Part IV: Formation of Nouns

A. Nouns derived from other nouns and adjectives

1. From Adjectives

The suffixes -ia; (-i)tia; (-i)tudo, gen. -tudinis; (-i/-e)tas, gen. -tatis are added to adjective bases to form nouns meaning "the state, quality, or condition of being..." These suffixes are similar in meaning to the English -ness and -ship.

Examples:

 

Practice exercises:

1. Find the base adjective; give the meaning of that adjective and the meaning of the compound noun.

Example:

amplitudo < amplus, "full" -- "fulness"

1. solitudo

2. iustitia

3. libertas

4. stultitia

5. sanitas

6. magnitudo

7. brevitas

8. pietas

9. inimicitia

10. urbanitas

 

2. Make up nouns from these adjectives. If in doubt check your results in the dictionary.

Example:

gravis, "heavy, serious" > gravitas

1. humilis, "lowly"

2. humanus

3. celeber (base celebr-[i], "crowded")

4. felix, felic(i)-

5. iners, inert-, "without skill, inactive"

6. fortis

7. altus

8. demens dement-

9. sciens, scient-

10. tristis

11. turpis

12. sollicitus, "troubled"

13. vigil, "awake"

14. misericors, misericord-, "merciful"

15. frequens, -ent-, "crowded, numerous"

16. laetus, "glad"

17. vetus, "old"

18. miser

19. dignus

20. ignavus, "lazy"

21. lenis, "soft, mild"

22. iucundus

 

 

2. Nouns formed from nouns

a. various meanings

The suffixes: -ium; -tium; -monium; -tas,-tatis; -tus, -tutis; -tia; -ia; -ina are added to noun bases to mean "act, condition, office of..." The suffix -atus means "office of" and -arium means "place for."

Examples:

Practice exercises:

1. What is the simple noun base of each of the following?

1. virtus

2. societas

3. hereditas

4. testimonium

5. iuventus

6. iudicium

7. matrimonium

8. pueritia

9. adulescentia

10. disciplina

11. principium

12. auspicium

13. senatus

14. consulatus

15. principatus

16. seminarium

17. tabularium

18. magistratus

19. latrocinium

20. senectus

 

2. Make up abstract nouns from

1. auctor

2. civis

3. augur

4. iudex, iudic-

5. hospes, -it-

6. arbiter, -tri-

7. miles, -it-

8. custos, -od-

9. municeps, -cip-, "citizen of a free town"

 

b. Diminutives

Suffixes meaning "small" can be added to nouns to imply affection, pity, or contempt. The suffixes are -lus/ -olus/ -ulus/ -culus/ -ellus -a -um. They usually retain the gender of the original (standard size) noun.

Examples:

Practice exercises:

1. Identify base noun (or adjective)

1. lingula

2. lectulus

3. Graeculus

4. libellus

5. parvulus/parvolus

6. castellum

7. tantulus

8. tabella

9. maiusculus

10. filiola

11. homunculus

12. rivulus

13. misellus

14. munusculum

15. atriolum

16. quantulus

17. agellus

18. avunculus

19. arbuscula

20. viticula

 

2. Contexts: translate

1. Verum tamen quid sibi isti miseri volunt? num suas secum mulierculas sunt in castra ducturi? Cicero

2. An ne longum sit ("not to be tedious"), Quirites, tabellas proferri iussimus, quae a quoque dicebantur datae. Primo ostendimus Cethego; signum cognovit. Cicero

3. Hi pueri tam lepidi ac delicati non solum amare et amari neque saltare et cantare, sed etiam sicas vibrare et spargere venena didicerunt. Qui nisi exeunt, nisi pereunt, etiamsi Catilina perierit, scitote hoc in republica seminarium Catilinarum futurum. Cicero

4. Aelius cognomine duplici fuit; nam et Praeconinus, quod pater eius praeconium fecerat, vocabatur, et Stilo, quod orationes nobilissimo cuique scribere solebat. Suetonius

