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Dictionary English Etymology - Origins - A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English Rouledge 1958, Parridge)

Dictionary English Etymology - Origins - A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English Rouledge 1958, Parridge)



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A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English (Routledge; 6th edition (8th printing, in all)—U.S.A.: Macmillan.) A Dictionary of the Underworld, British and American (Routledge; 2nd edition, revised and enlarged, 2nd impression—U.S.A.: Macmillan.) Slang Today and Yesterday: a history and a study (Routledge; 4th printing,—U.S.A.: Macmillan.) A Dictionary of Clichés (Routledge; 7th printing—U.S.A.: Macmillan.) Shakespeare’s Bawdy: A Study and a Glossary (Routledge; 3rd edition, 2nd impression—U.S.A.: Dutton.) A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, by Captain Francis Grose: his 3rd edition (1796), edited, with a biographical essay and a running commentary, by Eric Partridge, 2nd edition (revised), 2nd impression. (Routledge—U.S.A., Barnes & Noble.) Usage and Abusage: A Guide to Good English (Hamish Hamilton; 6th edition, revised, enlarged, and brought up to date,—U.S.A.: (1) British Book Centre; (2) school edition, Grosset & Dunlap.) The Concise Usage and Abusage (Hamish Hamilton; 4th impression—U.S.A.: Philosophical Library.) Name This Child: a dictionary of Christian or given names (Hamish Hamilton; 5th edition, 3rd impression—U.S.A.: British Book Centre.) You Have a Point There: a guide to punctuation and its allies, with an Ameri-can chapter by John W. Clark (Hamish Hamilton; 4th edition, 4th impression—U.S.A., British Book Centre.) What’s the Meaning?: mostly for young people (Hamish Hamilton; 5th im-pression— U.S.A.: British Book Centre.) English: A Course for Human Beings (Macdonald; 5th edition: in one volume, and separately: Books I, II, III—U.S.A.: Macdonald.)

The ‘Shaggy Dog’ Story: its origin, development and nature, with many seemly examples. Illustrated (Faber & Faber, 3rd impression—U.S.A.: Philosophical Library.) Adventuring Among Words: a light-hearted essay on etymology. A volume in The Language Library. (André Deutsch, 2nd edition—U.S.A.: Oxford University Press.) Swift’s Polite Conversation, edited with an introduction, notes and, for the dialogues themselves, a running commentary. (André Deutsch, 2nd impression—U.S.A.: Oxford University Press.) The Gentle Art of Lexicography: A Memoir (André Deutsch—U.S.A.: Macmillan,) A Dictionary of Catch Phrases (Routledge; U.S.A.: Stein and Day.)



London and New York

First published in Great Britain in 1958 by Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd Second edition (with some corrections and additions) 1959 Third edition (with corrections and additions) 1961 Fourth edition (with numerous revisions and some substantial additions) 1966 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2006. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.” © Eric Partridge 1958, 1959, 1961, 1966 No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except for the quotation of brief passages in criticism ISBN 0-203-42114-0 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-203-37182-8 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0 415 050 774 (Print Edition)

piam in memoriam


a kindly and generous man and a remarkable publisher

Philologists who chase A panting syllable through time and space, Start it at home, and hunt it in the dark, To Gaul, to Greece, and into Noah’s Ark. Cowper, Retirement

PROFESSOR W.W.SKEAT’S large and small etymological dictionaries were last revised in 1910; Ernest Weekley’s Concise Etymological Dictionary and Ferdinand Holthausen’s Etymologisches Wörterbuch der englischen Sprache, both excellent in their way, treat words so briefly and ignore ramifications so wholeheartedly that it was easy to plan a work entirely different—a remark that applies equally to Skeat’s Concise and, for relationships, almost as much to his larger book. ‘Exigencies of space’—not always a myth, nor always a mere excuse for laziness— preclude a large vocabulary. The number of entries in Origins is comparatively small, even for an etymological dictionary, but the system I have devised has enabled me, with the aid of cross-references, not only to cover a very much wider field than might have seemed possible but also, and especially, to treat all important words much more comprehensively and thoroughly. I have concentrated upon civilization rather than upon science and technology; dialect and cant have teen ignored; slang is represented only by a very few outstanding examples (e.g., phoney). On the other hand, I have included a certain number of words not usually found in a small British etymological dictionary: words that, little known in Britain, form part of the common currency of Standard English as it is spoken and written in the United States of America, Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, India and Pakistan. One class of words has deliberately been treated very meagrely: such exotics as do not fall into the classification ‘Americanisms’—‘Australianisms’—etc. It does not much help the searcher to be told that llama has been adopted—that is, accepted unchanged—from Quechuan, or okapi from Bambulan (Mbuba); only a little more does it help him to learn that cassowary has been adapted from Malayan kasuari. For Amerindian, Australian aboriginal, Maori, Hindi and similar words, I have, wherever possible, avoided the baldness and inadequacy of such entries as ‘kangaroo. Australian aboriginal word’ or ‘pakeha. Maori for a white man’. In a book of this size a certain number of abbreviations is unavoidable. These abbreviations will not impede the easy flow of the consecutive English I hold to be indispensable in a book designed for the use of the general intelligent public as well as for that of the erudite. Nor, I hope, will scholars and students find readability a defect; after all, a work is not necessarily the more scholarly for being written in philological shorthand. Where, however, the conventions of lexicography make for clarity and simplicity, I have followed most of these conventions: and where either extremely brief etymologies or multiple cognates and complex histories occur, I have employed a brevity hardly less austere than compact. This combination of consecutiveness and terseness should prevent the treatment from becoming too deadly monotonous. Warmest thanks are due, both to Professor John W.Clark, of the University of Minnesota, for help in choosing terms important in the United States of America, yet

little known in Britain and the British Dominions, and to Professor D.Winton Thomas for occasional help in Semitic origins. I shall be grateful for (private) notification, whether of printer’s and other errors or of entries that ‘simply must be added’: non-specialist words that, falling within the 10,000or-so used by every intelligent person, have been inadvertently omitted from this dictionary. Also, a few important affixes and elements have probably slipped through the net. ERIC PARTRIDGE Postscript to the second edition. I have to thank Professors John W.Clark, Norman Davis, Simeon Potter, for some valuable notifications and corrections. Postscript to the third edition. I owe much to Professors John W.Clark, Norman Davis, Simeon Potter and especially R.M.Wilson; and something to Mr R.W. Burchfield (by salutary indirection)—Dr A.J.R.Green—Professor Mario Pei—Mr Stephen Potter—and Mr T.Skaug of Oslo. All these gentlemen have been most generous: I can only hope that the third edition approaches their ideals a little more closely than did the first: it leaves me a shade less dissatisfied than I was. Postscript to the fourth edition. In addition to several correspondents telling me of this or that printers’ error, I have to thank especially Professor Ralph W.V. Elliott of the University of Adelaide, for both corrections and suggestions; Professor Yoshio Terasawa (of Tokyo City University), whose corrections largely duplicate Professor Elliott’s; also Dr Nicola Cerri, Jr, of Maryland. It is difficult to thank at all adequately all the persons concerned, but I can at least assure them that I am most grateful.



ix xiii xv


1 3859


3867 3896 3964 4214

AN etymological dictionary supplies neither pronunciations nor definitions. Here, pronunciation is indicated only where it affects the origin or the development of a word; and definitions only where, in little-known words, they are necessary to an understanding of the problem. Wherever the meaning of a word has notably changed, the sensetransformation is explained, as, for instance, in knave, marshal, phoney, adjectival rum: here we enter the domain of semantics, the science of meanings, for semantics will sometimes resolve an otherwise insoluble problem. If the reader intends to use this book extensively and even if he intends merely to consult it occasionally, he will spare himself much time and trouble if he previously familiarizes himself with the list of abbreviations immediately preceding the dictionary proper. If he wishes to be in a position to understand words in their fullest implications and subtleties, in their nuances and most delicate modifications, he will do well to study the list of suffixes and then the little less important list of prefixes; lists that are themselves etymological. By the way, the prefixes and suffixes are my own idea; the list of compound-forming elements (this list, too, is etymological), that of an eminent and humane, practical yet imaginative French philologist, the late M. Albert Dauzat. Like his, my list is confined to learned elements: where he omits such elements as, in the fact, are self-contained French words, I omit such elements as are English words recorded in the dictionary itself. My list, however, is more than twice as long as his and, in treatment, much more spacious, for Origins differs considerably from the Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue française. This list of compound-forming elements will enable inquirers to ascertain the etymology of most of the innumerable learned words—scientific and technical, philosophical and psychological, economic and sociological, linguistic and literary— missing from the dictionary; these are specialist terms. Take, for example, Calyptorhynchus, a genus of dark-coloured cockatoos; such a word has no right to appear in an etymological dictionary and no privilege to appear in any ‘straight’ dictionary other than one of the Universal Stores class. Yet the list of elements will reveal that the word is compounded of calypto-, meaning ‘covered’, hence ‘hidden’, and -rhynchus, ‘beak’. Having assimilated the table of abbreviations and the lists of Prefixes, Suffixes, Elements, inquirers will find consultation easy and reading unimpeded. The crossreferences will present no difficulty, for if one word is to be sought at another, as for instance erg at work, and if the latter entry be at all long, the long entry is divided into numbered paragraphs. ‘See WORK’ would mean ‘See that word in the Dictionary’. If the dictionary contains any such references as ‘See para-’—‘See -ace’—‘See calypto-’, the application is clearly to para- in Prefixes, -ace in Suffixes, calypto- in Elements. If the reference happens to be

double, as in ‘See PSEUDO and pseudo-’, the application would be to the former in the dictionary and to the latter in Elements. All words belonging to alphabets other than ‘English’—to Greek, Russian, Egyptian, for instance—have been transliterated. The transliteration of Greek words, in particular, has been more exact than in several dictionaries one might, but does not, name. I have, for χ, preferred kh to ch, and represented γγ as ng, γκ as nk, γξ as nx, γχ as nkh. In preMedieval Latin words I have retained i and u, as in Iulius, ML Julius, and uinum, ML vinum, for reasons too obvious to be enumerated. Long Greek and Latin vowels have been shown as long. I have, however, omitted that over the final -ī of Latin passives and deponents.

(including those for the most frequently cited authorities)

A or Am abbr abl acc A.D. adj adv AE Aer AF Afr AIr Akk AL Alb Alg Am Amerind AmF An anl app approx Ar Aram

American (U.S.A.) abbreviation of; abbreviated (to) ablative accusative (or objective) case Anno Domini, in the year of (our) Lord adjective, adjectival adverb, adverbial American English Aeronautics, aeronautical Anglo-French Afrikaans Anglo-Irish Akkadian Anglo-Latin (=Medieval Latin as used in Britain) Albanian Algonquin American American Indian American French Anatomy, anatomical analogous, analogously, analogy apparently approximately Arabic Aramaic

Except for A.D. and B.C., and for e.g., f.a.e., i.e., 0.0.0., q.v. and s.f., the very modern practice of using as few points (periods, full stops) as possible has been followed. In philology, OHG, MLG, ONF, etc.—not O.H.G., etc.—have long been usual; I have merely extended the practice to, e.g., n for noun.

Arch Arm AS ASp Ass Astr aug Aus Av B Bab Bact Baker B&W B.C. BE b/f Bio Boisacq Bot Br Bu Buck Byz Gr C c C16, 17 CA Can Cat caus cf c/f c/f e Ch

Architecture, architectural Armenian Anglo-Saxon American Spanish Assyrian Astronomy, astronomical augmentative Australia, Australian Avestic (or Zend) British Babylonian, Babylonish Bacteriology, bacteriological Sidney J.Baker, The Australian Language, 1945 O.Bloch and W.von Wartburg, Dictionnaire étymologique de lad langue française, 2nd ed., 1950 Before Christ British English back-formation (from) Biology, biological Emile Boisacq, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, 4th ed., 1950 Botany, botanical Breton Bantu Carl Darling Buck, A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal European Languages, 1949 Byzantine Greek Celtic circa, about (in dates) 16th (etc.) Century; CC16–17, 16th– 17th Centuries Central America(n) Canadian Catalan causative confer, compare! combining-form; pl: c/ff compound-forming element Chinese

Chem Clark Class coll comb comp cond conj conjug conn cons contr Cor corresp cpd Craigie Cz D Da DAE DAF dat Dauzat dial Dict dim E E&M Eccl ED EDD EE

Chemistry, chemical John W.Clark (private communication) Classical (Greek, Latin) colloquial, -ism, -ly combination, combiner comparative conditional (mood) conjunction, conjunctive conjugation connotation consonant, consonantal contracted, contraction Cornish corresponding compound Sir William Craigie, A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, 1931– Czechoslovak Dutch Danish A Dictionary of American English, edited by W.A.Craigie and J.R. Hulbert, 1936–44 R.Grandsaignes d’Hauterive, Dictionnaire d’ancien français, 1947 dative Albert Dauzat, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue française, edition of 1947 dialect, -al, -ally (this) dictionary; dict (pl dictt), any dictionary diminutive English A.Ernout and A.Meillet, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine, 3rd ed., 1951 Ecclesiastics, ecclesiastic(al) Early Modern Dutch Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary, 1896– 1905 Early Modern English (1500–1700)

EF Eg EgAr e.g. EI Ekwall El Enci It Eng Ent esp etc. etym euphem EW Ex extn F f f.a.e. f/e Feist fig Fin Fl fl foll fpl fre Fris fs FU G Ga Gaul

Early Modern French (1500–1700) Egyptian Egyptian Arabic exempli gratia, for example East Indian, East Indies B.O.E.Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, 4th ed., 1958 Electricity Enciclopedia Italiana Engineering Entomology, entomological especially et cetera etymology, etymological(ly) euphemism, euphemistically) Ernest Weekley, Concise Etymological Dictionary, 2nd ed., 1952 example; Exx: examples extension French feminine for anterior etymology folk-etymology or -etymological(ly) Sigmund Feist, Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der gotischen Sprache, 3rd ed., 1939 figurative(ly) Finnish Flemish flourished (lived) following feminine plural frequentative Frisian feminine singular Finno-Ugric German Gaelic Gaulish

gen Geog Geol Geom Gmc Go Gr Gram; gram H Ham Hell Her HG Hi Hind hist Hit Hofmann Holthausen Holthausen1 Holthausen2 Hung or Hu ibid Ice Ich id IE i.e. illit imm imp impf inch incl ind

genitive (possessive case) Geography, geographical Geology, geological Geometry, geometrical Germanic Gothic Greek Grammar; grammatical Hebrew Hamitic Hellenistic Heraldry, heraldic High German Hindi Hindustani historic(al) Hittite J.B.Hofmann, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Griechischen, 1950 Ferdinand Holthausen, Wörterbuch des Altwestnordischen, 1948 F.Holthausen, Altfriesisches Wörterbuch, 1925 F.Holthausen, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der englischen Sprache, 3rd ed. Hungarian ibidem, in the same place Icelandic Ichthyology idem, the same; identical Indo-European id est, that is illiterate, illiterately immediately imperative (mood) imperfect (tense) inchoative included, including, inclusion indicative (mood)

inf instr int interj Ir irreg It J or Jap Jav joc Kluge L L&S l.c. Lett LG LGr LH lit Lith LL loc m MacLennan Mal Malvezin Malvezin1 MAr Math Mathews MBr MD mdfn ME

infinitive (mood), infinitival instrument, instrumental intensive, intensively interjection, interjective(ly) Irish irregular, irregularly Italian Japanese Javanese jocular(ly) Kluge-Götze, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, 14th ed., 1948 Latin Liddell and Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, in H.Stuart Jones’s recension, 1925–40 locus citatus, the passage (or book) quoted Lettish (Latvian) Low German Late Greek Late Hebrew literal, literally Lithuanian Late Latin (c A.D. 180–600) locative (case) masculine Malcolm MacLennan, A Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, 1925 Malayan Pierre Malvezin, Dictionnaire des racines celtiques, 2nd ed., 1924 P.Malvezin, Dictionnaire complétif du latin, 1925 Medieval Arabic Mathematics, mathematical Mitford M.Mathews, A Dictionary of Americanisms, 1951 Medieval Breton Medieval Dutch modification Middle English

Med Medit Mencken Met MF MGr MHG Min MIr mispron: ML MLG Mod, mod: Morris mpl ms MSc Mus MW Myth Mx N n NA naut Nav neg neu NL nom Nor NT NZ O OB OBr

Medicine, medical Mediterranean H.L.Mencken, The American Language, 4th ed., 1936; Supplement One, 1945, and Two, 1948 meteorology, -ological Medieval French (CC13–15) Medieval Greek Middle High German Mineralogy, mineralogical Middle Irish mispronounced, mispronunciation Medieval Latin Middle Low German modern, as in Mod E, Modern English E.E.Morris, Austral English, 1898 masculine plural masculine singular Middle Scots Music, musical Middle Welsh Mythology, mythological Manx north, northern noun North America, N American nautical the (Royal) Navy, naval; navigation(al) negative, negatively neuter; neupl: neuter plural; neus: neuter singular New Latin, especially Modern Scientific Latin nominative (subjective case) Norwegian (The) New Testament New Zealand Old Old Bulgarian (=Old Church Slavic) Old Breton

obs obsol OC occ OE OED OF OFris OGmc OHG OIr OIt OL OLG ON ONF o.o.o. OP OPer opp OProv orig OS o/s OSl OSp OSw OT OW P P1 P2 P3 P4 pa Pal

obsolete obsolescent Old Celtic occasional, occasionally Old English The Oxford English Dictionary Old French Old Frisian Old Germanic Old High German Old Irish Old Italian (Middle Ages) Old Latin Old Low German Old Norse Old Northern French of obscure origin Old Prussian Old Persian opposite (adj, n): opposed to Old Provencal original, originally Old Saxon Orn Ornithology, ornithological oblique stem Old Slavic Old Spanish Old Swedish (The) Old Testament Old Welsh Eric Partridge, A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English, 4th ed., 1950 E.P., A Dictionary of the Underworld, 1950 E.P., Name into Word, 2nd ed., 1950 E.P., Here, There and Everywhere, 2nd ed., 1950 E.P., From Sanskrit to Brazil, 1952 participial adjective Palaeography, palaeographical

para PC pej Per pern Pettman: PGmc PGr Pharm Phil phon Phys Physio PL pl PlN PN Pol Poly pop Port pos pp pps Prati prec prep pres inf presp presp o/s prob pron prop Prov Psy Psychi pt

paragraph Primitive Celtic pejorative, -ly Persian perhaps C.Pettman, Africanderisms, 1913 Primitive Germanic Primitive Greek Pharmacy, pharmaceutical Philosophy, philosophical phonetic, phonetically, phonetics Physics Physiology, physiologica Primitive Latin plural place-name personal name Polish Polynesian popular (speech) Portuguese positive past participle past-participial stem Angelico Prati, Vocabolario etimologico italiano, 1951 preceding preposition(al) present infinitive present participle present-participial oblique stem probable, probably pronounced (as), pronunciation properly, strictly Provençal Psychology, psychological Psychiatry, psychiatrical past tense (preterite)

q.v. R r redup ref reg resp Rom Ru Rum S s SAE SAfr SAm Santamaria Sc sc Scan Sci SciL SE Sem sem sep s.f. sing Skeat Skt Sl sl Slov Sophocles Souter Sp spec

quod vide, which see! (Plural references: qq.v.) Romance (language or languages) root reduplication reference; in or with reference to regular(ly) respective, respectively Romany Russian Rumanian south, southern stem Standard American English South Africa, S. African South America, S. American F.J.Santamaria, Diccionario de Americanismos, 1942 Scots, Scottish scite, understand! or supply! Scandinavian Science, scientific Scientific Latin Standard English Semitic semantics, semantic(ally) separate, separately (treated) sub finem, near the end singular; in the singular W.W.Skeat, An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed., 1910 Sanskrit Slavonic slang Slovene E.A.Sophocles, Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods (146 B.C.-A.D. 1100), ed. of 1893 A.Souter, A Glossary of Later Latin, 1949 Spanish specialized

subj sup Surg Sw syn T taut tech Theo Tokh Topo Torp: trans Tregear trld; trln Tu ult usu v var Ve vi viz VL vn vr vt W Walde Walshe Webster Whitehall WI Y&B

subjunctive superlative surgery, surgical Swedish synonym; synonymous Technics, Technology; technical, technological; technicality tautological(ly), tautology (a) technical (term) Theology, theological Tokharian Topography, topographical Alf Torp, Nynorsk Etymologisk Ordbok, 1919 translated, translation Edward Tregear, The Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, 1891 transliterated; transliteration Turkish ultimate, ultimately usually verb variant Vedic verb intransitive to wit Vulgar (or Low) Latin verbal noun verb reflexive verb transitive Welsh A.Walde and J.B.Hofmann, Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed., 1938–56 M.O’C.Walshe, A Concise German Etymological Dictionary, 1952 Webster’s New International Dictionary, 2nd ed., 1934; impressions of 1945 and later Harold Whitehall in Webster’s New World Dictionary, College Edition, 1953 West Indian, West Indies H.Yule and A.C.Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, revised by W.Crooke, 1903


Zoology, zoological

* before a word indicates a presumed word, or form of a word, or Sense = equal(s); is, or are, equivalent to; equivalent to + (in compounds and blends) and † died; e.g., ‘† 1792’—died in 1792

, indefinite article. See ONE.

. See BACK.

. See AFT, para 2.

comes, in ME, from OF abandoner (whence abandonment, whence E abandonment), itself from the n abandon, arising from the phrase (mettre or laisser) a bandon, in(to) the power (of someone): a, Mod à, from L ad, to+bandon (cf Norman banon), power or authority, from ban, a sovereign’s proclamation within his jurisdiction. Cf BAN.




: late ME abeese, abasse: OF abaissier (F abaisser): a, to+baissier, to lower, from VL *bassiāre, from bassus, low: cf the adj BASE. Abasement: prompted by F abaissement, but from abase+suffix -ment.

: ME abashen, earlier abaisshen, earliest abaissen: OF esbair, esbahir (F ébahir), to astound: formed either of es, from L ex, out (of)+bah! (astonishment)+inf suffix -ir, hence lit ‘to get a bah out of someone’, or, more prob, of es+baer (Mod bayer), to bay, influenced by baīf, astounded (B & W): cf ‘to BAY’. Abashment: OF esbahissement, from esbahir, influenced by abaissier (see ABASE). Cf ABEYANCE.

; abatement. See BATE. (Cf debate, combat, rebate.) Cf the 2nd BAT, para 3.

. See BATE. Cf the 2nd BAT, para 3.

, abbot, abbess; abbey, abbacy. The descent is from Aramaic abbā, father, thus: post-Class Gr indeclinable; , abbas (gen abbados), ‘reverend father’, abbot: (abba),

I. LL Abba, ‘God the Father’; LL abbās (gen abbātis), abbot: LL acc abbātem, OF abet, abe, F abbé: LL o/s abbāt-, OE abbad, abbod—whence E abbot: II. LL abbātissa (from abbāt-, o/s of LL abbās)—OF abaesse, abbesse—whence E abbess: III. ML abbātia (same origin), monastery, convent, headed by an abbot or an abbess,



hence an abbot’s office or dignity—whence E abbacy; and, from the basic LL sense, OF abaie, abeie (F abbaye), whence E abbey; the derivative ML adj abbātialis yields abbatial.


, abdication. See DICT, para 8.

; abdominal. L abdōmen, o.o.o., peril derives from abdere (ab+dare), to put away, aside, at a distance, hence to cover or hide. The basic sense of dare, to give, has been lost in the cpds, which take on that of the IE r *dhe-, to place. Abdominal: abdomin-, o/s of abdōmen+adj suffix -al. Cf the element abdomino-.

, abduction, abductor. See DUKE, para 6.

, aberration. See ERR, para 2.



, abettor. See BAIT.

is an AF word deriving from MF-EF abeance, expectation, from MF-EF abeer: a (mod à), to+baer, beer, to gape (at): cf ABASH and esp BAY, v. Basic idea: hope deferred, pointless expectation.

, abhorrence, abhorrent. See HEARSE, para 7.

. See BIDE, para 2.

. See HABIT, para 5.




, abjection: f.a.e. JET.—Imm from L abiectus (ML abj-), pp of abi(i)cere, to throw away, and from the derivative abiectio, o/s abiection- (ML abj-).

, abjurement or abjuration. Cf CONJURE, but see JURY, n, para 4.

, ablative. See the 1st TOLL, para 6.

. See LOUD, para 3.

: on, in+BLAZE,

; ability. See HABIT, para 5.


, ablution. See LAVA, para 9.


, abnegation. See NEGATE, para 2.

, abnormality. See NORM, para 3.

, abo. See ORIGIN, para 6.

. See BOARD.

. See BIDE, para 3.




, abolishment, abolition (-ism, -ist): 1st, via abolissant, pres p, or (nous) abolissons, we abolish, from late MF-F abolir, to abolish—cf perish from F périr—from L abolēre, to destroy, to abolish, perh ex abolescere, to perish (ab, away, (hence) not+alescere, to nourish, cf ALIMENT); 2nd either=abolish+suffix -ment or, more prob, derives from F abolissement; 3rd, abolition (whence abolitionism, abolitionist: cf the suffixes -ism, -ist): adopted from late MF-F, which took it from abolitiōnem, the acc of L abolitiō, itself from abolitus, pp of abolēre.

; abominate, abomination. See OMEN, para 2.

, aborigine. See ORIGIN, para 6.

, abortion, abortive. See ORIGIN, para 4.

. See UNDA, para 4.

: ME aboute, earlier abouten, earliest abuten: OE ābūtan, for onbūtan, on the outside of: on+būtan, outside, itself contracting be, by+ūtan, outside, itself deriving from ūt, out: cf

therefore ON, BY, OUT. Adv from prep. Cf:


: ME above, earlier aboven: late OE abufan: a, on+bufan, above, itself contracting be, by+ufan, above: cf therefore ON, BY, OVER. Prep very soon from adv. Cf. prec.

: o.o.o., it is explained either (in B & W) as the LL transcription of Gr (abrasadabra, where c=s but was read as k), the whole being an elaboration of LL (Church Fathers’) Abraxas, for Basilides the Gnostic’s , Abrasax, the Lord of Heaven—‘The numerical value of this figment is 365, the number of days in the year’ (Sophocles)—found on amulets; or else (in Webster) as L abracadabra from Aram abhadda kĕdābrah, ‘Disappear (O sickness) as this word’—abracadabra written as a diagram resting finally on the initial a.

, abrasion, abrasive. See RASE, para 1.

, abraxas. A charm, an amulet. See ABRACADABRA.




, abridgement. The latter comes from MF-EF abregement, from OF-MF abregier (F abréger), from ML abbreviāre, from L abbreuiāre: ab-, either the assimilation (to b) of ad, to, or, more prob, ab, from, in nuance ‘off’+breuiāre, to shorten, from breuis, short: cf BRIEF. OF abregier yields ME abregen, whence ‘to abridge’.

. See BROAD.

, abrogation, abrogator. See ROGATION, para 3.

, abruption, abruptness. See RUPTURE, para 3.

: L abscessus, a departure, a gathering (esp of bad matter), an abscess. See CEDE.



, abscind, abscission. See the 2nd SHED, para 4.

. See RECONDITE, para 1.

; absent. See ESSE, para 5.

(occ AE absinth): EF-F absinthe: reshaped from OF-EF absince: L absinthium: Gr apsinthion, wormwood, from OPer. The v absinthiate, to treat or impregnate with wormwood, comes from the LL pa absinthiātus, flavoured with wormwood.

, absolution, absolve. See LOSE, para 5.


. See SONABLE, para 5.


; absorbent (absorbency); absorption; absorptive. ‘To absorb’ comes (perh via MF-F absorber) from L absorbēre: ab, away+sorbēre(s sorb-), to suck in or up, akin to Gr rhophein (s rhoph-) to swallow—cf Ionic rhuphein; to Lith (s surb-), to suck, srėbti, to sip, lap up; to MIr srub, snout (esp a pig’s), and Ga srubadh, to suck, and sruab, to drink with smacking lips. Absorbent (whence, via suffix -cy, absorbency): absorbent-, o/s of L absorbens, presp of absorbēre. Absorption: absorption-, o/s of L obsorptiō, formed from absorpt-, the s of absorptus, pp of absorbēre; absorpt- yields also absorptive (cf suffix -ive), as if from ML *absorptivus.

, abstainer. See TENABLE, para 5.

: L abstēmius: abs, var of ab, (away) from+the r (tem-) of tēmētum, potent liquor, perh akin to Skt tāmyati (s tam-), he is dazed or dumbfounded.

; abstinence, abstinent. See TENABLE, para 5.


, abstersion. See TERSE, para 2.


, abstraction, abstractive. See TRACT, para 10.

. See THRUST, para 2.

, absurdity. See SURD, para 3.

, abundant. See UNDA, para 4.

, n and v; abusive. See USE, para 9.




, abutment, abuttal. See BUTT, to push or strike with the head.

, abysmal; abyss, abyssal. Both adjj simply tack the suffix -al to the nn; abysm derives from OF-MF abisme (F abîme), LL *abismus (by influence of suffix -ismus, cf. -ism), from LL abyssus (whence E abyss), bottomless gulf or pit, itself from Gr abussos, bottomless: a-, not+bussos, bottom or depth, akin to buthos, bottom (of the sea), itself prob akin to bathos, depth, and bathus, deep, qq.v. at BATHOS.

: L acacia: Gr akakia, very prob from Egyptian, the name being orig applied to a thorny Egyptian tree or shrub: cf Gr akakalis, the seed(s) of the Egyptian tamarisk, with influence from the IE r ak-, sharp, (hence) thorny. (Boisacq.) Chem acacetin and acacin=acacia+acetin (cf ACID) and acacia+Chem suffix -in.

, academy, academic(al), academician, academicism or academism. The development is natural and easy: the Gr hero Akadēmos (L Acadēmus), orig Hekadēmos, gave his name to Akadēmeia (orig a f adj), orig Hekadēmeia, that gymnasium in a suburb of Athens where Plato taught, hence (akadēmeia) a place of superior learning, the L form acadēmia yielding, via F académie, the E academy and the now literary academe; the Gr adj Akadēmeikos, hence akadēmeikos, became L acadēmicus, became alike F académique and E academic (adj, hence also n), with elaboration academical (adj suffix -al). Academism=academy+-ism; academicism= academic+-ism. Academician derives from F académicien, which=L acadēmic(us)+suffix -ten (cf the suffix -ian).




, acanthus, acanthine; acantha; cf the element acantho-. Acanth anglicizes acanthus, the L trln (whence the adj acanthīnus, whence E acanthine) of Gr akanthos, a herb with spiny flowers, itself from akantha, a thorn or prickle (Webster): ? perhaps rather akantha from akanthos, lit ‘spine flower’: akē, a point+anthos, a flower. Cf ACUTE.

; acaroid. See element acari-, acaro-.

. See CAUL.

, whence accedence (suffix -ence); access; accessary, from accessory; accessible; accession: resp, L accēdere (supine accessum, s access-), to move towards, to approach, ad, to+cēdere (s ced-), to move, cf CEDE; access, L accessus, from accedere; accessary, an -ary (as in necessary) var of accessory (adj, hence n), itself from ML accessōrius, from accessus; accessible, from LL accessibilis, approachable, from accedere—cf the suffix -ible; accession, from accession-, o/s of L accessiō, an approach, from the pp (accessus) of accedere. Cf CONCEDE, PRECEDE, RECEDE; PROCEED, SUCCEED; ABSCESS.



, acceleration, accelerarive, accelerator; f.a.e.: CELERITY. Imm from L accelerātes, pp of accelerāre, to cause to go faster; EF-F accélération and EF-F accélérateur, both from EF-F accélérer (from L accelerāre); the 3rd term, anl from ‘to accelerate’.

(n, hence v); accentor, accentual; accentuate, whence accentuator; accentuation. The effective origin resides in L canere (s can-), to sing: cf CANTO. Resp, accent, adopted from MF-F, from L accentus (ad, to+cantus, a singing, a song), from canere; accentor, adopted from L (ad+cantor, a singer, from canere); accentual= accent+-ual (cf the -ual of gradual in relation to arade); accentuate, ML accentuātus, pp of accentuāre, from accentus; accentuation, adopted from EF-F, from accentuātiōn-, o/s of ML accentuāteō, from accentuāre.

, acceptable, acceptance, acceptant; acceptation—acception; acceptive, acceptor. Here we have two groups: first, the derivatives, via F, from L acceptāre (s accept-), the freq of accipere, to receive, whence, via the pp acceptus or its s accept-, the second group, accipere (s accip-) being an ad- (to) cpd of capere (s cap-), to take: cf CAPABILITY. Thus, I: accept, MF-F accepter, L acceptāre; acceptable, adopted from OF-F, from LL acceptābilis, from acceptare—cf the suffix -able; acceptability, prob direct from LL acceptābilitās (gen -itatis); acceptance, adopted from OF (accept-, s of accepter+suffix -ance); acceptant, prob via F, from acceptant-, o/s of acceptans, presp of acceptāre; acceptation, perh via MF-F, from LL acceptātiō, o/s acceptātiōn-. Group II: acception, perh via late EF-F, from acceptiōn-, o/s of L acceptiō, an accepting, acceptance, formed (abstract -iō, gen -iōnis) upon accept-, s of acceptus (as above), whence also acceptor, adopted by E; acceptive (cf the suffix -ive), as if from ML *acceptivus. Cf CAPABILITY, para 7.



, accessary, accessible, accession, accessory. See ACCEDE.

(obs), accidency; gram accidence; accident, adj and n; accidental; accidented. L accidere (ad, to+cadere, to fall: cf CADENCE and CHANCE), to befall, to happen, has presp accidens, o/s accident-, whence the rare adj accident, now usu accidental (MFF accidentel, from ML accidentālis); whence also the n accidentia, chance, a chance, whence the obs syn E accidence and the extant accidency (cf suffix -cy). The gram accidence stands for accidents, pi of accident, something that happens to a word, a special sense of accident, a chance event, from the OF-F n accident, from the L presp (as above). Accidented, uneven of surface, owes much to the syn F accidenté. Cf CADENCE, para 7.

accidia, accidie; acedia.
The 2nd is the obs form (adopted from OF) of the 1st, itself from ML accidia, a faulty shape—influenced by L accidere, to happen—of LL acēdia, trln of Gr akēdia, lit ‘a notcaring’ (privative a-, not+kēdos, care, anxiety); LL acēdia accounts for E acedia, apathy, (eccl) sloth, Gr kēdos is akin to HATE, q.v.

, acclamation, acclamatory. See CLAIM, para 4.




, acclimation, acclimatize, acclimatization. See CLIME, para 5.

, acclinate. See CLIME, para 7.

, acclivity, acclivous. See CLIVUS, para 2.

: adopted from EF-F: It accollata (s accol-), itself from accollare (s accol-), to embrace: from L ad, to+collum (r col-), neck: cf COLLAR.

, accommodation. See MODAL, para 14.

; accompaniment, accompanist. See PANTRY, para 9.


. See complice at PLY, para 21:


, adj accomplished; accomplishment. See PLENARY, para 7.

: an old form of ACCOUNT.

, n and v; accordable; accordance, accordancy; accordant; according; accordion. All except the last come from OF acorder, from LL accordāre, ac- for ad, to 4- cord-, the o/s of cor (gen cordis), heart: cf CORDIAL and HEART. Thus: the n accord, ME ac (c)ord or acorde, from OF acord(e), from acorder, whence, via ME ac(c)orden, ‘to accord’, whence the pa according-, whence the advv according, accordingly; accordant, however, derives from ME acordant, adopted from the OF acordant, presp of acorder, whence also both OF acordable (cf suffix -able), whence E accordable, and OF acordance, whence E accordance, with var accordancy. The musical accordion consists of It accord-, the s of accordare, to play in tune+the -ion of, e.g., clarion and melodion.

. See COAST, para 3.


. See COUCH.


, n and v; accountable; accountancy; accountant; accounting. See the 2nd COUNT, para 5.

(AE), accoutre; accouterment (AE), accoutrement. See SEW, para 6.

, accredited. See CREDENCE, para 7.

, accretion, accrete. See CRESCENT, para 3.

, accrue. See CRESCENT, para 4.


, accumbency. See HIVE, para 8.


, accumulation, etc. See CUMULATE, para 2.

, accurate. See CURE, para 3.

. See CURSE.

; accusable, accusal, accusant, accusation, accusative, accusatorial, accusatory. See CAUSE, para 5.





, n hence v: ME as, OF-F as, L ās, a unit of the duodecimal system, hence a monetary standard and, later, a copper coin: perh an Etruscan word. Semantically, what serves as a standard is (or is regarded as) the best: hence the card-game sense: hence the sporting, hence again the aeronautical sense.


. See ACRID and cf ACUTE.

, acetate, acetic, acetylene. See ACID, 2nd para.

, n and v: (to) ache derives from ME aken (cf the obs spelling ake) OE acan, o.o.o.—but perh akin to Grakē (s ak-), a sharp point, and L acēre, to be sharp: cf ACUTE. Whitehall postulates the IE etym *agos, fault, guilt, and adduces MD akel, shame, and LG äken, to smart. But, ult, the two IE rr *ag- and *ak-, may have been id.

; achievement—heraldic hatchment. The 3rd either corrupts the 2nd, influenced by F hachement, an ornament in heraldry,



or (EW) comes direct from F hachement, an inferior form of acesmement, from OF acesmer, to adorn, itself o.o.o.; the 2nd derives from MF-F achèvement (cf the suffix ment), from OF-F achever, to bring to a head, to conclude: a (Mod a), to+chef, head: cf CHIEF; and the 1st derives from ME acheven, from the OF-F achever.

, adj hence n; acidic; acidific, acidify; acidity; acidulate, acidulous; acescence, acescent; acetate; acetic, acetous; acetylene. The adj acid comes, perh via EF-F, from L acidus (s acid-, r ac-: cf torrid from L torrēre, s tor-); the derivative n acid yields the subsidiary adj acidic (cf the suffix -ic). The derivative L n aciditās yields, perh via EF-F acidité, the E acidity (cf -ity). The dim L adj acidulus accounts for acidulous, whence acidulate: acidul(ous)+the v suffix -ate. Acidific, acidify: acid+ific and -fy; the latter has derivative acidification. Acescence=acescent+-ce; acescent comes, perh via F, from L acescent-, o/s of acescens, presp of acescere, to become or turn sour, the inch of acēre, to be sharp, hence sour. Acetate comes from L acētum, vinegar, itself from acēre, akin to acer, sharp; and acētum gives us the adjj acetic (acid) and acetose or acetous (cf -ose and -ous). In Chem, both L acētum and E acetic possess numerous derivatives: here we need mention only acetylene: acetyl (acet-+Chem -yl)+ Chem -ene (as in benzene). Cf the element aceti- or aceto-. F.a.e.: ACUTE.

, acknowledgement. See CAN, para 6.

: Gr akmē, a point, the topmost point, the prime: IE r, ak-. Adj: acmic (for acmeïc). F.a.e., ACUTE, s.f.



: e: SciL perh from Gr akhnē, a particle, hence chaff: s akhn-, prob r akh-; cf Gr akhuron (s akhur-, prob r akh-), straw.

: ME acolyt, acolite: ML acolitus, earlier acolithus: LL acolūthus, acolyte: Gr akolouthos (adj hence n), attendant: a-, with+keleuthos (r kel-), a path—cf L callis.

(plant, hence an extract), whence the adj aconitic (unless direct from Gr akonītikos) and the Chem aconitine: L aconitum, Gr akonīton, o.o.o.—but perh suggested by akonīti, the adv of the adj akonitos, without dust (a-, not+konis, dust), i.e. without the dust of the arena, hence of combat or struggle (L & S; Hofmann): it affords cardiac relief.

: ME akern, OE aecern, var aecren, akin to ON akarn, forest-tree fruit, and Go akran, fruit, itself prob from Go akrs, a field, akin to L ager, a field: f.a.e., see ACRE, the basic meaning of acorn being ‘fruit (or produce) of the field’. The Mod E spelling is folketymological for oak (OE āc)+corn.

, acoustics; catacoustics; dysacousia or -acousis.



The n acoustics derives from the adj acoustic, much as ethics from ethic: and acoustic descends, perh via F acoustique, from Gr akoustikos, aural, from akouein (s akou-), to hear, itself akin to HEAR. Catacoustics=cat-, for prefix cata+acoustics; dysacousia or acousis=dys-, bad(ly)+acousia, Sci L for Gr akousis (whence -acousis), a hearing.

acquaint; acquaintance.
The latter derives from ME aqueyntance, from OF-EF acointance, from OF-EF acointier, from LL accognitāre: ac- for ad-, to+cognitus, known, from cognoscere, to know (a person), itself =co-, with+gnoscere, the old form of noscere, to know: cf cognition and quaint: f.a.e., CAN. OF-EF acointier becomes ME acointen, later aqueynten, becomes ‘to acquaint’.

. See QUERY, para 7, s.f.

; acquiescence, acquiescent. See QUIET, para 5.

, acquirement; acquisition, acquisitive. See QUERY, para 7.

; acquitment, acquittal, acquittance. See QUIET, para 6.



, whence collective acreage (suffix -age): ME aker, OE aecer, akin to ON akr (cf Da ager)—OHG achar (cf G Acker)—OS akkar—Go akrs—all meaning ‘a field’; to L ager, a field; Gr agros, a field; Skt ájras, a plain. IE r: *agr-. Basic sense, prob ‘pasture’ or ‘pasture land’—cf L agere, to lead or drive flocks or herds. Cf ACORN and PILGRIM.

, acridity; acrimonious, acrimony; acerb, acerbity. Acridity (suffix -ity) derives from acrid, which app blends acr-, the o/s of L acer, sharp, with acid-, the s of L acidus. Acrimonious comes from ML ācrimoniōsus, the adj of L ācrimoniā, sharpness, bitterness, from acer; ācrimoniā yields acrimony perh via F acrimonie. Acerbity goes, perh via MF-F acerbité, back to L acerbitās, bitterness, itself from acerbus, bitter (whence OF-F acerbe, whence E acerb), a modification of acer, itself from an IE r *ac- (ak-), a point, pointed, to be pointed—cf Gr akē, a point, and akōn, a javelin. But, f.a.e., see ACUTE. (Cf ACID.)

; acrophobia; acropolis; acrostic. For acro-, from Gr akros, at the farthest point (usu upwards), see Elements. The cpds have originated thus: acrobat, via F acrobate (n), either from the Gr adj akrobatos, walking a-tiptoe, hence walking aloft, from akrobatein, to walk a-tiptoe, or, more prob, from Gr akrobatēs, an acrobat, from akrobatein, the element bat- deriving from bainein (s bain-), to walk; the adj acrobatic comes from Gr akrobatikos; acrophobia, a dread of high places: a SciL formation: cf PHOBIA; acropolis, the citadel—lit ‘highest (part) of a city’, esp in Greece: cf POLICE, para 4; adj, acropolitan; acroscopic. Cf the element -scope; acrostic: L acrostichis, Gr akrostikhis, lit ‘extreme line’, i.e. at the beginning or the end of a verse-line (Gr stikhos, order, verse: cf the element -stick).



. See CROSS, n.

. See ACROBAT, s.f., and, for 2nd element, the 3rd STY, para 2, s.f.

, n and v; acta; action; active, activate, activism, activity; actor, actress; actual, actualism, actuality; actuary; actuate, actuation. Prefix-cpds: enact, enactive, enactment, enactor, enactory; exact (adj and v), exacting, exaction, exactitude, exactor; inaction, Inactive; react, reactance, reactant, reaction, reactionary, reactive, reactor; redact, redaction, redactor; transact, transaction, transactional, transactor. Cognate group: AGENT, q.v. also f.a.e. I. Act and its simple derivatives: act, n: perh via MF-F acte, from L actum, a thing done (pi acta, adopted by E for ‘proceedings, transactions’), orig the neu of actus, pp of agere, to (drive, hence) do, but also partly from L actus (gen actūs), a doing, an action. The v act comes from the L pp actus, but has been influenced by the n act. action: via MF-F action from Lactiō, o/s action-, formed on actus, pp of agere+ the suffix -io (o/s -ion-), whence E -ion; actionable comes from ML actionābilis, subject to an action at law. active: perh via active, the f of OF-F actif; from ML activus, L actiuus: pp s act-+-iuus (cf the E suffix -ive). Subsidiaries: activity, prob via late MF-F activité, from ML activitās; activate (whence activation, activator), from active+v suffix -ate; activism=active+suffix -ism. actor (cf MF-F acteur): L actor, one who does things, esp in a purposeful way: pp s act-+agential suffix -or (cf E -or); whence, via *actoress, derives actress—perh influenced by F actrice and even by the ML actrix (pars). actual (whence actualism, actualist, actuality—perh influenced by LL actuāliter, practically): ME from OF actuel, from LL actuālis, from actus, a doing, an act. actuary, whence actuarial: L actuārius, shorthand writer, bank clerk, from the n actus,



influenced by the pi n acta. actuate: from ML actuātus, pp of actuāre, to put into action, from n actus; actuation, from ML actuātiō, o/s actuātiōn-, from actuātus. II. Prefix-cpds from L actum (or actus, n) or from E act, n and v: enact, to make into act or law, to penorm legislatively: prefix en-+act; perh influenced by the AL freq inactitare and the rural L inigere (pp inactus), to drive (stock); hence, enactment (suffix -ment)—enaction, enactive, enactor, enactory. exact, adj: L exactus, precise, orig the pp of exigere, (lit, to drive out) to enforce, to demand, to complete; exactus yields the F exactitude (-itude), adopted by E. Cf: exact, v: from L exactus, pp of exigere; derivative L exactiō, o/s exactiōn-, yields, perh via OF, exaction; exactive, from LL exactiuus; exactor, from L; exacting (adj), from ‘to exact’. inaction: in-, not+E action; inactive (whence inactivity), prob in-+active, but perh from ML inactivus, negligent. react: prob re-, back, again+act, v, but cf the medieval schoolmen’s L reagere, pp reactus, and, for reaction, their react iō, o/s reactiōn-; reactionary (adj hence n), from reaction; as reactance=react+ suffix -ance, so reactant=react+-ant; reactive, reactor=react+-ive, -or. redact: L redactus, pp of redigere, to bring back, (hence) to reduce; redaction, from LL redact iō, o/s redactiōn-; redactor=redact+-or. transact: L transactus, pp of transigere, to drive across, (hence) to ‘put through’ or achieve; derivative L transactiō, o/s transactiōn-, yields transaction, whence transactiona ; transactor, adopted from L. III. All the prec words, whether single or prefixed, come from the L pp s act- of agere, to drive, to do; the ag-, complementaries—agent, reagent, etc.—will be found at AGENT, q.v. also f.a.e.

. See ACUTE.

acumen; acuminate, acumination; acuminous.
Acumen, sharpness of mind, shrewdness, comes direct from L and represents acū-, the s of acūere, to sharpen+the suffix -men; the derivative LL acūmināre, to sharpen, has pp acūminātus, whence both ‘to acuminate’ and the adj acuminate, tapering to a point; acuminous=acumin- (o/s of L acūmen) + adj suffix -ous. Cf ACUTE.



, AIr for ‘darling’: Ir a, the voc O+Ir cuisle, vein, pulse (of the heart): cf AIr cushlamochree (or -machree), for Ir cuisle mo chroidhe, vein of my heart; cf also the F O, mon cœur! and the si heart throb (darling).

—cute, cutie—acuteness; acuate—aculeate—acutate; acuity. Acuteness merely adds the abstract -ness to acute (whence cute, whence the Am sl cutie): acute comes from L acūtus, orig the pp of acūere, to sharpen. Akin to acūtus is L acus, a needle, s acu-, whence acuate (pa -ate), sharp-pointed; the L dim acūleus has subsidiary acūleātus, whence aculeate, possessing a sting or a sharp point. The LL acūtāre, to sharpen, from acūtus, has pp acūtātus, whence acutate, slightly sharpened. The ML acūitās (acū-+itās, cf E -ity), prob an avoidance of *acūtitās, becomes late MF-F acuité and E acuity. Cf ACANTH, ACID, ACME, ACRID, ACROBAT, ACUMEN. The IE r *ac-, *ak, occurs not only in Gr akē, a point, in L acus and acūtus, in L acer, sharp, keen (edge, mind), in L acidus and aciēs, a sharp edge, but also in Gr akis, a point, akōn, a javelin, akaina, a point, a spur, and akanos, a thistle, and notably in Skt asanis, a cutting edge, a sharp weapon, and ásris, edge, (sharp) corner; cf also Oscan akrid, sharply, keenly, bitterly—and even L occa, a harrow, and ocris, a very uneven mountain, Umbrian ocar, a mountain, Ir ochar, a wedge, and many OC words. Also akin are EAGER and EDGE; L acer, thinly ‘disguised’ in eager, shows clearly in exacerbate.

: adopted from F, from L adagium, app composed of ad, to+the r of aiō, I say—cf prodigy. ‘Aiō representsan ancient *ag-yo’ (E & M).




. The H Ādām usu has preceding article, ‘the adam’, which means either ‘the made (or, created) one’, the man (cf Assyrian adamu, to make or produce), or ‘one of earth’, from H adamah, earth—cf Genesis, ii, 7, ‘God formed man of the dust of the ground’. Adam’s ale: the poor fellow had only water to drink. Adam’s apple: the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge got stuck, they say, in his throat (EW).

, adamantine; diamond, diamantiferous, diamantine. Adamant, adopted from OF, comes, via L adamas, o/s adamant-, from Gr adamas (gen adamantos), the hardest metal: a-, not+ n from daman (s dam-), to tame: f.a.e., see TAME. The adj adamantine goes, via EF-F adamantin and L adamantinus, back to Gr adamantinos. Now, L adamas had, in ML—perh influenced by Gr diaphanēs, transparent—the var diamas, o/s diamant-, which entered OF as diamant, which became ME diamaunt, later diamaund, whence Mod diamond: L adamas, the hardest metal, merges into ML diamas, the very hard diamond. Diamantiferous: F diamant+connective -i-+ element -ferous (cf the element -fer). Diamantine: from F diamantin, f -ine.

, whence adaptable, adaption, adaptive, adaptor; adaptation. Adapt: MF-F adapter: L adaptāre—ad, to+ aptāre, to fit, from aptus, fit, suitable: see APT. Adaptation: adopted from EF-F, from ML adaptātiō. o/s adaptātiōn-; adaptat-, s of adaptātus (pp of adaptāre)+-iō, abstract suffix.

; addend, addendum (pl addenda); addition (whence additional)—additament— additive. Add comes from L addere (s add-), which, combining ad, to+dare, to place, to give (dō, I place, I give), means ‘to place beside’, hence ‘to add’. The L vn addendum, thing to be added, is anglicized in the Math addend. Addit-, the s of additus, pp of addere, accounts for (1) additio, o/s addition-, whence, via MF, the E addition; (2) additāmentum, whence E additament; (3) additīuus, ML additivus, whence E additive.



, snake, derives from ME addre, from a naddre apprehended as an addre; ME naddre or neddere derives from OE , akin to the syn OS nādra, OHG nātara, Go nadrs, ON nathr—to OIr nathir, adder, snake—and (perh the origin of nathir) L natrix, water snake, the sense perh influenced by L natāre, to swim. (For the formative process, see ‘Articled Nouns’ in P4.)

; addiction. See DICT, para 7.

, additament, additional, additive. See ADD.

, v, derives from the adj addle, empty, confused, muddled, itself from the now dial n addle, (liquid) filth, OE adela, akin to OSw -adel, urine, and MLG adele, liquid manure.

. See REX, para 9.



, whence adducible; adduction. See DUKE, para 6.

adenoids; adenoid, adenoidal.
Adenoids is strictly the pl of n adenoid (whence adenoidal: adj suffix -al), itself from adj adenoid, Gr adenoeidēs, glandular: adēn, a gland: cf the element -aden and the suffix oid.

, n hence adj; whence adeptness. The n adept comes from L adeptus (artem), one ‘that has attained to (an art)’, pp of adipisci, to attain to: ad, to+apisci, to obtain, from apere, to tie, pp aptus: cf therefore APT.

, adequate. See EQUAL, para 7.

; adherence, adherent; adhesion, adhesive. Adhere comes, prob through MF-F adhérer, from L adhaerēre (s adhaer-), to be attached (to): ad, to+haerēre, to be attached, remain fixed: f.a.e., HESITATE; cf COHERE and INHERE. The presp adhaerens, o/s adhaerent-, yields, prob via MF-F



adhérent, the E adherent; derivative ML adhaerentia yields, prob via MF-F adhérence, the E adherence. The s adhaes- of pp adhaesus leads to adhaesiō, o/s adhaesiōn-, whence, perh via late MF-F adhésion, E adhesion; adhesive arises in F adhésif, f adhésive: adhésion+-if, f -ive.

, adhibition. See HABIT, para 11.

: OF adieu, for a Dieu, in full je vous recommande a (F à) Dieu, I commend you to God, spoken to a departing guest or traveller; OF a Dieu—LL ad Deum. Cf DEITY.

, whence adiposity (suffix -ity). See the element adipo-.

or adjacency, adjacent: ML adjacentia, from ML adjacent- (whence E adjacent), L adjacent-, o/s of adiacens, presp of adiacēre, to lie (iacēre) towards or by (ad, to, towards); iacēre, lit ‘to be in the state of some person or thing cast or thrown (down)’, derives from iacěre, to cast or throw. (E & M.) For iacěre, c/f -icere, cf the -ject of abject, deject, inject, object, project, reject, subject, and:




: ML adjectīvum (LL adiectīuum), elliptical for adjectivum verbum, added word (cf the Gr , q.v. at EPITHET); neu of ML adjectīvus, L adiectīuus, tending to add or increase, from adicere, to cast (-icere) towards (ad) or beside, (often merely) to add. Cf prec; f.a.e., see JET.

, whence the pa adjoining; adjunct (adj hence n), adjunction, adjunctive. See JOIN, resp para 17 and para 14.

; adjournment. See DIANA, para 11.

; adjudicate, adjudication, adjudicator. See DICT, para 18.

, adjunction. See JOIN, para 14.

; adjuration, adjuratory. See JURY, n, para 4.



; adjustment. See JURY, n, para 7.

, adjutancy. The latter is for adjutantcy (suffix -cy): and adjutant comes from adjutant-, the o/s of ML adjutans, L adiutans, presp of adiutāre, freq of adiuuāre(ad+ iuuāre, to help): cf AID. The adjutant (bird, crane, stork) stands about like an adjutant.

; administrate, administration, etc. See MINOR, para 13.

. See MIRACLE, para 4.

, Admiralty; amir, emir. Emir is an E var of amir (or ameer), from Ar amīr, a commander, as in amīr-al-bahr, commander of the sea, an admiral: the frequency of amir-al in various combinations explains the EF-F amiral, MF amirail, OF amiralt, the d of the MF-EF var admiral intruding from admirable; ME adopted both forms, the -d- form prevailing; ME amiral, however, here derives from ML amirālis. The MF amiralte (F amirauté) leads to E



, hence admirer; admiration, admirative. See MIRACLE, para 4.

, admission, admissive; admit, whence admittance (suffix -ance). See MISSION, para 7.

, admixture. See MIX, para 9.

, hence admonishment (suffix -ment);

, admonitor, admonitory. See MIND, para 18.


. See NATIVE, para 9.


. See DO, para 2, s.f.

: adopted from Sp, from adobar, to plaster, from ML adobāre, to adorn, the a- being prob L ad, used intensively, and dobāre being prob akin to MF-F dauber, to plaster. See DAUB.

; adolescent. See OLD, para 5.

: Gr Adōnis (deriving from Phoenician adōn, lord, and prob akin to Babylonian Tammūz), an exceedingly handsome youth, beloved of Aphrodite.

, adoption, adoptive: resp from MF-F adopter, L adoptāre (s adopt-)—ad, to+optāre, to choose: cf OPT; perh via MF-F, from L adoptiō, o/s adoptiōn-; perh via OF-F adoptif, f adoptive, from ML adoptīvus, L adoptīuus.



, whence adorer; adorable, adoration. See ORATION, para 5.

; adornment. See ORDER, para 9.

. See DRIVE, para 1, s.f.

. See REX, para 7.

. See SCIENCE, para 4.

, adscription. See SCRIBE, para 9.



. See SIGN, para 11.

. See ESSE, para 6.

, adulation, adulator, adulatory: L adūlātus (s adūlāt-), pp of adūlāri, to flatter, orig of a dog wagging its tail (cf Skt vāla, tail) as it approaches; adulation, perh via OF-MF adulacion (MF-F adulation), from L adūlātiō, o/s adūlātion-; adulator, adopted—cf the MF-F adulateur—from LL adūlatory; adulatory, L adūlātōrius—cf the adj suffix -ory.

. See OLD, para 5. Cf ADOLESCENT.

, adulterant; adulteration, adulterator; adulterine; adulterer, adulteress, adulterous, adultery. The L adulterāre (for *adalterāre: ad, to+v from alter, other; hence, different), to alter, (hence) to corrupt, (hence) to seduce a woman, (hence) to commit adultery, has presp adulterans-, o/s adulterant-, whence the adj and n adulterant, and pp adulterātus, whence the E adj and v adulterate; the derivative adulterātiō, o/s adulterātiōn-, yields



adulteration; the equally derivative adulterātor, a counterfeiter, has been form-adopted, sense-adapted into E. Adulterine (-ine, adj suffix), L adulterīnus, prob from adulter-, the s of adulterāre, rather than from L adulter, an adulterer, itself from adult-, the r of adulterāre; but E adulterer derives, by suffix -er, from the obs E adulter, to corrupt (a woman), to commit adultery, and adulteress, by suffix -ess, from the obs E adulter, an adulterer. Adultery: from L adulterium (adulterāre+suffix -ium); adulterous: prob from adultery+suffix -ous, but perh from the obs E n adulter+-ous. Cf ALTER.

, adumbrate, adumbration, adumbrative. See UMBRA, para 6.

, advancement. See the 1st VAN, para 3.

(n and v), advantageous; disadvantage, disadvantageous. 1. With intrusive d as in ADVANCE, the n advantage comes, via ME avantage, avauntage, from OF-F avantage, which= the suffix -age attached to avant, before, from L ab ante; the v advantage comes from MF-F avantager (from the n). Advantageous: late MF-F avantageux, f avantageuse. Cf the 1st VAN, para 2. 2. Disadvantage: ME disavauntage: MF desavantage (EF-F dés), whence both the EFF v désavantager, whence ‘to disadvantage’, and the EF-F adj désavantageux, f désavantageuse, whence E disadvantageous.


, advectitious. See VIA, para 12.


, advenience; advent, adventitious. See VENUE, para 3.

, adventurous. See VENUE, para 4. adverb, adverbial. See VERB, para 7.

, adversative; adverse, adversity; advert—advertise, advertisement. See VERSE, para 15.

; advise, advisable, advisement, adviser, advisory. See VIDE, para 13.

, whence advocacy; advocation. See VOCABLE, para 10.


. See VOCABLE, para 10.


. See VOLUBLE, para 4.

: ME adese, adse, adsse, adis, an adze: OE adesa, an axe or a hatchet: perh akin to AXE (OE ocas, aex, eax)—cf the extremely relevant Go aqizi, an axe,

: L: Gr aigis, shield of Zeus: perh from Gr aix (gen aigos), a goat, many primitive shields being goatskin-covered.

. See AGE, para 5.

, aerate, aerial. See AIR.




; aeronaut. See the element aero-. For aeroplane, see PLANE, para 3.

, n. See EYRIE.

, aesthetic, aesthetics; anaesthesia, anaesthetic, anaesthetist: AE spellings esthete, etc. 1. Aesthete, from Gr aisthētēs, a (keen) perceiver; aesthetic, Gr aisthētikos, sensory, sensitive; hence aesthetics—cf ethics and adj ethic. The Gr words derive from aisthanomai, I perceive, aorist inf aisthesthai, akin to Gr aiō, L audio, I hear. 2. Anaesthesia: Gr anaisthēsia, lack of feeling—an-, not+a c/f var of aisthēsis, feeling; anaesthetic (adj, hence n), an -ic elaboration from Gr anaisthētos, devoid of feeling; anaesthetist, one who administers, and anaesthetize, to administer, an anaesthetic, represent anaesthetic+suffixes -ist and -ize.

. See the element estivo-.

. See FAR.

, affability. See FABLE, para 3.



: ME affere, earlier afere: OF-MF afaire (MF-F affaire), from a (F à, L ad), to+faire, to do, from L facere: cf ADO and, for faire, FACT. Cf also:

, n and v (whence the adj affected); affectation; affective;—affection, affectionate. The effective origin of all these words is L afficere, to do to, set oneself to: ad, to+ficere, c/f of facere, to do, make: cf FACT. Afficere has pp affectus (s affect-), whence (as, e.g., of a disease) affect, to attack. From that pp s affect- derive: the freq affectāre, to aim at, whence late MF-F affecter and, perh independently, E ‘to affect’—the n affect, however, comes from L affectus (gen -tus), a disposition, from the pp s affect- (from afficere); affectātiō (imm from affectāre), o/s affectātiōn-, whence F, hence E affectation; affectiō, o/s affectiōn-, whence OF-F, hence E, affection—cf affectionate, an -ate (adj) derivative from F affectionné, pp of affectionner, from F affection. But affective (suffix ive) derives from late MF-F affectif, f affective, of, by, for affect, from ML affectīvus; hence the Psy affectivity (suffix -ity).

. See FAITH, para 10.

. See FAITH, para 9.


, affiliation. See FILIAL, para 1.


. See FINAL, para 7.

; affirmance, affirmation, affirmative, affirmatory. See FIRM, para 4.

, affixation. See FIX, para 3.

. See FLATUS, para 3.

afflict; affliction, afflictive.
Prob, like the obs adj afflict, afflicted, ‘to afflict’ comes from L afflictus, pp of affligere, to deject: ad, to -fligere, to strike: cf CONFLICT, INFLICT—and PROFLIGATE. The L pps afflict- yields both afflictiō, o/s afflictiōn-, whence, via F, affliction, and ML afflictivus, whence, prob via MF-F afflictif, f afflictive, the E afflictive (-ive).



, affluent, afflux. See FLUENT, para 5.

: ME aforthen: OE geforthian, int of forthian (s forth-), to further, (hence) to accomplish, to afford: f.a.e., FORTH.

, afforestation. See FOREST.

, n and v—fray (n); afraid. The n fray, combat, is short for affray; the obs v fray derives from the short n. Affray, fight, tumult, ME af(f)rai, comes from OF esfrei (F effroi), from esfreer, to disquiet, to frighten, (lit) to put out of (OF es, from L ex) peace (Gmc root for ‘peace’—cf OHG fridu, peace); OF esfreer, effreer, yields ME af(f)raien, whence E ‘to affray’; the ME pp tf(f)rayed, later affraide, frightened, has become E afraid.




, n and v. See FRONT, para 5.

. See FOOT, para 2.

: ME afore, earlier aforn: OE on oran, aetforan, in or at the front. Cf FORE.

. See AFFRAY, s.f.

. See FRESH, para 2.

; African, adj hence n; Afric; Afrikaans. L Afer, gen Afri, African, has derivatives africus, f africa, as in terra africa, land of the



Africans, whence Africa; Africānus (imm from Africa), whence African; africus, whence the archaic Afric, African or an African, or even Africa. Afrikaans is SAfr D, from D Afrikaan: cf D Afrikaner, whence, after Hollander and prob Englander, comes Afrikander, a born white South African of either (and esp) D or Huguenot origin. But Afer may derive from L Africa, Gr Aphriké, both from a Phoenician name for ‘land of Carthage’; the name extended only after a millennium to the entire continent.

—abaft; after, adv, hence adv and prep. 1. Aft: OE aeftan, behind—cf Go afta, properly aftra, behind, and aftana, from behind, both advv, and OS (at)aftan; IE r, *aft-. an elaboration of *af-; var *ap, as in ON (merely scribal) and Hit. 2. Abaft: a-, on+ME baft, itself from OE beaeftan—be, by+aeftan (as above). 3. Prob akin to aft is the adv after. OE aefter, after, behind, akin to Go aftaro, from behind, behind, backwards, OHG aftara and ON aptra, behind—and, more remotely, Gr apōtero, farther off. The suffix -ter, in E also -ther, was orig comp: after is the comp of of, off (see OF). The prep after derives from the adv; the adj after, OE aeftera, from OE aefter. 4. Two simple derivatives merit a note: aftermost (opp foremost), ME aftermest, earlier eftemest, from OE aeftemest—cf Go aftumist, the last, aeftemest being orig the sup of of, off (cf OF); and afterward, OE aefterweard, aeftanweard, (adj) behind, the form afterwards being orig the gen aefterweardes. 5. The cpds are mostly self-explanatory. Thus: afterbirth, afterglow, afterlife, afternoon, afterthought. Aftermath=after+math, a mowing, OE : cf MOW (grass).

. See AFT, para 5, and cf MOW, para 2.

, afterwards. See AFT, para 4; cf the suffix -ward.



again; against;—gainsay.
Gainsay: ME geinseien (or ageinseien), to say (cf SAY) against, to contradict: gain-, ME gein-, derives from OE gegn- or gēan-, again, against, akin to ON gagn-. Against: ME agens, ageynes: OE ongegn, ongēanes, the -s being-a gen ending (OE -es) and the t, as in amidst and whilst, intrusive. Ongēanes is the gen of ongēan, which, with its varr ongegn and the worn-down agēn, yields ME agen, agayn, agein, whence the E aga n. The OE ongēan and ongegn reveal their origin as on, on (or in)+*gagn or *gegn, straight: cf OHG ingagan, ingegin, OS angegin, again, against, and ON gegn (or gagn), against, from gegn, straight.

: L agaricum: Gr agarikon, perh the neu of adj Agarikos, of Agaria in Eastern Europe.

: adopted from F, from L achates (cf G Achat), from Gr akhatēs, itself from Gr Akhatēs, the Sicilian river where agate was earliest found.

. See the element agatho-.

; coëval—medieval (or -aeval); eternal (and sempiternal), eterne, eternity; aeon or



eon; ay or aye, always; perh EVER, q.v. separately. 1. There are three IE sub-families represented: Germanic, Latin, Greek. In the first we have ay, aye, always: ME ai, earlier ei, from ON ei, intimately akin to OE a, āwa, always—cf OFris ā, OS ēo, eo, io, Go aiw, always: and aiws, an age, and OHG es, always: f.a.e., see para 6. 2. ML aevum, L aeuum (earlier aeuom; s aeu-) an age, a lifetime, appears in coëval (formerly coaeval), adj hence n, an -al formation from ML coaevus (prefix co-+aevum), contemporary, and in medieval, mediaeval (medius, middle +aevum+ -al), and in primeval (earlier primaeval), an -al formation from ML primaevus, L primaeuus (primus, first+aeuum); less clearly in E age, OF aage, VL *aetāticum, from L aetātem, acc of aetās, a contraction of aeuitās (ML aevitās), from aeuum. 3. Aet-, the o/s of L aetās, recurs in aeternus (adj suffix -ernus), whence the literary eterne; aeternus has the derivative LL var aeternālis (aet-+ ernus+-ālis), whence, via OF-MF eternel (EF-F é-) the E eternal, and the derivative LL n aeternitās, whence, via OF-MF eternité (EF-F é-), the E eternity. But eternize goes no further back than EF-F éterniser, from EF éterne. 4. Sempiternal comes from ML sempiterndlis, from L sempitern us (whence the rare sempitern), a contraction of semperaeternus—semper, always. 5. AE eon, E aeon (adopted from L), comes from Gr aiōn (s at-), lifetime, age, intimately akin to PL aeuom; Gr aiōnios, eternal, yields aeonian (adj suffix -an). Cf Gr aiei (s ai-), always. 6. Gr aiōn app derives from PGr aiwōn, s aiw-: cf the L r aeu-, OHG ēwa, a long time, eternity, and Go aiw (always). Cf further the Skt āyus, Av āyu, life, with s ay-: cf ON ei (always). Clearly the IE r is *aiu- (or *aiw-), with var *aeu- (*aew-), basic sense ‘duration’—usu ‘long time’ and often ‘limitless time, eternity’.

; agenda. See:

agent, agency, agential; agenda.
Agenda, things to be done, has been adopted from the neupl of agendus, gerundive of agere, to drive or lead, hence to act or do. The pp actus leads into the ACT group. The presp agens, gen agentis, o/s agent-, yields the obs adj agent and (ML agens) the n agent, whence the adj agential (suffix -ial); yields also the ML agentia, whence the E agency. Agere (s ag-) is akin to Gr agein (s ag-), to lead or drive—cf the ON aka (s ak-), to drive. Arm acem (s ac-), I lead, OIr ad-aig, he leads or rushes towards, and Skt ájati (s



aj-), he goes or drives. IE r, *ag-; perh akin to the r of WORK.

; agglomerant, agglomeration, agglomerative. L agglomerāre (ad, to+glomerāre, to make a ball of) has presp agglomerans, o/s agglomerant-, whence the n agglomerant; the pp agglomerātus yields both ‘to agglomerate’ and adj agglomerate, whence n agglomerate. Derivative agglomerātiō, o/s agglomerātiōn-, leads to agglomeration; but agglomerative is an E -ive formation upon the L PP s ogglomerat-. Cf CONGLOMERATE and, f.a.e., CLAM.

, adj and v; agglutination, agglutinative: whether adj or v, agglutinate comes from L agglutinātus (s agglutin-), pp of agglutināre, to stick, orig to glue, to something: ad, to+glutināre, to glue: f.a.e., GLUE. On agglutinat- have arisen agglutination and agglutinative, via EF-F agglutination and agglutinatif.

. See GRADE, para 6.

, aggrandizement See GRAND, para 1.


, aggravation. See GRAVE, adj, para 3, s f.


, adj (hence n) and v; aggregation, aggregative. See GREGAL, para 4.

, v; aggression, aggressive, aggressor. See GRADE, para 6.

. See GRAVE, adj, para 4.

See GHOST, para 2.

agile, agility.
L agilitās, o/s agilitāt-, which became MF-F agilité, whence E agility (-ity), derives from L agilis, nimble (ag-+adj suffix -ilis, cf E -ile), itself from agere (s ag-), to drive or lead—f.a.e., AGENT.




: F agio or agiot (whence agiotage, adopted by E): It aggio (or agio), ease, convenience, obs var asio, prob from OF aise: f.a.e., EASE.

, agistment, agistor: OF agister (s agist-), from a (F à), to+gister, to provide lodging, from giste, (a) lodging, ult from ML jacēre, L iacēre, to lie (stretched out): cf ADJACENT. Agister yields both OF agistement, whence E agistment, and AF agistour, whence E agistor.

agitate; agitation, agitative, agitator.
L agitāre (freq of agere, to drive), to set moving, has pp agitātus, whence ‘to agitate’. The pp s agitāt- has derivatives agitātiō, o/s agitātiōn-, whence F, whence E, agitation; agitātor, adopted by E; and LL agitātiuus, ML agitātivus, whence the adj agitative. Cf AGENT and COGITATE.

. See NAIL, para 2.

. See NATIVE, para 9.

. See NAME, para 4.



, whence agnosticism. See the 2nd GNOME, para 5.

: ME ago, agoon, agon, pp of agon, to go away, OE āgān, to go away, pass by: a-, off+gān, to go.

; earlier, on gog: MF en gogues, lively, merry—cf EF-F étre en goguette(s), to be on the spree, and EF-F goguenard, mockingly playful. The MF gogue is prob echoic; but perh, by false division, from It agognare, to be eager, to long, itself akin to:

; agonist, agonistic, agonize; antagonist (antagonistic, antagonism) and protagonist. The Gr agōnia, a contest—from agōn, a sports gathering (from agcin, s ag-, to drive, lead, hence to celebrate: cf AGENT), derivatively an athletic contest—became applied also to a non-physical striving, agony, and has passed through LL agōnia and MF-F agonie to E agony. Three Gr derivatives have influenced E: agōnistēs, a contestant, LL agōnista, E agonist, esp in Physio; the subsidiary adj agōnistikos, LL agōnisticus, E agonistic; and agōnizesthai, LL agōnizāre, (perh via EF-F agoniser) E agonize. The two principal Gr cpds are antagōnia, obs E antagony, antagōnizesthai, to struggle against, whence antagonize—(from the v) antagōnisma, whence antagonism—and antagōnistēs (anti-, against+agōnizesthai) LL antagōnista, E antagonist, whence antagonistic; and prōtagōnistēs (protos, first + agōnistēs), whence protagonist, orig ‘the actor taking the leading part’, hence the chief spokesman, the champion of a cause.



. See ALLEGORY and the element agora-.

and agouti: SAm animals, with SAm names: the former, from Tupi via Port; the latter, from Guarani via Sp.

; agriculture, -cultural, -culturist; agronomy. The base is L ager, o/s agr-, gen agri, a field; in agronomy, from Gr agronomos, manager of public lands, it is agros, a field, the 2nd element coming from nemein (s nem), to distribute, (hence) to manage. The IE r is *agro-, an uncultivated field—cf Av ajras—perh akin to the IE *ag- seen in agere, to drive: cf AGENT. Agrarian: L agrārius, adj of ager; agriculture: via F from L agricultūra, (lit) cultivation (cf cultivate at CULT) of the field; hence agricultural (-al, adj) and agriculturist (-ist).

, agreeable, agreement—disagree, etc.; maugre. The L grātum, strictly the neu of grātus, pleasant, is prob akin to Skt gūrtás, celebrated, and said to be of religious origin; it becomes OF-MF gre (MF-F gré), pleasure, Will, whence OF-MF agreer (a, F à, to), to please, whence ME agreen, whence ‘to agree’; the derivative OF-MF agreable, later agréable, yields agreeable, and late MFF agrément yields agreement. Cf DISAGREE, from MF-F désagréer (dés-, OF des-, L dis-, from)—disagreeable, from MF-F désagréable—disagreement, from EF-F désagrément. The archaic maugre, despite, comes from OF maugre, MF maugré, EF-F



malgré, (lit) ill-will, hence a prep ‘in despite of’.

, agriculture. See AGRARIAN.

. See the element agrio-.


: OF (fievre) ague: ML (febris) acūta, acute fever: f.a.e., ACUTE. Adj: aguish (suffix ish).

. See HEAD, para 3.


! See the 3rd HEM.


!=interjective a+interjection hoy!—cf ho and D hui! With ahoy! cf F ohé!

, n and v; aidance, aidant; aide-de-camp. Aid, n: OF-F aide—as in aide-de-camp, ‘aid of camp’ or camp assistant, hence a civillife adjutant—from OF-F aider, to help, whence ‘to aid’, from ML adjutāre, L adiutāre, freq of adiuuāre, to help, from ad, to+iuuāre, to give pleasure to, (hence) to help; iuuāre, s iuv-, is akin to iucundus (s iu-+ surfix -cundus, as in fecundus—cf FECUND); the IE r is app *iu-, to please. Aidance, aidant: adopted from OF, the former deriving from the latter (aidant, presp of aider).

, whence (via suffix -ment) ailment: ME ailen, earlier eilen, from OE eglan, to pain, (? orig) to trouble, akin to Go us-agljan, to distress, and agls (neu s agl), disgraceful. Prob akin to ILL.

. See AISLE, para 2.


e. and Go waian. air. ‘To aerate’ (whence aeration)=L aer+v suffix -ate.a. to+ esmer. derives from ME on charr: charr. Attic aura. and to OHG ahsla. akin to L axilla. var acc of āēr. for *awēmi—cf Skt vati. dim of axis (see AXIS). aisle : ME ile or ele: OF-MF ele (late MF-F aile). (hence) wing of a building: L āla. a turn. (later) air. . see Elements. to estimate): L aestimāre. aerial=āerius (Gr aérios)+adj -al. from aerify. See KINK. aerification. v hence n: ME amen. Ajar denotes (a door) ‘on the turn’.—aerate. L c/f+-fy (see Elements).. acc of āēr. it blows. (hence) armpit and wing. (strong) wind. and aēmi. (articulation of) the shoulder. adopted by E. mist. akimbo . from L āerem. from OE cerr. ajar . itself =āeri-. air . occ on the jar. Hence airy (adj suffix -y). L āla has adj ālāris. aimen. cool breeze or fresh air. eimen. aero-. and F aile has dim aileron. Air comes. n hence v. Mus aria: It aria: L āera. (hence) to aim (at): OF aesmer (a. aria. from Gr aēr. Mod aisle shows the influence of isle and. haze. acrification. to estimate. aerial.A-Z 57 . OE eaxl. to blow. whence alar. or a LL *adaestimāre: f. airy. for sense. and Aeolic auēr. to estimate. I breathe hard. armpit. 2. see ESTEEM. wing. akin to aētēs. via ME aire (or eir) and OF air. alley. point of articulation.

as in L ambulare (s ambul-). lit ‘wing-keen’. alacrity. . perh from an Egyptian town where first treated industrially (cf P2). the). The adj represents alacrity+suffix -ous.for al. See KIN. alack(a day) ! Prob ah! lack!. adopted from OF (var albastre. abs n (cf suffix -tty) from alacer (gen alacri). loss—cf LACK. prop alabastos. var *ul-. to walk. ‘the height of religion’. alabaster : OE alabastre. The s alac derives app from IE r *al-. But perh rather from L āla+acer. from Ar ‘Alā-ad-dīn (ad. F albâtre): L alabaster: Gr alabastros. o/s alacritāt-. alacritous. lively. ME lak. Alacrity comes from L alacritās.Origins 58 akin . cf AMBULATE. Aladdin : European form of Aladin. to go.

barley flour. derives (suffix -men) from albus. ‘To arms!’: f. means lit ‘whiteness’— albus+suffix -ūgō. represents aube+n suffix -ade: and aube derives from VL alba (as later in OPr and in Sp). Albescent comes from albescent-. albescent. white garment). album is prop the neu s of albus—from the blank white pages.e. ARM. from MF. alarme. IE r. F aubade. The Eccl vestment alb is white. from albo. albugo. a song at aube or dawn.? Alban. 2. and alphiton. See AISLE. from ML alba (vestis. 1. from albus. white of egg. 3. coming direct from L. albumin— albuminous. The base is L albus (s alb-). . the PN Alban may be of independent C origin. akin to Gr alphos (s alph-). a white leprosy. Cf ALERT. *albh-. occ var *alph-. from albus. hence also alarum (rolled r) and alarmist (suffix -ist)—derives from ME. Albino is Port for ‘whitish’. alban. Whereas the Chem alban certainly derives from albus.A-Z 59 alar . albumen. f of albus. n from the f of albus and prob elliptical for alba lux.. and albumin is a Chem alteration. album. to whiten. white. inch of albāre. alarm . o/s of albumen+suffix -ous) the adj of either. the pale ‘white light’ of dawn. para 2. and significantly OHG albiz. presp of albescere. aubade. n—hence v. para 4. and albuminous (albumin-.? Albion. L-become-E albumen. albugo. from It all’arme!. o/s of albescens.a. and cf the element ali-. white. a swan. albino. alas ! See LATE. alb .

alcanna. ‘all (though) it be’. derives from C. orig pelican. then frigate bird: Port alcatraz. adopted from L for ‘England’. bucket: Ar al-qādūs. watch-chain: Prince Albert. white. Queen Victoria’s consort. Albion (para 4). albatross. See ALB. . and the name may genuinely refer to ‘the white cliffs of Dover’ (and other parts of Britain). qādūs deriving perh from Gr kados (itself from Phoenician or else from H kad). white. alcanet . albumin (all para 2). occurs in C as in other IE languages. ‘Basic idea: water carrier’ (Webster). (even) though: ME al be it. album.Origins 60 4. albino (both para 2). cormorant. alb-. lit ‘the (al) water jar or vessel’. See HENNA. albert . albumen. albatross truly comes from E alcatras. albugo. water jar. from Port alcatraz. but prob direct from H kad. Albion. albatross : with b folk-etymologically substituted (for c) from L albus. bucket. albescent . albeit .

IE r. alcohol . OHG elira—Lith alksnis— Pol olcha—L alnus—and prob E ELM. See CHEMICAL. ‘the (al) powder ( alcove : EF-F alcôve: Sp (and Port) alcoba: Ar al-qubbah. para 4. alderman . akin to ON elrir. var *el-. earlier aller: OE aler.A-Z 61 alchemist . See OLD. alcoholic. hence n. hence a smallrecessed room. For al.) alder : ME alder. cf: . (Cf ‘Articled Nouns’ in p4. *al-. para 2. the arch or vault. alchemy. Alcohol comes direct from ML. . whence the sl alky and the adj. usu with a couch. which adapted it from Ar : whence E kohl)’ for painting the eyelids. alor. ölr.

bitter. from erto. on the watch: It all’erta. beer—and also to L alūmen (alum). both with adj aluminous. Orig a call to arms: cf ALARM. elevated—the pp of ergere. Alegar blends ale and vinegar: and ale derives from OE alu. and OSl olŭ. a look-out.o. via OF-MF alum (EF-F alun). whence aluminium (Sci suffix -ium) and AE aluminum. ale.g. akin to ON öl.). alert . the archaic mbec(k). at or in the+erta. the ME and F alum. aluminium. o/s alumin-. prompted by L alūminōsus. by aphesis.o. which tastes astringent. from L ērigere. aluminous. alethoscope. (standing) in a look-out. the+inbiq. var ealu. on a watch-tower: It all’=alla=a (L ad) la. L alūmen. to raise: cf ERECT. aleurometer . al. from Gr ambix (o. ‘basic idea: bitter’ (Webster). adj hence n. whence. orig the f of adj erto. to Gr aludoimon or aludimon. yields the Chem alumina. (P4: ‘Articled Nouns’. the still. the adj of alūmen. incidentally. from MF.) alethiology . alum—aluminium. alambic: Ar al-inbiq. EF a (F a) l’erte. Hence. perh akin. hence v: F alerte. alembic : ME.Origins 62 ale . See the element aletho-. e. cap of a still. prop the neu s of aludoimos. alegar. steep.

a favourite given name in Scotland. from MF heroic poems about Alexander the Great. ‘the reduction and the comparison’ by equations: al. whence Alexandrian—L Alexander has adj Alexandrīnus. idle (fellow). from Ar of fodder. cf ZANY. 63 Alexander —Alexandria—Alexandrian—Alexandrine. the f Alexandra. seaweed: perh alga is akin to algēre (s alg-). from L algidus. itself from algēre. to protect + andros.A-Z . to bind together. whence Alexandrine. whence algebraic. reparation). the best sort algae .) . or -façfaçah. understood as ‘the reduction of arithmetic to a better form’. sawney. algebraist: adopted from either It or ML algebra. a man). the+n from jabara (triconsonantal r: jbr). (B & W. elliptical for al-jabr w-al-muqūbalah. from Alexander the Great.)—E Alexander. cold. Alexander. the derivative city-name Alexandria. in Math. comes from Gr Alexandros (alexein. from It Alessandra. via MF-F alexandrin. ‘protector of men’. earlier alfalfez. the reduction (lit. the alexandrines of verse. alfalfa (lucerne): adopted from Sp. L Alexander. became. to be cold. (Cf P2. occ corrupted to Sawney—not the origin of B dial sawney. whence. See the element aleuro-. pl of L alga (s alg). foolish. has pet-form Sandy. alexandrine. from Ar al-jabr. algebra . gen of anēr. Cf algid. Al-jabr.

Origins 64 algid . L alienātiō (acc alienātiōnem). alienation. belonging to. ELSE—has derivative aliēnus. to set aflame. . alienist. to shine: cf LIGHT. from F aliéniste (alien+-iste. via OF-EF alien. Cf: alien . alienist. pp of aliēnāre.e. another. E -ist). esp otherwise called. L alibi. from F aliénage.. or the pp of ME alihten. aligerous. whence: alien. other (adj). Cf ALIAS. another (pron)—f. alias . aliform. to estrange. other. See ALGAE. . adj hence n. OE ālīhtan (a. alibi: L alias. alienate. otherwise. v). aliferous . of. alight . on+līhtan. MF alienation (EF-F alié-). adj: either a-. fire. on+light. from aliēnus. from L aliēnātus. alienation. alienage (suffix age). alienate. See the element alī-. from aliēnāre. alienage. elsewhere: both from alius.a. L alius.

food. from alere. Aliment. whence E alimentary. v. to nourish.e. alimentation. para 6. Cf: alimony : L alimōnia. sustenance. adopted from OF-F. See LIKE. o/s alimentātiōn-. and LL v alimentāre. whence E alimentation. alimentary. alignment See LINE. para 11. aliment.A-Z 65 alight . OLD. align . Alimentum has adj alimentārius. comes from L alimentum. para 4. to nourish. See LEVER. from alere (s al-). lit ‘what nourishes’. Cf prec. aliped . to descend. alike . sustenance.a. a v with numerous IE cognates: f.. whence ML alimentātiō.

the ashes (of saltwort).) 2. i. so.e. almost. All derives. from eal (etc. learned (? ‘gifted with all knowledge’).. alswā. Hence the adj. (Feist. mighty’. See the element ali-. alitrunk. although=all+ON thōh. albeit—almighty—almost—also—although. alkali : ME alkaly or alc-: MF alcali: Ar al-qilī. lit therefore ‘quite so'—cf OFris al-sa. Allah . ealle: akin to OFris (and OS) all. . via ME al. pl alle. 1. ME with all or with alle.)+swā. alkaloid: alkali+suffix -old. also. OHG al (G all). almighty (adj hence n). whence the n. pl alle. alkanna .Origins .e. para 2. quite—(the) most. See LIFE. OE ealswā. aelswā. withal. Albeit: sep entry. IE r. ule. OC *oljos—Lith alvīenas. OE ealmihtig. eall. perh *al-. each one—Oscan allo—perh the rare L allers. See HENNA. from OE all. 66 alive . ON allr—? to Cor ōl and OIr uile. 3. Go alls. Withal merely= with all. adj—hence adv and n. OE . entirely. Ga uile. an . ME al so. all—i. ‘all.

A-Z 67 : Ar Allāh. Aram alāhā (cf Syriac allāhā). para 2. Cf Hit ilu.a.e. H ’elōah. to send. to lay down. allegiance : ME alegeaunce: a. the god. to commission: f. e. See the element allanto-. end: OE ālecgan. OHG ar-leggēn. to quieten. allay . . earlier al eggen. the Sem r is il-. hence allayment (suffix -ment): ME alaien. humble. Senseinfluenced by: allege . Biblical Aram ’elāh. LIEGE. God. see LEGATE. from lL allegātiō o/s allegation-.to+OF ligeance.e. the god. from allegāre (pp alegātus). out+ lecgan. (obs) to lay aside. v): Go us-lagjan. allegation : adopted from OF. to. send a message: ad. Sense-influenced by L ligāre. See LITIGANT..g.. to bind. allantoic .. var el-. from ā-.a. to lay (see LAY. god or goddess. liege: f. conflation of al-ilāh. and it occurs in. Elijah and Elisha. to+legāre. from lige.

became L allēgoria.Origins 68 allegory . via LL allēgoricus. para 2. to speak in the agora (s agor-) or assembly (from agein. the F allégorique and E allegoric. or akin to. itself from LGr allēgoristēs. allegorist. to drive or lead). other (cf ELSE)+a n deriving from. alleviate . allergy. allegorize. . alleluia (hallelujah) : LL allēlūia: Gr allēlouia: H hallēlū-yāh. See ENERGETIC. The Gr allēgoria. agoreuein. allos. alleviation. whence the elaboration allegorical. para 7. -ist. allegorist=allegory+ the suffixes -ism. LGr allēgorizein became LL allēgorizāre became F allégoriser. alleviative. s ag-. praise ye Jah (Jehovah). See LEVER. allegro . The derivative Gr adj allēgorikos yields. whence E allegorize. alleviator. allegorism. para 3. See ALACRITY. whence allegorization. allegoric(al). allergic . Allegorism. ‘a speaking otherwise’. the latter perh came from LL allegoristes. whence F allégorie and E allēgory.

v hence n. this sense of ambulāre occurs in LL. (B & W. alliterative. (hence) a passage. para 5.A-Z 69 alley : ME aley: OF alee (F allée). para 3. para 6. alliteration.) Cf AMBLE. See LIGAMENT. a going. allocate . from aler. See LEG. “March!”’. See LETTER. to walk. to go: L ambulāre. Allhallows . alliance . ally. See HOLY. thus *allate for imp ambulate. alligator . ‘The abnormal reduction of ambulāre must have happened in military orders. para 3. alliterate .

allocation. to belaud). n. to put into its place. a place: f. from L alligāre: cf ALLIANCE and. allochromatic . Allow comes. to place. has derivative alouance.Origins 70 . allomorph. via ME alouen and OF-EF alouer.. f. to laud. ML allocātus.a. from OF aloier. earlier aleier (var alier). to assign. See the element allo-. allot . LIGAMENT. from L allocāre: cf ALLOCATE and. LOCAL: sense-confused with OF alouer. comes from MF-F aloi. n and v.e. from locus. alloyage. to combine.a. n hence v. LOCAL. Hence ML allocātiō. Alloy. to+ locāre. to place. alloy . allotment. Cf ALLOW. pp of allocāre. to apportion: L ad. OF aloier became F aloyer. whence allocation.. to bind. See LOT. OF alouer. to approve (L allaudāre. allude . whence (? via F allouable) allowable. o/s allocātiōn-. allow . f.e. allowance. para 3. whence E alloyage (suffix -age). whence allowance.. to place. allopathy.a.e. whence ‘to alloy’ and F aloyage.

prelude—but see LUDICROUS. See LIGAMENT. See LAVA. almanac : ME almenak: ML almanachus or almanach: either from Byz Gr almenikhiaka. . ‘(that which records) the weather (one may expect)’. allusion. allure . the+manākh. alluvial .A-Z 71 . para 2. illusion. Cf collusion. See LURE. para 3. alluvium. itself from Ar. ally . (settled) weather: al-manākh. a settlement—hence. to kneel)—hence. alluvion. weather. elude. pl of almenikhiakon . para 2. almighty . allusive. or direct from the Moorish Ar al-manākh. the calendar: Ar al. para 9. delude. a camp—hence. See ALL. calendars. orig a place (connoted by prefix ma-) where camels kneel (nākha. para 5.

from eleos. para 2. alms. var of migdala): L amygdala: Gr amugdalē. whence ME aumener. and OF almosne yielded aumosnerie. and OProv amela.). also prob via VL *alemosina. ‘precious gift from God’. whence E almonry. compassion. whence E eleemosynary. almonry. earlier almesse: OE aelmysse: LL el(e)ēmosyna: LGr eleēmosunē. almoner. whence the agent almosnier. alms .Origins 72 almond : ME almande: OF alemande (MF-F amande): Late VL amandula (cf Rum mandula. LL el(e) ēmosyna acquired.— eleemosynary. Alms: ME almes. merciful. in ML. whence almsdeed (act—cf DEED—of charity) and almshouse. adj hence n. from Gr elaēmōn. the adj el(e)ēmosynārius.o.o. almoner . perh from Asia Minor—if not the Orient—but cf H magdī'ēl (or meged’ēl). See ALL. it yielded OF almosne. almost . whence E almoner. aloe . aumosnier. See ALMS. compassion (o.

alone . along . See LONG. as if from ML *aloeticus or LGr *aloētikos.A-Z 73 (adj aloetic): L aloë: LGr aloē: H alōth. See the 2nd LIFT. para 1. para 2. The var aloes comes. on (connoting manner)+LOUD.f. aloe wood). aloft . var of aloë. para 10. cf obsol alow. See ONE. Aloetic app derives from F aloétique. aloe (cf ’ahālīm. aloud : a-. alp . from LL aloës (orig the gen of aloë). para 2. aloof . s. a learned formation. See LUFF. via F aloès.

8. akin to L albus. but cf the C *alp. from the 1st two letters of Gr alphabet. alpenhorn and alpenstock are borrowings from G (Alpen. i. Walshe) think it prob non-IE. para 6. alphabet : perh adopted from late MF-F: LL alphabētum: LGr alphabētos. alpine . whence the Alps. red. perh cf Hit alpas. perh from Quechua paco. cf STAKE. the beginning and the end. alpenstock . See ALP. alpenstock. a cloud. Alpha (akin to H āleph) occurs also in alpha and omega. Sabine alpus. A. high mountain (Ir ailp or alpa. Gr alphos (cf ALB). a high mountain)—perh a var of the C *alb. several authorities (e. the Alps. Only the high mountains tend to be white. alpaca is cloth made from hair of the alpaca (a SAm llama): Sp alpaca: Quechua alpaca. omega (ω) being the last letter: cf Revelations. alpine: from L Alpes (cf the LGr Alpeis). already . L Alpes is app of C origin. a protuberance.Origins 74 . alpha. pl of Alpe). B. whence the adj alpīnus.g. (to be) white. bēta (cf H beth). whence Alpine. alpine (cf EF-F alpin). See ALP.

(pron) another: f.e. to change. also . Simply all ready and all right. alright. whence. from LL altarista. alius. whence Alsace. in C17-early C18 London. a sanctuary for debtors and criminals. 75 Alsace .A-Z . The quadruped Alsatian is elliptical for Alsatian wolf dog (German sheepdog). whence the E adj (hence n) alterant. and pp alterātus. a pagan altar. on which arose both the LL alterātiō. Alter: MF-F altérer: LL alterāre. alteration. from alter. other. see ELSE. and the ML alterātivus. the connexion with L altus. Cf ALTERNATE and: . alterative. whence alterative. Alterāre (s alter-) has presp alterans. from OHG Elisaz (G Elsass). o/s alterant-. See ALL. high.a. o/s alterātiōn-. the other (of two)—orig a comp of. prob via F altariste. prob via MF-F alteration. via OE and ME. from LL altāre (usu of a Christian altar and as pl altāria). The latter comes. alterant. the E altar (cf the OF alter).. hence. Alsatia. altar . whence alterable (cf the MF-F altérable). the much-contested marches between France and Germany. is prob f/e—but then so perh also is that with L āra. the E alteration. altarist. whence Alsatian: ML Alsatia. alter . s alterāt-. or at the least akin to. adj hence n. whence.

esp heatedly. whence MF-F. altercation. See ALL.. altissimo. against). to nourish: f. alternant. from alter (see ALTER).e. cf the element alti-. o/s alternātiōn-. alternator.a. hence E. been adopted. high. and on the pp alternātus (s alternāt-) arose both the L alternātiō. OLD. and the It form alto has. whence the irreg formed alternacy. para 2. by Mus. adj hence n. the lowest female voice. pp of alternāre. Alternator is an E formation. whence alternant. alto. o/s altercātiōn-. . The adj and v alternate both come from L alternātus. from alternus (suffix -nus). whence ‘to altercate’. o/s alternant-. and has pp altercātus. alternative. adj hence n. The L altercāri. everywhere—so has its cpd contralto (prefix contra. and the ML alternātive. Its derivative altitūdō yields E altitude. whence alternation. adj (whence n) and v. altitude . other (see prec). L altus (s alt-). altercation. alternation. although . with its sup altissimo. whence the adj alternative. and subsidiary n altercātiō. Alternāre has presp alternans.Origins 76 altercate. to be at variance. was orig the pp of alere. alternus yields the rare altern. derives from alter. alternate .

am . all+togedere.a.. etc. Altruism: F altruisme. aluminium. alumina. from L alter. from al. altruism. other: f. See VIA. para 6. he. always . which prob suggested the E n altruist. See ALE. Altruistic comes (by -ic) from the F adj altruiste. from autre. other persons. See ALL and TOGETHER.A-Z 77 altogether : ME altogedere. itself deriving. altruist. another. alum . under the influence of lui. alveolar : the adj corresp to the element alveoli-. (with L l) from autrui. altruistic.e. ALTER.

amain .—amicable. amative. Amalgam+v suffix -ate yields ‘to amalgamate’. towards. amatory. ESSENCE. to assemble. See MANUAL. the+Gr malagma.. Amalgam: late MF-F amalgame: late ML amalgama: Ar al-malgham: AT al. amalgamator. amorist. from malassein. to soften. See MAIN. amour— enamour. L ad. from malakos. to exist: f.Origins 78 .e. amiable . and paramour—inamorata. n hence adj and amateurism. amass . IE r pern *mal-. amalgamation. amalgamative. like is and are and ‘(thou) art’. inamorato. from the n masse (see MASS). amanuensis . amateur . comes. OE am and eom. AE enamor. an emollient. amorous. whence (suffix -ment) amassment: OF-F amasser: a (F à). cf ation)—amalgamative (-ive)—amalgamator (agential -or). to+masser. from an IE r *es-. amalgam . whence amalgamation (suffix -ion. amalgamate.a. soft.

MF-F aimable (L amābilis. whence 1. friend. AE enamor. hostile. worthy of love—but in E. from It innamorata. whence amiability. from OF par amour. amatōrius. prob imm from amāre. the E amiable. EF-F enamourer (en. 2. in+amour + inf suffix -er and inamorata (f). VL *amicitās. to love. to enamour. 2. whence OF-MF amistié or -té (EF-F amitié). innamorato. f and m of the pp of innamorare. whence E amity. and VL *inimīcitās (o/s inimīcitāt). amorist. love. whence OF enemi. amaze . III:—amīcus. Phrygian int prefix+am-+ infix -n-+inf suffix ein). LL amīcābilis. a lover. personified as Amor. with derivatives LL inimīcālis. 2. amazement. I: L amāre (s am-). the prefix cpds enamour. 3. the opp inimīcus (for *inamīcus). ML amatīvus. whence amatory—cf the suffixes -atory and -ory. an E formation (suffix -ist) from amor. full of (passionate) love. amateur—cf the suffix -ator. par amour. Amazon . whence OF amorous (F amoureux). sense-adapted by E to ‘love affair’. (C14 onwards) paramour. hence E. influenced by OFMF amable. paramur. amator. a person in love or a person loved. whence. whence 1. to love: cf Gr adamnein (ad-. inamorato (m). 3. whence ME enemyte. The chain is this. II: L amor (s am-). from amāre). whence enmity. whence OF enemistié. . 3. IE r *am-. an enemy. hence the OF-F amour. by (or with) love. orig adv. whence 1. and paramour. tending to love. whence inimical.A-Z 79 (amiability). amity. whence MF-F. whence E amorous. See MAZE. whence E enemy. LL amorōsus. whence E amicable and OF-EF amiable. inimical. amazon. from OF-MF enamorer. enemy. acc *amīcitātem. ME par amur.

ambient. Cf AMBIGUITY. takes its name from some riverine women that impressed the early explorers. Gr Amazōn. derives by suffix -ity from the former. Ambergris half-anglicizes the F ambre gris. however. grey amber (cf GRAY). The river Amazon. as Boisacq holds. member of a race of mythical (?) female warriors: pern privative a-+mazos. with mazos akin to madan.Origins 80 An amazon. strong woman. right hand: ‘having two right hands’. Sp Rio Amazonas. ambassadorial. breast+presp suffix -on. See AMBIT. Amber itself came into ME from OF-F ambre. a warrior. both+dexter (manus). ambidexterity: the latter. or proficiently bellicose or merely tall. which anglicizes the rare ambidexter. ambidextrous . prompted by dexterity. ambiguity . prob. from Ar ‘anbar (ambergris). *hamazan-. esp OPer. amber: ambergris. from Iranian. adopted from ML: ambi-. ambassador . ambience . to be moist. derives from Amazon: L Amazon. See EMBASSY. to drip: from removal of right breast to facilitate archery. IE r *mad-.

a circuit. (hence) to walk: amb-. ambient. adopted from OF-F: from OF ambler. ISSUE. to drive. o/s of ambiens. and elaunō (s elaun. Resp. around+al-. ambulatory. to go around or about—cf the element ambi. like al. for the r it-. alley (sep). perambulate. ambitiously. whence E ambiguous (suffix -ous): and ambiguus derives from ambigere. The r ul-. perambulator. to go. hence E. ambitious—perh via MF-F ambitieux. (hence) about. amble . one who goes out (from his homeland)-and W el. o/s ambiguitāt-. The pp ambulātus accounts for ‘to ambulate’. ambulant— ambulate. ambition.: AGENT)—on both sides—L ambo. perh via MF-F. from ambiguus.(see ALACRITY). the F hôpital ambulant. and the subsidiary ambulātiō. I wander.and.e. r el-). via MF-F ambiguité. ambition. ambit: L ambitus. v hence n and rambler. ambient. for ambi-. ambulation. para 11. a field hospital. from ambīre. make a tour. both. ambulance. becomes E . a going about. esp for votes. perh cf Gr alaomai (s al-). o/s ambulant-. circumambulation. perambulation. The former comes. f ambitieuse—from L ambitiōsus. See VALUE. circumambulate. ambivalence . adj corresp to ambitiō.A-Z 81 . yields F. to go about. ambience—perh via F ambiance—from ambient+abstract suffix -ce. n. is a var of IE r *el-. to go+inf suffix -āre.a. o/s ambulātiōn-. from L ambiguitās. to amble. take a turn. from L ambient-. ambulance. from L ambitiō (o/s ambitiān-). ambiguous. -valent. 1. at the ME stage. presp of ambīre—cf the LL ambienter. whence. ambience. also in F. ambitious. (lit) on both sides. c/f ambi(Elements). Amble. ‘to amble’: perh via OProv amblar: from LL ambulāre. Cf: ambit . from L ambulāre. Ambulāre has presp ambulans. I drive—and certainly cf L exul. hence to go—L agere (f. perh via EF-F ambiant. let him go! 2. whence the E adj ambulant. n and v—preamble—? ramble.

ambrosia . ambulatory—perh via late MF-F ambulatoire—from L ambulatōrius. Ambrosial: E ambrosia+ adj suffix -al. 5. ambush. embuschier (influenced by It imboscare).. ambuscade . o/s permabulātiōn-. to walk circum or around. embuschier. Cf sep ALLEY. ambulate. ambulator comes direct from L. whence E ‘an ambush’. or an -al adaptation of L ambrosius (Gr ambrosios). whence E has analogously derived circumambulation. not+ brotos. 4. whence the ML n praeambulum. the derivative LL perambulātiō. have come from VL *r ambulāre. over. to walk back. has pp circumambulātus. hence to travel. The rare ‘to preamble’. has pp perambulātus. comes from LL praeambulāre. immortal: am-. Ambuscade comes from late MF-F embuscade.’: but ME ramblen could. ambulant. 6.e. whence the LL adj praeambulus. ambrosia. whence MF-F préambule. for LL reambulāre. whence ‘to perambulate’. esp from an excursion. whence the n embusche (later embûche). Embuscher. ambulance .o. euphonic for an-. to walk per or through. lit ‘to take to the woods’=em-. to ambush. 3. ‘to ramble’. L perambulāre.a. from MF-F embusquer. n and v. after amble. from OF embuscher. . LL circumambulāre. via ME embuschen. Now. the E ‘to ambush’. See AMBLE. n hence v. from ambrotos. lit ‘to walk before’ (cf the prefix pre-). mortal: cf MORTAL and MURDER. in(to)+busche: f. whence E preamble. yields perambulation. later a rose). ambrosial: L. perambulator is an E formation (cf agential -or): the baby-carriage sense is derivative. para 2. 7. from Gr. BUSH. an inferior var of L redambulāre.o. to walk.Origins 82 ambulation. whence ‘to circumambulate’. etc. whence ‘a ramble’ and rambler (person. whence also. is usu described as ‘o.

See MIND. pleasant: perhorig ‘lovable’. See MINATORY. amen : LL āmēn: Aram Gr amēn: H āmēn. para 1. amentia . amends. to love. amelioration. ameliorate. o/s amoenitāt-: amoenus. amenity : late MF-F aménité: L amoenitās. amendment. . para 11. See MELIORABLE. See MENDICANT. amelorative. Truly. ameliorant. or thus be it. amenable . para 6. amend .A-Z 83 ameliorable . from amare (s am-). para 4. amende honorable.

sweet—Akkadian matqū. honey. to be tipsy. mutqū. in Ham. sweet. III. sweetness. from methu. whence American (cf -an. sweetness. medu. honey. amiable and amicable. honey. sweet. Amethystine: L amethystīnus: Gr amethustinos. sweetness. and retchem-t. E mead (the drink). sweet. metqat. ‘sweet’ or ‘sweetness’ (hence perh ‘honey’). in Sem.W. .) Perhaps related. as in H māthōq. ME mede. With Americanism cf Anglicism. drunken.Origins 84 America . OGH metu. from adj *medhus. sweetness—Ugaritic . Cor medhu. the tri-consonantal r mtq. sweet. mead. amethyst. Thomas. and in Sem the r mtq bears also the related meaning ‘to suck’. var *medk-. L mel. (With thanks to Professor D. to OIr mid. The Medit r is app *madk-. muttāqū. perh honey—Ar matqā. medd. akin also to OSl medu. sweetness—Ethiopic metūq. and to OFris mede. wild honey. OP meddo. OE meodu. 1. See AMATEUR. adj): as if (terra) America. 2. amethystine. and the rare metheq. an intoxicating drink. app a blend of methusos and methustas. closely akin to Skt madhu. The IE etymon is *medhu. honey. amethyst. this precious stone being fabled to possess that virtue: a-. anything sweet. The word is prob Medit: cf. W med. mead. are Eg k(h)ebi. not+-methustos. ult akin to Gr meli. from methuein. which prompted it. Amethyst: ME ametist: OF-MF ametiste (EF-F améthyste): L amethystus: Gr amethustos. sweet food. from Americus (Vespucius)—L form of It Amerigo (Vespucci)—apprehended as adj: Amerigo Vespucci may or may not have discovered the mainland of America late in C15. mead (made from honey). certainly his writings (early C16) publicized it. from amethustos. mēdh. ‘Amerigo’s Land’. orig a remedy against intoxication.

n: ‘on the miss’. III. the 1st is adopted from LL ammōnia. para 13. by Chem suffix -ium. E ammoniac is elliptical for sal ammoniac. on +miss. amiss . from Eg Åmen. . amir . lit ‘the Hidden (One)’: both of these products were gathered from the vicinity of Ammon’s temple.e. from Gr ammōniakon. ammonia . See AMATEUR. the salt from camels’ dung. from Gr Ammōn (Jupiter Ammon). from the 1st. itself deriving from ML ammoniacus. 2. astray. amidst See MEDIAL. the gum from plants. ammoniac. itself app. adv hence adj: a-. i. ammonium: the 3rd comes. already used as n for the salt (ammonia) and the gum (ammoniac). amity . adj of L ammoniacum. adopted from the C16–18 F adj ammoniac. See ADMIRAL.A-Z 85 amid . by suffix -ia. with ammoniac an adj. from Gr ammōn.

amnesty . (lit) out of one’s mind: a-. mind (cf MIND). to L amens. at MIGRATE. ult. or merely formative: with meib-. amnesia . amnesiac. to change: a. q. See MIND. from Gr amoibē. See MUNIMENT. mostly AE.v. amok and. See MIND. (away) from+mens. among .of L migrāre. homicidally maniac: perh akin. para 8. cf the mig. para 8. from ameibein (s ameib-). amuck: Malay amok. a change. mad.Origins 86 ammunition . amoeba : SciL.is app int. furious—esp.

from gemengan. amorous. para 9. 1 and 2. II. amount . to mingle—cf MINGLE and MONGREL. amotion . amorist . See MORPHEUS. amorality. See MORTAL. amortize .A-Z 87 . See MORAL. in+gemang. See AMATEUR. para 3. amoral . ME amonges (later amongist): OE on. -zement. See MOVE. a crowd. amongst: ME among. amorphous . -zation. (orig) a mingling. para 4.

written ‘& per se and’: & by itself (makes) and.Origins 88 . (lit) to ascend: amont. the E amplitude. amphibious: the former (-an for -ous) from the latter.e. ample . perh akin to L ampla. whence ‘to amplify’. a handle. ampère . amplify.a. and (2) amplitūdō. amour . to the mountain: f. II. whence—perh imm from MF-F—the E amplification. whence late MF-F amplifier. amplitude. comes from L amplus. o/s amplificātiōn. See AMATEUR.. whence. F physicist. with subsidiary amplificātiō. . upwards: L ad montem. via MF-F. Amplus has notable derivatives (1) amplificāre. amphibian . ampersand : ‘ and’ per se ‘and’. var of ansa. itself from Gr amphibios. living (cf the element bio-) on both sides (element amphi-). now usu ampere: from André Ampère (1775–1836). to increase. Ample. ‘basic idea: holding’ (Webster). v hence n: OF amonter. MOUNT. adopted from OF-F.

Ancient Egypt was famous—and had many names—for its amulets. para 8. See MUSE.o. an . amuck . amuse . See the 2nd COUNT.A-Z 89 amputate .o. See ONE. o. amputation. amusement. pertaining to. para 2. Perh cf Eg amiasta. amputative. neu pl of adjj in -ānus. ana . amulet. amulet comes—cf EF-F amulette—from L amulētum. memorable or odd sayings: from L -ana. as in . See AMOK. para 3. indefinite article.

anaesthetic. anemia. whence anachronistic: perh via F anachronisme. If Singhalese or Tamil. anachronism . para 3. ‘lightning stem’. anaconda is prob either a Singhalese (Webster) or (OED) a Singhalese and Tamil word. to refer wrongly (lit. var of a-. Cf the element haemo-. from Gr anakhronismos. blooddeficiency: an-.Origins 90 Americana and in Johnsoniana (connective -i-). says that it originates in Surinam (Dutch Guiana). anaemic. also. the sayings. anemic: anaemia. SciL from Gr anaimia. and adj suffix)—perh prompted by Gr anaimos. anaesthesia . anaemia . See GRAMMAR. blood. of Dr Johnson. . itself from anakhronizein. Enci It. says Skeat. however. backwards: Gr ana-) in time (Gr khronos: cf CHRONICLE). anaesthetist. in AE. the ana. it app (OED) means ‘the crusher’ or ‘the killer’—or. Hence anaemic (-ic. 2nd para. not+haima. See AESTHETE. anagram .

analogist. anarchism. analogic(al). from Gr anapaistikos. pp of paiein. analogism. Adj. anapaestic: via L. to strike) back (ana). . para 24. See LEGEND. analecta . lit : L anapaestus. analectic. trln of Gr (daktulos) anapaistos. analyse. analogous. anarch. anarchic. analogy . analytic. analyst. See LOSE. para 24. See LEGEND. See ANNULAR. para 10. struck (paistos. analogize. analogue. anapaest -. analysis . (a dactyl: ) reversed. anarchy.A-Z 91 anal .

if not prompted by MF ancestrel. para 4. with -al elaboration anarchical. a thing devoted. whence. See TOME. from L). whence. with needless var anarchism (-ism). ancestry. ME anker. itself from Gr ankura.Origins 92 anarchist. anl. from Gr anathema. Mod ancestor. has derivative antecessor. anatomize. OF-MF ancestre has derivative ancesserie. Gr anarkhos has derivative anarkhia. anatomy. E ancestry. the n. comes from OF-F ancrer (from n ancre. The Gr anarkhos (an-. prob via MF-F anarchie. Ancestral. a goer before. to dedicate: ana.. of which anarchist (suffix -ist) is a needless elaboration. anatomist. ME ancestre. ruler: f. whence (suffix -ess) ancestress. to place or put—cf THESIS. the element arch-) becomes E anarch. to go (cēdere: cf CEDE) before (ante). up+tithenai. n and v The v. akin . ancestral.e. comes from L ancora. if not direct from the n. ancestor . the E anarchy. moreover. r ank-. is a contr of ancestor+-al (adj).a. hence a curse: from anatithenai. anatomical . not+arkhos. anchora. L antecedere. anchor . anathema : L. esp to evil. whence OF ancestre. either anglicizes EF-F anarchiaue or=anarch+adj suffix -ic. Anarchic. OE ancor.

ancillary : LL ancillāris. irreg from VL *antianus. from L ancilla. back+khōrein. the many-countried Mediterranean sailors. for the infix -n-. apua—cf the It acciuga and. whence ancientry (suffix -ry): ME auncien: OF-F ancien. ancient (adj hence n). r ang-: f. from anakhōrein. handmaiden.suffix -age). and .a. from khōros. either from Basque anchua. a place: cf the 1st element choro-.A-Z 93 to E angle. virile illiterates. reshaped aphua to their needs. anchoret or anchorite (influence of agential -ite): EF-F anachorète: L anachōrēta: Gr anakhōrētēs.o). the Port enchova (B & W): those rude. to give place. or from Gr aphuē.o. anchorage was perh suggested by F ancrage. from L aphya. from VL *antius.e. anchovy : Sp anchova. Although from anchor. via VL apyia.. v (4. the n ANGLE. ancientry. from ante (prep) or antea (adv). f of anculus (o. The -t may owe something to OF-F ancienneté. itself from antzua. sterile. dry (Webster). before—cf the prefix ante-. some small fish. to retire: ana. var of anchoa.

androgynous . Anekdota (n from the neupl of the adj anekdotos). and esp Skt átha. to go—cf Hit anda. heifer. not+ekdotos. and end. and. unpublished—an-. but I suspect that the -n. to give: f. OHG anti.or *et-: cf Skt átha and perh ati. anecdote+ dotage. out+didōnai. (lit) give out: ek. still—L et. even.e. etc.Origins 94 : OE and. app only in the taut anda pai. *andera. inti. anecdot(e)+-ist. moreover. anecdotage. anecdotist. andiron : influenced by iron: ME aundiren (or -yrne): OF andier. beyond—Gr eti. again—Gaul itic. and—perh Go ith. Ga agus. at landier).a. andan. Anecdote comes. prob from Gaul andero. and. date (time). also.is simply a nasalization and that the IE r is *at. to publish.and -gyn.. unti or unta (G und)—perh ON enn. akin to OFris and or anda. . Cor. andante (Mus). to go (to a person. then. and. an animal’s head’ (B & W. end. young woman. The IE r could be *and. enda. Br anner. heifer—cf Ir ainder.o. ende—cf also OS ande or endi. from Gr anekdotos. published. anecdotal. varr *ant. moderately yet fluently slow: It presp of andare. via F. to go: o. and W.and andan pai-. from ekdidōnai.) The derivatives arise thus: anecdot(e)+-al. anecdote .or *ent-. young bull. (B & W. also.o. to a place). ‘Things Unpublished’.or *end-. at their extremities. See the elements andro. But between F anecdote and Gr anekdotos there intervened Procopius’s gossipy memoirs of his day (C7).. ? an IE r *and-. and—perh OIr acus. enti. and id-. ‘Andirons often have.

an opening: ana. See NOVA. better aneurysm: Gr aneurusma. broad. para 8. aneurism . anent . anesthetic. wind: cf the element anemo-.A-Z 95 anemia . from anemos. up+eurus. wide+ suffix. back. anew . See AESTHETE. See ANAEMIA. . anesthesia . anemone : L anemone: Gr anemōnē. See ADDENDA.

ML ev-. whence angra. announce. 2. itself of Iranian origin. whence evangelical—with agent euangestlis. distress. OF evangeliste. anger (n and v)—hence angry (for angery): ME angre: ON angr. an angel. a Persian courier. sorrow. to bring. ML ev-. whence. whence. ML ev-. hence. imm from MF-F angélique. MF evangeliser. to grieve or distress. (2) evangel. LL euangelium. comes—via LL angelicus—from Gr angelikos. ANXIOUS. the 2nd. Gr euangelion. angelic. With angelos. from LL archangelus. via LL angelus and OF angele. a messenger. . Whereas the 3rd arises in ML. Angelica. the E evangelize. in LGr. and the 4th is elliptical for L herba angelica (‘angelic’ because reputedly curative). via LL euangelicus. angelica. the E evangelic. with adj arkhangelikos. ANGUISH. well). via LL euangelista. Akin to ANGER and QUINSY. bringing good news (Gr adv eu. good news. from euangelos. and Skt. Note the cpds (1) archangel. from Gr arkhangelos (cf the element arch-). MF-F évangélique. ME from OF evangile. a divine messenger. quinsy: Gr ankhonē. a divinity.Origins 96 angel . whence. the adj of angelos . the E archangelic. (3) Los Angeles. from L angelicus. whence ‘to anger’: akin to ANGINA. evangelism being an E formation (evangel+-ism). glad tidings. perh via OF archangel. with adj euangelikos. ML evangelium. the E angel. cf the Gr angaros. whence. via LL euangelizāre. whence. angina : L angina. via ML archangelicus. the E evangelist—and v euangelizesthai (s euangeliz-). Sp for ‘(the convent of) the angels’.

triangle. Anglia . angostura . para 3. Anglo-Saxon . to prec. Anglian. etc. See ENGLAND. the adjj angular. via L angulāris and perh EF-F angulaire. Cf ANCHOR and: angle (2): n (a fish-hook): OE angel or angul. a hook. a hook— but also. bent. Anglican. etc. an arrow-barb. and. from L angulus (r ang-). and ON öngull—to L uncus. triangular. akin to OHG angul. a bend.A-Z 97 angle (1): n (a corner): adopted from OF. akin to Gr ankulos (r ank-). . corner. cf Gr onkos. a corner—esp Skt .. ango. Hence. and onkē. quadrangle. angle. See ANGUISH. etc. Anglicize. to angle or fish. Hence. whence angler. from ankos (s ank-). ult. See SAXON.

a corner—cf 1st and 2nd ANGLE. by Chem -ine. See ANGER. built on the narrows of the Orinoco: Sp angostura. The latter derives from the angostura bark of a SAm tree (Sp angostura): from Angostura. angulate . anguish . See the element angulato-. 1. angostura. a strait. whence OF anguisse (F and OF angoisse). aniline derives. (hence) distress. later anguishe. whence ME anguise. angular . 2. anil: Ar . n and v. ‘To anguish’ comes from the OF angoissier. OF-F angoisser (either from angoisse or from LL angustiare. akin to L angulus. from angere (s ang-). See 2nd ANGLE. Cf ANXIOUS. narrow ness. to afflict). narrows: from L angustus. E anguish.Origins 98 angry . a dye from the WI shrub anil: EF-F. to constrict. narrow. L angustus has derivative angustia. angustare. to compress. from Port. from anil.

animism. dark blue. Prefix derivatives of anima. unanimity. animadversion. unanimous. hence even. adopted by E. whence animistic (cf -ic and -is tic). mind—hence . pusillanimity. the L adj animōsus has derivative animōsitās. 4. animus is the thinking principle opp both corpus. whence Ar laylak. magnanimous. result in E words : aequanimus. o/s animātiōn-. from nīla. 6.. magnanimous. a strong out-breathing: cf. adopted by E. hence with life. via MF-F animosité. The former comes from ML animadversiōn-. Certain true L cpds of anima and animus. whence. to bear with an equal. longanimity. not+animātus. Strictly. L flātus and spiritus—Gr atmos—Skt ānilas. whence the dim nīlak. whence also Per nīl. o/s animōsitāt-. ult. hence breath of life. animation. Animus. L -uersiō. contain a blend. echoically and sem. sem and phon alike. 5. ātman. sep. whence also the L animātiō. lit ‘to turn (uertere) the mind (animus—cf next) to (ad)’: cf advert at VERSION. from aequo animo ferre. animadvert. animistic: animus. animāre. Anima issues in the v animāre (anim-+inf suffix -āre). (a moment of) relaxed breathing+-ma. via EF. n and adj (whence animality. again+animate. bluish. animalize): animate (adj and v)—inanimate— animation. or of both. to endow with breath. whether of the living or of the dead. spirit. whence inanimate. soul: and anima (hence. hence E animation. the E lilac. of both animus and anima. Anima leads also to E animism (anima+-ism) and animist (cf -is). animosity—equanimity. to deprive of breath. breath—and even ‘a breath’ and ‘to breathe’. ‘To reanimate’ and reanimation are E formations: re-. animal .A-Z 99 al-nil. whence E exanimate. the (al) indigo plant: Skt nīlī. pp exanimātus. to put life into. equanimity. blue. the E animosity (cf suffix -ity). whence. hence the soul. with pp animātus. magnanimity. alive). pusillanimous. pp of animaduertere. and LL inaminātus (in. and the agential animātor. etc. include exanimāre. Sp lilac. soul. is a parallel to anima (s anim-). and anima. for animumaduertere. has gradually assumed the sense ‘feeling of hostility’. 3. mind. unanimous. whence both the adj animate and the v ‘to animate’. from animaduersus. a slow in-breathing +-ni-. 1. animus) is orig ‘breath of air’. Animus recurs in animadversion. q. o/s of animadversiō. body. spirit. L animus (s anim-).v. Anima is pern the most echoic of all words: a-ni-ma: a-. indigo. 2.

animalize (whence animalization)=animal. o/s longanimitāt-. whence MF-F unanimité. through ME anys and MF-F anis. perh from ON ökla (cf OFris ankel or onkel. anise. animality=animal. perh via EF-F. derivative aequanimitās. animālis has neu animāle. (esp) generous. anklēu or onklēu). yields magnanimous. has derivative unanimitās. i. Animality (cf LL animālitās) and animalize may owe something to F animalité and animaliser. animalcule. yields—prob via MF-F magnanimité—magnanimity. whence E Hannah. o/s -animitāt-. magnanimus. its opposite LL pusillanimis. i. from Gr anison. Ann . animate. gives us pusillanimous. long-minded. whence. o/s unanimitāt-. an animal. breathing. var anēthon. var anethum. yields (prob via EF équanimité) equanimity. the earlier ME form anclowe derives from OE anclēo. app a loan-word.e. although the latter may be . whence E unanimity. which produces E unanimous (and F unanime). and its derivative pusillanimitās. the E longanimity.e. whence the E adj animal. whence. a breathing thing. with very little (pusillus) courage (a special sense of animus). 8. adj+-ize. Also from L anima comes the L adj animālis. LL longanimis. perh from pusillo animo. anclēow akin to OHG anchlāo (early Mod HG Enkel) and prob to Skt . 7. adj+ity. The dim Nanny accounts for nanny (goat) and perh for nanny. It from L Anna: Gr Anna: H Hannāh. children’s nurse. ankle : ME ancle. great-minded. from L anisum. prob via MF-F longanimité. mean-spirited. gives—prob via MF-F pusillanimité— pusillanimity. patient. grace. F Anne.Origins 100 the E equanimous. has derivative longanimitās. The E formations are simple: animalism=animal. aniseed =anise seed (cf SEED). anise comes. one). n+suffix -ism. o/s aequanimitāt-. and its derivative magnanimitās. unanimus (unus. limb. whence the n animal. (usu) cowardly. o/s magnanimitāt-. L animal has dim animalaculum.

anneal : ME anelen: OE : an. annals. anna . annexion. See ANNUAL. para 2. mother’s reference to nurse—cf the F nounou. anniversary . small Indian coin: Hi ānā. annexation. on+ . annex . annihilate . annihilation. to kindle. para 8.A-Z 101 childish for nursie. See the 2nd NET. annalist . para 12. See FILAMENT. bake.

of two years. triennial. and Umbrian acnu (acc pl). para 3. announcement. 102 annotate . centennial. a period of two years (cf bis. See ODIOUS. 1. two +-en-+ formative -o-+nom -s). annuity (whence annuitant). ML annuitās (o/s annuitāt-). anniversary. annalist. whence E annalist (-ist). a year. See NOTABLE. annual. The following L derivatives result in E words: annuālis. annoyance. annotation. E annual (-al. biennial. and ata-athni. annual . para 6. superannuate. superannuation. chronicles (year by year). annotator. millennium. centenary. para 7. millennial. annālis. whence E annals and late MF-F annales. annoy . Skt atati. annals. years. para 5. announcer. L numerical cpds relevant to E include: biennālis. announce . cf SOLEMN. n). (E & M. (lapse of) a year—perh also Oscan akenei. twice. once. and prefix bi-): hence E . MF-F annuité. it passes—to Go athnam (dat pl). See NUNCIO. r an-). millenary. See ANNUAL. from biennium.Origins . whence (libri) annāles. adj). 3.of Gr dienos (di-. The source of all these words is L annus (s ann-. MF-F hence ME annuel. in a year.) 2. Basic sense: ‘passing of a year’s period’. whence EF-F annaliste. akin to the -en. E annuity (-ity)—whence annuitant (cf ant. perennial.

five-yearly. whence—cf biennial. comes from LL centenārium. ring-shaped: L annulāris. above+ L annus. whence E millenary. adj hence n. etc. milleni. a ring. but centenary.A-Z 103 biennial. 5. a year-f suvffix -ate. ML versus. quinquennial from L quinquennis. (perh cf OI āune. annunciation . from L centenārius. 4. See NULL. period of four years. quadrennial. centennial. from annulus. vertere. etc. as also does centennial from L centum. anode . adj hence n. One L prep cpd is relevant: perennis. Annulus leads to the E dim annulet (cf -let). para 3. of a century. a period of three years. āinne). the turning of the year (uersus. n. triennial comes analogously from L triennium. para 1. returning.—perennial. from uertere. better anulus. a thousand each. adopted by E in its physio sense.. with a particular day of the year: from anni versus. has LL derivative millenārius. Cf the E formation superannuate: L super. a century. There remains L anniuersārius. pern via the OF-F adj and n anniversaire. a ring. whence the E adj centenary. annular . from L quadriennium. each year. a thousand). annul . See NUNCIO. four-yearly. a hundred. with adj anal. orig the dim of anus. cf OF-F annelet. ML -versārius. millennial derives from millennium on analogy of biennial. millennium Mod L (from mille. lasting through the year. hence superannuation. whence annulment. adopted by E. to turn—cf VERSE): whence E anniversary.

anon .Origins . 104 anodyne . adv. not+odunē. pain. para 9. adj: LL anodynos: Gr anodunos.: short for anonymous. anonymity. anormal . anonym. anomaly. anon . adj and n: ML anodynus. para 4. para 3. See ONE. See the element anomalo-. See UNCTION. anoint . pain-free or -stilling: an-. anointment. See NAME. itself from Gr anodunon. anomalous . The E n comes from ML anodynum. orig the neu s of the adj. See ODOGRAPH (heading).

earlier amete or emete (cf the archaic emmet): OE āmeiza a chisel)—and to Go maitan.A-Z . See OTHER. ON meita. antecedent . ant . therefore. antagonist See AGONY. to cut (cf G Meissel. answer . See ARCTIC. (G Ameise)—ā-. antagonism . n and v (whence answerable). para 2. ‘the cutter-off. 2nd para. See SWEAR. off+meizan. Antarctic . 105 another . See NORM. para 3. gnawer’ (Walshe). Lit. to cut. akin to OHG : ME ante.

adj hence n: before (ante) the Flood (ML Dilūvium. to go (cēdere: cf CEDE) before (ante: cf prefix ante-).Origins 106 . o/s of antecedens. See CHAMBER. See the element antenni-. antedate . antechamber .o. whence antecedence and antecedency: MF-F antecedent: L antecedent-. presp of antecedere. antediluvian . antenna (pl antennae). L dilūuium: cf DELUGE). earlier anthalopus: MGr antholops (gen antholopos).o. See DATE (in time). o. antelope : OF antelop: ML antalopus. antepone .

para 4. sound-returning (anti. 107 anterior . a comp adj from ante. See para 2 of: . earlier: LL word.A-Z . Both of these words come from Gr antiphōna. anteversion . a voice. See POSE. and antiphonal from E antiphon. the E anthem. which became OE antefen. under Gr influence. itself orig the neu s of the adj antiphōnos. later antem. antevenient See VENUE. See VERSE. Gr antiphōna became also LL antefana (var of LL antiphōna). anther . para 15. whence. over against+phōnē. anteposition. an antiphon or anthem. antiphon. neu pl of antiphōnon. anthem. n) from the derivative ML antiphonārium. a sound: cf -phone): Gr antiphōna became LL antiphōna (f sing) became E antiphon—cf E antiphonary (suffix -ary. para 7. became ME antefne. before—cf POSTERIOR and the element antero-. antefn.

anthrax: L anthracites. whence anthracitic (-ic. +-logos. Note: anthrōpoeidēs. 3. var *endh. one stands out: anthropology (whence anthropological and anthropologist): element anthropo-+element -logy. 2. shape: cf MORPHEUS)—hence anthropomorphous. MBr annoer.(or end-). a herb.Origins 108 anthology . a young bull. 1. whence anthological. a man. q.v. rich (cf the element poly-) in flowers: it has a many-flowered umbel. perh *andh. resembling a human being—hence anthropoid. at -logia: perh imm from EFF anthropologie. a flower. anthropomorphic. perhaps cf the Arm ant’el. a human being (cf the element anthropo-). anthrōpomorphos. With Gr anthrax. coal. from anthos. -legist. The Gr anthrōpos. akin to Skt ándhas-. IE r. cannibalism—hence anthropophagy (cf the element -phaga). via L anthrax. bloodstone: Gr anthrakitēs. 2. a flower. carbuncle. . a girl. anthropophagy. charcoal. and prob to OIr ainder. anthrōpophagia. however. from anthos. anthracite . flower. -logize: Gr anthologia. Of the numerous other cpds. -gathering. to gather—cf LOGIC and LEGEND. anthrax. flowery. from legein. adj). and OBr enderic.(or *and-). could contract *antherax. from the adj anthologos. akin to anēr (gen andros). has several Gr derivatives relevant to E. a glowing coal. flowergathering: anthos. whence anthropomorphism (-ism) with adj anthropomorphic. anthropoid . anthropology. from anthrax. the E anthrax. Cf polyanthus. of human form (morphē. whence. Anther: EF-F anthère: L anthēra. medicine concocted from flowers: Gr anthēros. form. SciL from Gr poluanthos.

ancient. before. OF-F antiquité. itself adopted from L. (hence) to render obsolete. pp of L anticipāre. antiquārius (adj). Cf the prefix ante-. comes from L anticipātiōn-. antiquāre. whence the pa antiquated. antiquity—antiquary (adj hence n). o/s anticipant-. from ante. The 5th derives. 2. adj). s. the suffix -quits may be id with that in propinquus. anticipate . antiquarian: antiquate. whence ‘to antiquate’. E antiquity (suffix -ity). whence the E adj. reject. to forestall: ante. yields the adj. 1. itself from the MF-F adj antique (itself from L antiquus). (lit) over against.f. para 4. adj hence n.—Cf CAPABILITY. L ‘to throw back. abrogate’. if not direct from MF-F. hence n. whence the adj (hence n) antiquarian (suffix -an. pp antiquātus. grotesque: It antico. derives from the adj antic.A-Z 109 antibiotic . loving the ancient. The n antic. . akin to prefix anti-. ancient: L antiquus. ‘to take beforehand’. anticipation. (lit) former. hence a n: whence the E rare adj and the n antiquary (cf EF-F antiquaire). anticipative. para 11. anticipator. antique (adj and n). antic . 3. antiquated. anticipant. The E n antique has been adopted from the F n antique. before+a derivative from capere. the o/s of anticipātiō. the 2nd. LL ‘to cause to fall into oblivion’. near. L antiquus has several derivatives relevant to E: antiquitās. the 3rd=L anticipāte-+ suffix -ive. See VIVA. a caper. anticipatory. to take. from the 4th. o/s antiquitāt-. itself from anticipātus (s anticipāt-). to render old or ancient. The L presp anticipans. by adj suffix -y.

See CLIMAX. adopted by Chem). against+dotos. itself app a borrowing of popular Eg stim. given. whence antidotal: L antidotum: Gr antidoton (pharmakon). antimacassar .Origins 110 anticlimax . antidote . antimony . hieratic Eg (Hofmann). antimonic. whence L stibium. given against: anti. antimonious: ML antimonium. See MILITANT. ‘the (medicine) given against’: orig the neu of antidotos. al being the Ar ‘the’. perh Ar al-uthmud or ithmid. para 3. and -ithmid prob borrowed from Gr stimmi (var stibi. to give: cf DOSE. . See MACASSAR. pp of didonai. whence antimonial. antimilitarism .

para 2. from Gr. antipope . antiphrasis . nomos (s nom-) derives from nemein (s nem). whence antipodal. law+ abstract suffix -/a. antipodes . antipodean. See PATHIC.A-Z 111 antinomy . See ANTHEM. Cf NOMAD. antiphon . against+nomos. See PHRASE. See FOOT. antipathy. para 2. antinomic: L. para 24. to distribute. antiphrastic. whence antinomian. antipathetic . antinomia: anti.

antiquated. anti-Semite . -Semitic. antiquity. paras 2–3. SYNTHETIC. antistrophe . antiseptic. antisepsis . antistrophic. -Semitism. para 18. antiquary. 112 antiquarian . antique. para 3. See STRAP. antler . antithesis . and see THESIS. antithetic. Cf SYNTHESIS.Origins . See SEPSIS. See ANTIC. See SEMITE. para 6. See FATHER.

to strike. aenbilt. para 3. antral .being euphonic). Anxius yields E anxious. to cause pain: cf ANGER. ambelt. anvil derives. through ME anvelt. anxiety . earlier anfelt.(2). itself from angere (s ang-). para 6.A-Z . anus . abstract n from anxius (? for *ang-s-ius. aenvelt. 113 antonym (whence antonymous). See the element antro-. -s. and perh (Webster) to L pellere. adj of antrum. akin to OHG anafalz and MD aenvilt. from OE anfealt (var anfilte). . o/s of anxietās. para 14. See ANNULAR and cf the element ano. anxious: the former comes from L anxietāt-. any . See ONE. See NAME. aenbelt. See OCULAR.

New Mexico): Zuni (N. apanage . Indians’) ápuchu. . in surnames. aorta . enemy. para 10. See the element aorto-. See HORIZON. para 2.M. See PANTRY. ap. aorist . aortic. a Parisian professional criminal: Apache. See FILIAL. apache . appanage. Texas.Origins 114 Anzac : a member of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. para 3. a member of an Amerindian tribe (esp Arizona.

n hence v: OE apa. cognates exist also in OSl and Skt. adj hence n. whence E aperitive. however. then a C origin is not impossible: Ga atharrais. o/s aperient-. a hideous man—and gafi. perhaps from Celtic’ (Webster)—but from which C language. and Mx arrish. ape . aperitive. ape be ‘the imitator’. para 17. If. The IE r is therefore *uer-: cf Lith at-veriu. mimicry. discover. aperture. whence apathetic. built upon the pp apertus. E aperture). I shut. and EIr aithrisim. and derivative n apertūra (whence. an int prefix+ +aithris. Perh rather cf Eg aāfi.) 2. to mimic. I re-tell. derives. I open. apartment. apathy . to cover—cf COVER. (E & M. and už-veriu. aperient . a mimic. the LL apertīuus (ML apertīvus) perh suggested F apéritif. whence. Cf SYMPATHY and see PATHIC. mimicry. prop ath-. if indeed from any? Cf OSI opica and Cz opice (Walshe). whence apertural. 3. from aperīre: Aprilis comes in the middle of the European spring. 1. akin to ON api and OHG affo (G Affe): ‘an early Teutonic loan word. See PART. perh via EF-F apathie. gef. to shut. to open. an ape. (hence) to uncover. the archaic adj apert. whence aperient. from L apathia: Gr apatheia: privative a-+pathos+abstract suffix -eia. The ancient grammarians may have correctly derived L Aprīlis—whence April— from *Aperīlis. adj and n. is the complement of operīre. The L aperīre (s aper-). ? April.A-Z 115 apart . via OF. a mimic. Aperīre has presp aperiens. the .

to attach. The third theory is the most convincing. aphorism . from+ horizein. Apical=apic-. para 6. itself borrowed from Gr Aphrō.. hence a pithy saying.a. to separate: f. esp of something small. Aprīlis derives from IE *apero. pet-form of Aphroditē. pl apices. in Medit countries. See the element aphidi-. aphid . the later. when young people’s fancy turns to love.g. aphelion . apical: L apex (s ap-). later. April being the second month of the year. The latter comes from Gr aphoristikos. e. o/s of L apex+adj -al. Aphis. and E & M support Benveniste’s derivation from Etruscan apru. a definition. following. to define: aph-. See SOLAR. of a cap: perh from apere (s ap-).e. adj of aphorismos. apex . .Origins 116 month in which buds open. akin to Skt áparas. But Walde proposes that. See PERT. April being. from aphorizein. aphoristic. apert . summit. for apo.

with plummet: plomb. Gr aphorismos became LL-ML aphorismus became MF-F aphorisme became E aphorism. of sexual love. and derivatives apiānus. apiary . Aphrodite: Gr aphrodisiakos. apical . from Aphroditē. L apis (s ap-). cf Skt abhrás. whence apian. plummet: f.a.A-Z 117 HORIZON. and apiārium. a bee. See APEX. a pearly calcite). aphesis). as in apiculture (cf CULT). adv. perh ‘descendant (-itē) of the foam (aphros)’. whence apiary. Cf the element apiand perh BEE (b for p. lead. PLUMB. cloudy weather. See PIECE.e. has c/f api-. apiece . . With aphros (whence aphrite. aphrodisiac . apiculture. uprightness. with euphonic or formative -d-. aplomb : EF-F aplomb. exact poise: F à plomb..

var gē—cf GEOGRAPHY. IE r. to cover. trln of Gr apogaion. . to hide. whence (adj -al) apocryphal: apocrypha. to hide away: apo. to reveal: apo. kal-. Ult Gr r. spurious). whence E Calypso. apodeictic . neu pl of LL apocryphus: Gr apokruphos. via LL apocalypsis. from apokruptein. from+ kaluptein. the adj of apokalupsis. apocalyptic. prop the neu s of adj apogaios. whence. cf L celāre. to hide: cf cryptic at CRYPT. the origin of Gr Kalupsō. hidden (hence. *kel-. See DICT. The latter comes from Gr apokaluptikos. from+kruptein. (situated) up from (apo) the earth gaia. Apocrypha . para 23. whence perh the WI calypso. apogee : (perh via EF-F apogée) L apogaeum. apocope . to uncover. See the element -copate. the E apocalypse: and Gr apokalupsis derives from apokaluptein.Origins 118 apocalypse .

adj of apoplēxia.. something uttered. perh via F. whence. procreate: ‘The Exciter or Generator’. apologetic. from LL apoplēcticus. See LEGEND. to speak—cf diphthong. apostacy . off. perh from IE r *apel-. apologetics. to excite.a. apologue. earlier Apellōn. adopted from L. the Skt epithet savità. the E apoplexy: and Gr apoplēxia derives from apoplēssein. comes from Gr Apollōn. para 25.A-Z 119 Apollo . adj apophthεgmatic: Gr apoph-thegma. hence apophthegmatikos. to strike: f.) apologia . apology. (Boisacq. apophthegm . The adj comes. promote. apoplexy. from+plēssein. via LL apoplēxia and MF-F apoplexie (adopted by ME). to strike cripplingly: apo.e. whence apophthegmatic. from+a derivative from phthengesthai. lit ‘spoken out’: apo. sem. apoplectic . itself from Gr apoplēktikos. apologize. PLAGUE. apologist. Apollo being the god of sun and light: cf. applied to a sun god.

para 7. apostate. the ME apostasie. apotheosis .connotes ‘(up) from mankind’. para 3. apostolate. from apotheoun. See THESIS. whence apotheosize: via LL from Gr apotheōsis. var apostacy. apostle . to stand (stēnai: cf STAND) off (apo) has two notable derivatives: apostasia. apostrophe . apostolic. perh through MF. apothecary . to deify (theos. . whence L apostata. para 15. See STALL. and the agent apostatēs. apostate: Gr apōstēnai. whence. See STRAP. apostrophize. a god: cf THEISM): apo.Origins 120 or -sy. apostil . adopted by LL. See POSTERIOR. whence MF (later apostat). hence ME hence E. para 3. E apostasy.

apparition. Cf: apparel . apareil (F appareil). apparatus : adopted from L (gen -ūs). pp of apparāre. from apparāt-. n and v. to prepare. . to bring forth (a child): the sem link is clear and strong. a freq from L apparāre—cf prec.for ad. itself from OF apareillier (F appareiller). whence ‘to apparel’: and apareillier comes from VL *appariculāre. through ME aparail. to make ready. See APPEAR. to+parāre. para 2. See PALE. See PANTRY. s of apparātus. para 10. appall. app akin to parere (s par-). to prepare: ap. appanage .A-Z 121 appal . apparent . Then n comes. from OF aparail. s par-.

via ME apaisen.Origins 122 appeach . para 13. s of apparitus. pp of apparēre. the E appease. prob akin to Gr peparein (s par-). the E apparition. quieten. Apparēre=apfor ad. whence OF aparoir (note ils aperent. appellant . to+parēre (spar). to display. from L apparentia. OF-F apaiser (a. an appearance. inf suffix). a spectre. apperen. OF apaisier. to appear. See the 2nd PULSE. pebeing app an int prefix. appeachment. appear . o/s apparitiōn-. adopted by E law. On apparit-. Appearance comes. See FOOT. from apparent. via OF-F. Cf PEACE. appeal . presp of apparēre. o/s of apparens. whence. apparent. para 6. apparition. apesen. appease . whence the E appear.(whence E apparent). through ME aparaunce. apparitor. and OF aparance. apparence. they appear) and ME aperen. to be visible. esp a ghostly appearance. whence. appeasement The latter represents OF-F apaisement. to pacify. to+pais. and apparitor. itself from apaiser. peace+-er. appearance. arose both apparitiō.

apple . appendant. appendage. appellate. applause. See PEND. appendicitis. appetency . applaud . appertain . para 13. See PLAUDIT. appetent. appendix. appellation. para 6. See the 2nd PULSE. para 2. para 3. appetite.A-Z 123 . See PETITION. apperceive . apperception. See PERTAIN. para 3. See PERCEIVE. append .

appliqué. Manx ooyl. apportion . nut of Abella. applicator. applicant. aepl. whence the adj applied. appointment. apportionment. para 21. See PUNGENT. ML av-. MIr uball. for appose. apply. to OIr aball. paras 7–8. para 23. applicate. application. epli. The var Auella. accounts for the E adj avellan. See PLY. OHG apful (MHG-G apfel). to ON eple. ubull. Abella may well constitute the origin of this European word. appliance . See the 3rd PORT. eppel: OE aeppel. akin to OFris appel. to OSl ablŭko (or jablŭko) and Lith obuolas. Indeed. See POSE. prob also to L Abella (malifera. rich in apples: Virgil) in Campania. appoint . OS appul. the filbert. elliptical for nux auellana. apposition. . para 4. apposite. ML Avella (the sole modern form). from L auellana. apport . Cor aval(l) or avell. see also para 14. Ga ubhal. Br aval. applicatory. applicable. OW aballen. para 3. appose . See PART. applicative.Origins 124 : ME appel.

appraisement. apprehension.a. apprenticeship. to inform: MF-EF apprise. to grasp: f. para 5. appressorium. appreciative. apprentice . apprehend . to learn. apprehensive.. apprise . PREHEND. appressed . See PREHEND. . para 6. See the 2nd PRESS. See PREHEND. appreciate .A-Z 125 appraise . See PRICE. apprehensible. from L apprehendere. appreciation. appreciator. para 4. to teach. para 3.e. whence appraiser (agential -er). para 5. pp of OF-F apprendre. See PRICE. appraisal. f of appris.

for ad. approach . adj and v. See PROVE.Origins 126 apprize . See PRICE. approbatory. to come near. to profit by. See IMPROVE. approbation . appropriation. para 7. near. approve (1). near to. to price or value. forwards. to make use of. pern an elaboration of pro. akin to the syn Gr pro and Skt pra-. itself from prope (adv and prep). v hence n and—prob suggested by late MF-F approchable—approachable: ME ap(p) rochen: OF-MF aprochier (MF-F approcher): LL appropiāre: ap. See PROPER. Cf REPROACH. para 3. appropriative. para 3. para 2. to+L propiāre. approve . appropriator. appropriate .

See PROVE. lit ‘cooked beforehand’. earlier albercoc: like the Sp and Port words. apricot : F abricot: Cat abercoc. para 3.e. prob an example of folketymology : the apricot ripens before the similarly coloured peach. Sophocles. var of praecox. para 3. See PROPINQUITY. appulsion.. See PERTAIN. appulse . v)—approximation. approval. (hence) to sanction. . approximate (adj.) April . See APERIENT. See the 2nd PULSE. to authenticate. orig the neu of praecoquus.A-Z 127 (2). (B & W. The Ar word came from L via Gr which had carried the L word to Syria: LGr praikokion (Byz Gr berikokkion: note p to b) merely transliterates L praecoquum. appurtenant.a. para 7. from Sp Ar albarqouq: MAr al-burquq (cf Per barquq): L (Pliny) praecoquum. para 7. appurtenance . PRECOCIOUS). to favour. early ripe (f.

perh via MF-F inepte. See MAP.. gen aptitūdinis. he takes. attitudinal (-al. adj aptitudinal. and appanzi. 3. attains. attitudinize (-ize). and ēpzi. ADEPT. via MF-F. adj). better hapsis. I take.a. apropos : F à propos. PURPOSE. from haptein. hence ‘well fastened’ hence ‘well fitted (for)’. The opp of aptus is ineptus (in-. became It attitudine became EF-F attitude. suggest IE r *ap-. he attained or obtained. LL aptitūdō. to fasten. akin to Skt āpta. pl apsides: L apsis: Gr apsis. aptitude—attitude. whence. from aptitūdin-. ‘fastened’. from the LL derivative ineptitūdō comes ineptitude. the adj attitudinal and the v attitudinize have arisen by analogy with other L -itudo. Cf sep ADAPT. was orig the pp of apere. or vice versa. they take. not). 1. its LL abstract derivative aptitūdō yields. The adj is apsidal. fit. very suitable. and . L aptus. whence aptness (suffix -ness). ineptitude.e. 2. apse . obtains. the E inept. L aptus yields E apt. COPULA.Origins 128 apron . he reaches. adopted by E. apt . The Hit ēpmi. the o/s of aptitūdō. to tie or fasten. and āpnoti. o/s -itudin-formations. and to Ve . to the purpose: f. inept. aptitude (cf -itude). Perh cf HASP. 4. he has attained or obtained. . para 3. var ep-.

Scandinavia. watery meadow. 6. aqueous. a bore (tidal wave) in a river. whence OF-F osier (OF-MF var osiere). ? akin to WATER. of water’. (Cf aquavita and eau-de-vie above. L aquōsus. The IE r was prob *akw-. perh even to Gr hudōr and therefore to E WATER. slightly disguised. a stream. whence EF (EF-F var aqueduc) aqueduct. aquarium. sea. from OE ēa (cf OFris ē or ā). river.) 7. Aquatint—cf F aqua-tinta—comes from It acqua (L aqua) tinta (f of tinto.A-Z 129 aqua (pura). in aquaplane. a spear. adj aquarian. sea water. aquarium has adj aquarian (suffix -an). ewe. eve. hence its Chem use. from L aqua marina. app from ēa+gār. 4. A fully formed C word akin to. ML Scandinavia. cf the elements aqui-. and OHG ouwa. water of life. eagre. I tentatively propose ‘(land of) climbing waters’ (waterfalls and fiords)—L scandere. god of the sea. perh to Skt . prob via MF-F aquatique. whence E osier. and OF *ausier. ea. L aqua. influenced by uisgebeatha. of water. aquaeductus. L derivatives relevant to E include: aquārium. aqueduct. adopted by E. pure or fresh water. and eagre. eive. royal water. sea. L aqua became F eau (as in eau-de-vie. prob deriving from the C r au-. a duct. and aqua regia. water of life. usce. in Scandinauia. river. water. Nevertheless. a region of S Sweden: cf ISLAND. ON . *aqueus. is akin to Go ahwa. hence brandy: L aqua vitae. 5. also in aqua pura. aquiline . the E aquatic. The var eve had derivative eviere. however. to climb. 3. hence a dullish green-blue. hence whisky. is the Ga and Ir uisge. 8. There are also two noteworthy ‘Anglo-Saxon’ relatives: the dial ea. of or for water. water: hence the E whisk(ey). usquebaugh—whisk(e)y. willow. whence aqueous. 2. aquatint. the AIr usquebaugh. The Gmc form (para 1) appears. au-. OS and OHG aha. L aqua occurs undisguised in aquamarine. OIr uisce. 1. water. osier-bed. lit ‘a leading. aqua-. ewer. hence brandy. whence. aquamarine. eagre being lit ‘a spear(-thrust) of water’—cf. whence E ewer (cf suffix -er). Akin to L aqua is the C r av-. in aquavitae. aquarelle. water of life. whence the rare aquose. adopted by E. as above)—OF eaue. aquāticus. where the first element is a Gmc form of ON Skāney. orig the neu of the adj aquārius. a plant that grows near water. a wide-mouthed pitcher. dyed). water or watercourse whence *ausarios. osier. whence AF ewer. aquatic. ON . whence ML ausāria. eau (de Nil).

itself perh ‘Men of the Master Race’ (cf Ass arbob. from L Arabus. 4. with -ian for -ic. via EF-F Arabe. adj. street arab. to plough. represents Sp Mózarabe. The Ar ‘Arab. arachnid . Arabis. MF arable (EF-F arabique). Arabia (Araby). yields E Arabic. then Arabus. Arabist. F arabiste became E Arabist. -ic) L Aramaeus: Gr Aramaios: Aram. whence. Mozarabic. hence n. 3. Arabic. 1. ‘signifying perhaps Highland. E Arab comes. a would-be Arab. from) L arābilis. whence the F Arabie (whence poetic E Araby). hence n). arable : (perh via MF-F. Mozarab. . Aramaean and Aramaic anglicize (adj suffixes -an. became EF-F arabesque. Arabian.— the Ar ‘Arab may signify ‘nomad(s)’. Arabian. L Arabs. an Arab. an outcast. whence Mozarabic. a man of high position). whence L. Mozarab (or Mazarab). from Arabo (L Arabus). L Arabicus. The Gr adj Arabikos (from Araps). arabesque. and street arab. Arabia (unless L Arabia represents Gr Arabia). Arabian—because it grows in dry places. H Arām. 5. Arab. pern akin to H ‘arābāh. adopted by E: Arabic art delighted in intricate patterns and floral designs. The rock cress arabis prob means ‘Arabian (plant)’—from the Gr adj Arabis. adj hence n. whence Gr Araps. See EAGLE. esp boy. 2. The It arabesco (adj. arachnoid. hence E. from Ar musta‘rib. arises from the numerous Arab vendors in E Medit ports. from arāre (s ar-).Origins 130 . a name given to Syria and upper Mesopotamia’ (Webster). See the element arachno-. steppe. ‘Arab nevertheless prob derives from the Ass pl Arabu (or Aribi).

n. hence master (cf arbiter elegantiarum. likewise built upon arbitrāt-. whence ‘to arbitrate’. bitere (s baet-. pp arbitrātus. bit-). itself o.for ad. From F words not of imm L origin have come: arbitrage (suffix -age). whence. a judge of elegancies. 4. adapted from MF-EF arbitrement: cf the rare ML arbitrāmentum. arbitrator. more logical arbitratable. adj. bet-. judge.o. arboreous. and BALL. arboretum. from arbitrate. prob via MF. cf ARBOR DAY.o: cf the Umbrian arputrati. arbitrate. arbiter . the E arbitration. arbitrament (cf -ment). to make a decision. Thoroughly E are: arbitrable. arboricole (element -cole). arboriculture (cf the . arbitrational. arbitrator. cf MF-F arbitraire. 2. from F arbitre: cf the rare ML arbitrāgium. arboreal. hence an authority on good taste). LL arbitrātor. arbitrage. para 4. arbitration. arborescent.A-Z 131 arbalest . adj). arbitral. one who goes. arboret. to+the r of baetere. which=arbitrate+suffix -ive. witness. a tree. arborescence. from the clumsier. arbitrament. betere. f arbitrātrix. arbitrāri. The starting-point for the group rests in L arbiter. from E arbitration. the E arbitral (suffix -al). arborous. arbitrative. arbitrary. a decision. o/s arbitrātiōn-. by arbitrage. as if from ML *arbitrātivus. whence the c/f -batēs (s bat-). the s of the pp arbitrātus: both adopted by E. adopted from MF-F. 3. 1. whence. hence: LL arbitrātiō. whence arbitrary (suffix -ary. See ARC. to go—cf Gr bainein. Webster proposes ar. L derivatives of arbiter relevant to E include: LL arbitrālis. arbitrative. LL arbitrārius. arbor (1). perh via MF-F.

and arboraceous. arbalest.e. The effective origin lies in L arcus. adopted by E. something bent or curved (hence the shape). arbustum. 2. arbuscule. var arboral. 3. e. with adj arbuscular (suffix -ar). adopted by E. arboreal (as above). the word is o.a. whence arborous.. inch suffix). HERB. whence E arbuscule. whence arboreous. last para. whence arborization. whence the adj arborescent. planted with trees. has s arb-. a tree. arcade. arborize (L arbor+suffix -ize). and in the tree named arbor vitae (ML vita. arc (n hence v). a little tree. 1. . arbuscula (LL arbusculus). arbor (2) or arbour: ME herber. o/s arborescent-. with -al substituted for -ous. archery. an orchard. and LL arborōsus. cf arboreal. whence arborescence (arborescent+-ce). arcual. with special sense ‘botanical garden consisting of trees and shrubs’. arcuate. 1. grass. L arbos (gen arboris) or arbor (gen arboris). perh cf the syn Ga craobh and MIr cráeb or cróeb. arbutus ..o. archer. as if from L *arboraceus.Origins 132 element arbori-). See 1st ARBOR. a herb-garden: OF-F herbier: L herbārium: herba. akin to sep ARROW. lit ‘the tree of life’. arch. a felicitous A custom and festival. L arbor occurs as E in Arbor Day. arborize. orig the neu of the adj arbustus. arborization. L uita). may represent arb-utus and therefore be akin to arbor. n and v (whence arched). 4.o. L derivatives affecting E include: arboreus. herb+ suffix -ārium: f. adopted by E. arbustum. a copse or thicket. arborētum. to become a tree.g. The few E formations include: arboret. a shrub or small tree (L arbor+dim suffix et). with presp arborescens. arcuation. a tree-plantation. arborescere (arbor+-escere. L arbūtus.

o. OF-F archer. the VL *arca. became OF archier. adopted from L.(pl Arkades). whence OF arcbaleste. an Arcadian. prob. and a rainbow: akin to OE earh (see ARROW) and pern to Gr arkus (s ark-). para 2. through Prov arcada. to use a bow. has pp arcuātus. whence ME and E archer.o. o/s Arkad. para 3. VL *arca may. itself o. a bow. See ARK. whence E arch.t. var of arcuārius. however. itself a trln of Gr Arkadia. that hilly region of Ancient Greece which was famed for bucolic bliss: from Arkas. perh via late OE. OF archer had derivative archerie. whence E arcuation. less from the L adj Arcadius than from E Arcadia. represents L arcus+-suffix -al. Arcady. Arcady represents F Arcadie. whence E archery. the agent arbalester comes. whence ‘to arch’. a snare. Arcadian derives. whence. bow-shaped: on its s arcuāt.arose arcuātiō. from arco. a bowman. . of an arc. pl of arcanum. eased to arbaleste. whence arbalest. became OF-F arche. Arcadia . the ME arbelaste. Arcus became OF-F arc. a net. from L arcus.A-Z 133 hence a bow for shooting. lit ‘the space of a bow shot’. adopted by E. Arcadian. 5. whence E arcuate. whence E arcade. Certain L derivatives of arcus concern E: arcuāre. o/s arcuātiōn-. LL arcārius. F arcade merely adapts It arcata. via OF-EF arbalestier. LL arcaballista or arcu-. See prec. arcane. from arcare. a military machine for throwing arrows (cf BALL). from L arcuballistārius. arcade . to bow (v. the operator.). arcana . arcanal. 2. OF arche had the derivative v archier. have yielded EF-F arcade. 3. Its presumed derivative. Arcual. 4.

archangel . LL archaeologia (whence EF-F archéologie and AE archeology. E archaeology). Cf the element arch-. . adj: from such cpds as archknave and -rogue. a beginning. from Gr arkhaismos. from Gr arkhaizein. arch . See ANGEL. archaeology (arche-). n and v. archaist. archaeologist. archaist. knowledge (cf the element -logia) of the arkhaios or ancient. its adj ar. The 3rd=archaeology+suffix -ist. para 2. archaism. the 2nd comes from Gr arkhaiologikos. from archaic +-ist. ancient (cf prec). a phon and sem extn of arkhaios. from arkhē. See ARC. Cf the element archaeo. archaize: resp. via LL archaicus from Gr arkhaikos. archaeologic(al). chaistic(-ic). oldfashioned. archaism (cf the late EF-F archaīsme) via LL archaismos. archaize. the adj of arkhaiologia.and: archaic .Origins 134 arch . from arkhaios. para 2.

archetype . para 4. See DUKE. archipelago . lit ‘the chief overseer’. para 4. See ARC. -duke. also cf: archdeacon : OE arcedīacon: LL archidiaconus: Gr arkhidiakonos. itself from LL archiepiscopus. archduchess . from OE arcebiscop or -bisceop (whence archbishop). Cf the element arch. whence (-al. archer . archery.A-Z 135 archbishop .and BISHOP. archbishopric: the latter derives from OE arcebiscoprīce (cf suffix -ric). adj) archetypal. See the element -type. Cf prec—the element arch-—and deacon. Gr arkhiepiskopos.

the first place. The 3rd represents ML archīvista. L ursus. from arkhē. para 4. See TAVERN. from Gr Arktouros. guard). flat. archives (collective n). government house. from pelagus. Arctic comes from MF-F arctique. of the sea. from ML archīvum. architect . architectonic. LL archīuum. via ML archīva. surface of the sea. sea. adj of arktos. whence archival (-al). to be flat. from Gr arktikos. a store. var of archīum. L pelagius. cf Skt . the Bear Guard (ouros. a plain: IE r. archives. archive . the government. architrave . pi of archīvum. See TECHNIC. from Gr (ta) arkheia. a bear. The n Antarctic derives from the adj antarctic. *pela-. E pelagian. a transliteration of Gr arkheion. adj hence n Arctic. to stretch. lit ‘chief sea’: element arcih-+L pelagus from Gr pelagos. a record-office. whence pelagios. With Gr pelagos (s and r pelag-).a storing. Antarctic. akin to Skt . from L antarcticus. a beginning. arctic .Origins 136 . from L arcticus. The Bear: cf L Arcturus. archivist. architecture (whence architectural). Arcturus. whence the adj archipelagic (ic): It arcipelago. cf Gr plax. whence architectonics. the syn pelagic represents L pelagicus. E archive prob comes from ML archīvum. . from MF-F antarctique.) Gr arktos signified also the northern constellation so called: Ursa. prob from late MF-F (les) archives. para 5. (Hofmann. OIr art: perh ‘the storer’ (of honey).

opposite+ arktikos: opposite the north pole or the arctic circle. the following L words affect E: aridus (occ ardus). arid. The base. I dry—OHG asca. q. ashes—Gr azein (s az-). aridity. ardennite. yielding aridity. whence. r ar-). and perh Hit Agniš. whence the n arson. Deriving from arēre. o/s ardent-. AE ardor. orig ‘(extreme) dryness’. See ARC. Ardēre became OF ardre. perh ASHES. arcual . to be on fire. dry—Arm azazem. whence arsonist (-ist).A-Z 137 from Gr antarktikos: anti. is L arēre (s ar-). whence ardency (ardent+suffix -cy). akin to Skt . (E & M. hence ‘a burning heat’. E ardour. ardent . arcuate. ashes. an extn of Hit ā-. via OF ardant and ME ardaunt. to be hot: cf Hit a-a-ri. to be hot. Go azgō.v. arcuation. Ardennes . the FireGod. o/s ariditāt. whence arid. the derivative ariditās. phonetic and semantic alike. the E ardent. arduous .) The IE r is perh *ā-. to be dry. ardor. pp ars. whence E ardour. to be dry. to dry—Tokh A . with presp ardens. 2. arson. dried up. whence ME ardure or ardeur. adopted by E: cf the suffix on. 3. leads to OF ardor or ardour. parched. ardēre (s ard-. ardor (akin to and prob deriving from ardēre). See ARDUOUS. resp paras 5 and 4.

we. hence difficult and strenuous. the L adj āreālis becomes E areal. yield arenaceous (suffix -aceous) and arenose (-ose).o. *ard. is at least akin to the mountainous Ardennes (pi). Arduous comes from L arduus. upright. are . ? *khar-. a piece—usu broad—of level ground.. and perh to Skt ūrdhvás. may be relevant. areola. n. v: Northumbrian OE aron. Gaul Arduenna. IE r. arena . they are: akin to ON eru. See AREA. esp if ‘threshing floor’ be the orig sense of L ārea. are. v. they are: cf ART. sand. arenose (whence arenosity). a point: IE r. and AM. a courtyard.o. the dim āreola has likewise been adopted by E. o. you. a threshing floor. area . found also in Sabine: app o.Origins 138 . The derivative adjj arēnāceus. akin to OIr ard. perh cf Hit . later a bull-ring. With area. n. name of a mountain. usu enclosed. high. space.o. is a var of early harēna. sand. hence a sandy. are . The F are (100 square metres) derives from L ārea. arēnōsus. high. arenaceous. Ardennes. and to Gr ardis.. arena consists of sand or a sanded surface: L arēna. A gladiatorial ring. itself with var hasena. steep. although Hit (dat karaitti). .o.a granary. whence the min ardennite.

becomes OF argent. from argos. argumental. silver. argos has another derivative. whence E argil. white. whence arguable and arguer. argufy and argy-bargy. silver. hence silver. s. inactive: a-. L argentum is akin to Gr arguros. argosy : EE ragusye: app from It (nave) ragusea. See NAUTIC.f. argue . n hence adj. argil. whence OF-F argile. adopted by E. Argonaut . Now. argilla. Argentina is app elliptical for Sp (tierra) argentina. (white or potter’s) clay. orig ‘ship of Ragusa’—sailing from that port. and OIr argat. argumentation. adopted by L. white—cf Skt rajatá-. river of silver) and lakes. neu of argos. argumentative. cf ARGUE. argenteous. from the country’s wonderful rivers (esp Rio de la Plata. from argent. its derivative adj argenteus yields argenteous. silvery land. argentine (ad hence n)—Argentina. argēs. argentine (adj -ine). however. argute. work (cf ERG). not+ ergon. argon : Gr argon. para 3. argument. silver.A-Z 139 argent . The L argentum. . represents OF-F argentin.

para 2. a rhyming redup of argue. akin to L argentum. aria . argumentation. arise . Certain L derivatives affect E: argumentum. whence. Argue. silver: see ARGENT. argūtus. its derivative LL adj argumentālis yields argumental. another derivative. argumentāri. from L argutāre (or -āri). pp of arguere. pp arisen. becomes OF-F argument. hence shrewd. to demonstrate or argue. o/s argumentātiōn-. ME arguen. hence adj ‘clear. adopted by E. arid . See AIR. subtle’. argument. comes from OF-F arguer. pt arose. prob via MF-F.Origins 140 1. yields argumentative. aright . LL argumentātiuus. para 2. See RAISE. aristocracy . para 3. proof. See REX. yields argute. either argue+element -fy or argument+-fy. freq of arguere. has derivative argumentātiō. to clarify. E formations include the coll and dial argufy. 2. aridity. See ARDENT. and the mostly dial argy-bargy. ML -ivus.

o/s coercion-. proportion+ arithmos: cf LGr logariasmos. exercitant. o/s exercitātiōn-. arithmetic . basket. the n exercitant. pursue. exercitation. whence OE arc (or earc). hence to practise. IE r. whence. prob via OF-EF. hence to refrain. exercēre (ex. o/s exercitant-. coffer. together). whence ark. ME and E exercise. coercion. box. (a) number: akin to OHG and OIr rīm. and perh to Arm argelum (s argel-. and with derivative n exercitātiō. 1. ? ‘he who fulfils the best’. arcānus (from arca). to keep or ward off: prob akin to Gr arkein (s ark-). derives from SciL logarithmus: Gr logos. and Aristotle. Relevant L prefix cpds of arcēre: coercēre (co-. Cf Aristophanes. closed. esp in numbers. Relevant L derivatives of arcēre are arca. whence. number. coerce. a calculation. aristocrat. to contain or maintain. coercive. All these terms ramify from L arcēre (s arc-). to drive out. aristokratēs.A-Z 141 . whence arcane. hence secret. whence arithmetical and arithmetician: L arithmētica. from arithmein. Logarithm. from arithmos. con-. neu arcānum. whence the n exercitium. to keep off. all via L and then MF-F: cf the elements aristo. via F. 3. to contain. to exercise. whence ‘to coerce’. gives us coercion. Gr arithmētikē (tekhnē). hence to keep (someone) moving. aristokratikos. 2. exercise. ark : arcane. n and v. r ? arg-). ? ‘he who shows (things) best’. exercitation. arcanum. numerical. with presp exercitans. to number. boxed.and -crat. arm . I prevent. account.or *ri-. 2. from arithmētikos. aristocratic: resp Gr aristokratia. to practise or exercise diligently. its derivative coerciō (for coercitiō). whence ‘to exercise’. become n and adopted by E. occurs mostly in pl arcāna.. but coercive=coerce+-ive. hence to maintain at a distance. exercise. *ari. MF-F exercice. exercitāre (freq of exercēre). to arrange. out of). whence logarithmic.

16. 2.Origins (1). erm—OHG aram—Go arms—ON armr. earm: akin to OFris arm. armlet. with -m. weapon. something right or fitting: IE r. perh also to Hit āra. Armageddon : LL Armagedon: L Gr Armagedōn. var *er-. upper limb: OE arm.. xvi. to OP irmo. Armenian. to L armus (s arm-). The derivatives are obvious—e. the H har. .as a formative. See ARMS. prob *ar-. Armenia . mountain of Megiddo. See Revelations. shoulder. armadillo. (lit) little arm. 142 arm (2). armada . See ARMS. arm—and to Skt īrmas. Harmagedōn. Perh akin to ARMS. arm (3 and 4). 19. v. and Judges. armpit (arm+pit. arm.g. a hollow). See ERMINE. v—answering to prec and to arms.

app derives from E armo(u)r. aromatic. F in origin are: army. whence. from MF-F armure. c/f of arma+ -stitium. armour. it yields also OF armeüre. whence arms. there has been confusion with EF-F armoiries. from pugnāre. itself from L armāre. prob elliptical for classis armāta. MF-F armure.A-Z 143 armor . See para 2 of: arms . 4. from L armāre (para 2 above). from OF armes (cf para 1). the s is a b/f. where armāta is the fs of armātus. adopted from late EF-F which. from ME armurer. whence E armour. . from armer. Armoury. 2. armed. armātūra (likewise from armāre). derive from armāre (next para). whence ME desarmen. from MF-F armée. AE armor. aroma . from MF-F armurier. a fight. adopted from Sp from L armāta. The base rests on L arma. coined it from L armi-. pp of armāre. whence. n c/f of stāre. itself from armus. pp of armar. (from armāre comes) armāmentum. to fight. from OF-MF armoier. neu pl used as a collective. whence ME armure. Árma may well. whence OF-F armes. Sp intervention occurs in: armada. hence ME armes. armo(u)rer. 3. whence ‘to disarm’. army. to equip with arms. whence the MF-F and E armature. to paint (coats of) arms. the E armament. Arma has the foll cognates and derivatives relevant to E: armāre. a plated mammal: adopted from Sp—dim of armado. like MF-F armement. the arm (see the 2nd ARM): he compares pugna. as Bréal suggested. AE armory. fist. coats of arms. to stand: a standing (still) of arms. armadillo. OF-F armer has derivative OF-MF desarmer (EF-F dés-). itself from pugnus. MF armoieries. after F solstice. Either adopted from EF-F or formed anl from armory comes armorial. via OF-F armer. the E ‘to arm’. 5. to arm. an armed fleet. armistice.

as Hofman proposes. See RAISE. from Gr arōmatikos. para 8. para 5. . arrangement. para 22. See RANGE. para 2. itself o. arouse . to plough (L arāre). See the 7th RACK.Origins 144 The latter descends.o. arraignment. around . arrange .. adopted by LL. See REASON. via LL arōmaticus and F aromatique. See ROLL. but perh. arraign .o. Gr arōma. arrack . yields E aroma and F arome. adj of arōma. presumably from the smell of good earth upturned. from Gr arōmenai.

meaning both an arraying and raiment. first made in NE France. para 1. garments. 1. whence arrayal (n suffix -al) and arrayment (-ment)—cf RAIMENT. special sense of correer.). influential in the forming of E ‘to disarray’.v. whence app the n disarray—cf F désarroi. he arranges). order. raiment. arrangement. to arrange (areie. OF areer has derivative MF v desarreier. dress. via ME araien. v. whence. set in order. at ERR. v. together (often merely int)+ OF rei (var roi). n and v. 3. or L con-. READY. See the first REAR. arrears. comes from OF arrei or ar(r)oi. arranged: f. arrangement. s.f. whence the E arrayment. q. with. to arrange or prepare: cor-. to+a s of Gmc origin. ME arrai or arai. arrear . indeed. With ‘to array’ cf ‘to curry’ to dress—esp to comb—a horse’s coat: ME curreien: OF correer (var conreer). to curry (a horse). an early var of arrayment. CURRY. OF areer has derivative n areement or araiement. The n array.A-Z 145 arrant : var of errant. arras : for and from Arras tapestry. 2. 4. cf Go garaiths. . to arrange—ad. of Gmc origin (see para 1. itself from areer.e. array . n. DISARRAY. land occupied formerly by the L Atrebates (L Gr Atrebatoi or -tioi).a. is aphetic for arraiment. the E ‘to array’: and OF areer comes from VL *arrēdāre..

whence the pa arresting. Arrest. arrogate. arrogation. influenced by L restare and the many nn in -ation.. itself from the v arester (VL *arrestāre: ad. arrestment. arrival. arriviste. arrestation. OF arester has derivatives MF arestaison. to+restāre. to stop or remain: f. remainder)—whence. See ROGATION. the E ‘to arrest’. may have form-suggested E arrestive. passes through ME arest from OF arest (F arrêt).a. the MF arestif. arrogant. para 11.Origins 146 arrect . para 4. arrogative. REST. See PEND. the EF-F. para 3. n. arrive . arrogance . arrestive.e. via ME aresten. arrivé. . arrest . whence E arrestment. v. para 26. See RIVER. and MF-EF arestement. See REX. fixative. arrière-pensée . whence. hence the E. tardy. arrestation. n.

ON ars—and to Hit arraš. yellow . a canal). Gr orrhos. and Go arhwazna (Gmc s *arhwo-): also to L arcus (a bow). brook.A-Z 147 arrow . lit ‘(court or house) of manufacture’. n—hence v. var of arsena: It arsenale. the behind. Gr arrhenikon. arsenic : MF-F arsenic: L arsenicum. arzenale. IE r. gallery of a mine. Of the cpd arrowroot. *ors-. q. arroyo . watercourse. OHG ars (Mod Arsch). arsenal : perh via ML arsenal (cf EF-F arsenal. a (dry) gully formed by water: adopted from Sp. akin to the syn OFris ers. which has thus reshaped ML arrogium (akin to L arrugia. Webster remarks that ‘the Indians are said to have used the roots to neutralize the venom of poisoned arrows’. maritime arsenal. arse : OE ears or aers. itself from L riuus (ML rivus). MF archenal). akin to ON ör. a watercourse. at ARC.v. *ars-. varr *ers-. and adj arrowy: ME arewe: OE arwe or earh. arrhenioum: L Gr arsenikon. gen örvar. dockyard (as orig in E): Old Venetian arzaná: prob via MGr arsēnalēs: Ar (dār) al šinā’ah.

artificer. Adj arsenious. artificial. The purely E derivatives include artful. inertial. whence E artificial (cf the MF-F artificiel). and artus. a joint. from MF-F artiste (adopted by E for an artist of theatre. which coins the adj inertial (-al). Cf sep ARM and ARTICLE. It intervention accounts for E artisan. artful. See ARDENT. artifex. artistry. from arte. v (ME eart. hence talent. F artisan comes from It artigiano.v. 2. from F art. artist. acc artem. art (2). whence. artificiality. artificial. via OF-F. with own derivative artificer. para 3. indeed. a way of being or of acting. Predominantly F in formation is artist. 3. merely technical. artisan. 5. with derivative inertia. inertia. cf theelement arti-. has r ar-. artistic. lazy. o/s art-. the IE r itself is *ar-or *er-. arty: cf the adj suffixes -ful. n. F artiste has adj artistique. artifice. Av orpiment. art-less. L prefers the former. the E art: and ars. artiste. itself from L ars. gold. adopted by E. 1. itself—via Sem channels (esp Syriac zarnīg)—from OPer: cf Skt zaranya. the poetic art. has o/s inert-. y. derivative arsine (chem suffix -ine) arson . an adoption from EF-F. hence inactive. The main L derivatives relevant to E are: iners. artificium has adj artificiālis. hence a skill. 4. hence a limb (cf ARTICLE).—inert. arty. with own derivative artificiality. artificer. unskilful (in-. whence MF-F artifice. artist. -less. inert. L ars. . art): an inflexion of AM. ballet. art (1). artless. but artistry represents E artist+suffix -ry. not+ars).Origins 148 . as in armus (cf ARM). as in ars poetica. q. whence E inert. technical. has o/s art-. derives from artem facere and generates artificium. whence E artistic. music-hall). adopted by E.

wind-pipe. arthritic . F district where this type of well was first made. F Artois. (Cf ‘ Articled Nouns’ in P2. perh derived from. whence E artery. artful . significant var of alcachofa): Ar alkhurshūf. artery (from Gr artēria). Cf the element arterio-. adj from L Artesium. See ART. artichoke : northern dial It articiocco (cf Sp alcarchofa. artaō. artesian : F artésien.) . from L artēria.A-Z 149 artery . from MF-F artère. I suspend. para 2. arthritis. artēria is app akin to. arterial. The adj represents the MF artérial (soon artériel). See the element arthro-. where al is the Ar ‘the’.

articulatory. cf ART. to utter distinctly. skill—from atillier. the pp articulātus (s articulāt-) yields both the adj articulate. app of Gmc origin—cf OHG ziari (G Zier) and OE tir (E tire. to divide into joints or precise parts. . a division. and the v ‘to articulate’. articular. artillery . adopted by E. o/s articulātiōn-. o/s articulant-.are articulātiō.. an article (via MF-F article). has dim articulus. whence late MF-F articulation. from OF-MF artiller. an articulation or joint. para 3. articulant. L derivatives affecting E include articulāre. cf ATTIRE). yields the E n articulant. a joint (cf the element arthro-). articulative. para 2. artificiality. n hence v. deriving—? influenced by OF art. to equip. and the E formations articulative and articulatory.g. to arrange. whence artillerist (suffix -ist): ME artilrie: MF-F artillerie. artifact . hence a precise moment (e. the presp articulans. See ART. articulation. articulate (adj and v)—articulacy. See FACT. artificial. ornament. whence articulacy (articulate+-cy: cf accuracy from accurate). adopted by E. L artus. artifice . to equip.Origins 150 article . derivative from articulat. in articulo mortis. in the article of death) or a precise part. ML articularis (from articulus) accounts for articular—cf the EF-F articulaire. and ML articulātor.

g. as. an Aryan: akin to the syn Av airya and OPer ariya (whence Per Irān. from OHG alsō’. earliest al swa: OE alswā. also. earlier als. and also to PN element ario. (hence) quite so. ealswā. para 4. eal swā. earliest alsō. arty. . all so. a noble. arum (lily): perh via EF-F: from L arum: Gr arōn. artless . and to OFris al-sa and its contrr asa. noble. see ALL. para 5. Iran). earlier alse. than.A-Z 151 artisan . all thus. alse. adv (whence conj and pro): ME as. in Ariovistus. ase. from MHG als. artist . quite as: akin. artistry. para 2. para 2. See ART. as. For E also.. both to G als. Aryan : Skt ārya. artistic. esp as. usu ‘as if’. See ART. See ART.in C and Gmc—e.

not+ pp of sbennunai. to climb. ascensive. ascendency (-ancy). a stumbling block. L scandere. whence scansiō. LL scandalum yields not only the var OF escandele. he leapt. and EF adj esclandrux. 2. and skándati. but no certain. descension. ascension (whence ascensional). whence ‘to slander’. from scandale. n+ suffix -ous). a ladder. scandalize. inextinguishable: a-. 5. scansion. hence to scan (verse). 3. . OF esclandre has derivatives MF-EF esclandrer. condescensive. Skandalon has derivative skandalizein. v). ascendent (-ant). slanderer. o/s scansiōn-. ‘To scale’ or climb derives from the n. whence scandal.Origins 152 asbestos . descendence (-ance). to rise or climb. MF escandle. whence E slander.— Intimately akin: scandal. a mounting by ladders. descendent (-ant). ‘in reference to the movements of the foot raised and lowered to mark the metre’ (E & M). from *scandslā: scāla. whence scalata. And L scāla becomes It scala. L scandere is hardly less influential in its prefix cpds ascendere—dēscendere.—scan. and such C forms as MIr scendim. whence late MF-F escalade. also scale. with many prob. condesceudence.—descend. whence transcendentalism. 1. OIr sescaind. descent: condescend. condescension. IE cognates. whence. hence the sense ‘to examine’—look at carefully—hence (orig as a careless misuse) to look at hastily. slanderous. he leaps. Cf also Gr skandalon.—transcend. transcension. whence adj asbestine (suffix -ine): L asbestos (n): Gr asbestos. adopted by E. and W cy-chwynnu. whence any escalator. he leapt. to extinguish. whence the agential trade-name Escalator. whence a slanderer. a ladder. Scandere consists of r scan-+formative -d-+inf suffix -ere: cf the Skt skan. leading to OF-F scandaliser and E scandalize. r scan-) has an important derivative not imm obvious: scāla. transcendental. ascent. whence LL scandalizāre. whence E scansion (of verse). pern concerned in the formation of E slanderous (more prob merely slander. with deviation of sense. but also that additional var. the MF-F esclandre. transcendence or -ency. ME sclaundre. OF-F scandale and ME scandle—both operative in E scandal. yields ‘to scan’ (verse). is that by which one scandit or climbs. cf descensive. whence the v scalare. f scandaleuse. The pp scansus has s scans-. whence LL scandalum. but scandalous comes from MF-F scandaleux. L scandere (s scand-. whence ‘to escalade’ (cf EF-F escalader. I leap. descensional. f esclandreuse. transcendent (adj hence n). ascend . 4. scandalous and the parallel slander (n.

but the now mostly legal condescendence shows the influence of EF-F condescendance. from askein (s ask-). whence. and escendere has lacked issue. which represents as—for ad. ascension and. has derivative ascensiō. ascertain . comes from L dēscendere (dē. 7. via MF-EF. or ency. The rare transcension comes from LL transcensiō. from vendre. from askēsis. o/s dēscendent-yields adj descendent and. -ancy. o/s transcensiōn-. whence the nn ascendence. The L presp dēscendens. o/s ascensiōn-. o/s transcendent-. yields condescension. adj. The n transcendent gained. whence ascender. Ascent imitates descent. to sell. descension and the E formation descensive. via MF-F. accounts for condescensive. o/s condēscension-. ascetic (adj hence n). The pp ascensus. esp in Phil. -ance. n. para 5. whence the nn descendence. condēscensivus. See CERTAIN. exercise. via OF. its own adj transcendental.o. became transcendent. to practise gymnastics: o. s ascens-. L transcendere.A-Z 153 whence condēscendere—transcendere. -ance. occ elaborated to transcendency. ascribe . whence asceticism (suffix -ism): Gr askētikos. long obs’ E conscend. and the ML derivative transcendentia became transcendence. after such formations as vente. via MF-F n descendant. Ascendere.) 6. ascensive (-ive). the L presp transcendent. self-denying in the cause of gymnastics. Descent was adopted from MF descent (soon descente). o/s dēscensiōn-. became ‘to transcend’. became E ascend. o/s ascendent-. (Conscendere and inscendere became learnèd. 9. Descendre. whence.o. sale. the derivative condēscensiō. to raise oneself beyond. prob via OF. practice. whence. ascendant. which yields ‘to descend’ (whence descender). ‘to condescend’. and. 8. Ascendere has presp ascendens. which became E ascendent. c/f of scandere. inscend. Dēscendere has subsidiary LL condēscendere. from OF-F descendre. as an E formation. On the L pp s dēscens—arises dēscensiō. down from+ -scendere). to+ -scendere. A ML derivative. whence trasncendentalism.

IE r: *ask. . Adj ashen. ash (2). and perh to Eg āsh. 154 aseptic . See ASHES.or *osk-. cedar. para 2. See SCRIBE. ash.Origins . ashamed . OB jasene. akin to OHG asc. ashen . to Gr oxua. oxuē. See SEPTIC. to Lith uosis. esche (G Aschbaum.or *esk. ash (1). ash. beech. Esche) and ON askr. to OIr uinnius. See SHAME. C14 on wards=ash+adj suffix -en. ascription. MHG asch. to L ornus (for *osinus). also to Arm haçi. ash. tree: ME asch. See ASH (2) and next. esch: OE aesc. mountain ash.

perhaps our Asia’ (Erle Wilson. but perh from Ass Asu. the name of a great nomadic people inhabiting central Asia. r As-. and Asiatikos. ashore . and Asioi. The IE r is perh *as. See SHORE. the East—as opp to Ereb. whence Asian. Asiatic. aesce. s Asi-. o. represents Gr Asioi+-ia. Ionic Asiē. (F asiatique and) E Asiatic. adj hence n. occ axe. Asia .. ashes. Eurasia. Tarn. at pp 284–5. L Asiaticus. whence L Asianus. ON aska. The Greeks in Bactria and India.W.o. See SIDE. But more prob the Gr Asia. private letter of 14 Dec. note also that ‘the Polynesians hailed from a legendary Atia. 1938. 1952). akin to OHG asca (MHG asche).o.A-Z 155 ashes : ME asche: OE asce. the West (Europe). a late formation: ash+-en. the s is a b/f. asinine . region. Asian.) Gr Asia has derivatives Asianos. prob also to Skt . Eurasia blends Europe and Asia: and Asia= L from Gr Asia. (Cf W. whence Asianic. Adj ashen.or *az-. Asianic. Go azgō. app derives from Ch Yueh-chi. aside .

from L campsāre. See SLANT. to turn aside. to OSl iskati (s isk-). OS ěscōn.f. crooked. to seek (cf Lith ieškoti). See LASCAR. akin to Gr kampsos. askance . obliquely. he seeks: IE r. . *isk-. on the slant: see SKEW.o. IE r.o: perh from It a scancio. whence vn asking: ME ask en. on+skew. axien: OE āscian. earlier a schiancio. s. ācsian. OHG eiscōn. var *eisk-. 156 ask . *kamp-. cf It cansare. Askari .Origins . askew : a-. *esk-. akin to OFris āskia. ON oeskia. aslant . obliquely: o. See ASS. to Skt iččháti.

asparagus : adopted from L. Eg . . from Gr asparagos or aspharagos. itself adopted from Gr: Gr as pis is o. and. adopted from MF-F.o.o. (Boisacq). asp (2). aslope . See SLEEVE. which has allowed F piquer. orig a shoot or sprout. app short for aspic. akin to Av sparegha. but cf both H a basilisk. to swell. See SLEEP. asp (1). up+spargān. an asp. to sting. a sprout: asparagos could represent a-for ana.A-Z 157 asleep . aspic. much more prob. a small poisonous snake: asp. para 5. See ASPEN. to influence L aspis.

produces exasperation. and asperitās. aspersorium. o/s asperitāt-. asperity . asperge . Lett apsa. pp asperātus. aspersion.). aspergillum. IE r: *aps-. . The cpd exasperāre has pp exasperātus. para 6. aspersive. MHG aspe. See SPARSE. OSl osina (for *opsina). para 3. ON ösp.o.Origins 158 aspect . See SPECTACLE. para 3. L asper (s asp-: o. See SPARSE.o. whence ‘to exasperate’ and the obsol adj exasperate. to roughen. has derivatives asperāre. aspen =aspen (tree). whence both adj and v asperate. adj of obsol asp (this tree): OE aesp. the derivative exasperātiō. adj and v. whence asperity. asperate. akin to OHG aspa. rough. asperse . G Espe. o/s exasperātiōn-. var aeps.

anl. perh akin to asphalēs. aspic (2).A-Z 159 asphalt : (perh via OF-F asphalte. aspidistra . asphyxiate and asphyxiation. Gr asphuxia. ‘by a comparison of the jelly’s various colours with those of the serpent’ (B & W). s sphall-. where it represents a fig use of the prec. meat jelly: adopted from F. to cause to fall). a ceasing (a-. s sphuz-). r sphal-. whence (suffix -al) the adj asphyxial and. serpent. See 2nd ASP. not+derivative from sphallein. not) to throb (sphuzein. from) LL asphaltus: Gr asphaltos. secure (a-. asphodel . aspic (1). asphyxia . See DAFFODIL.

adj asinīnus. With asinus cf Gr onos and esp Sumerian ansŭ. ass . an artist’s easel. whence E asinine. became the G Esel and esp the MD esel. See SPIRIT. The IE r is app *-ons-. aspire. asinine: ME asse: OE assa: OIr assan: L asinus. . asquint . or. aspid-. 2. more precisely. Perh rather from. on a Jewish priest’s vestments. the pl. an ornament that. because a ‘beast of burden’. aspirator. *aspidastra becoming aspidistra. See the 3rd PORT. para 7. assail . assailant. or at the least prompted by. shield+astron. was shaped like the boss of a shield (Souter). -ella).Origins 160 : SciL. ansĕ. See SALLY. var *ans-. usu explained as from Gr aspis. aspiration. D ezel. See SQUINT. para 9. f asella (for *asinellus. aspirate. para 3. aspiratory. (little) donkey. with metathesis in L asinus. star. the o/s+ astra. The dim asellus. LL aspidisca. hence. asportation . aspirant .

assassinate. See SALLY. assemblage. assertive. by b/f. the It sing assassino. assassination. whence E. para 10. assentation. assertion. See ESSAY. assembly. The Mohammedan order of Assassins. assent (n and v). assemble . n and v. drinkers of hashīsh. itself from ML assassinātus. para 11. whence. herb). from ML pl assassini. hemp (lit. See SAME. assay . its members got drunk o hashish before they went out to slay Christians. para 14. assentaneous. See SENSE. whence EF-F. flourished during the Crusades. . assassin: and ML assassini represents Ar . assault . See SERIES. assert . para 7.A-Z 161 assassin . Assassination derives from ‘to assassinate’. pp of assassināre. assassins. founded c1090.

See SAME. para 12. para 6. See SEVERE. . assiduity. para 2. assimilation. asseverate . See SIT. asseverative. para 11. assets . assident . etc See SIGN. assimilate . para 10.Origins 162 assess . assessment. assignation. assessor. para 7. See SAD. See SIT. assign . etc. asseveration. assignee. etc. assignment.

See SONABLE. See SERIES. whence the adj associational..a. para 6. assistive. assortment. para 2. assistance. o/s associātiōn-. associate . association. assonant. Associāre has pp associātus.A-Z 163 assist . See SIST. built upon the s associāt. The last is adopted from F. to+socius. adj (hence n) and v. SOCIAL. associative. para 5. . assistant (adj hence n). and the E formation associative (-ive. assize (s). a companion + inf suffix -āre: f. whence. whence both associate. association.are both ML associātiō. from L associāre: ad. assort .e. assonate. assonance . associable. and ‘to associate’. See SIT. para 12. perh via MF-F. adj. adj). from MF-F associer.

. asterisk. para 10. assumpsit. assuagement. aster . asteroid.Origins 164 assuage . See SUMPTION. Assyrian . astronomy. paras 5–7. assumptive. See STAR. astral. para 2. assume . asterism. astrolabe. assumption. See CURE. assurance . assuasive. astatics is the neg (Gr a-. assure. astrology. para 5. not) of STATIC. See SYRIA. See SUAVE. para 2.

para 6. . astonied . Gr adj asthmatikos. para 3. the E asthmatic. See STIR. via L asthmaticus and perh EF-F asthmatique. See the 2nd STEER. See THUNDER. whence. asthma : Gr asthma. See THUNDER. para 7. perh from aenai. astigmatic . to breathe hard. See STICK (heading).A-Z 165 astern . astir . astonishment. astigmatism. hence difficultly. astonish .

astral . para 7. See THUNDER.f. See the 2nd STRAIN. para 7. See STRATUM. s.Origins 166 astony . astrakhan : Astrakhan (S Central Russia). See STAR. where the wool was first obtained. para 5. astriction. See THUNDER. para 6. . astrict . astound . para 8. astray .

whence astuteness (suffix -ness). The derivative L astūtia suggested late MF-F astucieux. craft. astute.e. for . astronomy. See STRIDE.. skill. cunning. SUNDER. whence astucious. para 5. akin to Skt . See STAR. astute . para 7. astucious. astringe . prob resulted in *astucité. astrolabe . whence astucity. lit on (or onto) a position apart: f. f astucieuse. astringent. asunder : OE on sundran. a dwelling: sem. Astute comes from L astūtus. See the 2nd STRAIN.a. astucity. astrology. the EF astuc. . perh (cf var astu) from Gr . wastu. a city. ‘characteristic of “city slickers”’. astringency. itself from astus.A-Z 167 astride .

not (a-) bound together (sundetos). with+derivative from piptein. Go and OS at. from sundein. q. to plunder. cf salein. Gr sundetikos.Origins 168 asylum : L trln of Gr asulon. not falling together: a-. to bind together: sun+dein. a sanctuary.v. asyndeton : L trln of Gr asundeton. c/f of sun. cf syndetic. at : OE aet. not+sulon. inviolable: a-. See SYMMETRY. OHG az. not+sum-. ON at—and L ad. asymptote (Math): Gr assumptōtos. in Prefixes. . orig neu of asundetos. from asulos. akin to OFris et (occ at). asymmetrical . right of seizure. o.o. to bind. to fall: cf SYMPTOM. asymmetry.o.

the land of Athene. -nē. athirst . Athena . the adj being Attikos. Gr Athēnaion became L Athēnaeum. Athens. the 2nd. E Attica. Gr Athēnai (cf Gr Thēbai. philosophy jurisprudence’ at Rome—hence. and its neu Athēnaion was used as n for ‘the temple of Athēne or Athēna'—which shows that Athens means ‘Athena’s city’. Athene. grandfather. connoting a refined elegance and purity of taste and style (as in Attic salt. Attic. App deriving from Athēna.A-Z 169 atavism . L Atticus. E Thebes) became F Athènes became E Athens’. 2. OIr aue. atavist. atheistic. See THIRST. whence E attic. the F attique (Attic). but with pre-dominant meaning ‘a school of rhetoric. athenaeum. the London Athenaeum and the generic athenaeum. s au-: akin to Arm haw. from the 2nd. by -ic. from ML atavus. . and OP awis. the adj Athēnaios became Athenian (-ian substituted for -aios). the region and state. maternal uncle: cf UNCLE. atheism . atavistic: the 3rd. See THEISM. from Attic architecture. Athēna appears to be pre-Hellenic (? Mycenaean):? ‘The Protectress’. from the 1st. by -ism. by -ist. para 2. L Attica. Athenaeum. L atauus. and the 1st. a grandfather. ancestor—a development from L auus (ML avus). atheist. E Attic. a literary association or club. is Attika. Athenian. attic. delicate wit: sal Atticum) whence.

atlas. Atlas. -os. Athletic. whence atmospheric (ic. c/f of Gr atmos. See TOLERATE. Hom aethlon. answers to athlete. from athlein. atmosphere .v. the adj of Atlas. he exhausts himself. to uphold. breath.and word SPHERE. a sphere: see the element atmo. -os. Atlas was that Titan who. q. from athlos. a prize: if aethlon. Atlantis. The 1st is a SciL derivative suggested by Atlantic. whence both athleticism (-ism) and athletics (-ics. See THWART. Gr Atlantikos. adj): atmo-. pl Atlantes and o/s Atlant-. a collection of maps. L athlēta. Atlanta . out from Mt Atlas. . at suffix -ic). Atlas ‘the Upholder’ deriving from Gr tlēnai. it may be akin to Skt (Boisacq). itself perh from athlon. with IE r *aue athwart . represents an earlier *awethlon. Gr athlētikos. Gr athlētes (agential -ēs). much later became Mt Atlas in NW Africa: from pictures of Earth apprehended as a globe upheld by the Titan came atlas. bear. L athlēticus. a contest (physical). Atlantic. forced to uphold the heavens and esp the Earth. to compete for a prize in the public games. . Atlantis lay in the Atlantic. in Gr Myth. athletic. L Atlanticus.Origins 170 athlete . hence vapour+Gr sphaira.

atony. atom . para 29. atrabiliar .f. whence atonement. atomize. atonal .A-Z 171 atoll : atolu in Maldivan. para 29. atone . para 5. atonic . atonality. s. . See ONE. See TOME. See ATROCIOUS. atomic. s. coral islands SW of India) with Dravidian and Ar admixtures. para 11.f. See TEND. See TEND. s. atomy.f. the basically Malayan language (of the Maldives.

var -iaire). atra. See TACH. See TROPHIC.Origins 172 atrium . preserved for E in atrabiliar (cf EF-F atrabilaire. itself an -itās (E -ity) derivative from ātrōx (o/s ātrōc-). hence ‘terrible’. F féroce. f of ater. . para 2. cruel. var of atrabilarious. See the element atrio-. whence atrophic (-ic. black+bilis (see BILE)+adj suffix -ārius (E-arious) atrophy . black. attaboy (whence. hence ‘cruel’. anl. the o/s of ater. attagirl): approbatory or incitant ‘At’s (dial for That’s) the boy! attach . E ferocious. whence both MF-F atroce and E atrocious (cf suffix -ious): cf L ferox. para 2. atrocious . pp). hypochondriacal. adj) and atrophied (-ed. attaché. atrocity. ML atrabilārius. atrox extends atr-. through MF-F atrocité. attachment. Orig ‘black of aspect’. from L ātrōcitas. The latter comes.

para 11. See TACT.A-Z 173 attack . See TACT. attaint (n and v). para 11. attainment . whence attainable and attainment (suffix -ment). attainder . See TACT. attain . See TACH. attar . attaint . attainture. attainder. para 3. See TACT. para 11. para 11.

attendant (adj hence n). esp from rose petals. attempt . attestation. attention. attend . See TEMPT. See TEMPER. attestor. attenuant .Origins . para 25. para 7. attentive. perfume. otto: all from Per . attemperate. Attic . para 7. See TEND. attenuate. para 3. attestative. See TESTAMENT. attemper . attenuation. ottar. attendance. See TEND. itself from Ar 174 . attest .

g. See ATHENA. E ‘to attire’: f. whence prob the OF-EF v atirier. attract . attic. attorney.A-Z . attractive. para 4. See TRACT. The archaic tire. attraction. para 4. apparel. suffix -ment). para 2. attorn . aphetic for atir. attractant. to dress (e. furniture.. equipment. See TACT. and the archaic v tire.e. attitude . adopted from OF-MF atir. attire .. See APT.a. 175 attinge . is aphetic for ‘to attire’. hence ME atiren. the hair). n and v (whence attirement. The tire (needlessly tyre) of a vehicular wheel is ‘so called as being an attire or covering for a wheel’ (Webster). attingent. The n derives from ME atir. para 11. TIER. See TURN. head-dress. derives from ME tir. . para 10.

auction . n hence v (whence auctioneer).. para 3. attune . white: f. aubade . See THROW. ALB. para 8. fair (-haired. -complexioned): MF auborne.a. attributive. See ALB.Origins 176 attribute . See TUNE. attritus. . rather white. See TRIBUTE. from albus. attribution. attrition. See AUGMENT. attrite . para 5. auburn : ME auburne. para 2.e. OF alborne: ML alburnus.

but prob direct from LL . as adoptions of or as derivatives. whence AVID. audible (whence audibility)—inaudible (-ility). All these words come-. whence E audit. LL investigator in a lawsuit. whence E. whence inaudibility. and to Skt āvis. perh adopted from F. adj of obedientia—and Eccl obedientiary. audient. conn ‘Hear. whence (1) the n audītus (gen -us). o/s of audāx. obedient. Derivative exaudīre occurs in E only as Eccl Exaudi. hence L audientia. to desire strongly to—akin to auidus.+ity-. to obey. ML obedientiālis. presp audiens. 1. q. o/s of obediens. f audacieuse. The adj comes from late MF-F audacieux. itself a modification of auēre. the E audition. O hear!’ 5. s audīt-. ML obedientiārius. a hearer. obeisant—obey.—obedience. audit (n hence v)— audition—auditor—auditorium—auditory. akin to the syn Gr aiein (s ai-). disobedience. a hearing. whence F.—Exaudi. disobedient. the neg ML inaudībilis yielding inaudible. whence audibility (suffix -i y). Audacity=audāc-. 4. whence ‘to audit’—(2) LL audītiō. L obedient-. inobedient. L audrei being clearly an extension. obedientiary—obeisance. o/s audītiōn-. anl with tactile. to hear. pp audītus. OSI avé. presp of obedīre— for obedience. 3. audience. whether direct or through F. The IE r is *au-. whence AF auditour (MF-F auditeur). from MF-F audace (audacity). the neu audītōrium becoming n and yielding both auditorium and (n) auditory. whence audible. But the irreg formed oboedīre—ob (see prefix ob-)+audīre—later obedīre. whence. Audīre has the foll simple derivatives relevant to E: L audībilis. audile. evidently. adopted from OF-MF (EF-F obé-). 2. to desire to. whence auditory. audience. prob via MF-F. from audāx. OF-MF obedient. Audile=aud-+adj suffix -ile.A-Z 177 audacious . Cf inobedience. obediential. presumably for *awein (s aw-). audacity. from L ob(o)edientia. hence to dare to. accounts for obedient.v. as if from L *audācitās—cf ML audāciter. from L audīre (s aud-). from audēre (s aud-). whence audient. audaciously. o/s audient-. from L audācia. whence the very mod ‘to audition’—(3) audītor. from the presp— for obediential. whence E audītor. hearable. with accountancy sense influenced by audit—(4) adj audītōrius. disobey.

