The name Ivriniel is composed of ivrin, which may be the plural of ivren possibly meaning "crystalline, of crystal" and the feminine ending -iel. The word ivrin is nowhere defined, but the possible meaning "of crystal" is based on the description of the crystal waters of Eithel Ivrin, the source of the Narog in Beleriand. (Silmarillion, p. 209-10)

Genealogy:
See Imrahil: Genealogy.

Sources:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 221, 223
Gateway to Sindarin by David Salo, p. 266
Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary
Tolkien Language Archives


Lothíriel

Wife of King Eomer of Rohan. Lothiriel was the daughter of Prince Imrahil of Dol Amroth; her mother's name is not known. Lothiriel was born in 2999 of the Third Age. She had three older brothers: Elphir, Erchirion, and Amrothos.

Lothiriel married Eomer in the last year of the Third Age. They had at least one son named Elfwine the Fair who became the 19th King of Rohan on the death of his father in the year 63 of the Fourth Age. Lothiriel's date of death is not known.

Names & Etymology:
Lothíriel means "flower garlanded maiden." The word loth means "flower, blossom." The element riel means "garlanded maiden" from the root rig meaning "twine, wreathe" and the feminine ending -iel.

Genealogy:
See Imrahil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The House of Eorl," p. 352
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for kal- (gal-) and loth
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil - The Line of Dol Amroth," p. 221


Mablung

A Ranger of Ithilien named Mablung in the New Line film
Mablung - movieRanger of Ithilien. Mablung was a member of Captain Faramir's company. They patrolled Ithilien on the outskirts of Mordor. Mablung was tall with dark hair and grey eyes and he wore the green and brown raiment of the Rangers with green gauntlets, hood and mask. He and the other Rangers were Dunedain of the South of the line of the Lords of Westernesse. He knew both the Common Speech and a form of Elvish.

On March 7, 3019 of the Third Age, Mablung was with Faramir when he encountered Frodo Baggins and Sam Gamgee. The Rangers were preparing to ambush a regiment of Haradrim heading to Mordor when they saw the smoke from the Hobbits' campfire. Faramir left Mablung and Damrod to guard Frodo and Sam during the battle between the Rangers and the Haradrim.

Faramir returned and questioned Frodo, but when the talk turned to sensitive matters he dismissed all his men except Mablung and Damrod. The two Rangers escorted their Captain and the Hobbits through Ithilien. When they drew near to the secret outpost at Henneth Annun, Mablung and Damrod blindfolded Frodo and Sam and guided them, carrying them over rough terrain where necessary.

In late March, the Host of the West passed through Ithilien on the way to the Black Gate. Mablung led a band of scouts who warned the Host of an approaching force of Orcs and Easterlings and thus prevented an ambush.

Names & Etymology:
Mablung means "heavy hand" from mab meaning "hand" and lunga meaning "heavy." There was also an Elf named Mablung.

Sources:
The Two Towers: "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit," p. 264-70; "The Window on the West," p. 276-77, 281-82
The Return of the King: "The Black Gate Opens," p. 162
The Silmarillion: Index, entry for Mablung of the Heavy Hand (an Elf of Doriath)
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," MAP and LUG1 entries


Minastan

Father of King Tarondor of Gondor. Minastan was the second son of King Minardil. He had an older brother Telemnar. King Minardail was slain by Corsairs in 1634 of the Third Age. Telemnar succeeded his father as King but he died two years later in the Great Plague of 1636. Minastan was apparently also dead by this time because it was his son Tarondor who became the next King of Gondor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Minastan may mean "tower maker" from minas meaning "tower" and tan meaning "make, fashion."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 319
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for MINI and TAN
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 200
The Quenya Corpus Wordlist


Minohtar

Military leader of Gondor during the war against the Wainriders. Minohtar was the son of the sister of King Ondoher. He was the Captain of the Right Wing of the Northern Army of Gondor and he was an experienced and valiant soldier.

In 1944 of the Third Age, Gondor was attacked on two fronts by the Wainriders of Rhun and the Men of Khand and Harad. The Northern Army marched toward Dagorlad to meet the Wainriders on July 12. The main force was headed by King Ondoher, while Adrahil of Dol Amroth led the Left Wing and Minohtar led the Right Wing.

As the Northern Army approached the Black Gate, the Wainriders emerged from the shadow of the Ash Mountains and took them by surprise. Minohtar received orders to cover Ondoher's left flank. Ondoher and his son Artamir were killed in the assault.

Minohtar prepared to send a message to Ondoher's younger son Faramir who had been ordered to remain at home. But the leader of the Eotheod informed Minohtar that Faramir had gone to war in disguise and had been killed, leaving Gondor with no King.

Minohtar took command of the Northern Army. He instructed Adrahil to position the Left Wing and the rear portion of the Right Wing between Cair Andros and the Mountains of Shadow in an attempt to prevent the Wainriders from reaching Minas Anor. Minohtar meanwhile gathered the remainder of Ondoher's forces along with the forward ranks of the Right Wing to his banner. They blocked the Harad Road leading into Ithilien.

The Wainriders did not expect to encounter organized resistance, but in the end they overwhelmed Minohtar's forces with their superior numbers. On July 13, Minohtar was killed by an arrow. His surviving forces retreated, carrying his body with them.

The Wainriders held a feast to celebrate their victory that night, but they were surprised by the Southern Army of Gondor led by Earnil who defeated them in the Battle of the Camp. Earnil later became King of Gondor.

Names & Etymology:
The name Minohtar may be composed of the Quenya words minya meaning "first" and ohtar meaning "warrior, soldier."

