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Title:
High-energy neutrino astronomy: the cosmic ray connection
Authors:
Halzen, Francis; Hooper, Dan
Affiliation:
AA(Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA), AB(Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA)
Publication:
Reports on Progress in Physics, Volume 65, Issue 7, pp. 1025-1078 (2002).
Publication Date:
07/2002
Origin:
IOP
DOI:
10.1088/0034-4885/65/7/201
Bibliographic Code:
2002RPPh...65.1025H

Abstract

This is a review of neutrino astronomy anchored to the observational fact that Nature accelerates protons and photons to energies in excess of $10^{20}$ and $10^{13}$ eV, respectively. Although the discovery of cosmic rays dates back close to a century, we do not know how and where they are accelerated. Basic elementary-particle physics dictates a universal upper limit on their energy of $5\times10^{19}$ eV, the so-called Greisen-Kuzmin-Zatsepin cutoff; however, particles in excess of this energy have been observed by all experiments, adding one more puzzle to the cosmic ray mystery. Mystery is fertile ground for progress: we will review the facts as well as the speculations about the sources including gamma ray bursts, blazars and top-down scenarios. The important conclusion is that, independently of the specific blueprint of the source, it takes a kilometer-scale neutrino observatory to detect the neutrino beam associated with the highest energy cosmic rays and gamma rays. We also briefly review the ongoing efforts to commission such instrumentation.
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