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The Science of AID

There is impeccable science behind the ingredients contained in AID. AID is the most powerful immune system product with 8 herbs, 30 actives, and up to 94% absorption rate due to the proprietary liposomal matrix, layering of ingredients, and nitrogen cooling processes. AID uses only the highest quality ingredients, synergistically selected by 24ravens to deliver optimum results.

Click on the arrows below to obtain specific details about each ingredients.


Chrysin plant

The effects of some selected flavonoids on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-induced cytotoxicity in murine fibroblast L-929 cells were studied. All of the flavanones tested, as well as a flavan epicatechin, protected L-929 cells from TNF-induced cell death. Of the flavanones tested, hesperetin, isosakuranetin, and pinocembrin failed to modify TNF cytotoxicity, but the 3′,4′-dihydroxyflavanones, eriodictyol, and taxifolin showed a protective effect. Eriodictyol was the most potent protective agent of all the flavonoids tested, while a 4′-hydroxyflavanone and naringenin rather showed enhancement of TNF cytotoxicity. Of the flavones tested, chrysin and apigenin markedly augmented the cytotoxicity of TNF, while luteolin showed a weak protective effect. The magnitude of protection and potentiation by these flavonoids were concentration-dependent and these effects were not altered when the flavonoids were added as much as 2 h after TNF treatment.

1.  Flavonoids as inhibitors or enhancers of the cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in L-929 tumor cells by Habtemariam, S.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, U.K. s.habtemariam@strath.ac.uk

The effect of five propolis flavonoids on the infectivity and replication of some herpes virus, adenovirus, coronavirus, and rotavirus strains has been studied. Experiments were performed in vitro in cell cultures using the viral plaque reduction technique. The cytotoxicity of flavonoids, including chrysine, kaempferol, acacetin, galangin, and quercetin, was evaluated on uninfected monolayers to determine their effect on cell growth and viability. Chrysine and kaempferol caused a concentration-dependent reduction of intracellular replication of herpes-virus strains when monolayers were infected and subsequently cultured in a drug-containing medium. Quercetin reduced infectivity and intracellular replication, but only at the highest concentrations tested.

2. Effects of propolis flavonoids on virus infectivity and replication.by Debiaggi M, Tateo F, Pagani L, Luini M, Romero E

Istituto di Microbiologia, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Italy.

PMID: 2125682, UI: 91109590

Various dietary flavonoids were evaluated in vitro for their inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase, which has been implicated in oxidative injury to tissue by ischemia-reperfusion. Xanthine oxidase activity was determined by directly measuring uric acid formation by HPLC. The structure-activity relationship revealed that the planar flavones and flavonols with a 7-hydroxyl group such as chrysin, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and isorhamnetin inhibited xanthine oxidase activity at low concentrations (IC50 values from 0.40 to 5.02 microM) in a mixed-type mode, while the nonplanar flavonoids, isoflavones, and anthocyanidins were less inhibitory. These results suggest that certain flavonoids might suppress in vivo the formation of active oxygen species and urate by xanthine oxidase.

PMID: 10671036, UI: 20127172

3. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by flavonoids by Nagao A, Seki M, Kobayashi H.

National Food Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. nagao@nfri.affrc.go.jp

Coriolus Versicolor

Coriolus Versicolor Mushroom

Of all the medicinal mushrooms we use from Traditional East Asian Medicine, the one most studied by modern scientists is probably the one least known outside of Asia. Coriolus versicolor (also known as Trametes versicolor or Turkey Tail) is unique among the medicinal mushrooms, with extensive use in both traditional herbalism and modern clinical practice and is included in the AID Formula.

The Coriolus extract was so successful that the cost to Japan’s national health insurance program reached almost a billion dollars a year. In an attempt to reduce expenditures, the Health Ministry restricted the use of the Coriolus extract to those people most in need, people receiving chemotherapy or radiation. Clinical research has consistently demonstrated the ability of Coriolus beta glucans to protect, support, and improve immune function in healthy people and those people recovering from surgery and/or receiving treatments where immune suppression is a prominent feature.

The focus of the modern clinical use and research (over 400 published studies) has been the immuno-modulating properties of the hot water extracted polysaccharides. Originally isolated from the fruiting body (the mushroom), sales for these unique all-natural compounds have reached several hundred million dollars a year in Japan and China, making them the most widely used products in those countries by people facing serious immune challenges.

**Click here for an additional paper by the University of California on Coriolus Versicolor.

Coriolus versicolor is found throughout the wooded temperate zones of North America, Asia, and Europe and may be the most prolific shelf fungus in the Northern Hemisphere. The woody, shelf-like fruiting bodies form dense, overlapping clusters on stumps, tree trunks, and fallen trees. The mushroom caps have a plush velvety surface and are colored in varying shades of brown or gray, with a distinctive pattern of alternating bands of dark and light color.