5. Odi celebritatem; fugio homines; esset mihi ista solitudo non amara. Cicero

6. Ipse pauculis adhuc diebus in Tusculano commorabor, ut opusculum quod est in manibus absolvam. Pliny

7. Vinum etiam parvolis lagunculis (< lagena, "bottle") in tria genera discripserat, non ut potestas eligendi, sed ne ius esset recusandi, aliud sibi et nobis, aliud minoribus amicis (nam gradatim amicos habet) aliud suis nostrisque libertis. Pliny

8. Scholasticis porro dominis, ut hic est, sufficit abunde tantum soli ut ... omnis viticulas suas nosse et numerare arbusculas possint. Pliny

 

 

B. Nouns from Verbs

1. From the present base. The following suffixes are added to present bases of verbs to form nouns:

-or activity, condition of

-es, -is act of

-io, -ionis act, result of

-ium act, result of

-ido, -idinis activity, condition of

Examples:

Practice exercises:

1. Make up nouns from these verbs:

1. timeo

2. sedeo

3. latrocinor

4. pudet

5. erro

6. stupeo

7. cupio

8. opinor

9. suspicio

10. colloquor

11. desidero

 

2. Find the base verb of these nouns:

1. candor

2. libido

3. regio

4. parricidium

5. oblivium

6. squalor

7. studium

8. terror

9. gaudium

10. vigor

11. decor

12. dicio

13. aedificium

14. odium

15. valor

16. effugium

 

Nouns formed from the present base, continued:

The suffixes -men, -mentum are added to present bases to mean "means, instrument" and -bulum, -culum, -ulum, -brum, -crum to mean "means, instrument, place".

Examples:

Practice exercises:

1. Make up nouns from these verbs:

1. monere

2. instruere

3. nutrire

4. sepelire

5. ornare

6. regere

7. vehere

8. certare

9. cingere

2. Give base verb. Notice any changes in the stem:

1. nomen

2. agmen

3. discrimen

4. carmen

5. detrimentum

6. curriculum

7. spectaculum

8. levamen

9. piaculum

10. gubernaculum

11. aratrum

12. rostrum (< rodo)

13. monstrum

14. testamentum

15. iumentum

16. volumen

17. adiumentum

18. pabulum

 

2. From the perfect passive participial stem. The following suffixes are added to the ppp stem:

Examples:

Practice exercises:

1. Form nouns meaning:

1. one who increases

2. one who conquers (m., f.)

3. one who seeks with

4. one who snatches

5. one who feeds

 

2. Make up one agent ("one who") noun and one abstract ("act/condition of") noun from each:

1. sto

2. mercor, "trade"

3. impero, "command"

4. infitior, "deny"

5. insidior, "lie in ambush"

 3. Find a base verb for each:

1. genetrix

2. largitor

3. quaestor

4. censor

5. sator

6. venatrix

7. nominator

8. testator

9. viator

10. creatrix

11. apparatus

12. intentio

13. praeceptor

14. collatio

15. laudator

4. Make up words meaning:

1. act of running

2. act of slipping

3. act of falling

4. act of feeling together

5. act of sending back

5. Make up action ("act of") nouns from:

1. coniuro

2. peto

3. vexo

4. diripio

5. ululo, "wail"

 

6. Take apart and define the parts:

1. cognatio

2. proditio

3. commemoratio

4. professio

5. cognitio

6. quaestio

7. aspectus

8. interitus

9. praefectura

10. litura (< lino)

11. coniectura

12. scriptura

7. Contexts

1. Aeneadum genetrix, hominum divomque voluptas, alma Venus... Lucretius

2. Tu, Iuppiter, qui isdem quibus haec urbs auspiciis a Romulo es constitutus, quem Statorem huius urbis atque imperii vere nominamus, hunc et huius socios a tuis ceterisque templis, a tectis urbis ac moenibus, a vita fortunisque civium arcebis... Cicero

3. Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus tam cari capitis? Horace

4. Persicos odi, puer, apparatus... Horace

5. ac neque iam stabulis gaudet pecus aut arator igni... Horace

6. Incredibilis est quanto desiderio tui teneor. In causa amor primum, deinde quod non consuevimus abesse. Pliny

 

 

Review of noun-forming suffixes

Give the meaning and one word using each suffix; tell what kind of stem (adjective, noun, or verb) each is attached to: