applications and journal management at institutional level"
Bo Jarneving, Swedish School of Library and Information Studies
(SSLIS), Borås, Sweden
This report describes the use and application of bibliometric methods
in the context of journal collection development at college library level.
More precisely, ways to optimize the journal collection as to relevance
of journals pertaining to the subject fields of a faculty of engineering
were sought. The focus was on the application and combination of bibliometric
methods and techniques and on the choice and combination of source data.
It was found that several methods probably would demand resources not
likely to be coped with by a small college library. On the basis of these
findings some methods of greater simplicity were suggested and applied.
The outcome showed that the relevance of the technical and scientific
journal collection could be enhanced by the use of bibliometric methods
based on local user data. The use of both local and global data for expanding
the analysis to encompass global use and visibility was also suggested
bibliometric analysis of IOLIM Conferences 1977-99 An attempt to formalise
the Conference Impact Factor (CIF)"
Irene Wormell, Swedish School of Library and Information
Studies (SSLIS), Borås, Sweden
Since 1977 IOLIM (International Online Information Meeting in London)
has been the most important conference for users and producers of electronic
information. The organiser of the conference is Learned Information Europe
Ltd. a UK based commercial organisation. In order to measure the impact
of these conferences on the LIS literature in general, a concept of Conference
Impact Factor (CIF) is aimed to be explored for the first time. Following
the pattern of Journal Impact Factor (JIF), the study presents a methodology
for exploring the characteristics of a core international conference and
measuring its impact. The study used the online citations databases in
DIALOG as well as the CR-ROM version of LISA. Through statistical and
bibliometric analysis the paper provides quantitative information about
1) Geographic distribution of Members of Organising Committees, Referee
Panels, Authors, Delegates, and Citations. 2) Knowledge export of the
Conference is measured by the subject categories of citing journals. 3)
A list of the top most cited papers of the Proceedings is presented, as
well as the name of the citing authors and journals. Via time series the
study highlights trends and developments reflected by the IOLIM. Statistical
data about the social and organisational backgroud of the conferences
were collected and analysed by Senior Researcher, Dr. Helge Clausen, Statsbiblioteket
in Århus, Denmark. The project was founded by the Ministery of Cultural
Affairs in Denmark and carried out by the (former) Center for Informetric
Studies in Copenhagen.
Published: Clausen, H. and Wormell, I. "A bibliometric analysis of IOLIM
conferences 1977-1999". Journal of Information Science 27(3) (2001) 157-169.
Irene Wormell och Helge Clausen, "Online-konferenser i London i ett 25-års
perspektiv." En bibliometrisk analys för åren 1977-1999. Tidskrift för
Dokumentation 56(2) (2001) 7-15.
Journal Coverage of the Danish Health Science in SCI"
Peter Ingwersen, Royal School of Library and Information Science,
førsteforfatterandel for danske sundhedsvidenskabelige artikler,letters
og review articles er 78% i SCI. Overføres dette forhold til Medline eller
EMBASE, tabes derfor op til 20% ved optællinger af danske publikationer
i disse fagspecifikke databaser inden for sundhedsvidenskab. Dækningsgraden
i SCI er høj for de sundhedsvidenskabelige tidsskifter: når eventuelle
overlap mellem og inden for institutionerne er fjernet, er den 69%. Det
er primært den sundhedsvidenskabelige universitetsforskning, inkl. universitetshospitalernes
forskning, som indgår i analysen. Der er uhyre lille variation mellem
universiteterne i den høje dækningsgrad pr. universitet. Der er dog forskelle
mellem de enkelte universiteter i deres anvendelse af SCI-indekserede
tidsskrifter til tværgående afdelingssamarbejde.
Dependent Co-Citation Analysis - The Case of LIS"
Olle Persson, Inforsk, Umeå university
All co-citation analysis implies a definition of a citing-cited year window
- a set of documents from a given year range that cite documents of a
given year range. In most cases the cited year range are not varied systematically,
while the citing year range may vary from one to several years. A common
experience is that the CO-citation results show small variations over
the years, typically displaying classical documents and fairly old authors.
However, if the cited window is limited, to for example cited documents
not older than five years of the citing documents, the chance of discovering
other and more active authors at the research front is greater. We can
also hope to get a better dynamic picture of the field at hand. This approach
is tested on 7001 articles from the 1986-1996 journal set used by White&McCain;
to study the intellectual base of Library and Information Science, and
also on papers from Scientometrics 1978-2000.
science' - does such a thing exist?"