In Classical Chinese and Japanese herbalism, the fruit bodies (mushrooms) are harvested, dried, ground to a powder, and made into tea. Given the extraction rate of the polysaccharides in a simple hot water extract (tea), it is interesting to note that the dose for the active compounds is the same in both traditional medicine and modern clinical practice.

In China, Coriolus versicolor is known as “Yun zhi” or the “cloud mushroom.” In Japan, it is called “Kawaratake” or “mushroom by the river.” In traditional herbalism, hot water extracts of Coriolus were used to dispel dampness, reduce phlegm, treat pulmonary infections, and support liver health (3). The Ming dynasty edition of the Materia Medica states, “The black and green Yun zhi are beneficial to one’s spirit and vital energy and strengthen one’s tendon and bone. If Yun zhi is taken for a long time, it will make one vigorous and live long.” In Japan, these mushrooms are also highly prized and sought after by people suffering from a variety of chronic conditions. In fact, it was a neighbor’s success in using Coriolus for stomach cancer that first caught the attention of a scientist that worked for the Japanese company Kureha Chemicals and subsequently launched the research and development of what came to be known as PSK.

Based on its reputation for healing within their traditional herbal practices Chinese and Japanese scientists began to do controlled clinical research on concentrated hot water extracts from Coriolus, studying the same 1-4, 1-3, 1-6 polysaccharides (beta glucans) that would have been released into solution when making the hot water teas described in the texts from traditional Japanese and Chinese herbalism.

After the placebo controlled, double-blind clinical research demonstrated significant immuno-modulating properties the Coriolus 1-4, 1-3, 1-6 polysaccharides (beta glucans), they were approved for use by the Japanese Health Ministry, allowing health insurance to cover the cost of its use.

At this point, the Coriolus extract was being prescribed by a significant percent of Japanese medical doctors. Coriolus polysaccharides were used to support immune health after surgical treatment for various conditions and to support and protect immune health in those patients receiving therapies where immune suppression is a prominent feature. Private and government sponsored research continued to monitor the effectiveness of the highly concentrated Coriolus extract in placebo controlled multi-institutional clinical studies, with the clinical evidence demonstrating significant immune benefit from daily use.

What Is Coriolus versicolor?

There are many chemically distinct extract products that can be produced from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. AID contains the most highly prized and the most difficult to obtain compounds found in Coriolus versicolor, those compounds found in the cell walls of the mushroom and the mycelium (the vegetative form). It is the cell wall extracts that were used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and it is these same compounds that form the basis of the modern clinical research.[RR1]

According to the patents and independent lab analysis the following information is available:

Elemental Analysis





Content Analysis

Soluble carbohydrate…….42%-43% (91-93 % beta-glucan containing glucose polymer)

Protein………………………28%-35% (amino acids)


Ash…………………………..6%-7% (carbon)

Remainder………………….Free Sugars and Amino Acids

Protein-Bound Polysaccharides (beta glucans)

The Key

Research with the mushroom Coriolus versicolor has found that the protein-bound polysaccharides with the beta-1,4, beta-1,3 , and beta-1,6 linkage are the primary active compounds. The problem is obtaining significant concentrations of these difficult to extract polysaccharides. In both the mycelium (the vegetative stage) and the mushroom (the fruiting stage), the cell walls are made of chitin. This material, like the cellulose in higher plants, gives the mushroom its structural rigidity. This chitin also contains the polysaccharides, the primary active compounds.

Chitin is indigestible by people; therefore, the active compounds will not be in a bio-available form in a non-extracted (raw) mushroom product. These polysaccharides are also insoluble in alcohol. Through mastering a technically difficult, multi-step hot water extraction process, researchers found a way to concentrate the polysaccharides at a level that made large scale production a practical reality.

Only a multi-step hot water extraction process is capable of concentrating these active compounds to levels that make them useful as a nutritional support in chronic conditions. AID is the only Coriolus product on the North American market manufactured in this manner, and, as compared to other Coriolus products, has a significantly higher concentration of the active polysaccharides.[RR2]

Quality Control

Every batch of AID is assayed to guarantee purity and to assure a constant level of the active compounds. No other Coriolus product can match the levels of polysaccharides contained in AID, and no other mushroom product can top the purity of AID.[RR3]

How Does Coriolus versicolor Work?

The cell wall extract from Coriolus versicolor has been clinically proven to stimulate and enhance the effectiveness of the body’s own natural defenses, a critically important step in maintaining good health.

In one particular study, Coriolus polysaccharides were given to both healthy volunteers and to patients with gastric cancer, and the polysaccharides stimulated a significant immune response within 24 hours. In another study, workers in a chemical plant were given the polysaccharides for a period of eight weeks. Significant enhancement of NK cell activity was noted along with other significant improvements in immune parameters, with the study concluding that Coriolus polysaccharides “potentiate the immunity of non-tumor bearing individuals with depressed immunity.”

Enhanced Immune Function

Every herbal extract contains a number of “major” and “minor” chemical components. It is important to note that it is the effect of all of these components working together that creates the desired effect, and that minor components will play a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the primary active compounds.

