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Lipopolysaccharide Vaccine Adjuvant

Vaxjo ID 27
Vaccine Adjuvant Name Lipopolysaccharide Vaccine Adjuvant
Alternative Names LPS vaccine adjuvant
Adjuvant VO ID VO_0000181
Description Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was demonstrated to have the capacity in mice to enhance the response to soluble bovine serum albumin (BSA) and to interfere with the induction of tolerance to human 7-globulin (HGG). These adjuvant activities were shown to occur under conditions in which LPS could also function as a B cell mitogen(Jamalan et al., 2011).
Stage of Development Research
Components LPS is composed of three principal regions: a) the Opolysaccharide which is covalently linked to, b) the core polysaccharide, which is in turn covalently linked to, c) Lipid A via a trisaccharide of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctanoic acid (KDO). The Lipid A region has been reported to have the capacity to function both as a mitogen and as an adjuvant. LPS can be viewed as a composite of two distinct functional moieties, namely, one region which has long been characterized as the major antigenic specificity (O-polysaccharide), and a second region which carries both the adjuvant and mitogenic activities (Lipid A) (Skidmore et al., 1975).
Preparation LPS from J5, a rough mutant strain of E. coli 0111:B4, was prepared by the phenol-chlorofbrm-petroleum ether procedure of Galanos, et al.. LPS from this strain is composed of Lipid A, plus a trisaccharide of KDO and terminates within the core polysaccharide (Jamalan et al., 2011). Base hydrolyzed LPS (BH-LPS) was prepared by a modification of the method of Neter, et al. LPS was incubated at a concentration of 1 mg/ml in 1.0 N NaOH at 56°C for 60 min. The solution was then neutralized with HC1 and dialyzed against phosphate- buffered saline (PBS). Control batches of LPS were prepared at the same time by incubation of LPS in 1.0 M NaC1 for 60 rain at 56°C and subsequent dialysis against PBS (Jamalan et al., 2011).
Dosage To determine adjuvant activity, mice were initially injected i.v. with 50 µg of LPS (Skidmore et al., 1975).
Function Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ~ obtained from Gram-negative bacteria possesses a broad spectrum of immunologic activities. LPS is a mitogen for B lymphocytes, it is a powerful adjuvant of antibody formation, and as an antigen it is highly immunogenic in that extremely small amounts will elicit a specific antibody response in vivo. LPS may act as an adjuvant because of its ability to induce mitogenesis in B cells (Skidmore et al., 1975).
Safety Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has T-helper 1 (Th1) immunostimulatory activities but because of toxicity and pyrogenicity cannot be used as an adjuvant (Jamalan et al., 2011).
Related Vaccine(s)
Jamalan et al., 2011: Jamalan M, Ardestani SK, Zeinali M, Mosaveri N, Mohammad Taheri M. Effectiveness of Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide as an adjuvant for tuberculin PPD. Biologicals : journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization. 2011; 39(1); 23-28. [PubMed: 20965746].
Skidmore et al., 1975: Skidmore BJ, Chiller JM, Morrison DC, Weigle WO. Immunologic properties of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS): correlation between the mitogenic, adjuvant, and immunogenic activities. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 1975; 114(2 pt 2); 770-775. [PubMed: 46249].