Gunnar Sivertsen, NIFU,
Several studies have assumed that 'Norwegian science' actually exists,
e.g. Glänzel (2000) and Luukkonen et al. (1993). This assumption is crucial,
not only for international bibliometric studies involving performance
indicators for the Scandinavian countries or the measurement of international
scientific collaboration, but also, on a national level, for bibliometrics,
R&D; statistics and research policy studies in general at Norwegian 'meta-institutions',
e.g. the Norwegian Institute for Studies in Research and Higher Education,
which the present study has been performed at. People involved in such
'meta-studies' of science would not be able to obtain salary if 'Norwegian
science' does not exist. Although there is no evidence that the Atlantic
salmon (salmo salar) applies for citizenship in vivo, it is still constructed
as 'Norwegian' when cultivated in the Norwegian aquacultural industry
and sold overseas, mainly on the European, Japanese and North-American
markets. One might see the work of scientists in Norway as constructed
as 'Norwegian science' in a similar way, but the present study eagerly
argues that this is not the case. Evidence that 'Norwegian science' actually
exists will be taken from a most recent historical context (Norway departed
from a union with Sweden as late as 1905 and from a union with Denmark
in 1814) by the use of quick webometric and bibliometric methods and short
historical flashbacks in a colorful Powerpoint-presentation which by its
visualizing rhetorical power leaves no doubt that there is a positive
answer to the question in focus.
Glänzel, W. Science in Scandinavia: A bibliometric approach. Scientometrics,
48 (2000), 2, 121-150.
Luukkonen T, Tijssen RJW, Persson O, Sivertsen G. The measurement of international
scientific collaboration, Scientometrics, 28 (1993),1, 15-36.
introduction to principle differences between citations and sitation links.
A methodological and mathematical approach"
Wolfgang Glänzel, Bibliometrics Service, Library of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary) and Research Association for Science
Communication and Information e. V. (RASCI), Berlin (Germany)
E-mail: Wolfgang Glanzel <firstname.lastname@example.org>
a recent paper, Glänzel and Schoepflin have interpreted the concept of
citation as 'one important form of use of scientific information within
the framework of documented science communication'. In general, there
are many reasons for citing publications. Lists of such reasons ranging
from positive over neutral to even negative motivations were given, for
instance, by Garfield and Weinstock. In their paper, Glänzel and Schoepflin
also pointed to different forms of information 'sources' and 'targets'
in the sciences, social sciences and technology oriented research. Besides
the different motivation and the different sources/targets, also the 'degree'
of relevance (and even the redundancy) of information plays a characteristic
role in scientific citation processes. Consequently, the rules in the
practice of citing literature differ in the individual areas of the sciences,
the social sciences and humanities. Although the concept of sitations
can also be based on the relevance of information, it is not necessarily
linked with a use of information. Moreover, motivations for sitations,
as well as information 'sources' and 'targets' differ from their bibliometric
'counterparts'. The most striking deviation from bibliometric phenomena,
however, is the possibility of an almost continuous change of contents.
Unlike in the case of traditional scientific literature where citation
processes are cumulative processes, sitation frequency can increase or
decrease at any time. Consequently, (non-homogeneous) birth processes
have been used to model bibliometric citation processes. In webometrics,
on the other hand, special birth-and-death processes can be applied to
describe changes of sitation frequencies over time. A simple birth-and-death
process is analysed the stationary limiting distribution of which differs
from those models used in traditional bibliometrics. The above-mentioned
principle differences between citations and sitations also imply different
notions of ageing and obsolescence of information in bibliometrics and
webometrics which are discussed in brief.
Decline of Swedish Science: The Case of Neuroscience"
Rickard Danell, Inforsk, Umeå, Sweden
Observing Swedish science some disturbing trends can be detected. Using
the National Science Indicators it seems clear that there is a decline
in Swedish science in terms of relative citation impact. An explanation
for this decline, that has been frequent in the public debate, concerns
the expansion of the Swedish University system and its negative impact
on the quality of research. The purpose of the study is to test whether
it is possible to observe any relationship between the entrance of new
actors (at the organisational level) and decline in terms of citation
impact. The largest of the fields that exhibit a decrease in relative
citation impact is neuroscience. In order to test the relationship between
the visibility of more actors and the decline in citation impact the field
of neuroscience has been selected as a case. The study is based on 8413
Swedish articles published in journals classified as neuroscience, and
it covers a period from1986 to 1996.