authorize (whence authorization). with g (etc. later authour. on which arose both auctiō. 1. whence E obeisant. he grows. lit a nave-borer: cpd of nafu nave of wheel+gār. whence ME autortie. 6. augmentation. led to OF auctoritei. Cf disobey.) as extension. aught . misapprehended. August. as above. auctor became OF autor (F auteur) became ME autour. whence authorial. Authoritarian. v. whence E auction. Cf sep WAX. Augustine. disobedience. an author: indeed. from the MF presp obeissant. whence auctioneer (suffix eer): augur. OF-MF obeir (EF-F obéir). OE ēacan (see sep eke. disobedient. are adopted from MF formations consisting of OF des+OF obedience. in ME. which corresponded to auctor in all its senses. OFris āka (v and n). authoritative. augural. authoritarian. The derivative L auctoritās (acc auctoritātem). L augēre (s aug-).(prefix dis-)+obeir. to enlarge.—auction. (but always) a public sale. (lit) an increasing.—author. prob *au-. presp.Origins 178 inoboediens. authority. authoritative . auger : a nauger. strength. E authority (-ity). later autorité. OF obedient. Cognates: syn Go aukan. n.—august. and derivative inoboedientia. increase. to increase. Lith augti. high.—inaugurate. n hence v. 2. IE r. adj hence n. MF desobeir—des. F influence is even clearer in: obey. an auctioneer. and auctor. a deep bowing. Skt . as an auger: OE nafugār. (orig) obedience. ON auka (v) and auki (n). a spear. OHG ouhhōn. n. with o/s auctiōn-. and ojas. and derivative ML auctorizāre became OF-F autoriser became late ME autorize became E authorize. v. and . lit an increaser. v). to grow. ME obeyen.for L dis. -iteit. Gr auxein (s aux=auks-).—auxiliary. 7. obeisance. para 2. E author. augment . Augustan. See NAUGHT. augmentative. augury. MF obeissance (EF-F obé-). L obedīre. hence a founder. Augēre has pp auctus. inauguration.

which became a PN. signified orig either ‘consecrated by the augurs’ or ‘undertaken under favourable auguries’. prob via OF-MF augurie the E augury. on the pp augmentātus were built both the LL n augmentātiō. Augustus. whence E Augustan. (hence) ominous. hence: inaugurāre (in-.derivatives are those from L augur. inf augurāre (-āri) to make an augury. auxilium.C. an increase. o/s -ātiōn-. the PN. the adj inaugural was adopted from F (inaugurer+-al. whence ‘to augment’. whence auxiliary (cf EF-F auxiliaire). and Augustīnus. whence the obs auguration. 3. prob via MF-F. to augur. then E. the pp augurātus. transferred to any period similar to that of Caesar Augustus. a (favourable) presage or prediction. the E augmentation. 5. Augustan. the derivative n inaugurātiō. para 5. L augustus. neu nom and acc) and prop means ‘an increase of forces. anl with augural). prob a var of agential -or. whence E augmentative. whence EF-F and E augural. it was in 27 B. Less obvious than the aug-. hence to destine. whence E august. into+augurāre). augustus. august . whence ‘to inaugurate’. -ative. whence ‘to augur’. any issue to an undertaking): aug-. had two adjj: Augustānus. s of augēre+-ur. 4. f ive. The inf augēre has derivative augmentum. Augmentum itself has derivative LL augmentāre. . a reinforcement’—hence. to consecrate. whence the obs augurate. 6. Lit. leads to LL augurātiō. to augur. in. augur . augury. o/s augurātiōn-. See AUGMENT. friars). whence. o/s augmentātiōn-. our August. give a start to. auct. Augur has derivatives: augurālis. hence success’ (later. to augur. whence F. an augur (formerly derived usu from L auis. of an augur. augment. para 6. augurium. with adj auxiliāris. whence. See prec. applied to Octavius Caesar: and the first Augustus bestowed his title upon the month Augustus. whence MF-F augmenter. with pp inaugurātes. esp before an important undertaking. yields inauguration. help. which by shortening became Austin (canons.A-Z 179 represent authority+ suffixes -arian. auguro (-or). and the F augmentatif. assistance. The last perh=s aug-+connective or formative s-+ ilium (-um. whence (St) Augustine or August in. to predict. a bird: cf auspice) means ‘one who predicts an increase.

auld : Sc form of OLD. aureole. father’s sister. See SOAR. auri-. akin to L *amina. . oriole. para 2. aureate . loriot. aunt : OF ante: L amita. aura . whence auklet (dim suffix -let). See HALCYON. auro-: see Elements. Adj of prec. aural . para 2. nursery word for ‘mother’ (cf MAMA). also the Med adj for ‘ear’: cf EAR.Origins 180 auk .

gold. the Roman goddess of dawn. See EAR. gilded. the bird was so named from its bright-yellow plumage. auricular. whence ML aureola. via Sci L oriolus. elliptical for aureola corona. from aurum. aurochs. personified as Aurora. used as n. See EAR. a.A-Z 181 Aureate comes from L aureātus. The IE r is prob *au-. auscultation. the austral or Southern lights. became OF oriol. the E oriole. apprehended as one word loriot. aurora perh derives from aurum. and OF oriol became (suffix -ot for suffix -ol) OF oriot. aureus has dim aureolus. auscultate . in L. became MF-F. gold. and l’oriot.—Perhcf AURORA. aurora (whence the adj auroral). golden. a crown of gold. auricle . the reddish-golden dawn-light. para 3. from aureus. whence. the boreal or Northern lights. many scholars relate it to EAST. auspice . aurora australis. Adopted from L. hence E. See ox. golden. as aur-. extended. hence a halo. loriot. borealis. aureolus.

o ouster. in honour of an Austrian prince (cf next). austral . an omen so obtained. to parch: cf SEAR. auspicate. spic-. Austērus. a derivative of austērus. Austria . see AVIARY and SPY. etc. whence E austral. L auspex is one who. for omens. to see) the flight of birds (auis. Both the lit auspicial (-ial) and the fig auspicious (ious) are of E formation. The latter comes. and. spicere—a spec-. yields austere. See AUGMENT. derives from the o. auspicial. omen. usu a favourable. the largest of the New Hebrides. s au-. auspex has derivatives auspicium. to take an augury. usu. auspice. adj hence n also. L austrālis. hence E. as Enci It impressively implies. last para. from Gr austēros. Australian. whence ‘to auspicate’. harsh. southern land. the name was confused with L austrālis and. hence any. Australia. austerity. has prompted Australia. hence the south. The s Aussie represents both Australia. with pp auspicātus. rough. Austin (friars. Either the L Terra Austrālis. Australia is ‘erudite’ f/e from ‘Austrialia del Espirito Santo’. whence Australian. and auspicāre or -āri. examines (specere. a bird)—for the elements. in 1606.o. the Port navigator Pedro De Queiros named. s. o/s austēritāt-. much later. whence MF-F. ML avis.f. austere .). or. via MF austere (F austère). via MF-F austérité. the south wind. transferred to Australia. as. from L austēritās. anl with the numerous -ia lands. itself from auein.Origins 182 . auspicious.

F authentique)—from LL authenticus. esp of the soul (Boisacq). authenticity. authenticate. autobiography . G Osterreich. para 2)+ biography. by suffix -ity. a title of respect. The 3rd derives. adj hence also n. authigenic . and au.for auto-(q. whence ‘to authenticate’. became Mod Gr aphentēs.o. self. autos represents au-+ theme to-+nom suffix -s. one who acts on his own authority. authentic . ‘self life-story’. a chief: auth-.D. The Gr aut(o)-. LL authenticus had derivative ML authenticāre. ‘Eastern Kingdom’ (Enci It): cf EAST and REX.in Elements. app. became Tu efendi became E Effendi.derives. authorize. austrium. Gr authentēs. . author . auth-. 996) of the medieval Gmc Ostarrichi or Osterriche.v. akin to Skt ásus. in Elements)+hentēs. etc. The 3rd=Austria+the Chem (element) suffix -ium: and Austria is the L form (A.o. from authentic. is the c/f of autos. ME autentike. from Gr authentikos. authority. 2. life. whence Austrian. adj of authentēs.A-Z 183 . See AUGMENT. (adj) same. for aut. See auto.: lit. MHG Osterriche. a c/f o.(see AUTHENTIC. from *asu-. adopted from OF (later autentique. para 2. pp authenticātus. authoritative. whence authentication. autobiographical autobiographer: auto. by the way.

autocrat. autograph . from kratus. autocracy . para 3. the 1st comes from L autographum. autography. powerful.(cf AUTHENTIC. See the elements auto. See FAITH. The 2nd and 3rd are anl formations—cf BIOGRAPHY.Origins 184 autochthon . autochthonous. automatic. written (cf GRAPH) with one’s own (auto-: cf AUTHENTIC. self+krateia. para 9. autocratic: resp Gr autokrateia—(via F. from) Gr autokratēs—the -ic adj of autocrat: auto-. See MIND. power. from Gr autographos. para 2) hand. automatism. auto-da-fé . . n hence adj and v. autographic. orig the neu of autographus. for autos. See HOMO. automaton (pl automata). automat . para 3. para 2) and -crat.

via OF autompne or automn (F automne). autumnal. autonomy. may.o. ML vertere.A-Z 185 automobile : F automobile. This *uertumnus was perh altered to avoid confusion with the Etruscan Uertumnus. Sci autonomic. para 4. See AUGMENT. god of the seasons. perh Etruscan.o. be correct. para 2)+mobile. to increase. autumn being the season when the crops’ increase is yielded at the harvest. autumn . self (cf AUTHENTIC. autopsy . although the old L explanation by augēre. See OPTIC. autumn being the season of change from warmth to cold. para 8. the E autumn: and L autumnus is o. para 3. (later) to convert. Conceivably autumnus represents PL *uertumnus. from uertere. whence (suffix -ic) autopsic. whence. autoptic. The latter—perh imm from OF-F automnal—represents L autumnālis. after all. See NIMBLE. to turn. adj then also n: auto-.. adj of autumnus. . autonomous . auxiliary .

derivatively available. from avēre (auēre). f avaricieuse. or the term being nautical. to covet: f. whence availability. it is enough. avast (esp heaving): perh either Port abasta. See VALE. See VALUE. AVID. para 1. avant-garde . avalanche .Origins 186 avail .a.. L auāritia. D houd vast. auārus. hold fast! (EW): the former is phon preferable. para 3. avaricious: the latter comes from MF-F avaricieux. v whence n. from OF-F avarice. avarice . See the 1st VAN. avatar .e. para 12. from avārus. whence E avarice: and OF avarice comes from ML avāritia.

para 21. See VERACIOUS. avera . v. aver (1). aver (2). down+tarati. avenue . avenge . feudal services. para 12. avenger. n. avengeress. para 6. avengement. See OPERA.A-Z 187 : Skt avatāra: from ava. para 7. average. para 4. averment. See DICT. average . he crosses over. See VENUE. See HABIT.

L auiditās. para 15. Cf AUDACIOUS and AVARICIOUS. whence (orig. itself with several not irrefutable C cognates. and Vedic ves (pl vayas). damage. and Skt vi. 3. The latter comes. *aw-. adopted by E. See VERACIOUS. . ML avidus. large bird. and aietos (? for *awietos). ML avis. Gr oiōnos. F derivatives from ML avis include aviation. whence. neu s adj) auiārium (ML av-). The adj avian= ML av-+-ian. avid . averse .—aviation. (hence) port dues: It avaria: AT ‘awārīyah (pl). para 4. E sensedevelopment: ‘tariff on goods’: ‘mean tariff’: ‘a mean’: Mod ‘average’. Av vayō (pl). averment . 2. eagle (the bird). aviator. (hence) greedy.Origins 188 . a bird: cf Arm haw. avert. from the sing ‘awār. avidity. bird: IE r. L auis has derivative adj auiārius. The adj aviatorial=aviation+ -orial. damage to a ship or its cargo. but strictly from F avarie. Here the key is L auis (s au-). via late MF-F avidité. aviary . via MF-F avide. n hence adj and v: app form-influenced by ME average. goods damaged by sea water. the E avid: and L auidus derives from auēre. whence aviarist. and aviateur (orig a flying machine). a feudal service (work). avian. derivative from auidus. See VERSE. to be desirous. whence E aviary. aversive. aversion. aviatorial. from ML aviditās. adapted as aviator. of a bird.

weight. See VIDE. of—peis. goods of weight: OF-MF aveir. esp. avouch . to have—de. avocation .. from pensum: f. property. para 7.A-Z 189 aviso . later pois (F poids). F avoir. para 13. avoirdupois : ME avoir de pois.e. as Webster suggests. from OF aveir (F avoir).a. a delicacy. goods. whence avoidable and avoidance. earlier aver de pels: OF-MF aveir de peis. See VACANT. the form avocado owes something to Sp bocado. avocado : Sp aguacate or ahuacate: Nahuatl (Aztec) ahuacatl or. avoid . auacatl: perh. POISE. See VOCABLE. para 10.

to acknowledge. awaken. to declare. await . avulsion. avowal. avulse . para 2.Origins . See VELLICATE. award . para 11. para 10. awake . para 8. avuncular . See VIGOR. para 11. para 3. See VIGOR. See VOCABLE. See UNCLE. 190 avow . See VOCABLE.

whence awkwardness (suffix -ness): ME awkwarde. conn ‘direction’. remotely. The Gmc r is . (aweful) awful. turning the wrong way+the E suffix -ward. pain. and ōg. OIr -āgor. n and v. n+adj suffixes -ful (cf FULL) and -some (cf SAME). cf dreadful. from OE awel or al (or ael).A-Z . The adjj merely represent awe. Skt ārā. (but usu) awkwardly: ON öfugr. (Walshe. distress. to frighten. See WARD. akin to OHG āla. awkward. fear. more remotely. The n awe (ME aghe) comes from ON agi. I am afraid. I fear. n hence v. the IE r. akin to OHG agisōn. See WARY. shocking. 191 aware .) awn . G Ahle. and ON alr—cf Lith yla and. awe . Go agis. terrible. prob *ēlā. With coll awful. awesome. MHG āle. para 6. away . See VIA. Gr akhos. and. awkward . awl comes. through ME aule or alle. awareness. para 2 and heading.

axilla. OS acus or accus. OHG agana (G Ahne). also acas: akin to OFris axa. axial . a point. up against)+banno-. axe. also to L ascia. pick. axil. akin to. perh. therefore. Perh ult akin to IE r *ak-. axillary. aug prefix (Cr *and. G Axt). aex. See AXIS. OHG acchus (MHG ackes or axt. and Langue d’Oc embans.o. and Gr axinē. ‘bulls’ horns having been employed by the Gauls as a totem protecting the house’.Origins 192 . a point. IE r *ak-. s. akin to Go ahana. the OProv amban. para 4.f.o. animal’s horn (Langue d’Oc bano). awry . hoe. or. axe. See WRATH. chaff. pl agnir. with B & W (apropos auvent). ax (AE). awning : o. a (sort of) parapet or gallery in fortification. a bristle at end of spikelet of barley or oats: ME awne or agune: ON ögn. cf F auvent (OF auvan) and Pr anvan. from Gaul *andebanno-: ande.. awning of a shop. prob *aks-: perh. ON ōx. n hence v: OE eax. or even extended from. with Webster. Go aqizi. IE r. axiom .

axil. 3. dryness. adopted by E. from axios. worthy. ay . Now. 2. the Am coll sure. Skt dust. ashes—and to L arēre (cf ARID). ay. adopted by Sci and also anglicized as axil. axial. The IE r is presumably *aks-. life: cf AGE. ever—cf ja. always. dry. surviving in dial axtree. armpit. prob derives from the former: cf. to dry. The latter comes from Gr axiōmatikos. from aza. axillary. OHG ēwa. ay or aye. with adj axillary. to drive. Aye. always. OHG and OS ahsla. axilla. itself from ON ei. to think worthy. L aeuum (ML aevum). ult. and Skt . ash. all meaning axle. axis.o. pulls its own weight’ (Boisacq). also to OP assis and Lith ašis. from L-from-Gr axiōma. and in Skt āyus. and to OHG ahsa. akin to Gr agein (s ag-). f of azaleos. akin to OE ā. such terms as certainly. axletree. Note that E axle derives from the first element of ME axeltre (whence axletree). axle. constantly. axle. to L axilla.. OFris axle or axele. Go azgō. Go aiw (prob the acc of aiws. axiomatic. (also) to weigh so much: axios represents *agtios. where (trē answers to E TREE and) öxul is akin to OE eaxl. axle. azalea Sci L: Gr azalea.o. from axioun. ‘that draws or pulls by its weight. an age. right. yes. The L axis (s ax-).A-Z 193 . Axiom derives from EF-F axiome. Cf AISLE. adj of axiōma. The latter. has E adj axial (ax-+-ial) and dim axilla. armpit. . and. which means either axis or—the orig sense—axle. always. para 6. by many said to be o. Also cognate is OE eax. akin to azein (s az-). usu aye. itself from ON öxultre. an age) and OHG io or eo (MHG ie: G je. is akin to Gr axōn (? for *aksōn). a worthy thought. Gr aiōn. as emphatic synn of yes. sem. axis. to parch: cf Cz ozditi. from F axillaire (s axill-+adj suffix -aire). ult from the IE n exemplified in Go aiws. derives from ME ai or ei. yes): IE adv. 1. axis.

not+zōtikos (zoe.e. not+zugon. n (inhabitant) hence adj hence n (language) : Sp Azteca. whence (lapis. OF asur (with l. . para 2. whence perh imm the adj azotic. lapis lazuli. life). hence the colour.. Aztec . azure .Origins 194 azimuth . Ar lāzaward also became ML lazulus. ‘Land or region or place of the Herons’ or ‘White Land’. YOKE. unpaired: a-. asur: OF-F azur. as if the article ‘the’): Ar lāzaward: Per lāzhuward.a.lost. azote . a yoke: f. azygous : Gr azugos. See ZENITH. pl azugoi. n hence adj: ME azure. an Aztec. stone) lazuli (prop gen). nitrogen (incapable of maintaining life): F: b/f from Gr a-. unyoked. lifemaintaining. less prob ‘Seacoast’. unless from the F derivative azotique. from Aztec Aztlan.

sem. a babbler. derives from ‘to babble’. Bel. BARBARIAN and: babe . ON babba. LL babulus. is an echoic rural and nursery word. Baal. baas. lord. The latter merely reduplicates the former: and babble. Beelzebub=Gr Beelzeboub=H Ba‘al zěbūb. arising in early ME as an echo-word akin to G babbeln. Akk bel=Phoen ba‘al. whence H Ba‘al. bibble-babble. n. babble. See BOSS. any of numerous ancient Semitic gods. Cf.A-Z 195 B baa . phon and sem. (later) a powerful associate of Satan’s. Beelzebub. Lord of Flies. like bow-wow. owner. PRATTLE and.

mother. a babbler or prattler. which. Gate of Tears. Gate of God (cf ALLAH). (given to) stammering. ‘the baboon having prominent lips’ (B & W). hence a Hindu gentleman. r bab-). often anglicized baboo: Hi bābū. xi. Gr babazein (s babaz-. Babel. LL babulus. baby. baby . baboo . baboon : ME baboyne (or babewyn): MF babuin (F babouin): from babine. a Hindu title of respect. whence babyish (suffix -ish. as Babylon. whence babu English (pej). he stammers. prob dim: akin to MHG bābe. cf Bab el Mandeb. ME baby or babi. passed into L. Bab el Mandeb. influenced by the cog-nate MF baboue. Generic babel comes from ‘the tower of Babel’ (see Genesis. Babylon. a grimace. hence E. with var balbalā. See BABU. Cf BABBLE and BARBARIAN. babu . 9): H Bābel: Ass-Bab Bābilu. becoming Gr Babulōn. to prattle. babel .Origins 196 . buobe. adj): ME babe or bab. Skt barbaras. lip.in balbalākaroti. boy (G Bube).

baccalaureate : F baccalauréat: ML baccalaureātus. the festival of Bacchus. Bacchae. “laurel bay”—of ML baccalarius. bachelor’ (B & W): cf BACHELOR. bacchanalian. See BABE. with presp bacchans. influenced by L Bacchanālia (orig the neupl of bacchanālis). whence bacchic. with adj bacchanalian. Bacchanalia. perh in-fluenced by Bacchic (L Bacchicus). whence the E n bacchanal. o/s bacchant-. See BABEL. drunken. of Bacchus or his festival. Bacchus. baccarat : adopted from F. from baccalaureus. the Lydian origin of Gr Bakkhos .o. babyish.o. f bacchante (from F). female companions of this God of Wine. Bacchic. with adj bacchantic. 197 Babylon . bacchic. . The L Bacchus transliterates Bakis. hence n (‘devotee’). a ‘joking alteration—after bacca lauri. to celebrate that festival. L bacchāri. whence E bacchant. o. bacchanal . syn of predominant Dionusos: derivatives include Bankhai.: ? from the F town of Baccarat(Meurthe-etMoselle) famous for its glassware. whence L Bacchae. L bacchanālis. adj (‘of Bacchus’).A-Z . bacchant. bacchantic. var baccara.

but also—of Gaul-Roman stock—the OProv bacalar. 2. backblocks—backbone—backfire— backgammon—background—backside—backwater. Earlier etym. ham. a tenant farmer. hence young man: ML *baccalāris. note backblocks. back . back. adv+FIRE). from bachall. back. n.Origins 198 baccy : coll for tobacco. a young gentleman aspiring to knight-hood. haunch. from blocks of land in the back (remote) areas— back-bone (cf BONE)—backfire (back. hence adj and v. and to OHG bach. The adj bacillary=E bacill(us)+-ary. n hence v—backgammon. bacillus . a shepherd. cf BACON. and baccho or bahho. Back: OE baec. prob from . backward(s). akin to ON (and OS) bak. obscure. perh of C origin: cf OIr bachlach. adv. bachelor : ME bachelor: OF-MF bacheler (MF-F bachelier). See para 5 of: back . a staff. from L baculum. Of the many cpds. usu baccalārius. See the element bacilli-. young man (B & W). aback.

ham (buttocks and rear part of thigh). on or at (the) back. earlier on bak. (Walshe. hence remote. See para 2 of prec. by aphesis. whence (suffix -al) bacterial. 4. bacon whence the surname Bacon. The adv aback—whence. lit water turned back. from) ML baconem acc of baco: OHG bac(c)ho or bahhō. The adj backward derives from the adv back-ward. adv+ gammon. hence flitch of bacon: from OHG bach. of the body) at the back—backwater. the adv back—represents the ME abak. backgammon . ‘because the men are often set back’ (Webster)— background (GROUND).A-Z 199 back. backsheesh . the part (e. with deriva-tive adj (whence n) Baconian: ME. from OF-MF bacon: (perh via OProv bacon. See BAKSHEESH. var of backwards. a game. coll backshee. haunch. from OE on baec. the back: cf BACK.g.) bacteria .. cf backwoods. bacterio-logy. towards the back: cf TOWARDS. bad . ground at back—backside. The derivative ‘to back’ has agent backer and vn backing. 5. 3. See the element -bacter.

but ? rather from C *bados (well attested in derivatives).o. the basic idea of the adj being ‘wide-open (to all influence. squat. the r being *bad. EE bageard: EE bage+suffix -ard. the 5th BAY. ineffective. sem. badge. in-fluenced by the agential -er: cf. that burrowing quadruped the badger.o.. Webster).) bade . with var *badtos. para 2. whence the pa baffling: Sc bauchill. to disgrace publicly. F blaireau (B & W). prob from ON bagr. (Cf Malvezin at BAD3. badinage : adopted from EF-F: f. to ridicule. in ref to the white mark (badge) on its brow.) bag . See BID. uncomfortable. o. (Craigie. to be wide or open. whence *bassos (cf the LL bassus.Origins 200 (adj hence n). low). short. bachill. whence adv badly (suffix -ly) and badness (-ness): ME bad. clumsy. prob (OED. prob from Sc bauch. or ON bāgr. an effeminate. baffle .a. esp the worst)’. badger . Hence. bauchle. cf OE baedling. in difficulties.e. Badge: ME and EE bage or bagge. earlier badde: perh (Webster) from OE baeddel. a hermaphrodite. inferior.

a berry: L baca. L bai(i)ulus yields LL bai(i)uluus. whence E bailiff. adopted by ME. hence magistrate. whence bailiwick. later a castle-prison. London’s central criminal court. the further var baily. bail (1). a staff. a bucket: VL *bai(i)ula. a bucket. from L baiulāre.A-Z 201 . Sc bailie. f of bai(i)ulus. and partly from L baculum. a castle’s outer wall. occ baily. to carry a burden. ML bai(i)ulvus. whence. baggage. Perh rather akin to BEAR. bagpipe. which cpds baili(e) or baili(ff). from baiulus. a hamlet or village. hence ‘to bail’ (water out of. finally a prison—cf ‘the Old Bailey’.. e. bail (2). n hence v. perh (E & M) akin to Bacchus. whence OF-EF bailiff (F bailli) custodian. bagatelle : EF-F bagatelle: It bagatella. Baggage derives from MF-F bagage. an outer defence: partly from MF-F bail: L bai(i)ulus. a boat): late MF-F baille. Bai(i)ae was a favourite seaside resort of the ancient Romans. app the dim of baca. direct from bag: bagman. a packet. OE wic (L uicus. 2. from OF-MF baillier. the E bag. a burden-carrier: ‘from Baiiae?’ ask E & M. as in precc. give. via ME bagge. baggy. to deliver. itself (collective suffix -age) from OF-EF bague. . as in prec. v. surety: MF-F bail. and wick. a bundle. bail (3). baiiulus. whence E bailey. prob via the var bayle.g. cf VICINITY). akin to ON baggi. The ME bail has. MF-F bailler (whence ‘to bail’).

. From ‘to bait’ and ON beita. Cf BITE. See 1st BAIL. whose OGmc forms have the causs mentioned above.g. from a. an abetting. para 2. abet. esp on the road. (later) to feed. See the 3rd BAIL. bailiff. cattle. beita became ME beytan or baiten. e. n. bailie . hence prob the Aus (orig. food serving as allurement. whence E ‘to bait’. to abettor. hence any allurement or temptation. from abeter. 2. to incite or. Akin to ‘crosspiece’ is the sense ‘a pole. bet. assisted by AF abettour. e. bushrangers’) bail up. abettor. bailey . to incite (a dog) to bite. OE . to bait. to+ OF-MF beter. (hence) to harass an animal by setting dogs on to it. from OF abet. The OF-MF beter mentioned above is akin to OHG beizēn. food. 3. . bait . para 2. assisted by AF abetement. to cause to bite. comes bait. abet. a bar’ hence ‘to bail’. 3. abetment. countenance. and. The MF-F bail had the dial sense ‘crosspiece’: hence the cricket sense of E bail. pasture.Origins 202 2. to confine. leads to abetment (suffix -ment). app derives from ME abet. bailiwick . to excite or instigate. of Gmc origin: and OF abeter yields ME abetten. 1. at the least. See 1st BAIL.g. whence ‘to abet’.. ‘To bet’ derives from ‘a bet’: and bet. ON beita. a horse. to stop and rob wayfarers.

adopted from OF: L bilancem. balance . a basin. akin to Skt bhajati. from ‘to bake’. akin to ON baka. hence anything else used in. akin to OE balca. or pair of scales): bi-. baker. a ridge. from OHG balcho. adj (having two plates or scales). the loaves of a baking. he allots. derives from OE baecere.) OE bacan directly leads to E ‘to bake’. batch. baksheesh . or produced at. a scaffold. baker. OHG bahhan (MHG and G backen).e. from bakshīdan. acc of bilanx (o/s bilanc-). aug of balco.. f. balcony : It balcone. bakery. perh akin to the IE r *lek-. a baking. to bend or curve. to give. 2.a. bakshish. OE bacan also yields ME bach or bache. a plate. Gmc r bak-. n hence v: ME balance. var *bhōg-. itself from OE bacan. a beam. a plate. Lanx is app of Medit stock: cf the Gr lekos. twice+lanx (gen lancis). the n BALK. as in Gr phōgein (s phōg-). to roast or bake. from Per bakhshīsh. esp of a pair of scales. with suffix -ery. var bōk. one operation. whence batch. hence n (a balance. often anglicized to backsheesh: via Ar. bald . *bhag-. (Walshe. to roast. IE r.A-Z 203 bake . however. Bakery derives. and lekanē.

torment: OE balu. akin to OFris balu-. either as ‘a ridge between furrows’ or as ‘a beam’. to gleam. a partition. a whitefaced horse. Gr phalios (r phal-). See the 1st BALL. OS. (v. Go bala. derives from balk. to prop: cf BOLE and FULCRUM. balka. to check or baffle. baldric . whence the sense ‘unploughed ridge between furrows’. malign evil. OS balko. ball .Origins 204 . balk . a beam—OFris. whence both ‘beam. whence baldly (-ly. bald.) to stop or swerve (whence balky). OHG balu. a ridge. akin to Da baeldet. loosely baulk: OE balca. bale (1). white or clear(-shining): IE r. bale (2). also BLOCK. See BELT.i. pain. ‘To ba(u)lk’. rafter’ and ‘hindrance’ (as in ba(u)lk): akin to ON bālkr. ON böl. evil (adj)—cf Go balweins. 2. *bhel-. OHG balcho. adv) and baldness (-ness): ME balled. esp to gleam whitely. to avoid. and bjalki. a beam—L fulcīre (s fulc-). n.

closepressed and packaged. akin to OHG balla. 3. whence. dim balletto.See prec. ball (2). ballad . obs ‘a dance’. load. n hence v: MD-LG ballast: Da barlast bar. MFEF baller. via MF bale (MF-F balle). para 2. ballistic . *bal-. soon senseadapted. 2. to dance. E ballad. a large bundle. hence E. ballast . See the 2nd BALL.A-Z 205 (1). he whirls about: IE r. bare+last. with derivative ballo. whence. para 3. a dance. whence balada. ME balade. LL ballāre passed into It. Cf BALLOON and BOWL (2). hence ‘an assembly for dancing’: OF-F bal. the EF-F. ballet . LL ballāre became OProv balar. from OF-MF baler. a dancing song. esp cargo. to dance: LL ballāre: Gr ballein (syn with its extension ballizein). akin to Skt balbalīti. ballet. whence MF balade (EF-F ballade). a sphere: ME bal or balle: ON bolle. the ME and E bale.

ballot. n hence v. bally . from L balsamum (whence E balsam. See the 2nd BUTT. the science of projectiles in motion. latter. Embalm. explosively hurled. whence balmy. from Gr ballein. whence ballistics (cf -ics). from OF-EF basme. balloon . aug of balla.Origins 206 . derives. from ballotta. whence AE hooey. bunkum. app of Sem origin—cf H bāsām. dim of balla. for en. . perhaps cf Eg m’aām. cf the syn LGr balistra. a stone-throwing military engine. ballock . and embalmer owes something to EF-F embaumeur. whence perh AE coll ballyhoo. to throw. in(to) +baume+inf suffix -er. balsamic. of Gmc origin (cf the 1st BALL). coll euphemism for expletive bloody. MF-F baume. later embaumer: em-. It ballone. MF bausme. noisy preliminary publicity. through ME baume or basme. whence ballistician (after statistician): L ballista. whence balsamic): Gr balsamon. balm . balsam. Balm. n and v: former. embalm. ME enbaumen. owes something to the boisterous village of Ballyhooly (County Cork). the E v deriving from It ballotare. It ballotta. balmy. a ball. EF-F ballon. comes from OF-MF embasmer.

a way set with balusters: hence EF-F balustrade. bamboozle : o. perh form-blended with the echoic Gr bambaluzein (s bambaluz-). v. bamboo : (? via D or Port) from Mal bambu. and perh prompted by BANTER. banish and bandit.o. baluster . banister. n.A-Z 207 baloney . itself—via L balaustium—from Gr balaustion. ban . from It balaustro (whence balaustrata. the flower of the wild pomegranate. See BOLONEY. 1. to stammer. and banns. is . adopted by E). approximately equivalent in sense. for (? via) balaustrata. the sense-transition refers to the shape-resemblance. Probably this is an arbitrary redup of baffle. to chatter with cold. balustrade.o. The 3rd is baluster corrupted: and baluster anglicizes EF-F balustre. balaustro derives from It balaustra. a proclamation enabling an objection to be made to a marriage. Banns or bans. banal.

to banish. 4. curse. with pp bandito. perfunctory’. from Sp plantano. The OF ban. by E. to give a signal. the E bandit. E ‘to banish’. and Skt bhánati. which became n. See BANK. ‘of or for obligatory feudal service’. has v bannīre. trite’ (B & W). banana : Sp and Port banana: Taino (WI) banana. hence ‘merely obligatory. ‘an outlaw’. derives from ME bannen. ME ban. The LL bannum. to summon by proclamation. OHG bannan. akin to Arawak prattana. whence It bandire. to speak. from LL bannum. ME bannen derives from OE bannan. independent of ban. banal. ON bann. has adj banal (1293). postulate the origin of It bandire to be Go bandwjan. proclamation. effectively derives from ‘to banish’ (suffix -ment). The older view seems the more prob. mid-C19. to summon. akin to OFris banna. whence. banco . para 2. however. B & W. ON banna. Cf ‘abandon’ and ‘contraband’—and perh FAME. OS. whence MF banir (EF-F bannir). 3. interdict. adopted. via ‘ils banissent’ and ‘banissant’. banishment. to say. B & W hold bannir to be. influenced by MF banissement. a public prohibition. para 4. ult. . OHG. hence (1778) ‘common-place. the derivative banalité became E banality. perh via late EF-F bandit. he speaks: IE r. 2. therefore to E plantain. See prec. proclamation of a ban. prattana having var platena and several WI cognates. whence.Origins 208 merely a pi derivative of ‘a ban’: and ban. and prob to Gr phanai. akin to OFris. a kind of banana. but also from OF ban. LL bannīre had var bandīre. an edict. 5. the ME banishen. -ity. the confusion must have happened very early indeed. *bhā-.

comes from ON band. from It banda. from banda. See BAN. 5. 2. bandoleer . F. Bandage.a. bandanna.—bond. para 3. OF bende. derives from F bande. In bond(s)man. Bandanna. para 3. a narrow band. bandeau. to dwell. itself of Gmc origin. of Gmc origin. bondswoman. In sense ‘strip’ it comes from MF-F bande. n hence v.: see BIND and cf BEND. bandage. cf bandoleer. 4. n hence v. Bond. the origin is different: ON bōndi. however. Go bandi. bandicoot . (lit) pig rat. for būandi. adopted from EF-F.e. F bandoulière. so does the even more Gallic bandeau. akin to OHG bant. a fastening. a dyeing process in which the tied parts of the cloth remain uncoloured: cf BIND. 3. See BAND. bandit . from būa. is a mere var of band. goes much further back: the Hi bāndhnū. Aus nuance deriving from: Telugu (India) pandi-kokku. of Gmc origin. ME bond. Sp bandolera. v. bandoleer. 1. bandore . in sense ‘group of associates’ it comes.A-Z 209 band . ME band. The n band. via MF-F bande. Skt bandha.

g. murderer. harm. See MANDOLIN. though orig a form of tennis: cf ‘to bandy’. to hammer: echoic. death. See BAN. n. bent. murderer. banish . murderer. Adj baneful (cf -ful). legs) comes from F bandé. a game similar to hockey. ill. from OF-F bander. adj. hence fatal mischief or harm. ornamental bracelet: Hi bangrē. . banishment. bane . and to ON bani. hence ruin: OE bana. bang . murder. from OF-F bander. and OHG bana. para 2. bangle . Cf BUNGLE.. akin to OFris bana. to beat (a ball) to and fro. and ult to Av banta. v: bandy (e. bracelet. bangle: -le. a deadly agent.Origins . to bend (esp a bow). perh from ‘circle’. hence to hit or toss from one to another. 210 bandy . Os and OHG bano. murder. whence also bandy. v hence n and adv: ON banga. of Gmc origin: cf BAND and BIND. hence to exchange (pleasantries).

whence the occasion. bankrupt. a dim of OF-MF baniere (EF-F bannière). orig bankruptcy. comes. a counter. The monetary bank. banquet. embank-ment. a sloped mound. from It banca. whence embankment (suffix -ment). It banca has var banco. adopted by E: the trestled bench became ‘the festive board’. broken bank. whence the food and wine upon it. via ME banke. bench. n hence v. banner . banjo . of Gmc origin and clearly akin to BENCH. which passed into MF-F as banquet. to break (cf RUPTURE). comes from MF baneret (EF-F banneret). cf ON bekkr and OFris and OS bank. via late MF-F banque. f of ruptus. is of Scan origin (the ON bakki) and akin to bench. orig a paying counter. 2. The latter. whence ‘to embank’.A-Z 211 banister . hence a bank (money). ME benk. orig a bench. for banderia. See baluster. feast. the derivative ‘to bank’ (money) yields banker (-er). a monetary swindle. rotta represent-ing L rupta. See MANDOLIN. 3. It banca rotta. orig a bench. banco (bunco). OE benc. It banco has dim banchetto. bank . ME baneret. pp of rumpere. with a special sense in baccarat: hence AE bunko or bunco. banneret. n hence adj and v. banker. the origin of E banner: from LL baneria. 1. from . hence a person in bankruptcy: late MF-F banqueroute. of Gmc origin. Bank. the adj and v bankrupt derive from the n.

a banner: Go bandwa (or -wō). to give a sign. bannock . cf Gr phainō (sphain-). para 3. banns . *bhen-. See BUN. IE r. See BAN. banter . a sign. in Java. banshee . I indicate. See SHEE. See BANK.Origins 212 bandum. akin to ON benda. banquet . bantam : from Bantam. the very small fowl com-ing from Bantam.

its derivative baptisma. LL baptistērium. barrage. barrister. adopted by LL. embargo. baptistery. Baptizein passes through LL baptizāre to OF-F baptiser. OF-MF baptisterie. plural prefix+ntu. an eminence. cf Ir and W bar(r). serving as support or leverage or esp obstruction: from LL barra. and the derivative baptistērion. Bantu : ba-.o.—embarrass. a usu flat. embarrassment.o. a modi-fied form of baptein (s bapt-.A-Z 213 . bar (bar). tree top. whence the E baptism. hence branch (esp as barri). n and v. 1. appears in Br barr. banyan (tree): via Hi from Skt for native traders. o. . became baptist(e)ry. long piece of wood or metal. n. baptismal. The effectual origin lies in Gr baptizein. merchant: its wide-spread branches afford a market-place baptism . mountain top. became OF baptesme (F baptême). ‘To bar’. Perh from the obs Sp bandear. the font recess of a church. barrier. whence ‘to baptize’. v hence n: to ridicule playfully: o. OF-F baptismal (from LL baptisma) is adopted by E. baptize. . to dip in water. to cross from one to another. and W bar. akin to ON hafa. bar . barricade. the Gr agent baptistēs passes through LL baptista and OF baptiste to E baptist. ME barren. r bap-). to dive. now only in John the Baptist and the Baptist sect.o but perh of C origin: the C r *bar(s). represents OF-F barrer. Baptist. barrack. a person: ‘The Persons’ (the persons).o. from OF-F barre.

barbel. barb (2). v. chorister. Sp word. has derivative ‘to barb’. to close the way to. finally barristers’. a hut: It baracca: Sp barraca. BARBARIAN. 1. who. a spike. beard (obs) and backward projection. in(to)+LL barra. whence ‘to em-barrass’: and embarrasser comes from Sp emharazar or perh It imbarazzare. beard. ME barrere. 4. a bar. there-fore. a beard-shaped axe. Embarrassment represents EF embarrassement. it derives from Sp embargar. Barb (F barbe. the sense ‘branch’ certainly could. itself from EF-F embarrasser. via It and F. from barra (from LL barra). cf also Ga barra. from barre. 6. Halberd. from barricare. from Gr histasthai (vi). a bar. E bar. a branch. a horse of Barbary (N Africa). 8. from barre (para 1). n hence v. Embargo.g. (to) bar. mountain top. when duly called to participate in debates. and barrister. earlier barraster or -ester. been adopted by E. comes from MHG helmbarte. Barrack. derives from OF-F barrer. moreover. OF-F barrage..Origins 214 branch. to issue an edict against: VL *imbarricāre: L in-. Barrier. e. 5. as Cor shows. 2. barber. a beard. and bara. obstructive fire. a bar. became the modern barracks: late MF-F baraque. in its special sense ‘the entire body of advocates or barristers’. lit ‘to [put] a bar (LL barra) into (L in)’. itself from the EF-F n barricade (adopted by E): It barricata. Cf. halberd. the top branches of trees. the equivalent F term being barreau)+formative r+a suffix app connot-ing ‘a stander (at)’. 2. Barricade. prob from Sp barra. and Cor baar. to furnish with barbs: cf . comes from the EF-F v barri-coder. n. 3. 7. Barrage (military) derives from F tir de bar-rage. an axe to split a helm (cf HELMET). Manx barr. L barba). v. represents MF barriers (EF-F barrière). esp in engineering. to stand. Bar. hence a beard-like projection. in E Inns of Court. and Cor bar. derives from the utter (outer) bar formerly. perh comes into E via EF-F. barbate. which has. and barrach. became utter barristers (cf be called to the bar). separating the benchers from the students. orig a temporary hut for soldiers. barb (1). consists of E bar (rather than F barre. lead to the sense of F barre. hence the backward projec-tion of arrow or fish-hook. the -ister form being prob influenced by. itself from LL barra (as above). horse: EF-F barbe: It barbero (L bar-barus).

). n and—cf F barbarien—adj. L coined barbaria. non-Greek. Now. via MFF. (vt) to mistreat barbarously. Berber. perh independently. in ML. 1. Berberi. hence. and barbarismos. whence MF barbeor. OHG bart. esp in pl barbaroi: hoi barbaroi. ‘barbarianness’. IE *bhardh-: cf OSl brada. the non-Greeks. E barbarism. The Stammerers’: cf the Skt adj barbaras. PGmc *barth-(?).A-Z 215 barbate. barbaric. collectively. also n. barbate . from the raised platform serving as . Lith barzdà. The secondary Gr adj barbarikos—answer-ing to hoi barbaroi—becomes L barbaricus becomes E barbaric. L barba. the qualities of a barbarian. which has LL dim barbellus. whence (abstract suffix ity) barbarity and barbarian (-ian for -ous). as also is the stammering redup in Tatar (loosely Tartar). called barbari by the Latin settlers and their descendants. are lit ‘the Unintelligibles. Saracen lands. cf 1st BARB. were. OS bard. bearded. has a VL derivative barbātor (agential -ātor). (Walshe. barbarize. stammering: orig echoic. barbarism. barbecue (the entertainment from the animal roasted whole.) barbarian (adj and n). (Enci It. hence foreign lands. moreover. barbarous. whence E barbarous. para 2. named. the E barbel. The effectual base consists of Gr barbaros. Barbaric. bar-barity. yields E Berbers. to behave or speak like a barbarian. and ME barbour. Gr barbaros becomes L barbarus. See 2nd BARB. EE-E barber. from barba. EF-F barbier. North Africa from the western borders of Egypt to the Atlantic coast. by the conquering Arabs. akin to OFris berd. whence MF-F barbarisme and. al-Barbar. 2. Barba. use of a foreign or misuse of one’s own language. whence MF-F barbarie. whence E Barbary. Barbaros has two other derivatives affecting E: barbarizein. Cf BABBLE and BABE. esp Barbaria. beard derives from OE beard. prob a ML reshaping of the Ar pron of L barbari. whence. L barbātus. The inhabitants. whence obs F barbariser and E barbarize (ize). Barbary. 3. soon applied to the Arabs themselves. 3.

to chaffer. para 2. cf OFris berfōt).Origins 216 open-air kitchen): Sp barbacoa. bard : C in origin: cf Ir and Ga bard. whence. LGr bardoi. barefoot (OE baerfōt. akin to OHG and OS bar and. to buy and sell in the market-place. higgle. The n derives from ME bargayn. IE r. OFris her-. para 2. the E ‘to bargain’: and OF-EF bargaignier. adj and v. adj: ME bar: OE baer. comes from LL . a poet. Br barz. See 2nd BARB. (LL bardi.) bare . The v derives from OE barian. from OF-MF bargaigne or -gagne. an inferior poet. the Gaulish bards: from C. (Walshe.) bargain . The Sl languages show the var bās. from OF-EF bargaignier. Bare. and OIr bard. a raised frame or platform: Taino (WI) barbacoa. See 2nd BARB.or bos-. also to ON berr. from the adj. n (hence adj) and v. via ME bargaynen. prob *bhos-. barbel . a market. barber . in cpds.

hence v: from ON börkr. irreg for -er. See the element -bar. to spare. n. cf Skt . ME berken. (Holthausen. prob for *bārica: from L bāris. heavy motion—v: adopted by ME from OF. birch-bark. an Egyptian barge: from Eg—cf Coptic barī and perh Eg . bark (1). as in G. a barge. bark (2). from bak. 2. like a bark. hence—from slow. Barkentine. from L *barica: cf LL barca: see 3rd BARK. a small sailing ship: MF-F barque. barque+ brigantine. often so in E: OProv barca: LL barca. .A-Z 217 barcaniāre (o. and OProv barganhar. n+suffix -ee. OE beorcan. barquentine app=bark. orig a hawk-boat. and also to Lith burgèti. to borrow. to bargain. to bark. akin to ON berkja. hence. of tree. a barge: Gr baris.) bark (3). a hawk.o): perh cf OHG borgēn. barge . baritone . bearce. ‘to bark’.o. Bargee=barge. but cf OE beorc. to growl: echoic. and barkliga. of dog: n. perh from v.

akin to LG barme.) barley : ME barly. disembarkment.at the element -bar. EF-F embarquer. baron . G Bärme. and several Sl cognates. like. debarkment. hence grain.Origins 218 3. barn : ME bern: OE bern. however. (B & W. Go barizeins. disembarcation. cf ON barr. earlier barlich: OE baerlīc. EF-F débar-quer. adopted from F. a meter or measure of atmospheric heaviness (hence pressure): see baro. Cf BARN and perh: barm : ME berme: OE beorma. itself from Sp embarcación. yeast—cf FERMENT. orig berern: OE bere. barley+līc. EF-F désembarquer.—embark. EF-F embarquement. The cpds come from F: debark. disembark. barley. Adj: barometric. Alb brum. a closed place: a barley. place (shed). orig ‘barley-like’: bere. EF-F débarquement. barley (see BARLEY)+ern (aern). EF-F dés-embarquement. and perh to L fermentum. embarcation (now usu embarkation). is formed after E embarcation. barometer . With OE bere. embarkment. made of barley.