In Coriolus versicolor the primary active compounds are polysaccharides. These polysaccharides are composed of a unique combination of amino acids and beta-glucans that are not affected by the digestive process and are therefore effective when used orally.

Different physiochemical parameters, such as solubility, primary structure, molecular weight, and branching, all play an important role in determining the immune activities of polysaccharides.

The polysaccharides found inside the indigestible cell walls of Coriolus versicolor are “three dimensional”, with side chains branching off a backbone structure of linear glucose molecules. It is these secondary structures, the branching side chains, that confer biological function or immune activity allowing a “key and lock” interaction between the branching side chains and the receptors on the different immune cells.

Receptors for beta-glucans have been found on a number of different immune cells including natural killer cells and neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and on T and B lymphocytes. However, Coriolus has multiple pathways for stimulating an immune response. Coriolus polysaccharides have also been shown to stimulate the antigen-presenting cell function of macrophages and consequently, to stimulate overall immune function. Several studies have also reported the ability of Coriolus polysaccharides to enhance in vitro proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, and to enhance the cytotoxic activity of NK cells.

Recent U.S. research has confirmed these immuno-modulating properties, specifically these polysaccharides, acted as a potent inducer of proliferation, tumor cytotoxicity, and lymphokine production by human lymphocytes when studied in vitro.

Clinical Studies

The clinical research conducted with Coriolus polysaccharides is extensive and unique among medicinal mushrooms. As part of the Japanese Health Ministry’s approval process, the 1-4, 1-3, 1-6 Coriolus polysaccharides went through 24 human clinical trials with 14 controlled, randomized, double-blind human clinical studies. Coriolus polysaccharides are the most thoroughly researched and most successful all-natural immune supplement in the world and the only immune product to be proven in independent, published clinical studies.

End Notes

1.Stamets P., Wu Yao C. Mycomedicinals, MycoMedia Publications (1998).

2.Liu B., Bau Y. , Fungi Pharmacopoeia , Kiniko Press, (1980).

3.Jianzhe Y., Xiaolan M., Qiming M., Yichen Z., and Huaan W. Icons of Medicinal Fungi from China, Science Press, Beijing (1987).

4..Tsukagoshi S., Hashimoto Y., Fujii G., Kobayashi H., Nomoto K. and Orita K. Krestin (PSK). Cancer Treat. Rev. 11:131-155 (1984).

5.Torisu M., Hayashi Y., Ishimitsu T., Fujimura T., Iwasaki K., Katano M., Yamamoto H., Kimura Y., Takesue M., Kondo M., and Nomoto K. Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colon cancer. Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy, 31:261-268 (1990).

6.Hayakawa K., Mitsuhashi N., Saito Y., Takahashi M., Katano S., Shiojima K., Furuta M., and Niibe H. Effect of Krestin (PSK) as adjuvant treatment on the prognosis after radical radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Research, 13:1815-1820 (1993).

7. Ilino Y., Yokoe T., Maemura M., Horiguchi J., Takei H., Ohwada S., and Morishita Y. Immunochemotherapies versus chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of operable breast cancer. Anticancer Research 15:2907-2912 (1995).

8.Nagao T., Komatsuda M.., Yamauchi K.., Nozaki H.., Watanabe K.., Arimori S. Chemoimmunotherapy with Krestin (Coriolus)in Acute Leukemia. Tokai J Exp Med., Vol. 6. No. 2, pp.141-146, 1981.

9.Nakazato H., Koike A., Saji S. et al. Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of gastric cancer. Lancet, 343-1122-1126 (1994).

10. Hu, Y., et al . Pharamacological Studies of the Effects of PSP on Analgetic Action and Appetite Improvenent. PSP International Symposium, 125-131 (1993).

11. Yang, M., et al .The Anti-tumorous Function and Clinical Significance of Yun Zhi Essence. PSP International Symposium, 221-223 (1993).

12. Yang, Q., et al .The Comparative Analysis of the Extracts of the Mycelia and the Fruitbodies of Yun Zhi (Coriolus versicolor). PSP International Symposium, 41-55 (1993).

13. Hotta et al.U.S. Patent #4,271,151 (1981).

14. Yang, Q., et al .The Comparative Analysis of the Extracts of the Mycelia and the Fruitbodies of Yun Zhi (Coriolus versicolor). PSP International Symposium, 41-55 (1993).

15.Kato, Michio, et al. Induction of gene expression for immunomodulating cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to orally administered PSK, an immunomodulating protein-bound ploysaccharide. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 40:152-156 (1995).

16.Yamakido, Michio, et al. Changes of Human Immunological Parameters by PSK Administration. Hiroshima Journal of Medical Scienses. December, 1984:793-800

17.Di Renzo L., Yefenof E., and Klein E. The function of human NK cells is enhanced by b-glucan, a ligand of CR3 (CD11b/CD 18). Eur. J. Immunol. 21:1755-1758 (1991).

