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Standardized Usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative (SUSHI)

NEW! Revision to SUSHI Protocol standard: ANSI/NISO Z39.93-2013.

This is a "maintenance" revision of the SUSHI standard to add an error code and to update the informative appendix about security considerations. Download PDF.


The Standardized Usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative (SUSHI) Protocol standard (ANSI/NISO Z39.93-2013) defines an automated request and response model for the harvesting of electronic resource usage data utilizing a Web services framework. It is intended to replace the time-consuming user-mediated collection of usage data reports.

The protocol was designed to be both generalized and extensible, meaning it could be used to retrieve a variety of usage reports. An extension designed specifically to work with COUNTER reports is provided with the standard, as these are expected to be the most frequently retrieved usage reports.

The standard is built on SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) for transferring request and response messages. The GetReport method is used for transferring ReportRequest as the input message and returning ReportResponseas the output message.

The standard includes a versioned Web Services Description Language (WSDL), to describe the Web service namespace and operations, and a generalized XML schema with the syntax of the SUSHI protocol. Rules for report naming are outlined and complemented by an external reports registry, which provides for the definition of both COUNTER and non-COUNTER reports.


Launched in March 2002, COUNTER (Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources) is an international initiative serving librarians, publishers and intermediaries by setting standards that facilitate the recording and reporting of online usage statistics in a consistent, credible and compatible way. The first COUNTER Code of Practice, covering online journals and databases, was published in 2003. COUNTER's coverage was extended further with the launch of the Code of Practice for online books and reference works in 2006. The body of COUNTER compliant usage statistics has steadily grown as more and more vendors have adopted the COUNTER Codes of Practice. This has contributed to the new discipline of usage bibliometrics and a great deal of work is underway to try to establish .value metrics. associated with usage, in which the COUNTER compliant statistics play an increasingly important role. [Source: COUNTER website]

NISO and COUNTER have signed a Memorandum of Understanding that assigns the responsibility for maintaining the XML schema version of COUNTER reports to NISO. This will ensure that the SUSHI and COUNTER schemas are always synchronized.