(orig) irregularly shaped: adopted from EF-F: from Port barroco. n. baroque . whence *barron. which yields ME hence E baron.A-Z 219 : baronet (whence baronetcy: suffix -cy). an irregular pearl: prob Ar. (Cf P2 for a var proposal. See BAR. A baronet is a little (dim suffix -et) baron. barony. barrack . is the acc of ber (cf OProv bar). derision. eminence. barque . eminent man. but perh from the C r *bars. a (usu small) pearl irregularly shaped..) . later a feudal baron (Malvezin). for cf Port and Sp aljofar. barony. a warrior. ME from OF-MF baronie (EF-F baronnie). later a high-ranking feudal officer: usu said to be Gmc (Frankish *baro: B & W). para 2. from baron: and OF baron. para 15. barquentine. See ROLL. from Ar alcháuhar. Aus v: perh Aborigine borah. See the 3rd BARK. paras 1. barracks. whence baron. barrack . barouche . 2. orig a free man.

barein: OF brehaing. to carry: cf OProv barril and It barile. brehaigne. f brehaigne or baraigne or baraine. barrage . the Br form of brehaing.o. In short. elliptical for terre brehaigne (baraigne. barrel : ME barel: OF-F baril. para 2. barren .Origins 220 barracuda : Sp barracuda. being breheign or brehagn: perh ‘Brehn (land)’. a large. See BARTER. or Frankish *bera. adj hence n: ME barain. sea). perh from Valencian barraco. very doubtfully from either OF barre. I propose a Br origin. o. akin to L mare. a bar. . para 3. barratry. liquid (cf *mar. See BAR. derives it from VL *barriculus. citing the late C9 OF barriclos. but prob from nearer home. Malvezin implies a dim deriva-tive from the C r *bar. protrusive tooth. barren land: perh (Webster) from L barbarus in sense ‘uncultivated’. barrator . baraine). liquid. Dauzat.o. the Br name of Brittany (F Bretagne) being Breigh or Bréh: the coast lands are rocky and sterile.

akin to OFris berch. and BIER. mountain: cf ‘ice-berg’ (see ICE). as in wheelbarrow: ME barow. See BAR. barrister . Cf also BOROUGH and BURY. barse . para 5. barrier . mound. v. mountain. para 6. beorh. a mound: ME beoruh and bergh: OE beorg. See BAR. wheelbarrow: cf BEAR. barrow (1).A-Z 221 barricade . barewe: from OE bearwe. OFris and OHG-G berg. barrow (2). See BAR. para 4.

n. Abase. from barater. whence E barrator. basalt : perh via EF-F basalte: L basaltes. din. to cheat. See BASE. from OF-MF barater. comes from OF-MF abaissier (MF-F abaisser). ME abasse. basalt. E base derives from ME bas. but perh from C bar. bareter. OIr mrath. 222 barter (v hence n) comes. and debase=de. treachery. 3. basal . to do. trickery. ? of Oscan origin.o.g. o. down from+base. . base . 2. 2. itself from barat. c/f of bassus. adj. abase. to+ bassi-. low. and baa kam. Hence baseness (suffix -ness). betrayal. or from C—cf Ir brath. via ME bartren. squat. debase. low+inf suffix -āre. trickery. a hard. (rarely) to exchange: either from Gr prattein (s prat-).Origins See BASS. to deal. bass: OF bas. Ga brath. perh cf Eg bekhen. deception. basse: LL bassus. deception. dark Abyssinian marble: of African origin. anl with abase. e. bass (voice). n. to betray. in exchang-ing goods. influenced by It basso and perh EF-F basse. deceiver. v. The bass (voice)=base. adj. in late C17. brawl (DAF). 1. whence ME baratour. to practise tricks.o. with nn in -ment. one guilty of barratry: and barratry comes from MF-F baraterie. black basalt. VL *adbassiāre: ad. hence. OF barater has the MF derivative barateor. marine fraud by a ship’s master.

comes from L. basic . Whereas basal=E base+adj -al. basis. v hence n: echoic: cf CLASH. a base. basic=base+ ic. a step. bashaw . from Gr. SLASH. bashful : from obs bash (ME baschen). basal. See BASE. n hence v. base. basic.A-Z 223 base . basis. from bainein. CRASH. See CHECK. PASH. SMASH. bash . akin to L uenīre and E COME. para 4. E basis comes straight from L basis. suffix -ful. basil . n. aphetic for abash. a stepping-stone. adopted from OF-F. a stepping. basement (prob the v-f suffix -ment). a pedestal. to step or go.

adopted from OF-MF bacin (MF-F bassin): VL *baccīnum (cf LL bacchinon). basilisk. to step or go)+ Ionic *leus (for lēos). to bathe (cf BATHE)+ reflexive sk. bask . royal dwell-ing. a noble church. or perh b. hence ‘guide of the people’. basil. to bathe oneself: batha. basilica. basilica. but perh from the C r *bac. See the element -scope. elliptical for basilikē oikia. basket . basioscopic . vat or tank. as in F bac. prop the neu of basilikos. people.o. adopted from L. to sunbathe: contr of ON bathask. basil having sovereign qualities. from L Basilius.Origins 224 . The Kingly. from basileus. dim baquet. L basiliscus. aromatic herb. royal. royal (roofed) colonnade. n. (? dim) from L bacca. a fabled serpent. liquid. a king: o. The base is Gr basileus. from Gr basilikon. basilisk (suffix -isk). a water vessel: o. from basileus.o.o: perh basi(from bainein. Gr Basileios. See BASE. ML basilicum. its hissing expulsive. Gr basiliskos ‘little king’—reputedly its breath was fatal. a ‘royal’ building. bucket. OF basile. from Gr basilikē. It affects E in the foll words: Basil. basin : ME bacin.o. stoa. basis .

to build (with dress material). from the adj basco. para 2. basquine. earlier baste. rough: therefore prob Cf BRISTLE. the European perch: deviation from barse. bass . The N Sp province Vizcaya. Biscay. adopted from F. the fish. usu basced. Manx bascad. has adj Biscayan (F biscaīen). comes from Sp basquina.o: the L poet Martial says that L bascauda is a C word. L Uascōnes. a Basque (Dauzat). D bars. cf Cor bascauda. para 9. better vasco. Basque. the Basques. n. The F Basque. The basque of a garment=the F basque. OE bears or baers. adj hence n. basquine. from It and OProv basta. See LEVER. comes prob from the Sp adj and n Vascón. bass . from bastir(e). bass . bas-relief . adj. ref voice: see BASE.o. and G barsch. whence E ‘(bay of) Biscay’. Biscayan.A-Z 225 : ME basket: o. the form basque being influenced by F basque. adj of F Basque. a Basque. akin to MHG bars. Basque . W basgawd. itself from ML Vascōnes. F Biscaye. basque.

the form bass is a cor-ruption. ME hasten. baste (3). See BAST. whence C16–17 bast and C16–20 baste: app from OF basser. baste (1). to sew loosely. and perh to L fascia. ‘barn daughter’. a basin (contents usu liquid)—cf BASIN. for baste. n. a granary. (B & W. See: 226 bast . with pej suffix -ard. ON bast. bastard .) Dauzat prefers to interpret bast as OF bast. a barn. to sew. woody fibre: OE baest. F bat.Origins . where bast app derives from PGmc *bansti. to moisten slightly. to thrash: ON beysta. adopted from OF bastard (F bâtard): orig the (legitimate) son of a noble and his concubine: prob. or daughter. akin to OHG. . to moisten. pp. to beat: cf BEAT. The OHG bast accounts. a packsaddle: ‘son. to moisten (roasting meat) with melted butter or fat: from C16 boost. baste (2). after the fashion among muleteers. fibre. begotten on a packsaddle’. from bassin. from bassiner. via OF bastir. cf the syn Go bansts: ‘barn son’. from OF fils (and fille) de bast.

for. adopted from F. Cf: bastion . to lace. cf OF and OProv bastir: both may (Webster) rather come from VL *bastīre. a small fortress. the ancient Gmc peoples often built the walls of their dwellings with bark. With It bastire. to build. Cf prec. EW) seems preferable. para 2. Prati. as B & W remark. or similar materials. baston . var of VL *bastāre. to flutter: ‘the flatterer’. cf Da backe. bastion. inner bark of lime-tree. cf OHG bestēn. 1 (flying): corruption of ME bakke. aug of bastia. See 2nd BAT. G Bast. to suffice. to carry. itself from Gr bastazein (s bastaz-. esp la Bastille de Paris: MF bastide: OProv bastida. (? orig) to carry. Sw backa: app from ON blaka. to build. itself of disputed etym. from bastire. perh (B & W) from Frankish *bastjan. bat . to build. bat . hence a fortress prison. and MHG bast. cf BAST. from bastir. But the Gmc origin (supported also by Dauzat. (? LL-)ML bastāre. plaited or interwoven.A-Z 227 bastille : MF-F bastille. comes from It bastione. r bast-).

battalion at BATTLE. MF (EF-F abattement). MF-F rabat has the doublet derivative rabbet (in carpentry). a long. from OF-F rabattre (OF rabatre). OFMF batre. combative. batch . esp military: late OF-F batterie. to+LL battere (as in para 1). whence ‘to debate’: debatre. a thing with which one beats. cf next. whence also the EF-F bâton. prob akin to MF-F batte. 3. from abatre. culinary n. 2. n hence v (to strike as with a bat. perh influenced by the MF-F var rebattre. from cum. ME batere. debate. to beat severely=de-. prob echoic. whence ‘to rebate’. pp of battre. narrowish. abatement. sep. bate : aphetic for abate. down from + batre (cf para 1). shallow strip of sawn timber: from EF-F bâton. para 2. hence to cudgel): ME batte: OE batt. from combat. ad. from battre: cf.Origins 228 . int L dē-. abattoir (often pi abattoirs). n from adj from F combattant. to strike: ult. presp of combattre. n: MF-F débat. orig the f of battre. act of striking repeatedly. Prefix-cpds include: abate: OF-MF abatre (EF-F abattre). as in assault and battery. app from C r *bat-. batter. combat. stick. to reduce. staff. to beat. See BAKE. batter. combatant. MF-F battre. from OF-F débattre (OF debatre). from dē. battue: adopted from EF-F. to strike repeatedly: ME bateren. prob of C origin. ML abattere. from OF-MF batre. to fell. 2. MF-F battre. battery. to beat: LL battere: L battuere. The simple cognates include: baston. with+LL battere. hence apparatus. n: EF-F. slaughterhouse: F: from abattre. . from OF-F combattre. adopted from OF-MF. to beat. from ME bateren. whence to combat’: VL-ML com battere: com. rebate: MF-F rabat. batten. perh suggested by Petronius’s debattuere. adopted by E: from LL bastum. to strike (cf para 1). (v)-f suffix -ive.

batten . See the 2nd BAT. See BATTLE. whence ‘to bathe’. battels . v hence n. Cf BASK. OHG bad. to foment.(bathy-). G Bad. See 2nd BATTEN. bathos . bâton . bathe.A-Z 229 bath . MHG bat. adj bathetic (after pathetic): Gr bathos. akin to ON and OS bath. depth: cf the element batho. para 2. battalion . whence ME bathien. and to OE bathian (cf ON batha). from OHG bāien. baton. Bath derives from OE baeth. n hence v.

via ME batayle. influenced by battle. See 2nd BAT. prob orig echoic: cf the 2nd BAT. via ME batailen. to strike. para 2. University of Oxford battels is prob akin—cf the obs battle. with aug battaglione. 230 batten (2). the E n battle: and OF bataille comes from LL battālia. battle . LL battālia became It battaglia. batter. See 2nd BAT. See the 2nd BAT. strip of sawn timber. para 2. freq of batten. culinary n. battalion. whence EF-F bataillon. ‘To battle’ comes. a battle. batter . from L battuālia. esp to grow fat: ON batna. para 2. . from OF bataillier (MF-F batailler). battue . See 2nd BAT. para 2. the E battalion. battery . to strike often. from bataille. whence. to thrive. from L battuere. whence. to grow better: cf BETTER.Origins (1).

merriness. bold in all senses. bawdy: ME baude: MF baud(e). mintmaster c1540. to bark. baulk . itself from ON baula. Bawdy=bawd+adj suffix -y. a Sc copper coin: the Laird of Sillebawby. or from the echoic Icelandic baula. money: pl of bawbee. however. bawbees . . echoic (cf E ‘bow-wow’)+euphonic l+āre. See BALK. derived from OHG bald. a prob element in the pun. bald. (Cf RIBALD.A-Z 231 bauble . OF balt.) bawd .) But Webster’s etym is supported by EF baud. f baude: C12 balt: OHG bald. ribald. (of cows) to low.) bawl : either from ML baulāre. bold: cf therefore BOLD. (Cf Sc siller. (Dauzat. para 3. bawdry for ribaudry. boldness=baud+abstract-n suffix -erie (E -ery). bawdry=ME baudery=MF bauderie. makes bawd aphetic for riband. bawdry. EW. hunting term for a running dog: C14 baut. See BEAU. OF balderie. ribaldry. a cow. which= bau-. silver.

o. OF bayer. marine inlet: ME baye: MF-F baie: prob via OSp bahia. q. to. bay (2). exposed ‘to the barks’ of the dogs en-circling it at chase’s end. abois is the pi of aboi. orig of a stag F aux abois. var bacca. a (laurel) berry. certainly from LL baia. hence laurel tree: OF-F baie: L bāca. o. at+VL batāre. bay. beer. derives from the v. v and n (hounds): to bay.. bay (3).v. adj: OF-F bai: L badius. The n bay. Pr C *bodios. n. from OF baer. but in at bay. akin to Ir and OIr buide. Manx buigh. bay (4). . favourite seaside resort of ancient Romans.o. to yawn: cf the 3rd BAY. bay (5). loud bark. n. Baïai). ME bayen. yellowish brown. influenced by prec: OF baee. a deep. to yawn. pern (B & W) from L Baiiae (from Gr . pern akin to L Bacchus. baier. Cf BACHELOR.Origins 232 bay (1). n in Arch: ME bay. yellow. at BACCHANAL. a bark(ing). to be gaping or open: VL batāre (C8). yellow. a gap or opening. brown. aphetic for OF-EF abayer (EFF aboyer): VL *adbatāre: ad.

yields OProv badar. to yawn or gape. a public market or a street of shops. AE: AmF. be . abai. bazooka derives prob from a sound-and-shaperesemblance to radio comedian Bob Burns’s bazooka. bazooka comically alters bazoo. . bazaar : via EF-F and Port from Per bāzār. a raucous trombone-like sound-contrap-tion (Webster). bayou . whence late MF-F badin. at+bay.). presp (hence vn) being. var of kazoo (o. pp been (ME ben or bin). playful banter. a minor river or the branch of a delta. a simple-ton. of Amerind origin—cf Choctaw bayúk. appre-hended as a. VL batāre.o. bayonet : F (1575) baÏonnette: manufactured first at Bayonne in Southern France. a bark(ing). in C16. whence. ME abay. to play the fool. badinage.o. to yawn. adopted by E. to joke. hence (C18 onwards)—from actors playing the fool—a joker. 2.A-Z 233 OF-MF abay. a rough musical instrument with catgut sounding in a tube hummed or blown upon. whence EF-F badiner.

from bead. from OF-EF bedel (F bédeau): cf OE bydel. and L fui. OE bēacen. from OE bēacnian.. derives from a bead in a rosary. *bha-.Origins 234 Be derives from ME been. *bhaug-. prob *bheu-. is akin to the syn OFris bēken or bāken. e. Gr phunai (r phu-). via ME beknen.: perh cf the C r *bac-. to become or be.) ‘To beckon’ yields ‘to beck’. MHG bouchen:IE s. OHG bouhhan. been. OS bōkan. . a prayer. Cf ARE. a boat). beck (v. a sign: and bēacen. var beon. a very small globular body. beach : o. Go bidjan. to shine. ‘To beckon’ derives. lit an asking from God. I have been. bēcen. beacon . OIr biu. Cf BID. e. OHG-MHG-G bitten. perh via the vn beckoning. become. n hence v. .o. is a beads man. simple develop-ments occur in. from bēacen. with natural offshoots *bhe.g. OE bēon: cf OE bíom. liquid: ? ‘the wet place’ (cf Br bag. to ask.o. IE r. OHG gibet. he is. beadsman. WAS. becomes ME bekene becomes beacon. IE r.. esp Skt . IS. G Gebet. (Walshe. I am. beadle : ME. var bēcen. OHG bim (G bin). OHG betil: ult from the r of BID. beadsman. to be. bede. bhūtas.g. ‘a beck’ or nod. a prayer.and *bhu-. one who prays for. bekenen. a prayer. a prayer: ME bede. OSl byti. n hence v. to be born. his benefactor: and bead. Bedesman. bedesman. hence already a prayer bead: akin to OE biddan. bead . hence n)—beckon. hence a prayer bead: OE bed (or gebed).

open throat (for bee-. IE r. already bearing both of these senses. better. a point. a beak. OHG boum (G Baum). little tree. D boomschip: a boat hewn from a treetrunk. whence the pa beaked. A beam of wood. cf the 5th BAY.or.A-Z 235 beagle : Me begle: perh from MF bee gueule. v. parallel to MLG būmschip. for L bacārium. a water vessel: cf BASIN and PITCHER. hence a vociferous person. . beaker : ME biker: ON bikarr: LL becārium. cf GULLET). The other bumpkin. from OF-F bec. hence of light (cf the sem development of RADIUS). accounts for nautical E boomkin. Beaky derives from beak. however. beak . bumkin. cf bumboat. ? *bheu. boom. from MF-F bequer. n. also that of tree: akin to OFris bām. from the C r *bec (or *beic). E beak: and OF bec comes from LL beccus. PrC *beccos. whence the nautical E boom. Cf also the 1st PECK. app comes. 1. a long pole—bumboat—nautical bum(p)kin. ‘to beak’. a beak (Malvezin): cf Br beg. a small cask. with gueule. a rural lout. whence ME bec. The corresponding D word is boom. prob from LG bumboot. from D bommekijn. beaked. a growth. OS bōm. bumpkin. a tree. The D and Flemish dim boomken. beam . n. n hence v. derives from OE bēam. *bhou-. beaky. and perh to Gr phuma. 2. from bac(c)a.

2. IE r. with nasaliza-tion in the Gmc languages. ON bera. born. cf Gr pherō and L fero. as in Skt bhárāme. OHG bōna (G Bohne). and also to Lith . v (agent bearer. Skt bhalla. vn bearing): ME beren: OE beran. ? *bhab-. akin to OFris bāne. borne. OHG beran (cf giberan. See the 2nd BARB. I carry. see the magistral note at bear (v) in OED. The pt is bore. Bruin at BROWN (G braun) and. and therefore to L faba. ON baun: pern akin also to OSl bobŭ (Ru bob) and OPrus babo. bear . and 2nd BARROW. sem. 3. bere.Origins 236 bean : ME bene (or ben): OE bēan. D beer. the pp is born (come into existence). n: ME bere: OE bera. BEAVER. Go bairan. beast . formerly bare. Cf BERTH and BIRTH. MD bare. bear . and several C and Sl cognates. brown: ‘the brown animal’. para 3.in cpds. give birth to). OFris and OS bern. G gebären. For bore. therefore. beard . BURDEN. akin to the syn OHG bero (MHG ber. var borne (carried). prob *bhar-: (the Skt bhalla app=*bharla). BIER. G Bär). akin to OFris bera. with var *bher-. cf. a differentiation that arose only in late C18. IE r. ON björn and ‘shebear’ bera. IE r *bher-.

ideal beauty. beauteous. a social escort. embellish-ment. beautify. pl belles. ‘bo’. adj.o. perh also to L fustis. adopted by E in the n belle (e. beatific . blest. OF-F beau. has derivatives beātitūdō. of the ball). blestmaking (cf the element fic). for bella donna.o. whence beatific (cf EF-F béatifiquei). whence E beatitude. beat . earliest beste: OF-MF beste (EF-F bête): VL besta: L bēstia (o. bauble. beatitude.g. often abbr belle tristic. The L beātus. akin to ON bauta or beysta (cf the 3rd BASTE) or esp beyta. beauty. The corresp F derivative is OF-F beau. whence ML bēstiārium. beau . 2. euphemistic for the very poisonous plant. beātificus. and in belles-lettres. whence E bestial. orig the pp of beāre. Agent: belle-lettrist. a popular beauty. bibelot. from ML bēstiālitās (from bēstiālis). v hence n: ME beaten or beten: OE bēatan. The derivative It bello has f bella. adj: belle-lettristic. a book about beasts. whence beastly (adj -ly): ME beest.—belladonna. orig the humanities. as in E beau ideal. as in belladonna. whence the PN Beatrix. beau has f belle. handsome. The effective origin lies in L bellus. E bestiary. whence beauteous (-ous) and beautiful (-ful) and beautify (element -fy.). fine literature having aesthetic value. belleslettres. as term of address (cf HOBO). beau ideal. a club. hence n. a specialized dim of bonus. . and L adj bēstiārius. and beau monde. whence OF-F bestiaire. beatify. whence MF-F béatitude. with derivative LL adj bēstiālis. to bless.. good. o. and OHG bōzan. a fop. The F adj.o. The F derivative beau (pi beaux). earlier best. reduplicated in OF belbel.. beātrix. to make). The prevocalic m of the F adj beau is bel.A-Z 237 . the world of fashion.-embellish. bestiality derives from MF-F bestialité. 1. she who renders happy. perh *bhaud-. misapprehension of F le beau idéal. Beatrix. beauti-ful. hence prob the AE bo. belle. has derivative OF-F beauté. a plaything. F le beau monde. has become E beau. beau monde. pretty lady. IE r. whence beauty. 3.o.

See CAUSE. beaver (1).Origins 238 whence OF-MF baubel (or babel). the rodent amphibian: ME bever: OE beofor. a trinket. prob echoic. OF baviere. in medieval armour. is ult akin to BROWN. from OF belbel: beu. covering. orig a bib. 4. from OF beubelot. the beaver is named from its brown colour. prompted by MF-F embellissement. ‘sea caterpillar’—trepang. via such forms as ‘embellissant’ (presp) and ‘ils embellissent’. brown: like the BEAR. whence E bauble. from OF beubelot. -et (cf OF-MF babelet). the n em-bellishment (suffix -ment). para 2. a small iewel. from bave. the lower face: ME baviere. beche-la-mar or beach-la-mar. they beautify. because . in (used int)+bel-+euphonic -l-+inf suffix -ir: whence. for en-. beck . embellir: em-. beaver (2). Cf bibelot: MF-F bibelot. Western Pacific pidgin English: from fishers’ distortion of F bêche-demer. saliva. E ‘to embellish’. -belisshen. -et (cf OF-MF babelet). the ME em belisen.(for bel-)+-bel+dim suffix -ot. whence. and indeed beaver. etc. F has a derivative OF v. like bear. akin to OHG bibar (G Biber) and ON biórr and Av bawra: cf also Skt babhrúš.

a brook. it becomes one. to (by): akin to Go biqiman. as Walshe and Web-ster resp suggest. less imm. OHG betti. a mattress. See BEACON. to come upon. but ? rather the C r *bac-. ? cf the OSl begati (r beg-). become : ME bicumen. becumen: OE becuman.e. *bhod-. MHG bette. the MIr būal.. itself intimately akin to OHG bach or bah (G Bach). to dig (see FOSSIL). beckon . i. all obvious ‘To bed’ derives from OE beddian. and a var *bhed-. liquid. hence the adj becoming. akin to the syn OFris (and OS) bedd. OS beki. to come beside. OHG biqueman. and. beck (2) nod. with basic meaning ‘dug-out’ or ‘hollow’. *bed. G Bett. IE r. Go badi. a bed.A-Z 239 (1). bedd. near. bed . a grave. See BEACON. (Walshe. small brook: ME bek: prob from OE becc or bece. and to ON bedr. cf L fodere. but perh from ON bekkr.) bede . a feather-bed: C etymon. What comes to one is often suitable. itself from OE bed. and W bedd. to rim. n and v. with many cpds.

IE r. G Biene)—ON bech. a lunatic: then a lunatic asylum: finally. bedlam . bedraggled . hence v and numerous cpds. See STAFF. . used from c1400 for lunatics: hence. MHG bine.Origins . and with sense. Late ME bedlem. *bek-. e. bee .g. bethel and bethesda. or the confusion and noise associated with one. beech . adj beechen (OE bēcen). *bhi. a madhouse. EE Bedlam. all self-evident. earlier Bethlem. as in ‘sewing bee’ and ‘spelling bee’. Bethlehem: H food. deriving from the humming of bees: OE bēo. all obvious. denoted the London hospital of St Mary of Bethlehem. for basic idea. book. buck. ME Bedlent. little (Ga beag. the house of : from Bedlam. bedesman. See BEAD. heading and para 3. with numerous cpds. n. Ga beach—Lith bītìs. fig. OIr becc). in EE. See draggle at DRAW. bēth (house) occurring in many H-derived words. 240 bedizen . akin to OHG bīa (whence OHG bini. ? cf the PC *bic-. lye.

akin to OFris bōk. book. beef pl beeves. elm—L fāgus. earlier befe. The beech is also known as buck: intimately akin is buck. orig ‘beechwood sticks on which runes were carved’ (Walshe). e. letter of alphabet. See BE. Buck-wheat (buck. bōk. Orig an ox or cow or bull. The beech tree derives from ME beche. Beelzebub . from OE bēce. IE r. at LETTER). The Beefeaters of the Tower of London formerly received a handsome allowance of beef. LG Buke).. acc of bōs. and Go bōka. 2. but was prob suggested by D boekweit. beer . The ‘written document’ sense occurs already in OE. beech—OSl bŭzŭ. beech + WHEAT) is akin to G Buchweizen. been .v. cow. ON bōk. 3. q.. with cognates as above: add OHG buoh. See BAAL. OE (and OS) bōc bōk. hence beefy (adj -y) and. OHG buohha (G Buche). 1. earliest boef: OF boef or buef (F bœuf): ML bovem (L bouem).g. pl bōkōs. lye being orig ‘made from beech ashes’ (Webster). documents. an ox: f.a. edible oak.e. hence—except in rural beeves. The OE var bōc. beech—Gr phēgos. *bhāg-. became ME bok. became E book. MHG buoch. (so many) head of cattle— the flesh: ME beef. a book.A-Z 241 buck-wheat. lye (cf G Bauche. beefwood (red like raw beef). G Buch. (potential) books (cf L literae.

heading. malt of (usu) barley being the source of beer.. barley. therefore from bitan. hence.v. which.o. (? orig) sharp. akin to OFris biār. designating similar plants. beetle (1) ‘the little biter’: ME bityl or bittle: OE bitela. OHG bior (MHG bier. ME bitelbrowed. befriend . e. beetle app derives from ME bitel. G Bier). beetle (2).). akin to L blitum. before : ME beforen: OE beforan.a. beet : OE bēte: L bēta. See FALL. See FRIEND. by+foran. befall . at BITE. ON bjōrr.Origins 242 . In beetlebrowed. ‘beetling cliffs’. is a trln of Gr bliton (o. projecting. from bītan. FORE. before (adv): f. which=be-. pern also to ON bygg. hence adj beery (adj: -y): ME ber.o.e. q. var beor: OE bēor. a tool: OE bētel or bītel..g. . ? ‘little beater’ :cf BEAT.

A-Z 243 beg . begin . prefix. whence the eccl Beguines. E beggar has adj beggarly (adj -ly). short for begin. whence E beggary (cf suffix -ery). Beguine. female counterparts of the Beghards. beggary. to start (something). akin to OFris biginna. Beghard. Cf the obs gin. beggar (beggarly. from the same source. para 2. MF begard. via ME begger. Beggar comes. it had also the MF-F derivative béguine. beggar . beggar. prob from MD beggaert. beggary). begone . beget . ‘To beg’ derives from ME beggen. OHG (and OS) biginnan: bi-. ‘hood’: whence the E biggin. See GET. began. coif. pt began. pp begun: OE beginnan. a beggar. from MF begard. beggarly. biggin. whence the eccl Beghard. here int+-ginnan. See BEG. and ME begger has abstract n beggerie. from AF begger. 2. beghardus. F béguine had the MF-F derivative béguin. became ML begardus. for be-. began.

in the name of: on. on. in+half. at para 4.int from GRUDGE.Origins ! Be gone! 244 begonia . behalf (of). whence behaviour (abstract suffix -our): prefix be-+HAVE. heading—cf para 3. See VICTIM. q. begrudge : a be. orig a tropical flowering plant: C17 coinage from M Bégan. in or on: ME on-bihalve. behave . Governor of Santo Domingo.v. beguile . behead .

beheadal. . beige . n: OE behindan (be-+hindan: see HIND. behind . from behātan. ‘To beho(o)ve’ has passed through ME bihoven. prep. para 3. OE behōf yields E behoof. See BOMBAST. from behōf. a promise. to vow or promise: be-+hātan. to (hence for) the use of.A-Z . beholden. from OE behōfian. via ME to bihove. behoven. 245 behest . See HOLD. advantage (be. adj). adv hence adj. The shorter hest derives from OE . behoove . now usu behove. to : ME bihest(e): OE command. from hātan.+ derivative from root of HEAVE): and. para 2. v. See HEAD. para 3. behold . to need. (obsol) behoof. pp hence adj. a command.

See BAAL. belay (nautical): the syn D beleggen (be-. para 4. to lay). q. beleaguer . Hence belaying pin. . at BELLOWS. See LABOR. as in E+leggen.f. para 3. belch . akin to belly. v hence n: OE bealcian. See the 2nd LIE. belabo(u)r . See BE.Origins 246 being . Bel .v. s.

o.and LIE (speak falsely). Belgic (L Belgicus): Belgium. Belgian . itself from Belgae (s Belg-). See the 1st LEAVE. . lit that which guards (G bergen) peace (G Friede: cf FREE).o. belief . whence MF-F beffroi): MHG bërcvrit. whence believer. adopted from L. See LIKE. to be large: ‘the big fellows’ (Malvezin). para 4. para 3. belie (orig. a movable siege-tower: OF berfrei (or berfroi. belike .: prob C *belg-. to tell lies about): ME bilien or bilyen: OE belēogan: cf the int prefix be. from OHG bergfrid. the ancient Belgians: cf Gr Belgai: o. adj hence n (Belg-+-ian). var of *balg-.A-Z 247 belfry : ME berfray. believe.

e..and -ger. belittlement. ‘To bell’ (of stags). See LITTLE. akin to OE bellan. . para 2. cf MHG belle: f. para 2. belligerence : from belligerent. bell : OE belle. hence n: ME belwen: OE bylgan. bellicose .a. BELLOW. bellow . and cf LETTER. para 1.Origins 248 belittle . See BEAU. OE bellan. See the element belli-. belle : belles-lettres. adj hence n: see the elements belli. OHG bellan. to roar.f. is of the same Gmc origin. to bellow. s.

Cf BELCH and BELL. belly.—? Etruscan. earlier bely (whence belly). through ME below. baudry. . hence a bellows: and to several C words. belt . belg. to OHG (and G) balg. comes. to belong. to bark.o. bellows. Hence the vn belongings. Belt. belong : ME belongen: prefix be-+obs longen. voice. BUDGET. a hide or skin. BELCH. OF baldrei. bag. was orig a pl. he barks: IE s. with a var*bho. The n bellows derives. from ME baudrik. IE r. below . itself o. to Go balgs. meaning either ‘bellows’ or ‘belly’. basically.(clearly echoic). r balt-). from MF baudrei. with a var *bhol-. belonging. n hence v. from OE gelang. bag. *bhel-.*bhe-. adv hence prep: be-. n hence v. bellows . is akin to ON belgr. by+ LOW. and esp Skt . obviously. are bags. from OE belig. The IE r is app *bhal. dependent. hence bellows and belly—which. The OE word belig.or *bhelg-. Lith balhsas. Cf. belg. bellows.o. *bhalg. BOLSTER. baldric. Less directly from balteus comes baldric. a wineskin. OE belt.or bhel-. the s. things belonging to a person. from L balteus (s balte-. as do ON belti and OHG balz.A-Z 249 MHG and G bellen.

bemoan . q.Origins 250 bemire . See BANK. at BEND (3). para 2. para 2.f. n: a band: OE bend. See MUSE. bend (2). Cf BAND. bend (1). See MIRE.v. . s. bemuse . bench . n: a bending: from ‘to bend’. See the 4th MEAN.

a cf of facere. from the adj beneficus. Benefactor. Cf BENEFIT and: benefice . beneficence. well-doing. L bene-. from bonus. from L beneficialis. perh via MF-F. beneficent.A-Z 251 bend (3). to do good to (someone): bene. beneficence. anl with other -ficent agents. good+-ficere. and OE bindan. to bind. to make or do.(s of the pp benefactus)+agential -or. whence the rare E benefit. to bend. akin to ON benda. from L beneficium. benefaction . benediction. perh via F. MHG benden. from bene facere.e. adopted from LL=benefact. beneficiary (cf EF-F bénéficiaire). beneath . See NETHER. to make or do: cf FACT and: . bene-ficiary (adj hence n): resp. from beneficus. L beneficiārius. well-f facere. See DICT. para 7. beneficent. from L beneficentia.a.. benedictory. para 2. adopted from MF benefice (EF-F béné-). beneficial. BIND. ‘To bend’ derives from OE bendan. from beneficium. benedict . benefactor (whence benefactress): L benefactiōn-. o/s of LL benefactiō. well. to bind: f. from beneficium. to bend. v: pt and pp (whence the n) bend. beneficial.

Origins 252 benefit . Benign. benison . See DICT. whence benignant. bent . q. neu n from benefactus. benevolent. para 2. adopted from OF-MF. an -itas abstract-n derivative from benignus. whence benignancy. tendency. MF benignite (EF-F bénignité)=L benignitāt-. . bene. good-natured. See 3rd BEND. benevolence . benignity. at GENERAL. short for benigenus. descends from L benignus.v. o/s of benignitās. benign . para 7. well+-genus. with which ‘Gallic’ form cf the OF-F bienfait: L benefactum. ME benigne. pp of benefacere: cf BENEFACTION. well-born. adj c/f from genus. Benignity=OF. n hence v: ME benefet. euphonious for ME benfet. See VOLITION.

. the): Ar lubān jāwi.o. earlier benjoin. benzine: Chem -ene.. but akin to OHG binuz (G Binse). Berber . paras 2–3.apprehended as lo. OS binut. blend-ing Sp benjue and Port beijoim: It benzoi. only in placenames. See QUOTH. whence the adj benty: OE beonot-. but perh C. -ine derivatives from benzoin. NUMB. Benzol = benz(ene)+-ol. OE beniman. benzene . pp of benimen. oil. See BARBARIAN. bequest. to take: f. whence bequeathal (n -al). s.a. to take away: prefix be-+niman. for lobenzoi (with lo.f. frankincense of Java (Sumatra).o.e. bequeath . rush: o. or a stalk of such grass. EF-F ben oin. benumb : ME binomen.A-Z 253 bent (2). reed-like grass..

berry : ME berie: OE berie (or berige). itself app of Corigin: cf Br bèr and OIr berr. berg . short. ? from ON burthr. berth . See ROB. and perh Manx (? ex E berries) berrish. MHG ber. bereavement. a (great) rock. and ON ber. Go baírgahei. . ME burth.Origins 254 bereave . the LL birrettum. akin to OHG (and OS) beri. e. a capped hood. MHG berc. birth: both. therefore the 1st BARROW.. birth.g. beret : F béret. a cloak. ‘perh of Caucasian origin or from “Japhetic” (pre-IE) stratum in Gmc’ (Walshe). G Beere. of Scan origin: cf Sw isberg: ‘mountain of ice’: cf ICE and G and OHG berg. a tumulus. n hence v. in stealth from ‘to steal’. short for iceberg. OE beorh. ON biarg. mountain. mountain range. Cf BURNOUS. para 3. to carry. Holthausen suggests basic meaning ‘red’ and a C origin: cf MIr base. occ beret: Old Gascon berret: LL birrettum. from the r of BEAR. as. birrus. Cf the n-suffix -th. dim of LL birrum. E biretta loosely merges It berr etta and its source. red.

beside . besides. besmirch . EF-F béryl): L beryllus: Gr bērullos: Skt . See SAFE. s. s. beseem . See SIT. See SEEK. para 3. para 18. pt besought. prob via Prakrit velūriya (Webster). para 2. besiege . Hence beryllium: beryl+euphonicl+chem -ium. beseech . the former derives from ME biside: prefix be-+SIDE. from MF beryl (OF beril. by ME.f.f.A-Z 255 beryl : adopted. adv hence prep: the latter (ME) is orig the gen of the former.

bestial . bestiary. bettre (adv bet). 256 besom : ME besum. for betst. now bespoken: ME bispeken. earlier besme: OE besma. IE r. G Besen.. akin to ON beztr. a modernizing of OE besprecan. with adv baz. bespeak : pt bespoke. MHG besme. akin to ON betri (adv betr). betest. f. . best . cf BOOT. to talk about: cf the G besprechen and. OHG bezziro (MHG bezzer. The orig sense ‘broom’ plant leads naturally to the domestic broom. bhes-. ‘No certain cognates outside Gmc’ (Walshe). See BEAST. bestiary. advantage.a. OHG bezzist (MHG and G best). SPEAK.e. See SOT (heading). akin to OHG besamo. See SMIRCH (heading). G besser). Go batists. pp bespoke. whence the adj (bespoke tailors). better: resp OE best.Origins . ME betere. besotted . from OE betera (adv bet). Go batiza.

the nut of the betel palm of India and Malaya. consists of prefix be-+ STRIDE. v. bestow (prefix be-+STOW) derives from ME bistowen. bet . n and v. was brought to Europe by the Portuguese voyagers. rather more prob. Malayan . both presum-ably from the syn Skt . OE bestrīdan.A-Z 257 bestir (OE bestyrian): prefix be-+STIR. See BAIT. bethink . betel . bestride . deriving it either from Tamil or.

See TRADITION. betray . betroth. para 4 and heading. See BEDLAM. betoken =int prefix be. See TIDE.Origins (OE bethencan): be-+THINK. betrothal . See troth at TRUE. 258 Bethlehem . whence betrayal. better . betide and betimes. para 3.+TOKEN.

a woman’s breast: cf the rustic LL ubuppa. whence. by suffix -ment.. OF-MF bevrage. beverage. bever=ME beivre. bevel app comes from a lost OF form (? dim *baivel) of F béveau (var biveau). itself prob from OF baïf. para 10. betterment See BEST. by+a form from the root of TWO. now dial and coll ‘a snack’. thieves’ short crowbar: from Betty. feeding-bottle’ (Souter).a. bubby (now low).A-Z 259 . between : ME bytwene. open-mouthed: cf ABEYANCE. Cf: . ‘teat. (Dauzat) bever . to drink. Orig ‘a drink(ing)’. a drink from OF-MF beivre. BIBULOUS. whence also. With bever cf that other L bibere derivative. betty . var bitweonen: OE betwēonan (or -num): be-. anglicized as beverage: f. betwixt See TWO. petform of Elizabeth: cf the syn jemmy or jimmy.e.

bewilderment See WILD. beyond . and cf para 2. para 2. See WRAY. s. o. See YON. .Origins 260 bevy : ? orig ‘a drinking company’: AF bevee. Cf prec. bewilder. to drink).f. bewray . See WARY. See VICTIM. para 4 and heading.o. heading. a drink or drinking.o. but cf OF-MF bevee (from OF-MF beivre. beware . a hunting n of assembly.. bewitch .

through a form *(e)bigassius’ (B & W). to frequent or resort to.o. n and v (whence bibber). bias . Gr epikarsios derives from epi. bezique : F bésigue (occ bésy): o. cf OP kērscha (or kerscha).A-Z 261 bezant . over the top of.o. say Dauzat and B & W.. (on or from) a bias: app from OProv biais. See BYZANTINE. bib . ‘which would have penetrated by the Greek colonies of the Provençal coast. n hence v: F (en or de) biais. upon+karsion. with karsion and its adj karsios. from Gr epikarsios (oblique). See BIBULOUS. side or flank. EW adduces the two-centuries earlier form basseque and compares the still earlier It card-game bazzica. bibble-babble . See BABBLE. which Prati derives from the echoic It bazzicare. .

para 3. bicker : ME bikeren. *pob-.o. bibulous : bib.. ‘A bib’ derives from ‘to bib’: a bib drinks a child’s slopped-over beverage. whence the adj bibulus. the p being assimilated to the interior b: cf Skt píbati.o. ‘whence papyrus was exported’ (Webster). hence a book. is *pi-. to skirmish: o.Origins 262 bibelot See BEAU. s bib-. var *po-. often shortened to pi-: cf Gr pinein (s pin-. Cf also the C r pib-. See CHIEF. therefore. whence Biblical: OF-F bible: LL *biblia (neu pi): Gr ta biblia. from the Phoenician city Bublos (Byblos). App bibo (I drink) represents *pibo. para 2. spon-). The IE r. he drinks. and L potus. n and v (whence bibber). pi of biblion. *pon (cf Lesbian Gr pond-. r pi-). biceps . whence E bibulous. ‘To bib’ or drink comes from L bibere. *pot-. Bible . *pin-. with extensions *pib-. perh influenced . to hack or stab. (inner rind of) papyrus. dim of biblos. (of one) who has drunk. but cf OHG bicchan. the little books. to drink.

akin to ON bīda. The one notable cpd. biennial . abide—abode (n). Cf. See TOOTH. *bec is also a C r. apart from unbidden (prefix un-). pray (cf BEAD): OE biddan. OFris bidia. See CYCLE. therefore. IE r. is forbid. pp for-bidden: ME forbeden: OE forbēodan (cf the priva-tive for-). akin to OFris bidda (cf ON bithja). para 11. pp bidden) hence n: ME bidden. BEAK. 1. bid . to peck (F bequer). cf Gr peithein (s peith-). whence abode. 2. *bheid-. ask. Cf also: bide . for *pheithein. OHG (and G) bitten. v (pt bade. 2. Cf also BIDE. to expect. bītha. cf BID. Go beidan. para 1. OHG bītan. akin to Go usbeidan. Abide derives from OE ābīdan (a-+bīdan). OS biddian. to beg. from the tran-sitional ME abiden comes the ME n abood. I follow. cf also L fido (s fid-). bident . and Gr peithomai. bid. through ME biden. to persuade. ‘To bide’ derives. from OE bīdan (s bīd-).A-Z 263 by OF-F piquer. bicycle . pt forbid or -bade. I trust. prob *bheidh-. Go bidjan: IE r. akin to ON forbjōtha and G verbieten.

coif. swollen’ (Webster). See ANNUAL. bigamous. big . akin to Nor bugge. . L buccae.Origins . and the IE r is that in Skt bharás. s pher-). certainly to OHG bāra (G : ME beere. ult.f. s. bifurcate . s. whence bigger (big+ orthographic g+-er) and biggest (big+g+sup -est): ME big. See MONOGAMIST. a burden. cf also Gr pheretron (from pherein. The L word may be of C origin—cf E BEAK (L beccus). See FORK. akin perh to OFris bare. 264 bier . biggin . (puffed) cheeks. bigamist . bifurcation. bigamy. See BEG. an important man (‘big fellow’)—cf E BUG (big insect) and.f. para 2. the basic idea being ‘puffed up. earlier bigge. para 2. to bear. earlier baere:OE Bahre) and ON barar. the C root would be *buc (Malvezin). the r of bier is that of ‘to bear’.

gathered in a ship’s bilge. bike . bigotry. to bend. itself from LL biliōsus. a thinning of BULGE. para 1. biliary. Biliary=F biliaire. Bile. bilious=F bilieuse. adopted from EF-F. See GOD. not in Ir. from bile. para 6. bile . bilingual . W bustl. from bilis. See CYCLE. See BOW.A-Z 265 bight . bilious. Manx. comes from L bīlis (s bīl-) app of C origin: cf the Cor bistel. Br bestl. bilge is short for bilge water. f of EF-F bilieux. W. bigot .

. to strike. axe. weapon (broadsword. See BILE. and bīhal. bilk : a thinning or reduction of BALK. akin to OHG bill. ON bīldr. prob akin to: bill (2). after LINGUAL.Origins : L bilinguis. Cf prec. a written document: ME bill or bille: AF bille. r perh *bith-. then a staff bladetipped): ME bil: OE bil or bill. document. (earlier) seal: L bulla. also to OSl biti. OS bil. whence ‘to bill (and coo)’: ME bile or bille: OE bile. (orig) air bubble: cf ‘papal BULL’. bill (3). AL billa: ML bulla. IE s. axe. beak. 266 bilious . perh *bithl-. sword. pickaxe. bill (1).

MF billette has derivative late MF-F billet.A-Z 267 billabong . bill. The 1st element. a (small round) log: ML billia.g. to be solid (and strong). Ga bile. large or old or sacred tree. billiards : EF-F billard: MF billart (cf the suffix -ard). cf: billion : EF-F F bis. log. a small piece of (e. from bille. billet (1) a note: ME. esp a kettle: cf Henry Lawson’s famous short stories. hence a cue. twice+F million (sec MILLION). thin-ning of OF-MF bullette. *bil-. 1897. For the F -ll-. a staff. large tree. tree trunk. billette. C r. dim of OF-F bille. billet (2). While the Billy Boils. water. billa-. . as in billet doux. trunk: cf OIr bile. document: see the 3rd BILL. fire)wood: ME billette: MF billete. tree. from MF. a log: see prec. dim of bulle: ML bulla. water can. occurs singly in ‘billy can’. a river’s anabranch or ‘dead-end’ offchannel: adopted from Aus Aboriginal. branch. loveletter or -note. Ir bile. Br bilh.

binary : L bīnārius: bīni. . see BILLABONG. bindery. a buttock (rump-drawn)-f D tong. bund—bundle. two by two+adj suffix -ārius (E -ary): L r bi-. biltong . though peripheral. cognates in Webster). kettle. bin : ME binne: OE binne or binn.Origins 268 billow : ON bylgja. q.v. billy . cf the 2nd BILLET. vn binding. pt and pp bound. bind . dried meat: Afr: cpd of D bil. tongue (appearance). bin: perh C (many. binder. ult akin to E two. (policeman’s) club. akin to belly. manger. at BELLOWS.



1. ‘To bind’, with derivative agent binder (-er), vn binding (-ing) and trade-n bindery (ery), derives from OE bindan (pp bunden), akin to OFris (and ON) binda, OS and Go bindan, OGH bintan (MHG binden), and to Skt , later bandhati, he binds; IE r *bhendh-. (Walshe.) 2. The G-adoption bund, MHG bunt, comes from MHG binden (see para 1). G Bund has dim Bundel, with cognate MD bundel (var bondel), whence ME bundel, whence E bundle (basically, things fastened together), whence ‘to bundle’; akin to the MD form is the OE byndele, a binding, from OE bindan (para 1). 3. Cf BAND and BEND and (at BAND, para 5) BOND and:

, a dial var, mostly in cpds, of bind, esp in woodbine, from OE wudubind.

. See HABIT, para 13.


. See NIMBLE, para 8.




; biographic(al); biography: resp bio-graphy+agential -er; biography+ic(al); Gr biographia, element bio-, life+-graphia, a writing, from graphein, to write: f.a.e., GRAPH.

(element bio-, life+ element -logy, q.v. at -loger) yields biological (-ical: cf logical at LOGIC) and biologist (-ist: cf theologist). Cf :

, Bio’s physical individual: Gr biōn, presp of bioun (s bi-), to live: cf the element bio- and VIVA, paras 9 and 14.

. See VIVA, para 11.

. See PART, para 4.

. See FOOT, para 20.



. See PLANE, para 3.

, n hence v: ME birche (or birk): OE birce, bierce, beorc, akin to OHG birka, birihha, MHG birke, birche, G Birke, to ON björk, to several Sl words, and to Skt bhūrja; IE etymon, prob *bherja; perh ‘the bright tree’, for BRIGHT is a cognate. Adj: birchen (C15 onwards).

, with many cpds, all obvious: by metathesis from ME brid, bird or young bird, from OE brid or bridd, a young bird: ? a ‘nursling’—from OE brēdan, to cherish or keep warm.

. See BERET and cf BURNOUS.

. See BERTH.



: EF-F biscuit: OF-MF bescuit: It biscotto: L bis, twice+It cotto (pp of cuocere), cf L coctus, pp of coquere, to cook: ‘twice cooked’ (baked hard).

, archbishop—bishopric, archbishopric; episcopal, archiepiscopal—episcopate. Bishop derives, via ME bischop, earlier biscop or bisceop, from OE bisceop, biscop, itself from LL episcopus, superintendent, (later) bishop, from the Gr episkopos (prefix epi-, on or over +skopos, in-spector, cf the E SCOPE), a superintendent; archbishop, from OE arcebisceop (-biscop), from LL archiepiscopus, from Gr arkhiepiskopos (arkhi, chief). The adjj derive from LL and ML episcopālis, archiepiscopal being anl; episcopate comes from LL episcopātus, archiepiscopate being anl; episco-pacy =episcopate+the suffix -cy, much as accuracy derives from accurate. Archbishopric derives from OE arcebiscoprīce: its prototype bishopric, from OE bisceoprīce (bisceop+rīce, kingdom—cf the element -ric).

: adopted from G, var of Wismut: o.o.o.: MLG wesemot, perh from ‘the first bismuthmine (1440) at St Georgen in der Wiesen’; the 2nd element app comes from OHG muotōn, to demand, sc ‘permission to open a mine’. (Walshe.) For v (w) -b mutation, cf:

: late MF-F, from L, bison: prob from LGr bisōn, itself perh from the Thracian bisontes, wild oxen (cf ML bissonus, wild ox): orig a Euro-pean wild ox (the urus), hence the A bison. Rather than from Gr and Thracian, the L bison may have a Gmc origin: cf OHG wisant, OE wisend: ? orig Balto-Slavic.



(n); bite, pt bit, pp bitten.—bitter, bitterness.—Cf BAIT and BEETLE. 1. Bit, a bite (obs), hence a horse’s bit, derives, through ME byt, bite, etc., from OE bite, a bite or biting, akin to ON bit and to—prob from—OE bītan, to bite; bit, a morsel, derives, through ME bite, from OE bita, akin to, prob from, OE bītan, to bite: a morsel is a portion bitten off at one attempt. 2. ‘To bite’, whence ‘a bite’, derives, through ME biten, from OE bītan, akin to OFris (and ON) bīta, OS bītan, OHG bīzan, bīzzan (G beissen), Go beitan—and Skt bhedati, he cleaves; IE r, perh *bheid-. 3. Bitter, OE bittor, biter, is akin to OS bittar, OHG bittar (MHG and G bitter), ON bitr, Go báitrs: and prob to OE bītan, to bite, although, as Walshe proposes, it may rather be akin to L foedus, disgusting, itself o.o.o. Bitterness derives from OE biternys, from the adj.

: ME bicche: OE bicce, akin to ON bikkja, bitch, and grey-baka, (int) bitch; to G Petze (? from E); perh to F biche, OF bische, dial form of OF bisse, prob (B & W) from VL *bistia, from L bēstia, beast. Perh cf the Skt bhagas, genitals. ‘To bitch’ is akin to ‘to BOTCH’.

. See BIT, para 2.

bitter, bitterness
. See BIT, para 3.



: ME bitoure or botor: OF but or: doubt-fully from VL *butitaurus: the app echoic L būtiō (s būti-, r būt-), a bittern+taurus, a bull, introduced for echoic reasons. The ME word was perh in-fluenced by ern(e), the (sea) eagle.

: L bitumen, either of Osco-Umbrian or (E & M) of C origin—perh cf the Ga bighthalmhuinn and certainly cf the C r *beit-, to be thick or viscous (Malvezin).