18.Gotoh K., Gouchi A., Akura Y., Tanaka N. and Orita K. Augmentation of cytotoxicity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes by biological response modifiers. Int. J. Immunopharmac. 5:485-492, 1991.

19.Czop J. K. 1986. The role of b-glucan receptors on blood and tissue leukocytes in phagocytosis and metabolic activation. Pathol. Immunopathol. Res. 5:286-296 (1986).

20.Ohmori K., and Oka T. Effects of OK-432 or PSK on in vitro activation of T-lymphocytes from human peripheral b lood. Biotherapy (Tokyo); 4:712-716 (1990).

21.Di Renzo L., Yefenof E., and Klein E. The function of human NK cells is enhanced by b-glucan, a ligand of CR3 (CD11b/CD18). Eur. J. Immunol. 21:1755-1758 (1991).

22.Gotoh K., Gouchi A., Akura Y., Tanaka N. and Orita K. Augmentation of cytotoxicity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes by biological response modifiers. Int. J. Immunopharmac. 5:485-492, 1991.

23.Tsukagoshi S., Hashimoto Y., Fujii G., Kobayashi H., Nomoto K. and Orita K. Krestin (PSK). Cancer Treat. Rev. 11:131-155 (1984).

24.Cesano A., and Santoli D., The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, unpublished results.

25.Torisu M., Hayashi Y., Ishimitsu T., Fujimura T., Iwasaki K., Katano M., Yamamoto H., Kimura Y., Takesue M., Kondo M., and Nomoto K. Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colon cancer. Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy, 31:261-268 (1990).

26. Nakazato H., Koike A., Saji S. et al. Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of gastric cancer. Lancet, 343-1122-1126 (1994).

27. Hu, Y., et al . Pharamacological Studies of the Effects of PSP on Analgetic Action and Appetite Improvenent. PSP International Symposium, 125-131 (1993).

28. Nakazato H., Koike A., Saji S. et al. Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of gastric cancer. Lancet, 343-1122-1126 (1994).

29. Hayakawa K., Mitsuhashi N., Saito Y., Takahashi M., Katano S., Shiojima K., Furuta M., and Niibe H. Effect of Krestin (PSK) as adjuvant treatment on the prognosis after radical radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Research, 13:1815-1820 (1993).

 [RR1]We need to find out if this is fact since the information given here is evidently from a product called VPS.

 [RR2]Again, we need to verify this as fact.





Quercetin is the most abundant of the flavonoids. Quercetin belongs to the flavonoids family and consist of 3 rings and 5 hydroxyl groups. Querectin is also a building block for other flavonoids. Quercetin occurs in food as a aglycone (attached to a sugar molecule). Only a small percentage of the ingested quercetin will get absorbed in the blood. Quercetin is found in many common foods including apples.

Diindolylmethane (DIM)


Diindolylmethane, or DIM for short, is a plant indole — a plant compound with health-promoting properties. DIM and other plant indoles are found in all cruciferous vegetables. Cruciferous vegetables include cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. These plants have been cultivated for centuries and were initially used for medicines.

When you chew raw or lightly cooked cruciferous vegetables, plant enzymes—substances that start a reaction—are activated, which allows DIM to enter your body. But to get the most benefit from this indole, you would need to consume very large quantities of raw vegetables each day. To overcome this problem, absorbable forms of pure DIM that use special absorption-enhancing formulas can be developed, such as the DIM used in AID. Diindolylmethane is a lipophilic oil-soluble compound. Lipophilic compounds, such as those found in AID, greatly increase the absorption and bio-availability of DIM upon oral administration.

DIM stimulates more efficient estrogen metabolism. Supplementing the diet with DIM and eating cruciferous vegetables increase the specific aerobic metabolism for estrogen, multiplying the chance for estrogen to be broken down into its beneficial or “good” estrogen metabolites. These “good”estrogen metabolites are known as the 2-hydroxy estrogens. Many of the benefits that are attributed to estrogen, which include its ability to protect the heart and brain with its antioxidant activity, are now known to come from these “good” metabolites.

When DIM increases the “good” estrogen metabolites, there is a simultaneous reduction in the levels of undesirable or “bad” estrogen metabolites. These include the 16-hydroxy estrogens, which are not antioxidants and can actually cause cancer. Greater production of these “bad” estrogen metabolites is promoted by obesity and exposure to a number of man-made environmental chemicals. These “bad” estrogen metabolites are responsible for many of estrogen’s undesirable actions in women and men.

In addition, a slow metabolism of estrogen, which leaves too much unmetabolized active estrogen known as estradiol in the body, can be a problem for both women and men. Elevated estradiol causes moodiness and breast pain in women and loss of sex drive in men. By promoting a healthy estrogen metabolism, DIM adjusts the balance of estradiol to its “good” metabolites. This also can result in a more desirable action from testosterone. Testosterone supports energy and mood and helps sustain interest in sex in both men and women. When supplemental DIM is taken it can help estrogen and testosterone contribute to good physical conditioning.

Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C)


Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C)

I3C is a phytonutrient derived from the cruciferous vegetables of the Brassica genus plants (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and brussels sprouts). I3C initiates a series of reactions in the body that culminates in the elimination of estrogen.


To understand why I3C is such a potent anticarcinogen, we must first look at the process involved in removing estrogen from the human body. Metabolism of the natural estrogen estradiol occurs via one of two pathways. The tumor enhancer metabolic pathway, 16 alpha-hydroxylation, is elevated in patients with breast and endometrial cancer and in those at increased risk of such cancers. This increased 16 alpha-hydroxylation activity has been shown to precede clinical evidence of cancer, and it represents a significant risk factor for developing estrogen-dependent tumors.

H. Leon Bradlow, Ph.D. has conducted numerous studies on I3C’s effect on estrogen metabolism pathways. He has observed that 16-alpha hydroxylation was 4.56 fold higher in patients undergoing mastectomy for cancer than in patients who did not have cancer.

Conversely, when estrogen veers away from the 16-alpha pathway and takes another route out of the body, the incidence of cancer decreases. This alternate route, which acts as a tumor suppressor metabolic pathway, is called 2-hydroxylation, a process which transforms estrogen into 2-hydroxyestrone (20HEI), an anti-estrogen. Healthy individuals not at risk for breast or endometrial cancer bypass the 16-alpha route and instead metabolize estrogen through this preferable pathway.

The process begins when I3C is ingested. Stomach acid converts it into a variety of products that ultimately induce the enzyme cytochrome P450, which signals the body to metabolize estrogen via the 2-hydroxylation pathway. By funneling estrogen into this tumor suppressor pathway, I3C essentially vacuums away the estrogen.

Indole-3-Carbinol stimulates the rate at which the body expels estrogen through 2-hydroxylation. Bradlow and a group of researchers investigated the effects on humans of short-term oral exposure to I3C, administering 400 mg of I3C daily to test subjects for one week. After I3C was consumed, the extent of 2-hydroxylation jumped from 29.3 percent to 45.6 percent. In another study, 12 healthy volunteers ingested 6–7 mg of I3C per kg of body weight, per day over one-week. After exposure to I3C, the rate of 2-hydroxylation in the subjects increased by 50 percent.

As I3C works to sweep the estrogen away from the tumor enhancer to the tumor suppressor pathway, it acts as a tremendous support to the immune system.


turmeric POWDER

Curcumin is a water soluble orange-yellow colored powder. Curcumin is one of three curcuminoids of turmeric. The other two curcuminoids are demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. It is obtained by solvent extraction from dried turmeric roots. Curcumin blocks estrogen and estogen-mimicking chemicals that promote cell mutation and proliferation. These estrogen-mimicking chemicals that we encounter every day are found in our environment—including paraquat (a weed killer), nitrosamines (in cooked meat and “lunch” meats), and carbon tetrachloride (a solvent found in paints and other products).

Curcumin inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygebnaise (LOX), two enzymes that promote inflammation believed to play a significant role in the development and progression of cell carcinoma. A strong antioxidant, curcumin protects our cells against free radicals that can cause aging by damaging DNA and activating genes.

Enhancing immunity is shown to stimulate both localized and general immunity, including CD4 + T-helper and B type immune cells thus inhibiting Angiogenesis, the process by which tumors create their own blood supply. Curcumin inhibits the enzyme critical to the process and by blocking iron and copper from the bloodstream, which are required for the growth of blood vessels that the tumors require.

Full source: BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 2000, Vol 129, Iss 2, pp 231-234

Curcumin is the active ingredient of the Indian curry spice turmeric. It is a polyphenol with a molecular formula C21H20O6. Curcumin can exist in at least two tautomeric forms, keto and enol. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Curcumin is known for its anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-amyloid and anti-inflammatory properties. Anti-inflammatory action may be due to leukotriene inhibition.

Curcumin acts as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. Curcuminoids induce glutathione S-transferase and are potent inhibitors of cytochrome P450.

For the last few decades, extensive work has been done to establish the biological activities and pharmacological actions of curcumin. Its anticancer effects stem from its ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells without cytotoxic effects on healthy cells. Curcumin can interfere with the activity of the transcription factor NF-B (NF-kB).


Kelly, M.R., J. Xu, K.E. Alexander, and G. Loo. 2001. “Disparate effects of similar phenolic phytochemicals as inhibitors of oxidative damage to cellular DNA.” Mutation Research. 485: 309-318. (PMID 11585363)

Campbell, Frederick C.; Collett, Gavin P. 2005. “Chemopreventive properties of curcumin.” Future Oncology, 1(3), 405-414. (PMID 16556014)

Ringman, John M.; Frautschy, Sally A.; Cole, Gregory M.; Masterman, Donna L.; Cummings, Jeffrey L. “A potential role of the curry spice curcumin in Alzheimer’s disease.” Current Alzheimer Research, 2(2), 131-136. (PMID 15974909)

Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Kumar, Anushree; Aggarwal, Manoj S.; Shishodia, Shishir. 2005. “Curcumin derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa): A spice for all seasons.” Phytopharmaceuticals in Cancer Chemoprevention, 349-387.