Sources:
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 282 note 17; "Cirion and Eorl," p. 291-95


Morwen

Grandmother of Egalmoth, Steward of Gondor. Morwen was the daughter of the Steward Belecthor I. She had a brother named Orodreth. Orodreth succeeded their father as Steward and was in turn succeeded by his son Ecthelion I. But Ecthelion I had no children, so upon his death in 2698 of the Third Age, Morwen's grandson Egalmoth became Steward as the closest male relative.

Names & Etymology:
Morwen means "dark maiden" in Sindarin from mor meaning "dark, black" and wen meaning "maiden."

Morwen was also the name of the mother of Turin in the First Age as well as another woman of Gondor called Morwen Steelsheen.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for MOR and WEN
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 205, 219-20


Morwen Steelsheen

Mother of King Theoden of Rohan. Morwen was born in about 2922 of the Third Age. She lived in Lossarnach, a fiefdom of Gondor in the vales of the White Mountains. Morwen was of high Numenorean descent, for her father was a descendant of one of the Princes of Dol Amroth. He had moved from Belfalas to Lossarnach because he loved its flowering vales.

Morwen met Thengel of Rohan, who was living in Gondor for a time, and they married in 2943. She was 17 years younger than her husband. While living in Gondor, Morwen bore three children - two daughters and a son, Theoden, who was born in 2948. In 2953, Thengel became King of Rohan on his father's death and he returned home with his family. Morwen had two more daughters in Rohan, including the youngest, Theodwyn, born in 2963.

Morwen was tall with dark hair. She was also graceful and proud - traits that she passed on to her granddaughter Eowyn. The people of Rohan called her Steelsheen.

Names & Etymology:
Morwen means "dark maiden" in Sindarin from mor meaning "dark, black" and wen meaning "maiden." Her name is likely a reference to her dark hair. She was called Steelsheen in Rohan.

Morwen was also the name of another woman of Gondor as well as the mother of Turin in the First Age who was called Morwen Elfsheen.

Source:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The House of Eorl," p. 350-51
Unfinished Tales: "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields," p. 286
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entries for MOR and WEN


Ornendil

Heir of King Eldacar of Gondor slain during the Kin-strife. Ornendil was Eldacar's eldest son. He had a younger sister and a younger brother named Aldamir.

The civil war of the Kin-strife began in 1432 of the Third Age. The rebels opposed Eldacar because his mother was one of the Northmen and therefore he was not of pure Numenorean descent. In 1437, the rebels led by Castamir the Usurper captured Osgiliath. Eldacar and many of his followers escaped but Ornendil was captured. Castamir had Ornendil put to death.

In 1447, Eldacar avenged his son's death by killing Castamir at the Battle of the Crossings of Erui. He reclaimed the throne of Gondor and was later succeeded as King by his second son Aldamir.

Names & Etymology:
The name Ornendil means "tree friend" in Quenya from orne meaning "tree" and the ending -ndil meaning "devotion."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 327
Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings: "The Tale of Years," p. 367
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 199
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for -(n)diland orn


Rían

Mother of Denethor I, Steward of Gondor. Rian was the daughter of the Steward Barahir and she had a brother Dior. Rian's son Denethor was born in 2375 of the Third Age. Dior had no children so when he died in 2435, Denethor I became Steward.

Names & Etymology:
The name Rían means "crown gift" in Sindarin from meaning "crown" and anna meaning "give." Rian was also the name of the mother of Tuor in the First Age.

Genealogy:
See Denethor: Genealogy.

Sources:
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for RIG
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 204


Siriondil

Father of King Earnil II of Gondor. Siriondil was the son of Calimmacil who was the son of Arciryas who was the younger son of King Telumehtar. Telumehtar was succeeded by his older son Narmacil II, but several generations later the direct line of succession ended when King Ondoher and his sons were killed in battle against the Wainriders. Shortly afterwards, in 1945 of the Third Age, Siriondil's son Earnil became King.

Names & Etymology:
The name Siriondil might mean "friend of the Great River." The ending ndil means "friend, devotion." The Sirion was a river in Beleriand. Its name meant "great river" in Sindarin. There was also a King of Gondor named Siriondil.

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "Gondor and the Heirs of Anarion," p. 330
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 201, 216


Tarciryan

Father of King Earnil I of Gondor. Tarciryan was the second son of King Siriondil. His older brother was King Tarannon Falastur. Tarannon had no children so upon his death in 913 of the Third Age he was succeeded as King by his nephew Earnil, son of Tarciryan.

Names & Etymology:
The name Tarciryan is composed of the Quenya words tar meaning "high, noble" and ciryan meaning "for a ship" from cirya meaning "ship."

Genealogy:
See Elendil: Genealogy.

Sources:
Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings: "The Realms in Exile," p. 318
The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, The Peoples of Middle-earth: "The Heirs of Elendil," p. 197
The Silmarillion: "Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entries for kir and tar
Quenya - The Ancient Tongue



 

Targon

Man of Gondor. Targon worked in the storehouse and buttery of one of the companies of the Tower Guard. On the morning of March 9, 3019 of the Third Age, Targon provided Beregond and Pippin Took with a meal of bread, butter, cheese, apples, and ale.

Names & Etymology:
The meaning of Targon is not certain. One possible meaning is "high valor" from the element tar meaning "high" and the ending -gon meaning "valor."

Sources:
The Return of the King: "Minas Tirith," p. 35
The Silmarillion:"Appendix - Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for tar
The History of Middle-earth, vol. V, The Lost Road and Other Writings: "The Etymologies," entry for KAN

A Gondorian named Targon
in the New Line film

Targon


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