. See VIGOR, para 11, s.f.

: EF-F bizarre: It bizzarro, capricious: Sp bizarro, brave, prob from Basque bizar, a beard, whence the Sp senses ‘energetic’—‘manly’—‘brave’,

, blabber. Blab, a telltale, derives from ME blabbe, akin to ME blaberen, to blab, which is echoic. Blabber, v hence n, is a freq: cf ‘to blubber’, equally echoic.



(adj hence n and v), with many obvious cpds; blacken. 1. ‘To blacken’ derives, by v suffix -en, from adj black; and black, adj, ME blak, derives from OE blaec, akin to OHG blah and ON blakkr and, further off, the L flagrāre (s flagr-, r flag-), Gr phlegein (s, r phleg-), to burn; IE r, *bhleg-; basic idea, ? ‘to burn with black smoke’ or ‘to burn black with smoke’, 2. Of cpds not too obvious, note blackguard, orig one of the kitchen menials in a great house, and blacksmith, from the dark metals he handles.

. See the 3rd MAIL, para 2.

derives from OE , blister, bladder, akin to OHG blāt(t)ara, MHG blātere, G Blatter, and ON blathra: akin to OE blāwan, to blow. Cf

: ME blad: OE blaed, leaf, hence blade of an oar, akin to OHG-MHG blat (G Blatt) and ON blad, blat(h)—and OE blāwan, to blow. Cf prec, BLAIN, the 1st BLOW, (in) FLATE.




, pretentious nonsense or verbiage: blah!, term of contempt: ? blend of bleat + bah.

, obsol except in chilblain (chill+blain): ME blein, bleyn: OE blēgen, with cognates in at least two Scan languages; akin to bloat and ult to ‘to blow’.

, v (whence blamable: cf EF-F blâmable) and n (whence blameless); blaspheme, blasphemous, blasphemy. 1. Blame, n, comes, in ME, from OF-MF blasme (EF-F blame), from OF-MF blasmer (EF-F blâmer), to blame, whence, via ME blamen, the E ‘to blame’: and OF blasmer comes from LL blas-phēmāre, to BLASPHEME, to blame, from L blas-phēmāre, to blaspheme, from Gr blasphēmein to speak ill of, from the adj blasphēmos, evil-speaking, -phemos from phanai, to speak, with 1st element (bias-) perh akin to Gr meleos, futile, itself with C and Skt cognates. 2. LL blasphēmāre yields OF blasfemer, whence ME blasfemen; whence, classically reshaped, E ‘to blaspheme’; blasphemous=L blasphēmus=Gr blasphēmos (as above); and blasphemy is a similar reshaping of ME blasfemie, adopted from OF-MF, from L blasphēmia, Gr blasphēmia, from—abstract suffix -ia—blasphēmos.

(1), in hunting: a var of BLENCH.

(2), to render, or become, white or pale: ME blaunchen or blanchen: OF-F blanchir, from OF-F blanc, f blanche, white: f.a.e., BLANK.



; blandish, whence (suffix -ment) blandish-ment. ‘To blandish’ comes, through ME blaundisen, from OF-EF blandir (presp blandissant), from L blandīri, to flatter, from blandus, (flatteringly) mild, whence the E bland. L blandus, s bland-, is o.o.o.—? echoic.

, adj hence n: ME blank, blonc, blaunc: influenced by OF-F blanc, f blanche (cf E BLANCH), but perh from OE blanca, akin to OHG blanc, bright (G blank) and therefore also to ON blakkr, a white horse; app the OF word comes from the OHG

, v hence n: ME blaren, var bloren, to weep, akin to G plärren, to bleat; echoic.

: pp (as adj) of EF-F blaser, to weary (someone) with strong liquor: D blasen, to cause to swell: ‘bloated with liquor’. (B & W,)

, blasphemous, blasphemy. See BLAME, para 2.



a blowing, a gust (or a breeze) of wind, akin to OHG blast and , n hence v: OE ON blāstr, and to the OE blāwan, to blow, OHG blāsan (G blasen) and blāian, ON blasa, OFris blā; the Gmc r is therefore bla-, the IE r *bhla-, with varr *bhle-, *bhlo-, cf the L flō, I blow, flāre, to blow, flātus, blown; ult echoic. Cf BLAZE, 2nd BLOW, BLUSH, BLUSTER.

, blate, bleat; blatant; blather. 1. The first two are varr of ‘to bleat’ (whence the n), ME bleten, OE akin to G blöken; echoic. The adj blatant (whence blatancy; suffix -cy) app derives from Spenser’s ‘the Blatant (or Blattant) Beast’, a bellowing monster, perh sug-gested by L blaterāre (s blater-, r blat-), to babble, whence the mainly dial E blatter, to prate. 2. Blather, n, comes from ON blathr, nonsense; ‘to blather’, from ON blathra, to talk nonsense, two intimately related ON words that, clearly echoic, are obviously akin to OE and L blaterare. Blether is a Sc var.

, effusion of light (and heat or flame): ME blase: OE blaese or blase, akin to OE bias, white or whitish, and G blass, pale, MHG and OHG bias, whitish, with a white forehead, the MLG var blase leading to E blaze, a white mark on the face, usu the forehead, of (domestic) quadrupeds; cf the ON bles, in both senses; perh, ult, of OSI origin or, at the least, akin to OB bělyj, white (Walshe). ‘To blaze’, to burn brightly and vigorously, derives from the prec n, as, from its latter sense, does ‘to blaze’, to mark with a white spot or patch. 2. A blazer (jacket) is so named because it glows. A blazon, whence directly the v (cf, however, the MF-F blasonner), comes, via ME blasoun, from OF-F blason, a shield (with coat of arms), prob of Gmc origin and akin to blaze.



. See prec, para 2.

, v hence n; ‘bleachers’.—bleak.—blight, n hence v. 1. ‘To bleach’ or whiten derives, through ME blechen, from OE itself from blāc, pale: cf ON bleikja, MHG blīchen, G bleichen, and the adjj ON bleikr, OHG bleih, MHG-G bleich: IE r, ? *bhla-, *bhlei-. 2. ‘Bleachers’ are wooden seats that, exposed to the weather, turn paler and paler, season after season. 3. Bleak is of Scan origin: cf ON bleikr, pale, white. 4. And blight app comes from the same Gmc r as bleach,

(v hence n), blear (adj), bleary; blur (v hence n), blurry. ‘To blear’, render dim and watery, derives from ME bleren, cf LG bleer-oged, bleareyed; the ME adj blere, whence E blear, is cognate, cf G Bleor, eye-soreness; o.o.o. Bleary=blear, n+adj suffix -y. Blurry=blur, n+euphonic r+-y; ‘to blur’ is app of same obscure r as ‘to blear’

. See BLAT.


. See BLOB.


; blood. ‘To bleed’: ME bleden: OE blēdan, derived from the OE blōd, ME blod, E blood: cf OFris blēda. With OE blōd, cf. ON blōth, Go blōth, OFris and OS blōt, OHG bluot, G Blut, perh akin to Blume, a flower, with basic idea ‘florid’ (Webster); IE r, perh *blodh-. Cf BLESS.

, v hence n: ME blemishen, earlier blemissen: from OF-MF blesmir (F blêmir), to fade or cause to fade, in such parts as blesmissant. blesmissent: either from the r occurring in OHG bias, G blass, pale (cf BLAZE, para 1), or from OScan blami, pale blue (cf G blau, E blue).

(1), to pale: a var of the 2nd BLANCH, to turn pale.

(2), with var blanch, in, e.g., hunting, to turn aside (vt and vi): ME blenchen, to divert, to deceive: OE blencan, to deceive, akin to ON blekkja, to impose upon: perh, as Webster pro-poses, a caus of blink, to make (someone) wink, hence to deceive. ‘To blink’, vi as well as vt, ME blinken, blenken, is akin to G blinken, to gleam or shine; ME blinken is prob only app a nasalization of OE blēcan, to gleam. The n blink occurs already in ME. Derivatives from the v: blinkard (-ard) and blinker(s).



, to mix, hence n; obs blend, to dazzle or blind; blind, adj, hence n and v; blunder, v hence n. 1. If we set out from the predominant meaning—‘to render dark, (hence) to confuse’— the dark is light enough, and the path becomes clear: ‘to blend’ (mingle) comes, through ME blenden, from ON blanda, akin to OFris blenda, OHG blentēn, MHG-G blenden, to blind, esp to OE blendan, to dazzle or blind (hence the EE blend, to blind), and to OHG blantan, to mix (Go blandan); akin to the OE, whence the E, adj blind (ON blindr, OFris and OS blind. Go blinds, OHG-MHG blint, G blind); akin also to ON blunda, to close one’s eyes in sleep, itself akin to ME blunderen, to confuse, (v.i) to move clumsily, to blunder, hence the E ‘to blunder’. With all three OE-ME originals, cf the Lith blandus dusky, (of soup) thick, and blandytis, to lower the eyes, and the Orkneys bland, buttermilk diluted with water, from ON blanda, hot whey similarly diluted. (Notably Walshe.) 2. Blende, as in pitchblende, is G (from blenden, to blind, to deceive): so named, either from its brilliance or from its deceptive lack of lead. 3. The IE r is prob *b(h)lend- or *bhlendr-.

, whence the pa blessed, blest, and the vn blessing: ME blessen, earlier bletsen, bledsen: OE blētsian, blēdsian, bhedsian, to sanctify or con-secrate with blood, q.v. at bleed: by rendering holy, to render happy. (For sem, see esp OED.)

. See BLAT.


See BLEACH, para 4.


: Pl N from Hobson-Jobson adj blighty: Hind bilātī (foreign, hence European, esp E), var of wilāyatī, adj of wilāyat, country, esp if foreign, itself from Ar wilāyat, a province, hence a country, from wali, governor (of a province): cf Tu vilāyet, from Ar wilāyat.

, a small, non-rigid airship, hence a flabby, pompous (old) reactionary: coined ? in 1915, by Horace Shortt: prob a blend of bloody+limp (adj).

. See BLEND, para 1.

blink, blinkers.
See the 2nd BLENCH.

, whence blissful; blithe. Bliss derives, through ME blis, blisse, from OE bliss, an ‘eased’ var of blīths, itself from OE blīthe, whence E blithe: cf OFris blīth-ship, ‘blitheship’, joy—Go bleiths, kind—ON blīthr, gentle—OHG blīdi, kind, blithe; IE etymon, *bhleitio, extension of r *bhlei, to shine.



, n hence v: ME blister or blester, either from MD bluyster or from OF blestre, itself from ON blāstr, a swelling, (orig) a BLAST—cf, sem, ‘puff of wind’ and ‘eyes puffed up’.

. See BLISS.

, n hence v; Blitzkrieg. The former shortens the latter, which, in G, means ‘lightning war’. G Blitz, lightning (MHG blicze), is akin to G Blick, a glance (MHG, OHG blic, a flash, lightning); the IE s is *bhleg-, pern cf *bhlei-, to shine (see BLISS, s.f.). G Krieg, war, derives from OHG krēg, obstinacy.

is a suffix -ard derivative and senseadaptation of blizz, a storm, itself app a thinning of blaze, a bright flame, the hiss of rain being likened to that of a blazing fire.

, to cause to swell, hence to cure (fish), whence bloater, a large cured herring: OE *blātian: cf BLAIN and the Gr phloidaō (sphloida-, r phloid-), I let swell; IE s, *bhleid-, r bhlei-.



, blister or bubble, hence a small drop or lump: from dial, where the syn blob or blab is clearly echoic, with intimate cognate blub, to become puffed, as with weeping, hence to weep noisily, with the freq derivative blubber, (orig) to bubble, hence weep noisily; blubber, (whale’s) fat, derives from blubber, a large marine nettle, from blubber, foam or a bubble, from blubber, to bubble.

, n and v; blockade, n hence v; blockhead, blockhouse. Blockhead=block+HEAD; blockhouse=block + HOUSE, and is prob imitative of G Blockhaus (cf MD blochuus). Blockade is a suffix -ade derivative of ‘to block’: cf the It bloccata. ‘To block’ comes from late MF-F bloquer, itself from MF-F bloc, whence, via ME blok, E ‘a block’: and MF-F bloc derives from MD blok, a felled tree-trunk, akin to MHG, from OHG, bloh, a block: prob cf BALK.

(m), blonde (f): adj hence nn: adopted from F. The OF-F blond (cf OProv blon, It biondo) is dubiously of Gmc origin, although cf the OE blonden-feax, grey-haired, where blonden derives from OE blondan, blendan, to mix: cf the basic meaning of BLEND.

. See BLEED. Note the derivatives bloodless (OE blōdlēas) and bloody (OE blōdig); the latter, used by sl as an int, results naturally from the violence and viscosity of blood.



, n hence v; blossom, n and v. 1. A bloom, ME blome, comes from ON blōm, var blōmi, akin to OFris blōma, Go bōma, OHG bluomo (G Blume), OS blōmo—and to OE blōma, a lump or heavy mass, whence the metallurgical E bloom. 2. ‘To blossom’ derives from OE blōstmian, itself from OE blōstm or blōstma (with further var blōsma), a flower, whence E blossom: and the OE words are akin to MHG blossem and ON blōmstr. Blossom is therefore, in its early Gmc forms, an extension of bloom: f.a.e., the 1st BLOW—cf ‘Every flower that blows’.

, n, v (whence blotter); blotch, n hence v. 1. ‘To blot’ comes from MF blotter, to stain or blot, from MF blotte, bloutte, bloute, from OF bloste or blostre, a clod or a mound of earth, a blister, of Gmc origin: cf BLISTER.—The blot in backgammon app derives from Scan blot(t), naked, hence exposed. 2. Akin to MF bloute is MF bloche, a clod of earth, whence the E n blotch.

, adopted from F (recorded 1798), is o.o.o; but since, as Dauzat sagely remarks, the primitive form was prob belouse, the word is perh C and ult akin to L follis, a pair of bellows, later an air-filled pillow or cushion: cf the phon kinship of C *bel, a leaf (as in beliu), to L folium, a leaf.

(1), to bloom or blossom: ME blowen: OE blōwan, to blossom, akin to the syn OS



blōjan, OHG bluoen (for *bluojan), MHG blüejen, G blühen, OFris blōia, to several C words and, further back, to L florēre (s flor-), to ‘bloom’ or flourish. The IE r is app *bhlo-. Cf BLADE and BLOOM.

(2), of air: to move swiftly and strongly: ME blowen, earlier blowen: OE blāwan, (of wind) to blow: akin to OFris biā and OHG blāhan, blāen (for *blājan), MHG blähen, and prob to L flāre, to blow, flō, I blow: ult echoic, cf BLAST. G

(3), forcible stroke with fist or instrument: ME blowe, blow, akin to OHG bliuwan, MHG bliuwen, G bläuen, Go bliggwan (=bliwwan), to thrash: prob echoic.

, whence blowzy. Blowze, a ruddy-faced woman, (later) a slattern, app derives from the same r as BLUSH.

; blubber. See BLOB.

, a half-boot: from General Blucher, of Waterloo fame. Cf Wellington, a high boot, loose-

topped, from the Duke of Wellington.


, n hence v (whence bludgeoner, whence Aus s bludge), is o.o.o. EW proposes that, influenced by blood (? rather blow, a heavy stroke), it comes from OF bougeon, dim of OF bouge (var bolge), a club, prob id with OF-F bouge, the concave or swollen part of an object, itself prob, as Dauzat mentions, akin to—if not, indeed, from—OF-F bouge, OFMF bolge, a leather bag, from L bulga, itself prob of C origin, with several modern C cognates.

, adj, hence n and v: ME bleu (var blew), adopted from MF: OF blau, blo, bloe: of Gmc origin: cf OFris blāu, OHG (and OS) blāo (G blau), and—not itself the source of blue— OE blāw or ‘Orig. meaning “bright”; cognate with Lat. flavus [better flāuus, sflau] “yellow”' (Walshe).

(1), adj hence n. A bluff or high, steep river or seaside bank, derives from the adj, ‘broad- and flatfronted; rising high and steep; hence, abrupt, unceremonious, roughly good-natured’: and the adj is app of LG origin—cf MLG blaff, smooth, and MD blaf, flat, broad, flat and broad, and blaffaert, a broad-faced person.

(2), v hence n: like prec, of LG origin: prob from D verbluffen, to baffle (ver-, int prefix), cf LG bluffen, to frighten: prob orig echoic.



. See BLEND, where cf blind.

. See THUNDER, para 2.

, occurring since early ME: adj hence v: pern, akin to early G. pluntsch blunted, depressed, clumsy, and to Lith to knock, beat’ Webster); pern (OED) of ON origin—cf ON blunda, to doze, and blundr, a dozing, themselves prob akin to ON blanda, to mix, (hence) confuse, and the adj blindr, blind: cf therefore BLEND.

, v hence n. See BLEAR.

was coined in 1907 by Frank Gelett Burgess, who dubbed a ‘lovely’ appearing in a comic book-jacket designed by him: ‘Miss Blinda Blurb’. (Mencken, Sup 1.) Perh it is a blend of ‘Woody absurd’, Burgess knowing colloquial (British) English very well and often writing for British periodicals.



is echoic. EW adduces the Sc blirt, a sudden weeping.

, v hence n: ME bluschen, to be (or turn or shine) red: OE blyscan, to shine, esp red, to be red, from blysca, a flame, a torch (clearly akin to BLAZE), and āblyscan (int a-), to blush: cf ON blys, a torch. Cf also:

, v hence n: prob from LG blustern, (of weather) to storm, hence to bluster: ult akin to BLAZE and to the 2nd BLOW.

‘’: see BEAU.

(constrictor). The huge A snake derives from L boa, a water snake, answering to Gr hudra (E HYDRA). Perh L boa comes from the idea of cattle (boues, ML boves) coming to drink at stream or pool. (Cf BOVINE.)



: ? ME bor, which has the var bar: OE bār, akin to OHG bēr, G dial bär, syn with MHG eber (G Eber), OHG ebur, and OS evur: since the dissyllabic form corresponds to L aper and since OE bār is syn with OE eofor (cf the basic meaning of ON iöforr, a prince), the Gmc s is app, as Walshe proposes, *ebhuraz, presumably with r *ebhur-; the IE r is perh *abher-, var *ebher-.

(1), n (plank) hence v: ME-OE bord, akin to ON borth, plank, and Go fōtubaúrd, footstool, also to OE bred, OHG-MHG bret (G Brett), a board or plank: basic idea, ‘to cut’ (Webster).

(2), n (side of ship; border) hence v: OE bord, border, akin to OFris (and OS) bord and OHG bort (G Bord) and ON barth, borth: basic idea ‘something that projects’ (Webster); like Walshe, however, I think that (1) and (2) are cognates.

, v hence n: ME bosten or boosten (n bost or boost): perh akin to OHG bōsi, worthless, slanderous (MHG boese; G böse, evil), itself o.o.o.




, n hence v: ME boot, var bat: OE bāt, akin to ON beit, beitr and G Boot (modern only). Perh OE bāt comes from ON beit(r), itself from ON bita, to split (up): cf, sem, ‘dugout’ (boat).—For boatswain, see SWAIN, para 2.

, n (bunch or cluster, esp if pendent, as in bobtail; knob; ball of a pendulum; short, jerky motion) and v (to strike severely; then, strike lightly; to move (vt, vi) shortly and jerkily): ME bob, bobbe, bunch, and boben, bobben, to strike: prob echoic, but just possibly C: cf Ga bad, Br bod, tuft, bunch, cluster. ‘To bob’ has freq bobble.

(si for a shilling). See ROBERT, para 2, s.f.

: EF-F bobine, from bobiner, to wind, itself o.o.o., but prob echoic (see, e.g., B & W at bobard)—cf the 1st BOB.

. See the 1st BOB, s.f.

, a policeman. See ROBERT, para 2.



; bobwhite: Bob Lincoln; Bob White: from the bird-calls or -notes.

: F bock: G Bockbier: Bavarian Etmbock: G Einbecker, for einbecker Bier, beer made at Einbeck in Germany. (Walshe.)

, to announce or foretell, (later) to portend (ill), hence the now obs n bode, whence the adj bodeful (-ful); forebode, whence adj and n foreboding. 1. ‘To bode’ derives, via ME bodien, from OE bodian, to announce, from boda, a messenger, itself from the same r as bēodan, to command (cf, therefore, BID); OE bodian is akin to OFris bodia, to summon. 2. ‘To forebode’=to bode, tell or announce, fore, in advance.

; bodily. See BODY.

: ME boydekyn, boidekin, boitequin, a dagger: o.o.o. EW proposes AF *boitekin, dim of F boîte (earlier boiste), a box, and, sem, compares TWEEZERS; no less tentatively I suggest that the first element (the -kin is prob dim) comes from IE r *bhod-, var *bhed-,



issuing in L as fod-, as in fodere, to dig, and in C as *bod- (with var *bed-), as in W bedd, a tomb, and several F dial terms in bod- (Malvezin); there are Sl cognates, both ancient and modern.

, n hence v; embody, embodiment; bodice;

. Embodiment=embody+-ment; embody (with var imbody)=em-, for en-, in+body. Bodily, adj hence adv, represents body+-ly; bodice, orig ‘corset’, is merely a graphic and phon alteration of bodies, much as the OF, whence E, corset lit means ‘little body’. The v body derives from the n: and the n, through ME bodi, derives from OE bodig, akin to OHG botah, pern akin to OHG botahha (G Bottich), tub, vat, cask: sem cf ‘tubby’ persons. In anybody, nobody, somebody we see the ‘person’ sense of body: cf the combatant Services’ use of bodies.

. See BOOR. bog, n hence v and the adj boggy: Ga and Ir bog, damp, miry, OIr bocc (cf bocaim. I soak), Ir bogach, Ga bogalach, bogainn, a bog or marsh: orig, prob echoic.

bogey (or bogy), bogle
, goblin, bugbear; boggle. ‘To boggle’, start or shy in alarm, (hence) to hesitate, derives from boggle, var of bogle, app the dim of bog (var of bug, ME bugge, a bugbear), whence also bog(e)y: and bug, whence bugbear (see BEAR, n), has cognates in G and is ult akin to PUCK.



: var of prec.—bogie, in transport, is an E dial word, o.o.o.

. See BOGEY.

, adj hence n: ? short, as Webster proposes, for dial (SW England) tankerabogus, var tantarabogus, a goblin, where -bogus clearly refers to bog, or bog(e)y, a goblin, and the first elements are fanciful; bog or bog(e)y has perh been influenced by hocus-pocus.

. See BOGEY.

, n hence adj: Bohemian, a native of Bohemia, fig a romantic land (picturesque scenery, gypsies): the sense ‘(poor and) unconventional artist or writer’ springs from the tremendous success of Henry Murger’s stories entitled Scènes de la vie de Bohème, 1849, and of the play, La vie de Bohème, 1851. Bohemia, G Böhmen, derives from L Boii, a C people that emigrated, c400 B.C., from Gaul.



, v hence n (‘come to the boil’) and agential boiler and vn boiling: ME boilen: OF-MF boillir (EF-F bouillir): L bullīre, var of bullāre, from bulla, a bubble: cf ‘ebullition’. A boil or inflamed swelling has been influenced by boil; it derives from the obs syn bile, OE byl, itself akin to L bulla. 2. The cpd parboil, ME parboilen, comes from OF parboillir, itself from LL perbulllre, to boil well (per- being here an int).

: ME boistous, prob influenced by BLUSTER (orig, to wander blindly): Webster aptly compares the MD adj bijster, running wild: the MD varr bister, bestier do rather suggest an origin at least partly echoic.

, whence (suffix -ness) boldness: ME bold, earlier bald: OE bald, beald, akin to OHG (and OS) bald and ON ballr, and to Go balthei, boldness, and balthaba, boldly; perh ult to the v BLOW; Feist proposes an IE etymon *balths, swollen.

(1), tree-trunk, came into ME from ON bolr, akin to MHG and MLG bole (G Bohle), a plank. Kluge proposes a Frankish *bolo-; Holthausen a kinship with the n BOWL. Hence ME bolroysche, bulrysche, whence E bulrush (rush, a plant).




(2), friable clay: L bōlus, clay, lump of clay, lump: Gr bolos, a clod (i.e., lump) of earth, perh akin to L bulla, a bubble. The med bolus is the L word bōlus.

, short jacket, derives from the Sp dance named bolero, itself app from bola, a ball: f.a.e., BOWL, a ball.

, occ baloney: Bologna sausage, all sausages being gastronomic inferiors.

: OE bolster, akin to OHG bolstar, MHG (and G) polster, ON bōlstr: cf OHG belgan, to swell (see BELLY).

(1), a shaft or arrow: OE bolt, akin to ON bolti, OHG and MHG bolz, MLG bolte, G Bolzen. The Gmc words come perh from L catapulta, influenced by MHG boln, to throw. (Walshe.) Hence ‘to bolt’, orig to start forth like a bolt or arrow.

(2), to sift: ME boulten, bulten: MF-OF buleter (MF-F bluter): MD biutelen, rather than MHG biuteln, to sift—perh cf G Beutel, MHG biutel, OHG būtil, a bag, a purse, hence a boltingcloth (B & W), known, tech, as a boultel, from OF buletel.



. See the 2nd BOLE.

, n hence v (whence bomber); bombard, n and v; bombardier, bombardment. ‘To bombard’ comes from EF-F bombarder, itself from MF-F bombarde, a heavy projectile-firer, whence the obs E n bombard; bombardier is adopted from late MF-F (bombards++agential -ier); bombardment (suffix -men) merely adapts F bombardement (from bombarder); and the E n bomb represents EF-F bombe, from It bomba, bombst ell, from L bombus, a dull, heavy noise, from Gr bombos, itself echoic: cf echoic BOOM.

, whence bombastic; bombazine (or -sine); beige. 1. Bombast comes from MF bombace, cotton, hence padding: LL bombāc-, o/s of bombāx, a fusion (? confusion) of LL bambāx, cotton, and post-Classical bombyx, silk, silkworm, themselves from Gr bambax, cotton, and bombux, silk worm or cocoon, hence silk, both perh from Per—cf Pahlavi pambak, cotton (Webster). 2. Bombasine, -zine= MF-F bombasin, either from It bambagino, modification of It bambagia, cotton, from LL bambax, or, more prob, from LL bombasinum, alteration of bombycinum, a fabric of cotton or of silk, orig the neu s of bombycinus, adj of L bombyx (as above). 3. Beige, n hence adj, is adopted from MF-F, which, perh by aphesis, takes it from It bambagia (as in para 2); EW, more prob, proposes beige, F dial form of OF-EF bis (f bise), yellowish grey, and compares It bigio, grey; bis is o.o.o.




, F adj (f bonne), as in bon mot (cf MOTTO) and bon vivant (cf VIVACIOUS), and, disguised, in debonair (OF de bon aire, of good stock)=the L bonus (f bond), good: cf BONNY.

: Sp, fair weather, hence prosperity: from bono, good, early form of bueno: f.a.e., BONNY.

: F: nursery redup of bon.

, a band or fastening: see BAND, last para.

: ML bondagium (with -agium, cf the suffix -age): ME bond(e), a serf: OE bonda, a servant, orig a householder, esp a husband: ON bōndi, for būandi, lit ‘a person dwelling’, from ON būa, to dwell.

, bondswoman. See BAND, last para.



, n hence v; bonfire. A bonfire was orig a fire of bones, ME bonefire: and bone derives, via ME bon, ban (also bane), from OE bān, akin to OFris (and OS) bēn, OHG bein, bone, MHG bein, bone, leg, G Bein, leg, ON bein, bone, leg. Adj: bony, for boney.

: ME, from MF, bonet, var bonnet: late ML boneta, bonetta, bonet(t)um: by aphesis, from ML abonnis, a cap, o.o.o. but perh Gmc (B & W).

; bonus. Bonny derives, prob influenced by joly (jolly), from ME bonie, itself from F bon, f bonne, from L bonus, good, which, sense-adapted, becomes the commercial E bonus: and L bonus is app for *duenus (IE *dwenos), the r being *duen-, Gr *dun(as in dunamis, power): basic idea, ‘health, energy, strength’.

. See BONE, s.f.

is short for booby, from Sp bobo, stupid, Itself from L balbus (adj), stammering, the



stammerer appearing stupid: and balbus is echoic (cf BARBARIAN).

; caboodle. The latter prob=either kit and boodle (Webster) or int prefix ker-+boodle; boodle itself appears to represent either MD-D boedel, property, or MD budel, ED buy del, D buidel, MLG būdel, a purse, the latter being, sem, the more likely.

. See BEECH, para 2.

(1), a long pole: see BEAM, para 2.

(2), echoic v hence n, including the stockmarket sense: cf ME bommen, to hum; the noise has become deeper.

, n hence v, is an Australian Aboriginal word.



, adj: F bon: L bonus, good: f.a.e., BONNY.

, n: ME bone: ON bōn, a petition: a petition granted constitutes a favour or advantage, a sense influenced—cf prec—by F bon, good.

, boorish; Boer; the Bowery. Boor, whence boorish, comes from D boer, a farmer, hence a country lout, for earlier geboer, cf LG gebur, OHG gibūro, OE gebūr, a countryman, from ge-, together 4- būr, a dwelling (cf the 2nd BOWER). The D farmers in SAfr, hence all Dutchmen there, became known as Boers. The Bowery district of New York City represents D bouwerij, from bouwer, farmer, akin to boer.

, v hence n and the agent booster: Scots dial boost, to purposefully drive or push, itself o.o.o., but very prob echoic.

(1) amends, remedy, profit, whence bootless: ME bot or bote: OE bōt, akin to OFris bōte, OS and Go bōta, OHG buoza, MHG buoze, G Busse: akin to BETTER.



(2), footwear: ME bote: OF bote (F botte): o.o.o., but prob formed from the same r as F bot—in pied bot, a club-foot, akin to bot, a toad, a squat creature—in the sense ‘heavy shoe or boot’ (B & W). Bootee is diminutive: cf the suffix -ee. 2. A bootlegger is the agent of ‘to bootleg’, orig to carry on the person, usu in a bootleg, liquor that is illicit.

. See prec, s.f.

. See the 1st BOOT.

; freebooter. 1. Booty comes from MF-F but in, plunder, from MF-F butiner, to take as plunder: of LG origin, cf MD (and MLG) buten, to take booty, and esp MLG bute, MHG biute, MD buyt, D buit, booty, akin to ON byte; ME bote, E BOOT, profit, has intervened. 2. Freebooter=D vrijbititer, whence also the G Freibeuter: vrij, free+buit, booty+agential -er. 3. Spaniards reshaped E freebooter toflibustero, which became filibustero, which Englishmen turned into filibuster, whence the AE ‘to filibuster’.




or bouse, v hence n and boozer, boozy: ME bousen: MD bousen, busen, to drink intoxicants, akin to MLG busen, to carouse: ult akin to BOAST.


, adj boracic. See the element boro-.


, n hence v (whence borderer): ME, from MF-F bordure—from OF-F border, to border or edge—from OF-F bord, a border or edge: f.a.e., the 2nd BOARD.

(1), pt of ‘to BEAR’.




(2), auger, n hence v; whence boredom. The too! derives from OE bor, whence both bora, a hole, orig one made by boring, the source of E bore, including finally the sense ‘ennui’ (cf the F Quelle scie !), now usu expressed by boredom; ‘he who bores’ derives rather from OE bor. ‘To bore’ has, in all its senses, passed through ME borien from OE borian, from OE bor, the tool. Akin are, e.g., ON bora, a hole made by boring, and the vv ON bora, OHG borōn (G bohren), to pierce, esp with a bore or auger, themselves akin to L forāre (s for-), to bore, and Gr pharan (s phar-), to plough, lit to make a long hole in the earth; IE r, *bhar-, varr *bherand *bhor-, to pierce. Cf the metathetic Arm brem, I hollow or dig.

(3), a tidal wave: ON bāra, akin to MD bāre: prob source, ON bera (cf MD baren, beren), to carry, q.v. at ‘to BEAR’.

, borean, hyperboreal, -borean; Boreas, bora. Borean and Hyperborean are varr of E boreal (L boreālis) and Hyperboreal, adj and n (L hyperboreus, Gr huperboreos: ? ‘beyond’—cf prefix hyper—‘the mountains’), Hyperboreans being mythical inhabitants of the extreme north. The base is L, from Gr, Boreās, God of the North Wind, the North Wind itself, whence It borea, with dial var bora, a strong wind blowing over the N Adriatic; Gr boreās perh means ‘wind from the mountains’, cf the OSl gora and Skt girís, mountain. (Hofmann.)

, borne. See BEAR, v, para 2.




, burgh, burg, burgess, burgher, burgomaster; bourgeois; burrow; (in place-names) bury, and ‘to bury’; burglar. 1. Borough derives, through ME burgh (whence E burgh, whence, in turn, burgher; perh, however, from D) or burw or boru, from OE burh or burg (whence E burg), akin to OFris burg, a castle—OHG burg, fortified place, esp a citadel, hence a city or town, MHG burc, G Burg, a castle—Go baúrgs, city—ON borg, wall, hence fortified place or castle: prob akin to OE beorgan, to shelter, defend, preserve, cf OHG bergan, G bergen, to bring to safety; Gmc s, *berg-, IE s *bherg(Walshe). 2. Whereas burgomaster prob comes from D burgemeester, ‘city master’ (cf OFris burga-mâstere and G Bürgemeister and Bürgermeister), burgess comes, through ME burgeis, from OF-MF burgeis, itself from OF-MF burc, either from MHG burc, as above, or from ML burgus, itself from OHG burg. OF-MF burc became EF (and F) bourg, whence the adj (hence n) bourgeois, whence bourgeoisie, both adopted by E. 3. A burrow or animal’s made hole in the ground—whence ‘to burrow’—was prob, orig, a var of borough, and is certainly akin to it. 4. Bury, a manor (house), derives from OE byrig (dat of burh); it survives only in place-names, whether independently in Bury or in cpds, as in Canterbury and Shrewsbury. 5. ‘To bury’ derives, through ME burien or berien, from OE byrgan, akin to OE beorgan, to shelter or preserve (para 1, s.f.). The ME forms had derivatives buryel, beriel: whence burial. 6. The ML burgus, a fortified place (esp town)—see para 2—has a derivative agent burgātor, with varr burglātor, burgulātor, with -l- perh suggested (Webster) by that of L latrō, a thief: burgulātor looks suspiciously like a var of *burgilātor, for *burgilātrō, a city thief: a burglar is an essentially urban malefactor. Burgle is a b/f; burglary merely adds n-suffix -y. 7. Cf also HARBO(U)R and:

: ME borwen: OE borgian, from borh or borg, a pledge: akin to OFris borgia (var burgia), OHG borgēn (orig ‘to spare’, later ‘to borrow'), G borgen, to borrow or to lend, ON borga, to stand surety: also to OE beorgan, to protect, to preserve, and G burgen, to stand surety: cf, therefore, BOROUGH. The n borrow derives from OE borh, borg.

. See BUSH, para 1.



(coll), nonsense: adopted from Tu bosh empty, useless, worthless.

. See BUSH, para 1.

, whence the adj bosomy: OE bōsm: akin to OFris bōsem, OS bōsm, OHG buosam, MHG buosem, G Busen: o.o.o., but prob (Webster) cf Skt bhastrā, bellows, and bhasman, blowing.

(1), protuberance; emboss. ‘To emboss’ comes from OF embocer: em-, for en-, in(to)+bocer (var bocier), whence, via ME bocien, the E ‘to boss’ or ornament with bosses: and bocier, bocer derives from OF boce, itself of Gmc origin—cf OHG bōzan, MHG bōzen, to knock, strike—boss (ME bose, earlier boce) being ult akin to BEAT.

(2), overseer, master, hence ‘to boss’: D baas, master, MD baes, uncle, prob akin to OHG basa, aunt, MHG-G base, female cousin.



: the adj of boss (1) and (2).

. See SWAIN, para 2.

, botanist, botanize, botany. Botanical merely elaborates, with suffix -al, the adj botanic, from the EF-F adj botanique, itself—via LL botanicus—from Gr botanikos, concerning plants, from botanē, a herb, a plant, (orig) pasture, from boskein, to graze. Botanist (-ist) comes from late EFF botaniste, ‘to botanize’ from F botaniser. Botany is usu said to come from the EF-F n botanique (Webster), from Gr botanikē, prop the f of the adj botanikos, or (OED) from the E botanic, but perh it rather comes—prob via F *botanie (cf the C16 botanomantie, divination with plants)—from LGr botania, herbs (collectively).

, to mend (roughly), hence to bungle, whence the n botch, a bungling: ME bocchen, app from MD botsen, butsen, to mend, to patch: ? orig echoic.

: ME bothe, earlier bathe: ON bāthir (where -ir is a suffix or other mdfn): cf OE bā, Go



bai, and OHG bēde, OHG-G beide OFris bēthe OS bēthia; cf also the 2nd syllable of L ambō Gr amphō, Skt ubha.

See PUT, para 2.

, n hence v; butler—butt, a cask—buttery. 1. Bottle passes through ME hotel, earlier botelle, from OF-F bouteille, from buticula, var of popular Early ML butticula, dim of LL buttis, vase, cask, prob of C origin, r *but-, var of *bot-, swollen, round, whence EF botte, a cask (Malvezin), and Ga buideal, OIr buidel, cask. ‘To bottle’ was pern prompted by OF bouteiller. 2. LL buttis yields also Prov bota, var bouto, whence EF (and F) botte, var boute, cask, whence E butt, a (large) cask. Buttis has derivative ML adj buttārius, set in charge of the wine-vessels, whence (?) botāria, t aria, a place for casks, whence MF boterie, a place for bottles, whence ME botery, E buttery, a store-room for liquors, hence for provisions. 3. OF bouteille has derivative OF-EF agent botillier (later bouteillier), bottle- (or cup-) bearer, whence ME boteler, later buteler, wine-servant, whence E butler. Butlery descends from OF-F bouteillerie, from bouteille.

, bottomless, bottomry. See the 1st FOUND, para 6.

. See element botuli-.



: F: from MF-F bouder (to pout), expressive of the grimace: a room to which a woman can retire, not only to pout. Perh ult akin to pout (p for b, t for d),

: ME bogh: OE bōg, bōh, akin to ON bōgr, shoulder, (hence) bow of ship—OHG buog, MHG buoc, G Bug—Skt bāhu, arm; IE r, ? *bhagh-, var *bhogh-. Cf the 2nd BOW.

. See BUY.

: of Scan origin: cf Sw bullersten, a large (lit, noisy) stone in a stream, and bullra, to roar (Nor buldra, Da buldre); cf Nor bulder, a rumble, a roar: clearly echoic.



. See the 2nd BOLT, s.f.


, v hence n: ME bunsen, pern akin to LG bunsen, D bonzen, themselves possibly akin to OF-F bondir, to leap, cf the 4th BOUND.

(1), adj: ‘prepared, ready’ (obs), ‘intending to go, going’, as in ‘homeward-bound’: pp of ME bounen, to prepare, from boun, ready, from ON būinn, pp of būa, to dwell (cf BOWER, room).

(2), adj: ‘compelled; morally obliged”: pp of bind, to tie.

(3), n: ‘landmark; limit, boundary’, hence ‘to bound, set limits to’: ME bounde or bunne: OF-MF bonde or bone, bonne, or bodne: ML bodina, butina, a territorial boundary, perh of C origin (r *but-).

(4), to leap suddenly, hence the n: OF-F bondir, to rebound, then simply to leap, orig to resound: VL *bombitare, to hum, from L bombus, a buzzing: f.a.e., BOMB. The social bounder is to be compared with ‘jumped-up’ and townee, impudence.



: a blend of 3rd BOUND+ML bonnārium (s bon-+euphonic -n-+ -ārium), a well-defined piece of land; with the E n-suffix -ary substituted for L -ārium.

(socially). See the 4th BOUND, s.f.

, bountiful, bounty. Whereas bountiful=bounty-full, bounteous derives from ME bountevous, which tacks ous to altered bontive, f of OF-MF bontif, the adj of bonté, whence E bounty, bonté represents bonitātem, the acc of bonitās, itself an -itās (E -ity) derivative from bonus, good: cf BONNY.

, nosegay, hence its smell, hence the smell of wine: F: OF-MF boschet, dim (-et) of bois, a wood, from ML boscus: f.a.e., BUSH.

is elliptical for Bourbon whisky, manufactured orig in Bourbon County, Kentucky: the Bourbon dynasty of France: a seigniory (and its castle) in central France: Borvon (var Bormon), God of Warm Springs, a sort of Gaulish Apollo: C *borvo, r *borv-, var of



*berv-, to be hot (cf L feruēre, ML fervēre, s ferv-), hence boiling, hence bubbling, as hot springs do.

. See the 2nd BURDEN.

, adj & n. See BOROUGH, para 2.—The printers’-type bourgeois=Bourgeois type, after a F type-founder.

. See BURLY.

, bourne (1), a brook; Sc var, burn: ME burne, borne: OE burna, metathesis of brunna, akin to OFris burna, spring, well, OHG brunno, MHG brunne, spring, well, G Brunnen, well, and Born, fountain, OS brunno, Go brunna, spring, well, ON brunnr: all of which, further, are prob akin, both to OHG brennen, to set fire to. G brennen, to burn, OE bernan, birnan (see BURN, v), and to the Ir brenn-, to gush forth. Cf also FERVENT.

, bourne (2), a limit, a goal: F borne, OF bourne, var of OF bodne, var bonne: ML bodina: f.a.e., the 3rd BOUND.



. See PURSE, para 2.

. See BOOZE.

, a circuit (obs), a going and returning (a turn), a contest, an attack of, e.g., fever: a senseadapted var of obsol bought, a bend, app a ME derivative from LG bucht, akin to E bight, q.v. at BOW, to bend.

: ML bovīnus, LL bouīnus (s bouīn-, r bou-), the adj of bōs (gen bouis, ML bovis), ox, cow: cf BUCOLIC and, f.a.e., cow.

(1), an arc, hence a bow for arrows, whence bowyer (cf suffix -yer): ME bowe, earlier boge: OE boga, akin to OFris boga, OHG boge, MHG boge, G Bogen, ON bogi: a bow is bent, cf therefore bow, to bend (3rd BOW).



(2), of ship: ON bōgr: akin to BOUGH, q.v. Cf BOWSPRIT.

(3), to bend or curve, hence ‘a bow’ or inclination of one’s head: ME bowen, earlier bogen, earliest bugen: OE būgan (r bū-), akin to OS bugan, Go biugan, OHG biogan, MGH and G biegen, to bend, ON bogin-n, bent, beygia, to bend, and remotely yet importantly Skt bhujáti, he bends; IE r, perh *bheug(h)-, to bend. Cf also the intimately cognate OHG bougen, G beugen, to bow.

: from Thomas Bawdler; who in 1818 issued an expurgated edition of Shakespeare.

; embowel; disembowel, disembowelment. Bowel, ME bouel(e), comes from OF-MF boel, LL botellus, an intestine, from the shape of L botellus, a small sausage, dim of botulus, a sausage—cf botulism at the element botuli-. To embowel = em-, for en- (L in-), in, into+bowel; hence disembowel (prefix dis-), whence disembowelment (-went).

(1), in cards: G Bauer, (lit) a peasant, from the figure occ depicting a knave: MHG



gebūre; OHG gibūro, orig a fellow-villager: together-f agent of bouen (OHG būan), to cultivate, akin to Go bauan, to dwell. Cf:

(2), a cottage, a room, (much later) an arbour: ME hour, earlier bur, a dwelling, a room: OE būr, a dwelling, from būan, to dwell, to cultivate, akin to OHG būan, ON būa, to dwell, to cultivate: Gmc r, ? *bū-, akin to E BE. Cf prec and BYRE. Derivatives: ‘to embower’ and bowery, q.v. sep at BOOR.

(1), a concave vessel: ME bolle: OE bolla, akin to OFris bolla, OHG bolla, MHG bolle, a round vessel, G Bolle, a bulb, esp an onion—to ON bolli—also to L follis, bag, bellows. Perh cf:

(2), a ball, whether solid or hollow, for rolling or throwing, hence ‘to bowl’. the cricketing bowler, the game of bowls: MF-F boule: because it is round, like L bulla, a bubble: cf BULL, an edict. Some etymologists, e.g. B & W and Walshe, suppose bowl (1) and (2) to be, ult, of one origin: cf BALL, a sphere.

(1). See prec.


(2), hat: from the hatters named Bowler. EW.)


, game of. See the 2nd BOWL.

. See SPROUT, para 2.

(1), tree (whence tautologically boxwood), derivatively a wooden case: OE box: L buxus: Gr puxos, app of Medit origin: cf the Eg petsu-t, a box, and perh the Maltese bùx (tree).

(2), v (whence boxer), derives from box, a buffet, now usu a cuff on the ear: o.o.o., but prob, like BUFFET, orig echoic.

: ME boi: perh akin to EFris boi, a young gentleman, MHG buobe, boy, scoundrel, G Bube, boy, itself akin to ON bofi, a rogue, and MD (and D) boef, a scoundrel: cf the sem of KNAVE.



, v hence n: Captain Boycott, a land agent obstructed and ostracized, 1880, by the natives of County Mayo in Ireland.

, n and v (whence the pa bracing); embrace, v hencen; bracelet; perh, in part, the 3rd BRAKE, q.v. 1. ‘To embrace’ comes from OF embracer, which, an int, combines the prefix em- with altered bracier, to embrace, which leads to the E v brace, with its easily detectable sensedevelopments: and OF-MF bracier derives from OF-MF brace, an embrace, (lit) the two arms, L brachia, the arms (outstretched), pi of brachium, arm, from Gr brakhion, arm, usu the upper arm, from brakhus, short—cf the element brachy-. 2. Bracelet, worn on the wrist, is adopted from OF-F, where it is the dim (-et) of OFMF bracel, armlet, itself from brachiāle, armlet or bracelet, var of LL brachiālis (var cch-), prob orig the adj of, and certainly from, brachium. 3. Cf BRASSARD (with BRASSIÈRE).

, a large, coarse fern, often collectively: ME broken, of Scan origin: cf Sw broken, fern: clearly akin to the 1st BRAKE.

, n hence v: EF-F braguette, codpiece: dim of EF-F brogue, a mortising, influenced by EF-F brogues, breeches: L brācae, breeches, pi of the much less used brāca, adopted from Gaulish, with r *brāc-, to encircle, to gird on (e.g., a sword with its supporting belt).



is an -ish modification of the now only dial brack, salty, from D brak, MD brac, bitter, salty, perh akin to BRINE.

, bradawl. The latter (see AWL) serves to make holes for brads (small, thick nails): and brad, ME brod, comes from ON broddr, any pointed piece of hard metal, akin to OE brord, a spire of grass (OHG brort) and MIr brot, a thorn or a spike. C BROIDER.

. See BRAID, para 4.

, v hence n; hence the merely app Sp-It braggadocio, after Spenser’s Braggadocio in The Faerie Queene: ME braggen: cf EF braguer, perh from the root of BRAY. Braguer has the derivative EF adj bragart, boastful, whence E braggart.

, anglicized form of Skt Brahman, the Hindu god, from brahman, prayer, divine essence; Brahman, one of the priestly caste, is derivative, with var Brahmin.



, v hence n: to jerk, then to weave or plait: ME braiden, breiden, OE bregdan, to move back and forth, to weave: akin to OS bregdan, OFris breida, OHG brettan, ON bregtha, of identical or closely allied meanings: IE, ? *bregh-. 2. OE bregdan has prefix (up-) cpd upbregdan, ME upbreiden, E upbraid, (lit) to twist up (cf ‘twist a sense’), hence to reproach, accuse. 3. OFris breida has var brīda, intimately related to OE brīdel, ME bridel, E bridle, cf OHG brittil, MHG bridel: many ancient bridles were plaited. ‘To bridle’ (fig sense from horse’s head bridle-upheld) derives from OE brīdlian, from brīdel. 4. Also akin to braid is Sc and N dial brae, slope or bank: ME brai, bra: prob akin to ON brā, eyelash, and eyelid, OS and OHG brāwa, eyelash, eyelid, G Braue, OFris brē, eyebrow.

characters for the blind: invented, 1829, by Louis Braille, himself blind.

, n (hence v), whence adj brainy (-y): OE bragen, braegen, influenced by OFris brein and MD brein (varr bragen, bregen): Gr brekhma, varr bregma, bregmos, brekhmos (s brekhm-, r brekh-), the upper part of the head; IE r, ? bregh-; r *bhregh- might also account for G (Ge)hirn, OHG hirni, ON hiarni, brain, for him, etc., may well be metathetic for *hrin-.

. See the 2nd BRAZE.



(1), fern, came into ME from, it seems, Scan sources—cf BRACKEN.

(2), thicket, first in ME, is app of LG origin: cf MLG brake, bushes, perh orig either ‘broken branches’ (OED) or ‘the growth on rough broken ground, from the root of E BREAK, v’ (Webster). Cf:

(3), mechanical, n hence v: ME: from LG brake, a flax-breaking instrument: from r of the E v BREAK, q.v. Cf prec.

: ME brembil: OE brembel, braembel, varr of brēmel, akin to OHG brāmal: cf BROOM.

: ME bran, earlier bren: OF-MF bren (F bran), prob of C origin, with r *bren-, to break: cf Br brenn, and Ga and Ir bran, bran, chaff; and notably Ir branar (or -air), the loose surface of a field broken up by grubbing.