Chattopadhyay, Ishita; Biswas, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Banerjee, Ranajit K. 2004. “Turmeric and curcumin: biological actions and medicinal applications.” Current Science’, 87(1), 44-53.

Kawanishi, S. Oikawa, S. Murata, M. 2005. “Evaluation for safety of antioxidant chemopreventive agents.” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 7(11-12), 1728-1739. (PMID 16356133)

Shoba G, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas PS. 1998. “Influence Of Piperine On The Pharmacokinetics Of Curcumin In Animals And Human Volunteers”. Planta medica, 64(4):353-6. (PMID9619120)


Brown Eggs

Selenium is an essential micronutrient in all known forms of life. It is a component of the unusual amino acids selenocysteine and selenomethionine. In humans, selenium is a trace element, a nutrient that functions as a cofactor for the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductase. It also plays a role in the functioning of the thyroid gland by participating as a cofactor for the thyroid hormone deiodinases. Dietary selenium comes from cereals, meat, fish, and eggs. Liver and Brazil nuts are particularly rich sources of selenium.

A five year study showed that people taking 200mcg of selenium a day had 63% less prostate tumors, 58% less colorectal cancers, 46% less lung malignancies, and a 39% overall decrease in cancer deaths. This study was carried out at Cornell University and the University of Arizona. Selenium is essential for a healthy immune system, assisting the body in defending itself against harmful bacteria and viruses. Moreover, selenium increases the ratio of HDL (“good”) cholesterol to LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, which is critical for a healthy heart.

Green Tea

Delicious Green Tea
Green Tea

The tea plant is a large evergreen shrub growing up to 8 meters high, but normally clipped to 1.5 meters to facilitate harvesting. The tea plant has glossy dark green leaves. The white tea flowers are formed on short stalks. The tea fruits are smooth and flattened capsules with three seeds. Only the tea leaves are used. The young, light colored leaves that grow at the top will produce the best tea. Because the tea tannins can bind with proteins, tea is used for its anti-diarrheal effect. The tannins also have antioxidant and diuretic activity. The high levels of flavonoids in tea can protect cells from oxidative damage by eliminating free radicals.

Studies have shown that after consumption of green and black tea the antioxidant capacity in the blood increases. This enhanced blood antioxidant potential reduces oxidative damage to molecules such as DNA and lipids. Tea seems to inhibit the absorption of cholesterol. The best know effect of tea is the stimulating effect caused by caffeine. Caffeine affects adensine receptors and blocks the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

Green tea and black tea are the same plant. The difference is that during the tea production process, only leaves for black tea undergo a fermentation process. Green tea is heat treated, fermented, and dried. Black tea is rolled, fermented and then dried. This fermentation process changes the color from yellow green to reddish brown. This fermentation also changes the composition of the phytochemicals—part of the polyphenols will oxidize. Green tea will therefore contain more antioxidant phytochemicals than black tea.

Research Reviews:

*Orally Administered Green Tea Polyphenols Prevent Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Skin Cancer in Mice through Activation of Cytotoxic T Cells and Inhibition of Angiogenesis in Tumors

*Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin Gallate Affects Gene Expression of Breast Cancer Cells Transformed by the Carcinogen 7,12-Dimethylben(a)Anthracene

*Antioxidant Activity of Tea Polyphenols In Vivo: Evidence from Animal Studies

*Tea Polyphenols and Theaflavins Are Present in Prostate Tissue of Humans and Mice after Green and Black Tea Consumption

*Epigallocatechin gallate supplementation alleviates diabetes in rodents.



Resveratrol is a flavonol belonging to the group of flavonoids. It is produced by the plant as a defense against diseases. Resveratrol is present in many plants and fruits, including red grapes. Red wine contains a high concentration of resveratrol. The longer the grape juice is fermented with the grape skins the higher the resveratrol content will be. In people, it has anticancer properties and inhibits lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein and prevents the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL. Resveratrol also increases the activity of some antiretroviral drugs in vitro. The antioxidant action of resveratrol helps to prevent damage to DNA, but it also influences the transcriptions of genes responsible for redox metabolism and inhibits proliferartion of cancer cells. Resveratrol appears to decrease tumor promotion activity by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase-1, which converts arachidonic acid to substances that promote tumor growth. In vitro studies have shown that resveratrol inhibits the oxidative damage caused by the heavy metal cadmium. The antioxidant activity of resveratrol reduces damage to endothelial cells exposed to nitrite radicals and protects skin cells against damage caused by UV radiation. Administration of resveratrol may protect against oxidative damage caused by high glucose levels. Resveratrol interferes with AKT activity and triggers apoptosis in human uterine cancer cells. Molecular Cancer. 2006 October 17; 5:45 Endometrial cancers (cancer of the lining of the uterus) are the most common gynecologic cancers in the Western world. Studies have shown that resveratrol has anticancer activity and acts by inhibiting the proliferation and inducing apoptosis of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative and apoptotic activity of resveratrol in six different endometrial cancer cell lines. The researchers found that resveratrol caused apoptosis in five out of six uterine cancer cell lines and decreased cell proliferation. They found that resveratrol acts by regulating the cyclooxygenase expression.