knowledge flows in systems of innovation: An overview of quantitative
approaches to study the science/technology linkage"
Martin Meyer and Jan Timm Utecht, Helsinki Univ Technol,
E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Over the past few years, we could observe tendencies in innovation studies
and related fields to put considerable emphasis on a systems view. There
has been a shift of perspective towards interaction between the elements
of innovation systems (Nelson 1993, Lundvall 1992, Granberg 1996, OECD
1997). Qualitative evidence points to an unfolding triple helix of intersecting
activities of academic and industrial actors. Notions of the 'academic
entrepreneur' and 'entrepreneurial university' reinforce this idea (Etzkowitz
and Leydesdorff 2000; Etzkowitz et al. 1998). However, it remains a challenge
to measure and quantify these developments at the interface between science
and technology. This paper reviews some of these more analytical efforts
and outlines potential avenues for future research. Our review indicates
that there is not a holistic approach towards exploring the science/technology
interface, but a number of studies that address this area from various
angles - (a) the overall connection between the bodies of science and
technology, as exemplified by the patent citation connection, (b) the
industrial science connection, exemplified by publication activity of
industrial researchers in business firms, and (c) the technological aspects
of scientific activity, as exemplified by university patenting. For each
of the above approaches, we shall discuss merits and possible disadvantages.
concept spaces through keyword and citation based maps and clusters"
Fredrik Åström Wirthig, Inforsk,
Co-citation analysis, and especially author co-citation analysis, has
for last decades been widely accepted as the foremost method for bibliographic
based mapping of research fields, whereas analyses based on keywords has
been discussed, but criticized, and not gaining any overall acceptance
(Whittaker, 1989; Leydesdorff, 1997). There are however advantages with
keywords, such as creating maps understandable by others than those immediately
connected to the research field analyzed. Also, when analyzing research
fields where citation praxis differs widely from what has come to be the
scientific norm, co-citation analysis is unable to identify sub-fields
within research fields, and author co-citation analysis can in some cases
be virtually impossible. This study aims at testing the relation between
keyword and citation based analyses, to see if maps and clusters based
on co-occurrence of keywords or citations varies in any significant way.
The preliminary study is based on 533 articles from The Journal of the
American Society for Information Science, covering the period from 1986
to 1996, where keywords has been added from the ERIC database. Three maps
are compared: one based on co-citations, one on co-occurrence of keywords,
and one merging citations and keywords; to see if the different visual
representations and the clusters form similar structures or not.
"The effect of highly cited papers on national citation indicators"
Dag W. Aksnes & Gunnar Sivertsen, NIFU, Oslo, Norway
E-mail: Dag.W.Aksnes@nifu.no, email@example.com
Citation distributions are extremely skewed. This paper addresses the
following question: To what extent are national citation indicators influenced
by the inclusion of highly cited articles? The study represents a case
study of the scientific production of Norway. We find that the average
citation rates in national subfields are highly determined by one or only
a few highly cited papers. Furthermore, there are large annual variations
in the influence of highly cited papers on the average citation rate of
the subfield. We conclude that an analysis of the underlying data for
national indicators may be useful in creating awareness towards the occurrence
of particular articles with great influence on what is normally considered
an indicator of 'national performance', and that the common interpretation
of the indicator on research policy level needs to be informed by this
cognitive overlaps in Information Retrieval: achieving high precision
by the use of citation analysis"
Birger Larsen, Royal School of Library and Information
Science, Copenhagen, Denmark
A new citation search strategy is proposed for Information Retrieval (IR)
purposes based on the principle of polyrepresentation (Ingwersen, 1996).
The strategy exploits cognitive overlaps between a range of representations
of the same documents in a structured manner. In contrast to earlier citation
search strategies this do not require known relevant documents (seed documents)
as starting point, but is based on a subject search. The strategy is essentially
a 'cycling strategy' starting with documents retrieved by a subject search,
wherefrom new documents are identified automatically by following the
network of citations in scientific papers backwards and forwards in time.
A pilot study is reported where the ability of the strategy to retrieve
additional relevant documents is analysed. Results show that a very large
amount of documents can be retrieved by the strategy, and that these may
be segmented in a number of distinct 'layers'. These layers can be thought
of as forming a pyramid: In this pyramid the proportion of relevant documents
increase on the way to the top as the total number of documents in each
layer decrease. It is suggested that the documents be displayed in order
of their presence in higher-level overlaps, so as to maximise the chances
that as many relevant documents as possible will be presented first. Records
from Web of Science and Science Citation Index were used in the pilot
study. A total of 289 documents were assessed for relevance by domain
expert in relation to 3 work tasks.
Peder Karlsson, Inforsk, Umeå, Sweden
This presentation deals with an attempt to use bibliometric ideas and
tools as a complement in qualitative analyses. In my own work within the
sociology of science, I have utilized qualitative interviewing to enter
the 'life worlds' of researchers and to understand the phenomena of socialization
from their point of view. These interviews contain the data material of
my studies and the analysis, or the coding of the material, has been performed
by the aid of "ATLAS.ti", a software for qualitative analyzes. To simplify
matters, coding means picking out significant quotations from the interviews
and to label these with terms or concepts suitable to the accounts. These
codes make up the building blocks of a conceptual or theoretical understanding
of the phenomena under study. A problem which I have encountered, though,
is the difficulty of avoiding the imposition of my own tentative categorical
thinking on the data, i.e., to 'force' the material to fit the emerging
categories. One way to come to terms with this problem is to 'shatter'
one's own thinking by taking other forms of representation into account.
In this case, the co-occurance of codes as well as the co-occurence of
codes and interview documents have been analyzed with "Bibexcel", a toolbox
for bibliometricians. In this way MDS-maps have been generated which can
be seen as visualizations of the coding procedure. The (qualitative) interpretation
of the maps, I will argue, can then be used to enrich the subsequent analysis.
The purpose of this presentation is to show and to evaluate the results
of this analytical attempt.
of interlibrary loan statistics for bibliometric research"
Antje Rapmund, NIFU, Oslo, Norway
Interlibrary loan statistics for Norway's research, academic and special
libraries of the last 3 years show a decline of the number of articles
delivered to Norwegian libraries. In the same period we can see a reduction
of the holdings of periodical titles in Norwegian research, academic and
special libraries (Data: RBT-statistics RBT = National Office for Research
Documentation, Academic and Special Libraries). Background for these reductions
are increased prices (ca. 10% a year) and improved possibilities to get
access to articles on the Internet. National statistics of interlibrary
loan of article copies can be used in two ways: 1. as an indicator of
the popularity of scientific journals in a country and 2. as an indicator
of the use of library holdings in a country. If we combine national data
about interlibrary loan of article copies with a citation analysis (NSI
- National Science Indicators) we can come still further: · Are the most
cited journals also the most demanded journals in the libraries? · Do
the libraries hold the most cited journals in a given subject (comparison
of cited nation-wide and international)? · Do the library holdings reflect
the gaps and shortcomings of Norwegian science and research or are they
more oriented to the international scientific community? · How do interlibrary
loan statistics and citation statistics reflect the reception of new journals?
Do they increase simultaneously or do citations appear first?
collection management in a health science library at the onset of the
Juliusdottir, Åbo Akademi, Turkku, Finland
purpose of this study was to research the use of journal items by primary
clientele of the Landspitali Health Sciences Library in Iceland. The results
were to be used as basis for decision- making for developing the journal
collection. The findings indicate that the LUHH Library has oversubscribed
to journals in the past few years and that the same access could have
been provided to knowledge and information at much lower cost by using
interlibrary loans instead of subscribing to a considerable number of
the journals. That way funds would have been available for considerable
improvements of various other services benefiting the users more. Detailed
statistical information on use is the basis for managing resources: funds,
space and manpower efficiently, for the benefit of users. Contracts for
subscriptions to electronic material should specify the collection and
availability of such information to library managers. The findings may
be of relevance for development of journal collections world-wide in the
field of health sciences where the number of users is small and the array
of specialities is large, such as in small institutions, amongst micro-nations
and in the developing countries. Further studies are needed. It has implications
for the way users at such institutions carry out their work and for the
way electronic journals and electronic journal items should be distributed.
strength of weak ties crossing the Web"
Lennart Björneborn, Royal
School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, Denmark
The presentation outlines ideas from a current PhD project concerned with
link structures and so-called small-world phenomena on the Web, in the
shape of short distances between 'distant' nodes in the Web graph. This
approach may have possible implications for knowledge discovery or 'web
mining', e.g., by using so-called co-linkage chains consisting of co-linking
and co-linked web nodes (analogous to bibliographic couplings and co-citations)
to identify potentially fertile scientific areas for cross-disciplinary
exploration. A key concept in the project is so-called transversal links
functioning as short cuts or weak ties between heterogeneous web clusters
reflecting subject domains and interest communities on the Web. Published
bookmark lists of researchers are of special interest in this approach,
because their diverse contents may provide transversal links between heterogeneous
subject domains. Bookmark lists reflect trails of researchers' diverse
interests, preferences and actions on the Web, and thus constitute an
obvious area for scientometric and webometric investigation. The presentation
outlines a pilot study of shared outlinks (bibliographic couplings) between
nine bookmark lists. Necessary steps of data filtering and editing are
identified and categorized. Finally, an outline of a future case study
concerned with identifying web clusters and transversal links in a context
of academic web sites is presented.