“Resveratrol inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and overcomes chemoresistance through downregulation of STAT3 and nuclear factor-{kappa}B-regulated antiapoptotic and cell survival gene products in human multiple myeloma cells.”

This study investigated the effect of resveratrol, a phytochemical found in red grapes, red berries, and peanuts, on the growth of human multiple myeloma cells. Multiple myeloma is cancer of immune system cells in bone marrow. Bhardwaj and his colleagues found that resveratrol inhibited the proliferation of human multiple myeloma cell lines. Resveratrol also increased the apoptotic affect of bortezomib and thalidomide. They concluded that resveratrol may have a potential in the treatment of multiple myeloma cancer. Blood, 15 March 2007, Vol. 109, No. 6, pp. 2293-2302

“Resveratrol Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Proliferation Through Transcriptional Induction of Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1. Journal of Surgical Research.”

Previous studies have shown that resveratrol has potential antitumorigenic and anti-inflammatory activities. It is known that macrophages produce a cytokine (MIC-1), which has antitumorigenic activity. The aim of this in-vitro study was to determine the effect resveratrol on the activity of MIC-1 and the regulation the growth of lines human pancreatic cancer cells. The researchers found that resveratrol upregulated the expression of the MIC-1 gene. When the cells were first treated with a transcriptional inhibitor the effect of resveratrol was reduced, confirming that resveratrol works expression of genes. The study concluded that resveratrol increases MIC-1 gene expression in pancreatic cancer cells. 2007 January 24

“Resveratrol Modulates mRNA transcripts of genes related to redox metabolism and cell proliferation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.”

Previous studies have shown that the phytochemical resveratrol has antioxidant properties and influences the cellular redox reactions in eukaryotic cells. The researchers investigated the effects of resveratrol on the transcription of genes and activity of enzymes involved with the redox metabolism and cell cycle regulation in lung cancer cells. They found that resveratrol significantly increased the transcription of glutathione peroxidase resulting in lower glutathione levels. Glutathione also increased the transcription of many genes involved in the cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. The researchers concluded that resveratrol increased the expression of genes responsible for cell survival, differentiation, proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Resveratrol may therefore have a chemopreventive and anticancer effect. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2007 February;388(2):207-19

“Effect of Resveratrol and Mixtures of Resveratrol and Mitomycin C on Cancer Cells Under Irradiation.”

This study investigated the antitumor and radiation protective effects of resveratrol in combination with mitomycin-C, an antibiotic that is also used as chemotherapeutic agent because of its antitumor activity. The in-vitro tests were carried out on human breast cancer cells in aerated and anaerobic media. In the aerated media resveratrol showed anti-tumor and antioxidant activities, which were enhanced by mitomycin-C. Under anaerobic conditions, resveratrol acted as a radiation-protecting agent and at high concentration it stopped cell growth. The study concluded that resveratrol has both radiation protective and anticancer activity. Resveratrol acts by ejection of electrons and by reacting on primary radicals, such as hydroxyl radical. Anticancer Research. 2006 November-December;26(6B):4403-8

“Resveratrol Induces Fas Signaling-Independent Apoptosis in THP-1 Human Monocytic Leukemia Cells.”

Resveratrol has recently been shown to inhibit the growth of a number of cancer cell lines in vitro. In the current study, we have demonstrated that resveratrol inhibits the growth of THP-1 human monocytic leukaemia cells in a dose-dependent manner with a median effective dose of 12 microM. It did not induce differentiation of THP-1 cells and had no toxic effect on THP-1 cells that had been induced to differentiate into monocytes/macrophages by phorbol myristate acetate. A significant fraction of resveratrol-treated cells underwent apoptosis as judged by flow cytometric analysis of DNA content, DNA fragmentation and caspase-specific cleavage of poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase. Resveratrol treatment had no effect on the expression of Fas receptor or Fas ligand (FasL) in THP-1 cells, nor did it induce clustering of Fas receptors. In addition, THP-1 cells were resistant to activating anti-Fas antibody, and neutralizing anti-Fas and/or anti-FasL antibodies had no protective effect against resveratrol-induced inhibition of THP-1 cell growth. The effect of resveratrol on THP-1 cells was reversible after its removal from the culture medium. These results suggest that (1) resveratrol inhibits the growth of THP-1 cells, at least in part, by inducing apoptosis, (2) resveratrol-induced apoptosis of THP-1 cells is independent of the Fas/FasL signalling pathway and (3) resveratrol does not induce differentation of THP-1 cells and has no toxic effect on differentiated THP-1 cells. Thus, resveratrol may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the control of acute monocytic leukaemia. Tsan MF, White JE, Maheshwari JG, Bremner TA, Sacco J Research and Medical Services, Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

“Anti-Proliferative Effect of Resveratrol, a Natural Component of Grapes and Wine On Human Colonic Cancer Cells.”

Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic phytoalexine present in grapes and wines, has been reported to exert a variety of important pharmacological effects. We investigated the effects of resveratrol on the growth and polyamine metabolism of CaCo-2 human colon cancer cells. Treatment of the CaCo-2 cells with 25 muM resveratrol caused a 70% growth inhibition. The cells accumulated at the S/G2 phase transition of the cell cycle. No signs of cytotoxicity or apoptosis were detected. Resveratrol caused a significant decrease of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, a key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, which is enhanced in cancer growth. ODC inhibition resulted in the reduction of the intracellular putrescine content, indicating that polyamines might represent one of several targets involved in the anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol. Schneider Y, Vincent F, Duranton B, Badolo L, Gosse F, Bergmann C, Seiler N, Raul F ULP/CJF INSERM 95-09, Laboratory of Metabolic and Nutritional Control in Digestive Oncology, IRCAD, 1 Place de l’Hopital, 67091, Strasbourg, France.

“Resveratrol Reverses Tumor-Promoter-Induced Inhibition of Gap-Junctional Intercellular Communication.”

The naturally occurring stilbene/alexin trans-resveratrol (trans-3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a promising agent for the prevention of cancer. We investigated the effect of resveratrol on gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells because inhibition of GJIC is an important mechanism of tumor promotion. Seventeen to 50 muM resveratrol increased GJIC significantly by a factor of 1.3 compared with solvent vehicle controls, when the WB-F344 cells were exposed to resveratrol for 6 h. Most tumor promoters, including the phorbol ester TPA and the insecticide DDT, block GJIC. Resveratrol at 17-50 muM also significantly prevented down-regulation of GJIC by TPA and DDT, by a factor of 2.7 and 1.8, respectively. This recovery of GJIC from TPA inhibition was partly correlated with hindered hyperphosphorylation of Cx43. In conclusion, resveratrol was found to enhance GJIC and counteract the effects of tumor promoters on GJIC, and this is likely a mechanism that contributes to the antipromotional and anticarcinogenic properties of resveratrol. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. Nielsen M, Ruch RJ, Vang O Department of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Roskilde University, Roskilde, DK-4000, Denmark

“Resveratrol, a natural stilbene in grapes and wine, enhances intraphagocytosis in human promonocytes: a co-factor in antiinflammatory and anticancer chemopreventive activity.”

Trans-resveratrol, a natural stilbene present in wine and grapes, has been studied mainly for its antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study the activity of resveratrol on proliferative immunological parameters (differentiation, apoptosis, phagocytosis and intracellular killing) was studied using a U937 human promonocytic cell line in comparison with another polyphenol, quercetin. After incubation of the pathogen, Candida albicans, intracellular killing by macrophage-like cells was decreased by quercetin and resveratrol 10 microM but was enhanced by resveratrol 1 microM after 20 h of treatment. Phagocytosis rate, expressed as phagocytosis frequency, (i.e., percentage number of phagocytosing cells/total cells) at 20 h was highest with resveratrol 10 microM and was higher with quercetin 10 microM than with resveratrol 1 microM. The phagocytosis index exhibited the same trend. While both polyphenols demonstrated cytostatic activity on U937 growth, a prointraphagocytic effect for resveratrol 10 microM-treated cells at 10 min, resveratrol 1 microM-treated cells at 20 h and resveratrol 10 microM-treated cells at 48 h was observed. Morphological examination with optic microscopy demonstrated both apoptotic and differentiating cells, even after 10 min treatment. Resveratrol-induced apoptosis (following 4 h treatment) was confirmed by flow cytometry at concentrations as low as 1 microM and 100 nM in the assay for detection of membrane phosphatidylserine. Resveratrol- or quercetin-treated, but unstimulated cells, did not produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein. As phosphatidylserine externalization triggers specific recognition by monocytes and macrophages, removal of intact apoptotic cells is important a) in cell population selection and differentiation for antiblastic therapy, and b) in preventing the release of toxic inflammatory substances such as reactive oxygen substances and proteolytic enzymes by dying cells. This observation suggests that wine polyphenols, at the same concentrations as those found in plasma after moderate wine consumption, are important cofactors in antiinfective, antiinflammatory and anticancer nonspecific immune reactions. •    Bertelli AA, Ferrara F, Diana G, Fulgenzi A, Corsi M, Ponti W, Ferrero ME, Bertelli A •    Institute of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Milan, Italy. MariaElena.Ferrero@unimi.it