, n hence v: ME braunche: OF-F branche: VL branca, a paw (and its claws), a claw, from a proximate resemblance: o.o.o., but perh (E & M) connected with L brachium, the (fore) arm, presumably by nasalization; perh rather from the C r *branc, a nasalized var of *brac, to break, a paw being a ‘broken off’ part of the body (Malvezin)—cf Br brank, a branch.

, n hence v: piece of wood partly burnt, hence torch and, from charring, a recognizable mark, and, from the flashing of the blade, a sword: OE brand, akin to OFris brand, OHG brant (G Brand), all meaning both torch and (blade of sword: further, akin to the old Gmc forms of E BURN, q.v. Cf BRANDY. 2. ‘To brandish’ comes, via ME braundisen, from OF-F brandir in such forms as presp brandissant and esp ‘ils brandissent’, they brandish, from the idea of waving something as if it were a sword (OF brand: from Gmc, prob the OFris brand). 3. Brand goose (cf Sw brandgos) becomes brant goose becomes brant: a goose with head, neck and upper shoulders so dark as to look ‘burnt black’; for brant, cf the branntof G Branntwein. Brant has var brent.

. See BRAND, para 2.

: earlier brandywine: D brandewijn, lit ‘distilled wine’: branden, to burn, hence to distil+ wijn, wine: cf the G Branntwein.



. See BRAND, para 3.

, boldly impudent, impudently tactless, is usu explained as a sense-development from brash, (of timber) brittle, lifeless, itself app from brash, debris, app from OF-F brèche, a breach: all very ‘iffy’. Perh it is rather a blend, either of bold+ rash, or of brassy+rash.

. See the 2nd BRAZE.

, n hence adj and v; braze; brazen. ‘To braze’, make or cover or adorn with brass, drives from OE braesian, from braes, brass, whence, via ME bras (var bres), the E brass: f.a.e., FERROUS. The adj is brassy (-y). Brazen, adj, derives, via ME brasen, from OE braesen, adj of braes, brass; ‘to brazen’, usu brazen (it) out, derives from the adj brazen, perh influenced by the derivative sense ‘impudent’ of brassy. A brazier, cr worker in brass, derives from ME brasiere, from ME bras.

; brassière (whence the si bra, already by 1953 become commercial j).



Brassard, arm badge, derives from brassard, brassart, armour for upper arm: EF-F brassard, from bras, arm, from L brachium: f.a.e., BRACE. Brassière is adopted from MF-F, where orig it meant some kind of arm-guard, the modern senses (C16 onwards) being prob euphemistic. Cf the suffixes -ard and -ier.

, child (usu pej): from ME (now—except in dial—obs) brat, a coarse garment: OE bratt, a covering, e.g. mantle, of C origin: cf OIr brat(t), cloth, cloak, Ga brat, a covering, mantle, W brat, clout, rag, Manx breid, cloak: OC *brattos, ? var *brettos. The sem transition is afforded by child’s clout or perh bib.

. See:

, adj hence n and v; bravery; bravado; bravo!; bravura; braw. 1. Bravado is a well-meant E attempt at Sp: but the Sp word happens to be bravada (now -ata), a boast; bravura, however, happens to be a mere sense-adaptation (cf the C16 Sc brave tie, display, elegance) of It bravura, high spirit; bravo, a daring villain, hence a hired assassin, is likewise It, as also is bravo!, m, the f usu being brava!—cf the E good girl! The It bravo, wild, savage, fierce, (later) daring, became MF-F brave, adopted by E, whence the n; ‘to brave’ comes from EF-F braver, from F brave; cf bravery from EF braverie from F brave. The It adj bravo is perh a conflated reshaping of L barbarus, q.v. at BARBARIAN, but Prati suggests that it rather comes from L prauus, ML pravus, crooked (Skt pravas, purvas), crooked, hence perverse, vicious. 2. Braw, fine, splendid, derives from OSc brawf, brave, app from MF-F brave. Cf the OProv brau, (of bulls) wild, savage, occurring in late ML as brāvis, a young ox or bull.


. See prec para.


, v, hence n and agent brawler, pa and vn brawling: ME braulen, to quarrel (noisily), brallen, to weep noisily, make a noise: perh cf LG brallen, D brallen, to boast, but rather cf OProv braulhar, to brawl, from the r present in BRAY (1).

: OF braon, fleshy part, muscle, piece of flesh, fat of thigh, of Gmc origin: cf OHG brāto, tender meat, flesh, ON brāth, flesh, raw meat, MHG brāte and G Braten, a roast. Adj: brawny.

(1), to utter a cry like an ass’s, loud and harsh: ME brayen: OF-MF braire, to cry aloud (F, to bray), perh of C origin: cf Ga braigh, to crackle, brag (and braghadh), noise, explosion, OIr braigim, I break wind, and possibly Cor begy, to bray: prob akin to BRAG and ult to L fragor (sfrag-), a crashing noise, by denasalization from frangere, to break: IE r, ? *brag(h). Therefore akin, ult, to:

(2), to pound, to grind or rub small: ME brayen: MF breier (F broyer), from West G *brekan (cf OE brecan): f.a.e., BREAK. Cf prec. braze (1), to hard-solder: F braser, var braiser, from OF-F braise (at first written breze), embers. live coals: PGmc *brasa, preserved in Sw brasa, fire, burning log—cf OProv brasa and early It brascia, bracia, bragia, It brace. Derivatives: ‘to braise’, now only in cookery, from OF-F braiser; brasier or brazier, from OF-F brasier. 2. OF-F braise, live coals, has OF-MF derivative bresil (EF-F brésil), whence, or from



cognate Port and Sp brasil, the ME brasil, whence E brazil, the hard red wood usu called brazilwood; hence, ult, Brazil. (See P2.)

(2); brazen. See BRASS.

. See BRASS, s.f., and 1st BRAZE, s,f.

; Brazil. See the 1st BRAZE, para 2.

. See BREAK, para 2.

: OE brēad; akin to OFris brād, OS brōd, OHG-MHG brōt, G Brot, MD brot or broot, D brood, ON brauth (cf BROTH); cf also Gr broutos, brutos (or -on), fermented liquor, beer; the basic idea is that of fermentation—cf L feruēre (ML fervēre), to seethe (see FERVENT) and the E BREW.



. See BROAD, para 2.

, v, hence n and also breaker (-er), breakage (-age); pt broke, pp broken;—breach, n hence v. 1. The n break, ME brek, breke, derives from ME breken, whence ‘to break\ from OE brecan, akin to OFris breka, OHG brehhan, MHG (and G) brechen, OS brecan, brekan, Go brikan, MD (and D) breken; cf the nasalized L frangere, pt frēgi, and the Skt element -bhraj-, breaking forth: IE r, prob *bhreg(h)-, app echoic. Cf BRICK and perh BROOK. 2. A breach comes, through ME breche, from OF-MF breche (F brèche), itself from OHG brecha, a fracture—cf the syn OE brice, bryce, from the pres tense of brecan.

, a fish: ME brem, breme: OF-MF bresme (F brême), var of OF braisme: Frankish *brahsima—cf OHG brahsema, OS bressemo, MD brasem (also D), bressem, breesem.

, n hence v: ME brest, earlier breost: OE breast, intimately akin to OS breōst, briōst, OFris briāst, ON briōst, less closely to OHG-G brust and Go brusts (pi). The varr OFris borst, burst, and MD borst (also D), burst, berst, barst, could easily mislead: cf rather (with Webster) the MHG briustern, to swell, and the OIr bru, belly, also OIr briunne, the chest, EIr and Ga brollach, bosom, chest, and Br bruch, brusk, bresk, the chest: IE s, *bhreus-, to swell (Walshe), a merely phonetic extension of *bhreu-. Cf BRISKET.



, n, whence breathless (suffix -less), breathe, v. ‘To breathe’ derives from ME brethen, from the ME n breth, earlier breath, from OE , brēth, breath, odour, akin to OHG brādam, vapour, breath, MHG brādem, G Brodem (fumes): comparison with OE OHG ātam, atum vapour (G A tern), and with Gr atmos, vapour, suggests (EW) that br- is the vestige of a lost prefix (? int *ber-); etc., cf the atmo- of ATMOSPHERE. Cf also BREED.

. See BREED.

, breeches. The former is partly a b/f from the latter: the latter derives, through ME brech, from OE brēc, breeches, the pi of brōc, breech, breeches, akin to OFris brōk, OHG bruoh, MHG bruoch, G Bruch, ON brōk: cf also L (from Gaul) brācae, sing brāca.

, pt and pp bred; brood. ‘A breed’ derives from ‘to breed’: ME breden: OE brēdan, to nourish (and cherish), to keep warm, akin to OHG bruotēn, G brüten, and OE brōd, ME brod, E brood (whence ‘to brood'), akin to MHG bruot, G Brut, akin to G bruhen, to scald, orig ‘to hatch out by warmth’ (Walshe). The basic idea is ‘a warming’, prob orig by breathing upon—certainly cf BREATH and 1st BROIL.



, n hence v: F brise (C16 onwards), perh an expressive alteration of OF-F bise, from Frankish *bīsa—cf OHG bīsa, OProv bīza: prob echoic, cf L susurrus.

. See BRAND, para 3.

; brethren. See FRATER, para 7 (brer) and heading.


, brevet, breviary, brevity. See BRIEF, paras 1 (breve only) and 2.

, v hence n; brewery; brewster, a -ster var of brewer (brew, v-f -er).



A brewery represents brew, v+-ery: and ‘to brew’ passes through ME brewen from OE brēowan, akin to OFris briūwa, OHG briuwan, MHG brūwen, G brauen, ON brugga; also to the OFris n broute and to the -frū- of L defrūtum, must boiled down: IE r, *bhrū-. (Walshe.) Cf BROTH and BREAD, the basic idea being ‘fermentation’.

. See BRIER.

, n hence v; bribery. The ME brybery, roguery, whence E bribery, is akin to MF brimberie, beggary (brimber, to beg+ -erie, E -ery), from MF brimbe, a nasalized var of MF-F bribe, a worthless trifle, hence a scrap one begs; brimbe, or bribe, is o.o.o., but prob echoic.

, n hence v: OF-F brique: MD bricke, a brick—akin to E BREAK.

, bridal. The adj bridal=bride+adj suffix -al; the n bridal (ME bridale, brudale; OE is lit ‘bride-ale’, served at the marriage feast. The OE whence E bride, is akin to OFris breid, OHG-MHG brūt, G Braut, ON brūthr—and Go brūths, daughter-in-law; IE r,? *brūd-. For bridegroom, see HOMO, para 14. bridge, n hence v: ME brig(ge) or brug(ge): OE brycg or bricg, akin to OFris bregge (occ brigge), OS bruggia, OHG brucca or brücka, MHG brucke, G Brücke, bridge, ON bryggia, pier, app an extension of brū, bridge (Da bro), Gaul brīva, bridge. Webster poses the basic meaning as ‘beam’; Walshe says, ‘The original meaning was apparently



“brow” (from the shape). Cf Braue’ (OHG brāwa, cf ON bra, E BROW) and he cites an OB word signifying both ‘bridge’ and ‘brow’: whereas the Gmc s is app brug-, the Gmc r—as the ON words tend to show—is *bru-. with ‘brow’ the more likely sense. Cf Bristol, OE bryggstōw or Bricgstōw, ‘Bridge Place’.

. See BRIGADE, para 2.

. See BRAID, para 3.

, adj and n; breve, brevet, breviary, brevity;—abbreviate (sep entry), abridge (sep). 1. The n breve comes, legal from ML breve, a summary, a letter, musical from It breve, other senses from F brève, all from L breue, neu of breuis (ML brevis, neu breve), short; ML breve, letter (prob suggested by LL breuis, a summary), became OF-MF, whence ME, bref, whence—influenced by the E adj—the E n brief. The adj brief derives, prob via ME bref, from OF-MF brief (var of bref), from ML brevis, L breuis, s breu-, akin to the syn Gr brakhus, s brakh-. 2. Breviary comes from MF-F bréviaire, from ML breviārium, a summary, from the LL adj breuiārius, abridged, an extn of L breuis; brevet is adopted from MF-F brevet, earliest brievet, app a dim from ML brevis (L breuis); brevity pern comes rather from brevitāt-, o/s of ML brevitās, L breuitās, an -itas or abstract derivative from breuis, than from the equally derivative late MF-F brièveté.

, occ briar, is a sense-adapted derivative from OF-F bruyère, heather, heath (F -ère



corresponding to L -āria, cf the suffix -ārium): VL *brucāria: VL brūcus, heather: C *brūko, r *bruk-or *bruc-, perh a var of *brac- or *brec-, to break: cf EIr frāech, frōech, bristles, Ga fraoch, heath, heather, W grug, heath, Br brug, bruig, heath, heather, Cor grig, heather, Manx freouch, heath. Cf BRISTLE and BRUSH, also BRISK and BRUSQUE. But brier, thornbush, comes from OE brēr or perh independent of brier, the tree (or white) heath, from which pipes are made.

. See para 3 of:

, brigadier; brigand, brigandage; brigantine; brigue. 1. Brigadier, adopted from EF-F, is an agent from MF-F brigade (cf the suffix -ade), likewise adopted by E: from It brigata, from brigare, to quarrel or fight, from briga, strife, whence MF-F, hence obs E, brigue, quarrel, intrigue: It briga is of C origin—cf OIr brīg, Ga brīgh, substance, importance, power, W bri, authority, Br bri, (formerly) dignity, (now) respect, Manx bree, substance, importance. The C r is brig-, var of berg-, an eminence, hence eminence (Malvezin), the OC n being *brīga or, in cpds, *brigo-. 2. It brigare, to fight, has presp brigante, which, as n, became MF-F brigand, duly adopted by E, as was the late MF-F derivative brigandage. Cf the Br and W brigant, a robber, and prob cf the Brigantes, a powerful tribe or people of ancient Ireland and N Britain, and Brigid, Brigit (whence Bridget), their patron goddess, akin to Skt lofty, hence powerful. 3. The It n brigante has a dim derivative brigantina, orig a pirate ship, whence MF-F brigantin, whence F and E brigantine, often abbr as brig.

, brighten, brightness. Whereas ‘to brighten’ bright+v suffix -en, brightness (-ness) derives from the OE beorhtnes, from OE beorht, var bryht, whence, via ME briht, comes E bright: cf OHG bëraht, MHG bīrht, OS berht, Go bairhts, ON bjartr, with cognates in C and Sl; IE r, *bherek-, basic idea ‘to become white (and bright)’: cf Skt it shines. (Walshe.)



. See brigade.

(suffix -ce) derives from the adj brilliant, from F brillant, presp (whence the F n brillant, whence the E n brilliant) of briller, to sparkle or shine; It brillare, o.o.o., but (B & W) prob from L beryllus (cf BERYL): to shine like a beryl, although (Prati) it may simply be, like It prillare, imitative.

, edge, brink, hence v (esp brim over): ME brim, earlier brimme, akin to MHG brem (G Brame) and ON barmr; brim could be a shortened metathesis of barmr.


, whence brindle, is a dim of brinded, ME brended, streaked: brended is a form of branded—see BRAND.



, whence the adj briny (for briney), derives from OE two Sl and Skt words: basic idea, ‘bitter’ (?). akin to MD brīne and one or

, pt and pa brought: ME bringen: OE bringan, akin to OFris bringa, varr brenga, branga, OS brengian, OHG bringan, MHG (and G) bringen, Go briggan (pron bringan): perh cf W ‘he-brwng’, to bring, and Cor ‘hebrency (-ky)’ or hembryncy (-ky), to lead.

, edge (esp at top): ME brink or brenk, app of Scan origin, akin to MD brinc, MLG brink, brim, shore: a nasalization of OGmc *brik-, var of *brek-, to BREAK—cf ON brekka, a slope, and Go brikan, to break.

. See BRINE.

, whence brisken and briskness: perh a thinning of brusque, q.v. at para 2.



: ME brusket, perh influenced by the Da syn bryske: ult akin to BREAST.

, n hence v: ME brustel (var brostle), app a dim (-el, -le) and metathesis of OE byrst, akin to OHG burst, MHG borst, G Borste, OS bursta, ON burst—and Skt point, edge. Cf BROOM and BUR. Bristol. See BRIDGE, s.f. Bristol milk, a fine sherry, was so named because, as smooth as milk, it was—and is—landed in Bristol.

, Britannia, Britannic; British; Briton; Brythonic; Brittany, Breton. Britannic comes from L Britannicus, the adj of Britannia, the Roman name for Britain; Britain comes from ME Bretayne (or -eyne), from OF Bretaigne, whence also Brittany— cf Breoton (or -en), Bryten, from an OGmc *Brituna. British derives from OE Brettisc or Bryttisc, from Bret, usu in the pi Brettas or Bryttas, Britons; Briton, from OF Breton— whence obviously F Breton—from L Brit ton-, o/s of L Bri no (var Brītō), a Briton. The transference of the F name for Brittany and Bretons to Britain and Britons points to a C origin: cf Brythonic, the adj of Brython, a collective pi for the British Celts, Brython being W and deriving from the OC name (? *Britto, pi *Brittones) that yields alike the OE Bryttas (and its adj Bryttisc) and the L Brit(t)ō. Important is the Gr name (c300 B.C.) Prētanikai nēsoi, British isles; the s of Pretanikai (adj suffix -ikos, cf E -ic) is Pretan-; the name answers to Ir cruithin, Picts, MIr cruthen, a Pict—cf OGa cruithneach, a Briton, for, as the late R.G. Collingwood remarks in Roman Britain (2nd ed., 1937), It can hardly be doubted…that the inhabitants of these islands …were called Pretani or Priteni’; Pretani, he says, must be identical with ‘the old Welsh Priten, the “P” [Celtic] form, of which the corresponding “Q”-form is Cruithin, the name by which many Irish writers refer to the Picts’;—Pictih a L translation ;—it was, he points out, prob Caesar who, for Pretani and Pretania (Latinized forms of the C words), substituted Britanni and Britannia. The basic meaning of the name could be, as for W Brython it app is, ‘the tumultuous, hence warriors’.



derives from ME britel (var brutel), from OE brēotan, to break, akin to ON brjōta, to break, and OHG brōdi, fragile: the OE brēot- has ‘ thinned’ to brit- and the -le is an adj suffix (cf L fragilis from frangere), the sense being ‘easily broken, essentially breakable’.

(n and v) and brooch; brocade, n hence v; brochure; broker, brokerage. 1. Brooch (F broche) is historically identical with the similarly pronounced broach: broach (n) comes, through ME broche, from OF-F broche, from L of C origin; OF broche has derivative OF-F brocher, to stitch, whence E ‘to broach’; the basic meaning is ‘pointed head’ of weapon or tool. 2. Brocade, a fabric with raised design, comes from Sp brocado, prob from ML brocāre, to prick, hence to figure (a textile), itself of same C origin as broach. 3. Brochure is F: from brocher, to stitch. 4. Broker derives from ME brocour, from ONF brokeor (OF brocheor), from ONF brokier, to broach: orig a broacher of wine casks, hence a retailer of wine. 5. The C r appears to have been *broc-, a point (Malvezin),

, whence broadness (-ness); broaden; abroad; breadth. 1. Abroad=a-, on, in+ broad: and broad, ME brod, earlier brad, derives from OE brād, akin to OFris (and OS) brēd, OHG-G breit, MD breet (D breed), ON breithr, Go braiths (neu braid): o.o.o.: IE r, ? *brādh-, var *brēdh-. ‘To broaden’ derives (suffix -en) from broad—cf OE , OFris brēda, OS brēdian, ON breitha. 2. Breadth derives, through ME bredethe, earlier brede or breede, from OE , from brād: cf OHG breiti, G Breite, from breit, and OFris brēde, from brēd.




is the adj of Brobdingnag (in correctly Brobdignag), Swift’s land of giants in Gulliver’s Travels (1726). Contrast LILLIPUTIAN. (See P3 for an essay on Swift’s neologisms.)

. See BROACH, para 2.

. See BROACH, para 3.

(badger): OE broc, lit ‘the speckled (beast)’: cf Ir (and Ga) breac, OIr brec, variegated, freckled, piebald, and W brech, brych, Br breach, variegated-brown, and EIr brocc, Ir and Ga broc, Cor brōch, brogh, a badger; cf also W brych, a brindled brown.

(1), stout shoe: an Irishism: Ir brōg, EIr brōc, a shoe, a hoof, prob from ON brōk, hose; cf, therefore, BREECHES.

(2), a dial pron, esp the Ir pron of E: Ir barrōg, a hold or bond, e.g. on the tongue, hence a defective pron, hence the E sense: a mdfn of Ir barra, a bar, a hindrance: cf, therefore, BAR.



, broidery; embroider, embroidery. Embroidery derives from ‘to embroider’ and broidery, embroider=em-, here merely int+ broider; broider comes perh rather from OProv broidar, than from MF-F broder (OF brosder), prob from Frankish *brozdōn: cf ON broddr, a spike, and therefore BRAD. F broder has derivative MF-F broderie, which prompted E broidery (suffix -ery).

(1), to char (by burning), hence cookery sense; ME broilen: OF bruillir, from—though perh influenced by OF boillir, to boil—OF bruir, to burn, from OGmc bruëjen (G brühen, to warm up): Cf E BREED.

(2), to confuse, to entangle, hence n; embroil, embroilment. 1. ‘To broil’ comes from EF-F brouiller, MF broueillier, prob (B & W) from brou, mud, mire, influenced by such w as mouiller and souiller; its MF-F prefix (em-, in) derivative embrouiller produces E embroil; the subsidiary EF-F embrouillement prob produces E embroilment, which may, however, derive, by suffix -ment, from embroil. 2. Imbroglio, an adoption from It, derives from It imbrogliare, cpd of brogliare, itself from the OProv form corresp to the OF v.

; broken. See BREAK.



. See BROACH, para 4.


=bromine+ chem -ide; bromine=F brome+the chem -ine of chlorine’, and F brome comes from Gr brōmos, bad smell: see the element brom(o)-.

; bronchitic, bronchitis: Gr bronkhos, windpipe, s bronkh-, anglicized as bronch-+adj ial;+-itic, adj of -itis, denoting disease or constitutional weakness: see the element bronch (o)-.

(superior to broncho), a half-wild, smallish horse: elliptically from Sp bronco, wild, perh from L broncus (bronchus), var of brochus, broccus, (adj) projecting, hence (too) prominent, app of C origin (*broc-, a sharp point).



, n hence adj and v: adopted from EF-F: It bronzo: ML bronzium (var brundium): o.o.o.: perh Per birindj, for the alloy came to Europe from the East (B & W).


, n, v (cf ‘broody hen’). See BREED.

(1), n: OE brōc; akin to OHG bruoh, MHG bruoch, G Bruch, LG brōk, a marsh, and D broek, MD broec, broeke, brouc, marshy ground: prob from the r of E BREAK, G brechen; a breach in a river bank causes a swamp. (Walshe.)

(2), v, to enjoy possession of, (hence) to make use of, (hence) to endure: ME brucen, broken (etc.), to use, to enjoy: OE brūcan, to enjoy, akin to OHG bruhhan, MHG brūchen, G brauchen, to use, to need, OFris bruka, OS brūcan, Go brūkjan, to use; distantly akin to L frui, to enjoy the use of, for *frugui, cf frūx, fruit (for *frūgs); Gmc r, *bhrūk-; IE r, *bhrug(h)-. (Walshe.)



, a shrub, hence a besom (orig a bundle of twigs): ME brom, brome: OE brōm: akin to G Brombeere, blackberry, OHG brāmo, brier, D brem, MD brem, breme, bremme: akin to BRISTLE (f.a.e.) and BUR.

comes straight down from OE: akin to MIr embruthe, broth, and bruith, to boil, perh also OIr broth, corn (cf ‘corn whisky’), Cor brōs, broth, W broch, froth, Manx brott (cf Ga brot), broth, and broit, boiled—to OHG-G brōt, ON brauth, bread, G brodeln, to bubble—L defrūtum, must boiled down (de-)—Gr bruton, a fermented beer: cf, therefore, BREW.

: ME brothel, brethel, a whore, (but also and earlier) any vile person good for nothing, from brothen, pp of brēothan, to destroy, to go to ruin: brothel house, ‘vile persons’ house’, displaced bordel, adopted from F bordel, dim from OF borde, a hut, from Gmc *bord (see the 1st BOARD).

, old pi brethren (ME bretheren); brotherhood; brotherly (brother +adj -ly); brer (Brer Rabbit). See FRATER, para 6—and para 1.


commemorates Lord Brougham (1778–1868).


. See BRING.

: ME browe, earlier bruwe: OE brū, akin to ON brūn, OIr forbru (acc pi), OSI brŭvě, Skt bhrū. (The G Braue is unrelated.)

(adj hence n), brownie; Bruin; brunette, burnet; burnish, v hence n; prunella. 1. A brownie or good-natured goblin (whence Brownie, a Girl Guide of 8–11) is so named from its tawny colour: brown+dim -ie: the Ga bruinidh (pron broony) is merely a rough trln of brownie. Brown, ME broun, earlier brun, derives from OE brūn, akin to OFris, OS, OHG, MHG brūn (G braun); to ON brūnn; perh to Gr phrune, a toad; certainly to the Skt redup babhrūš, brown (hence, a beaver): IE r, *bhru-; cf the var berin BEAR, n. 2. Bruin the bear derives from D bruin, brown, so named from his colour: cf BEAR, n. 3. Brunette (adj hence n)=the f of OF-F brunet, dim of OF-F brun (f brune), brown, from OHG brūn. The derivative MF n brunete has metathesis burnete, whence ME-E burnet, a brown woollen fabric, hence several brown-hued plants. 4. ‘To burnish’ comes, via ME burnischen, earlier burnissen, from OF-MF burnir, metathesis of OF-F brunir, to render brun or brown, hence, to polish: cf MHG briunen, to render brown, to polish; burnishment=‘to burnish’+suffix -ment. 5. The old med term prunella, thrush (the disease), angina, is a Sci L var of brunella, Mod L dim of ML brunus, brown, from MHG brūn (para 1); brunella was suggested by G Bräune, quinsy (lit, brownness). The plant Prunella was formerly supposed to cure quinsy. But prunella, a sloe-coloured woollen fabric, comes from F prunelle, dim of PRUNE (a plum), q.v.



. ‘To browse’ comes from MF brouster (OF bruster; F brouter), from MF broust (OF brost), a sprout, a shoot, of Gmc origin: cf OS brustian, to sprout: basic meaning, ‘to swell’ (IE *bhreus-), therefore cf BREAST. Browse, young shoots, hence such fodder, prob comes from MF broust; but browse, an act of browsing, clearly derives from ‘to browse’.

. See BROWN, para 2.

, v hence n and the agential bruiser. ‘To bruise’ derives, through ME brusen (var brisen), from OE to bruise, influenced by OF-MF bruisier, to break into small pieces, to shiver, of C origin: cf MIr brūim, I crush, smash, bruise, Ga brooth (pron broo), to bruise, Cor brew, (pp) bruised; the C r is prob *brug-, I break.

, n hence v: adopted from OF-F bruit, from the v bruire: VL *brūgere, itself either from C *brug-, to make a noise, or from L ruglre, to roar+ VL *bragere, to cry out (cf 1st BRAY).


. See BROWN, para 3.


, a blow (hence its force), an assault (hence its impact or shock): ME brunt is app akin to OE brūnetha, heat, ON brunt, a torch, therefore cf BRAND.

(1), n and v. Brush, a cleaning device, ME brusshe, comes from OF-MF broisse (F brosse), perh of Gmc origin: cf OHG bursta (MHG borst, G Borste), a bristle, ult akin to Skt a point. ‘To brush’, ME bruschen, brusshen, derives from the ME n. Cf, however, the more prob origin in:

(2), lopped branches of trees, hence brushwood. ME brusche: OF broche, broce, brouce (etc.)—cf MF-F brosse, broussaille—perh from the r occurring in F bruyère, heather, q.v. at BRIER. The OF n has derivative MF-F brosser, orig to dash through brushwood or underbrush, whence ME bruschen, to rush, whence ‘to brush (usu off)’ to hurry off; hence, brush, a skirmish. B & W derive both OF nn from the one source, with primary sense ‘brush(wood)’, secondary ‘a brush or cleaning device’; the earliest brushes being made, not of bristles but of leaves and twigs; they derive broce, etc., from VL *bruscia, a collection of shoots, from bruscum, woody excrescence on a maple tree, a post-Classical L word of app C origin, prob from the r of BROWSE.

, brusquerie; brisk, brisken, briskness. 1. Brusquerie, EF-F, derives (cf the E suffix -ery) from MF-F brusque: and F brusque comes from It brusco, rough (of manner), abrupt, from L bruscum or bruscus, the plant



named butcher’sbroom (very rough). ‘It seems that there has been a confusion between bruscum (brustum) and ruscus (rustum) [holly] and perh also *brūcus’ (E & M)—Cf BRIER. 2. Brisk, whence brisken (v suffix -en) and briskness (-ness), is perh a thinned form of brusque, but prob of C origin: cf EIr brisc, Ga brisg, brittle, fragile, and Br bresk, brittle, (also) brusque: *brec-, *breg-, and *bric-, *brig-, are app thinned forms of C *brac-, *brag- (and *brad-), to break, akin to the *frag- of L frangere (nasalized; cf frēgi, I have broken).

, whence brutality and brutalize; brute, adj hence n. Brutal, unless from LL brutālis,=brute+adj -al; brute comes from MF brute, later differentiated as brut, m, and brute, f from L brūtus, f brūta, heavy, stupid, unreasoning, as in ‘the brute creation’, prob of Oscan origin: cf Lett grūts, L grauis (s grau-), heavy; IE r, app *b(h)ru-, var *g(h)ru-, prob cf Skt heavy, and perh the syn Gr barus.

. See the element bryo-, whence also bryony.


. See BEVER.



, n and v; adj, hence n, bubbly;—burble. Burble, to speak confusedly and pointlessly, imperfectly blends bubble and gurgle. A bubble derives from ME bobel, or boble, akin to MD bobbel (also D) and bubbel and Sw bubbla; to bubble derives from late ME buble, bobel, akin to MLG bubbeln, MHG brodelen. The -le (-el) is freq; the r, prob echoic.

; buccaneer. A buccan, or grid for grilling or drying meat, comes from EF-F boucan, from SAmerind bocan, a grill for either smoking or drying meat; the derivative EF-F v boucaner yields ‘to buccan’, grill (meat) thus; and boucaner has late EF-F agent boucanier, one who does this, whence E buccaneer (cf suffix -eer), applied first to F settlers in Haiti, then to the Caribbean pirates, who subsisted largely upon buccan.

(1), beech. See BEECH, para 3.

(2), lye. See BEECH, para 3.




(3), male deer: ME buk, bucke: OE buc, bucca, a he-goat, app of C origin: cf OIr bocc, Ga boc, he-goat, roe-buck, Cor bōc(k), bocca (etc.), W boch, Br bouc’h, he-goat; the OC word would be *buccos, lit ‘(the beast) that flees’, from *buc-, to flee, answering to L fug- in fugere. Cf:

(4), Am si for a dollar: o.o.o., but prob from buck, a counter used in poker (whence pass the buck: Mathews), this counter usu being, at least orig, a buck-knife, a knife made with a handle of buck-horn,

(5), to leap abruptly, plungingly: from BUCK (3), the lit sense being ‘to leap like a buck’, cf Ga boc.

. See VACCENIC (heading).

buck mate
, buck Negro, etc. Buck is here an adj from BUCK (3).

: ME bucket: AF buket, buquet, a dim from OE būc, a pitcher, any (water-) vessel, the belly, akin to OFris būk, OHG būh, MHG buch, G Bauch, belly, and ON būkr, belly,

body: Gmc r, *būk-; IE r, *bhug-. (Walshe.)


is a plant with a seed like a buck’s eye.

(1), n and v; buckler. A buckler, or shield with boss, ME bocler, comes from OF boucler (MF-F bouclier), itself from OF-MF bocle, MF-F boucle, the boss of a shield, whence, via ME bocle, the E buckle, with senseadaptation; also from OF-MF bocle comes ME boclen, whence ‘to buckle’ Now, OF bocle derives from L buccula, little cheek (or mouth), dim of bucca, a cheek, a shield’s boss, a boss or knob resembling a cheek; bucca is prob C.

(2), to bend more or less permanently: either from late MF-F boucler (from the n boucle—see prec), esp in the sense ‘(of a wall) to bulge’, as OED holds, or, as a freq (le), from MD bucken (var bocken; D bukken), to bow (vi), akin to the 3rd BOW, as Webster prefers, and so do I.

. See 1st BUCKLE.




: ME bukeram, buckram (later bokeram): OF-EF boquerant; prop bo(u)queran (? adj as n), cf Sp bucarán and It bucherame: Per Bukhārā, Bukhara, E usu Bokhara, where this fine linen was orig manufactured. Bukhārā was app so named from the ancient Buddhist monastery—Skt vihara—situated nearby; through the Turco-Mongolian form bukhar. (Enci It.)

. See BEECH, para 3.

: L būcolicus: Gr boukolikos, orig ‘of a boukolos or cowherd’, from bous, an ox (cf BOVINE and, f.a.e., cow); the 2nd element=*kolos, akin to L colere (s col-), to cultivate—here, one who tends cows, not crops. (Hofmann.)

(n hence v) derives from ME budden, akin to MD bote, botte, D bot, a bud—to MHG butzen (s but-), to swell—perh also MLG budel, a purse (G Beutel): basic idea, ‘a swelling’: IE r, *bhu-, to swell.

, whence Buddhism and Buddhist: Skt buddha, awakened, hence aware, hence enlightened, of same r as bodhati, he awakes, hence becomes aware, hence understands.




, to move slightly, hence n: OF-F bouger, to stir: VL *bullicāre, vi, to boil and bubble: L bullīre, to boil, from bulla, a bubble: cf BOIL.

is an Aus aboriginal word.

, n hence v. See BULGE.

(1), a superior leather, derives from obs buff, earlier buffe, a buffalo, the first buff having been prepared from buffalo hide: f.a.e., BUFFALO. Hence, ‘to buff’, polish with a buff.

(2), a buffet: OF buffe: f.a.e., BUFFET. ‘To buff’ or strike: OF buffer, from buffe.

: It buffalo, var of bufalo (cf Port búfalo): L būfalus, var of būbalus: Gr boubalos, orig ‘N African antelope’, later ‘buffalo’, from bous, ox (cf BOVINE and, f.a.e., cow), boubalos being orig an adj ‘of, for, like an ox’ (cf L būbulus), and ult, though remotely, akin to Skt gavalas, wild buffalo (Boisacq).



. See:

(1) derives, through ME, from MF buffet, a slap, dim of OF-EF buffe, a blow: prob echoic (cf PUFF). ‘To buffet’, ME buffeten, derives from MF buffeter, from buffet. E buffer derives from either of the two vv BUFF, qq.v.; the sense ‘fellow’, usu ‘old buffer’, derives prob from buff, to strike, but perh from cant buffer, a dog—cf the fig use of dog.

(2), a sideboard, now often one set with food: adopted from OF-F: usu, by E philologists, said to be o.o.o., but B & W mention that OF buffet, like OProv bufet, denotes both ‘a sort of table’ and, earlier, ‘a box (on the ear)’, and add, ‘Perhaps the word became the designation of a piece of furniture because the latter was, orig, furnished with a board that one could lower’—(presumably) with a smart tap or with the sound of a slap.

, buffoonery. The latter, deriving (by suffix -ery) from the former, was prompted by EF-F bouffonnerie, itself from EF-F bouffon, whence E buffoon: and F bouffon comes from It buffone, prob from buffa, a rough joke, a fooling-about, a jape, but perh from the intimately cognate buffare, to play the fool, to puff out one’s cheeks: echoic (cf PUFF). The operatic buffo merely shortens buffone (Prati).



, goblin; bugbear. See BOGEY.—As coll for ‘insect’, a ‘creepy-crawly’ form of life, it derives from the basic sense ‘goblin’.

, buggery; Bulgar (n), Bulgaria (Byz Gr Boulgaria), whence Bulgarian, adj hence n. Buggery comes from MF-EF bougrerie, (MF) heresy, (EF) sodomy, from MF-F bougre (OF bogre), whence E bugger; or so the dictt tell us. I prefer to derive buggery from MD buggerie, and bugger from MD bugger. The OF bogre, MF-F bougre, and MD bugger derive, the former from ML Bulgarus, a Bulgar, hence a heretic and, by lay slander, a sodomite, the latter from the ‘eased’ ML forms Bugarus (s Bugar-) and esp Bugerus (s Buger-): by b/f from C6 LL Bulgari, the Bulgars (Tatars, settling in what became Bulgaria): from C5 Byz Gr Boulgaroi, Bulgars, a name akin to the river Volga, itself perh a confusion of Tatar Ethil or Itil and Gr Rha. (Enci It.)

, a light carriage: ‘o.o.o.’ is the usual verdict; but perh buggy is simply bogey influenced by bug, insect, from the ‘spidery’ appearance of its framework.

(1), musical instrument, whence bugler; OF-MF bugle: L būculus, a young ox, dim of bos, an ox (cf BOVINE and, f.a.e., cow): orig ‘buffalo’, then ‘hunter’s horn’, used orig in the hunting of buffaloes.



(2), plant, whence bugleweed: MF-F bugle; LL bugula (var bugillo): o.o.o., but perh of same origin as (1)—cf the plant bugloss, lit ‘ox’s tongue’.

(pt, pp built): a compromise between the two predominant ME forms bulden, bilden: OE byldan, from bold (var botl), a house, akin to OFris bold, house, and -belda, to build, to ON bōl, farm, farmhouse, abode, and to OSw bol, bole, dwelling, house: prob from the OGmc r present in ON būa, to dwell. Derivatives: builder, building.

, with adjj bulbar (bulb+-ar) and bulbous (L bulbōsus): L bulbus: Gr bolbos, app a redup of r bol-, akin to the bul- of L bulla, a bubble. Cf the 1st BULL.

, Bulgarian, etc. See BUGGER.

, n hence v and pa bulging, and adj bulgy; budget, n hence v and the adj budgetary (ary). Budget, a wallet (or sack), hence its contents, esp if monetary, comes from OF bougette, a small bag, a wallet, dim of OF boge, bouge, from L bulga, a leather bag, of

bolke: ON bulki. L follis (s fol-). to OIr ball. whence EF-F. bulletin. leads to the It dim bulletta. *balc-. is akin to—almost a var of—BALK. onion. penis. bull (1). bull(-)headed. bulla. to OSw bulin. air bubble. like BUBBLE or. bulldoze. male corresp to cow. and E BULB. MD and MLG bulle. and W bol. with extension bulloc. to be large (Malvezin). a seal. is either echoic. a pod. bag. ? Mx bwoid. hence E. bull. a large belly—certainly Br bolc’h. as in bulkhead. to swell.A-Z 353 Gaul origin: cf the Ga bolg. as E & M hold. bull (2). whence ME-E bulge. hence It. bulgy—the EIr bolg. bull’s-eye. akin to ON boli. bulb. hence document. OF boge or bouge has var boulge. Bull derives from ME bule from OE bula. cargo (cf ‘to break bulk’). belly. bullfrog. etc. 2. Cf the 3rd BILL. and bolgach. swollen. akin to ON böllr. bull. a ball (sphere). L. bulging. . like Gr bolthos. whence bulldog. MHG balle. *bolg-. from ML bulla. a globe: basic idea. a ball. var of *balg-. heap. therefore cf BALL (1) and BOLD. hence a papal letter sealed with a bulla. hence seal: bulla. perh also to OHG ballo. bag. bulk (1). bulk (2). pictorial for a round protuberance. derives from ME bulle. belly. prob imitative. from L bulla. whence bullock. bag— Manx bolg. which acquires its own dim bullettino. ‘to swell’. bulge: C r. n hence v and the adj bulky: ME bulke. seal. belly—perh Cor bolitho.

from L bulla. varr bolioen and esp billioen: MF-F billon.a. bully (1). bullet represents a blending of MF-F boulet. meat: F bouilli. q. See 1st BULL. dimm of MF-F boule.. penis (cf PHALLIC): the basic idea and the IE r are ‘to swell’.v. and Gr phallos (s phal-). See the 2nd BULL.e. the 2nd BILLET. IE *bhel-.Origins 354 bellows. a modification of OF-F bille. bulletin . cannon ball. an ingot. and EF-F boulette. a round stick: f. para 2. a small ball. boiled beef. ball (sphere). bullock . bullion : a C15 loan from MD bulioen. to BOIL. at 1st BULL. bouilli being prop the pp of bouillir. .

This may form the origin of: bum (2). friend (G Buhle. for D bodem.e. MD boele: MHG buole.o. boulevard.. bollewerc. paramour): prob cf Lett bāleninš.) bulrush .a. pern. brother. the ME bom comes from D dial bom. lover. (Walshe. excellent). bum (1). the behind (cf BOTTOM). D bolwerk). the 1st BOLE and WORK.A-Z 355 bully (2). n and v: echoic: a var of the 2nd BOOM. orig ‘good or dear fellow’ (whence the adj bully. however. See 1st BOLE. relative. little brother: o. come from MLG bolwerk (cf MD bolwerc. then a blusterous browbeater: D boel. the latter through EF-F. the former directly. . Both words. sense-influenced by 2nd BULL. lit ‘stem-work’: f.o. bulwark . the behind: see prec. friend..

bum. to wander. See BEAM. See BEAM. from bummeln. bumboat . ME bumblen. para 2. worthless. to hum: cf the 2nd BOOM. v. derives from the n. n and v. See HUMBLEBEE. bumblebee . n and v: a bum or tramp shortens the syn G Bummler. bump . Cf: bumkin (nautical). bumble . whence ‘to bum’.Origins 356 bum (3). para 2. to loaf. prob a freq of bum. The n derives from bumble.

bunk (bed. persisting in a long-winded speech. raised. a sense formative in bunk. Adj: bumpy. n hence v and the adj bunchy. also MF buigne. esp nautical). bunch .) .g. var bonne. formerly often bunn: the shape of the round. ME bunche. Sc bannock. of bedclothes. pile. bumpkin. but comes direct from the Scan origin of bunche: OSw bunke or ON bunki. insincere speech—hence insincere talk. sweetened bread-confection leads to bun of hair: and the edible bun derives from ME bunne.f. F beignet. v and n. See BEAM. bumptious . that county in North Carolina which was represented (1819– 21) by Felix Walker. heap. heap’. by abbr. prob of C origin: cf Ga bonnach. (Webster. hence nonsense. bunk: Buncombe. s. obtusely pert: bump+presumptious (illiterate tot presumptuous). (1) a spar. whence. var bannach. in C20 usu bunkum. bun . e. The common idea is ‘pile. he said that his electors expected him to ‘make a speech for Buncombe’.A-Z 357 (v hence n and the agent bumper): echoic (sound upon impact): cf the equally echoic thump. bunk is a doublet of bunch. the former also denotes ‘boarding’. a fritter: the basic idea is app ‘a swelling’. hence a ‘swollen’ confection. buncombe . (2) a rural lout.

sole of foot—Mx bong. bunk (1). association. to work inefficiently: ? a phonetic blend. Ir and Ga bonn.Origins 358 bund . . as in D): MHG bunde: MF-F bonde. characteristic) of Bengal’. bunk (2). nautical bed. n hence v: MD bunge (var bonge. para 2. with sense predominantly from bangla. base. See BUNCOMBE. base. W bon. to strike (cf BANG). See BIND. bungle is app of Scan origin: cf OSw bunga. bundle. See BUNCH. bungalow : Hindi bangla. and bangla. nonsense. bung . bung—and perh Cor bēn. Bengali: elliptical for ‘(house. of C origin: cf OIr bond.

middle part of net or sail. in golf): Sc bunker. rabbit. tail of rabbit or hare. var bunkart. var of bun (as at BUNNY).A-Z 359 bunker . hence bunt-line (cf LINE). is a dim of Sc and N dial bun. a large bin or chest. a special rope: cf MHG bunt (G Bund). a bench. bunkum .o. buttock. and derivative Ga bunabhas. and esp MD bont. bunny . hence a small sandpit (hence. a bundle. . OC *bonu(MacLennan). to butt. pet-name for a rabbit. bunt (1). of C origin: cf Ga and EIr bun. itself from bun. app echoic and perh influenced by Sc and N dial bunt. hence n: o. See BUNCOMBE. stump. bunt (2). a chest serving as seat: akin to BENCH.. from butting with one’s rear: cf SHUNT.o. rabbit’s tail.

bur or burr. n hence v. buntline . buoyant derives from buoy. q. burdock. Cf the 2nd BURR.v. Buoyancy=buoyant+suffix -cy. this material having perh been used for sifting meal. derives from bunting. to sift (whence E dial bunt. burdock (itself =bur+the dock plant): OSw borra. bunyip is an adoption from an Aus aboriginal language. buoy . E BEACON. to sift). a chain. OS bōkan. from OF-MF boie. as if from a F presp. v. borre. . OFris bāken. of Gmc origin: cf OHG bouhhan. that thin woollen material from which flags are made: ME bontin.Origins 360 bunting . flags collectively. buoyant. See the 1st BUNT. hence—because held by a chain—a buoy. occ buntine. a buoy comes from MD boeie. prickly cone.. of plant: ME burre. etc. buoyancy. buie. MHG bouchen. thistle.

in music: influenced by prec. perh elliptical for lana burra. burlesque. along with late ME burden and early birthen. ruddy. mockery. adopted from EF-F. the bass in music: ML burdō. joke. adopted by E (now obs). fire (cf FIRE). bumblebee. MHG-G bürde: from the r of ‘to BEAR’ (OE beran). with OF-MF dim bure! (suffix -el). woollen fabric. whence OF- . n hence v and the adj burdensome (suffix -some). ? from VL *burrula. (orig) coarse hair. comes from It burlesco. See BUBBLE. dim of LL burra. burdock . o/s burdōn-. adj of burla. jest. whence OF-F bure. burthen. bureau . from pur. bureaucrat. from OE byrthen. burden (1). of echoic origin. OHG burdi. burden (2). but from ME burdoun: MF-F bourdon.A-Z 361 burble . survival of a ME spelling. akin to Go baúrthei. Now. -cratic. from burrus. adj hence n and v. LL burra has app a VL var *būra. from the syn Gr purros. shaggy garment. a flock of wool. Burlesque. See BUR. -cracy.

burgh. burgomaster . used for covering tables.Origins 362 F bureau. whence E bureaucrat (cf the element -crat. burgess . whence E bureau. para 6. See BOROUGH. whence bureaucratic. See BOROUGH. The F word has three notable derivatives: bureaucrate. See BOROUGH. See BURLY. burg . burgle. an office. burgeon . burglar . . (mostly) office. hence. See BOROUGH. and bureaucratique. a coarse woollen cloth. burgher. a desk. burglary. whence bureaucracy. para 2. hence. as in ARISTOCRAT). bureaucratic.

OGmc forms are clearly akin to Go baíran. whence burliness. from L Burgundii. burly . OE borlīce. the wine. to carry—usually one raises before one carries—and therefore to E ‘to BEAR'.v. adopted from OF-MF burjon (F bourgeon). which suggests the same Gmc origin as that of burg.A-Z 363 Burgundy . See bury at BOROUGH (para 5). comes from this ancient province of France. eminently. bud. excellently. to raise. q. Burgundiōnes may have prompted the n Burgundian. an ancient Gmc tribe. taken over by E. the adj Burgundian derives rather from Burgundia. a var of Burgundiōnes. burial . lofty. itself akin to OHG burlih. See BUREAU. earlier burjon. burlesque . with Fvar bourgeon. burgeon. at BOROUGH. whence prob ME borlich. from ML Burgundia. prob of Gmc origin: cf esp OHG burjan. A burgeon. late ME burly. The F form Bourgignons led to the head-armour called burgonet. excellent. n hence v (pern from the OF-F v). derives from ME burgen. earlier Burgodiōnes. burn .

burnous . OHG brinnan. a kind of cloak. confused with ME beornen or birnen. pp burnt. and brinnan. Go brannjan. ‘To burn’ derives from ME bernen (var brennen). vt. occ burnoose: F burnous. 364 burn (2). vt.g. var of birros (L birrus). to gush forth. burnish . burp . See BROWN. bernous. Cf BRAND. esp burna. OS and OHG brennian. vi. vt. themselves from OE baernan or bernan. vt. e. to cause to be. para 3. See the 1st BOURN. vi. para 4. vt. to be. and brinna. vi. cf also Skt bhurati. burnet . on fire. barnusse: Ar burnus: Gr burros. Both F beret and It biretta come from the same IE r. vi: pern akin to the Ir r brenn-. berna. it quivers or flickers. a brook. Cf BERET. See BROWN. with EF varr bernus.Origins (1). ON brenna. and beornan. vi: cf the merely app metathetic varr in the OGmc cognates. v hence n: pt burned. OFris barna.

however. words derived by MacLennan from OC *borsos. burr (1). hence numerous mechanical devices (usu burr). a German tribe: ‘the Buric beast’. perh (E & M) from Tacitus’s Buri (Gr Bouroi). varr gherk. burr (2). var of bars. of speech: n hence v: of same origin as prec: bur of plant. Webster. of plant. puffed (up). para 3. derives it from Gaul burs (or bors). ‘frog in the throat’). Ir borr. Malvezin.A-Z 365 (of a child) is. strong. v. hence the noise made by several of them. a nag. which ‘shortens’ it from borrico. height. bur(r)ichus. burro comes straight from Sp. See BOROUGH. See BUR. like gurk. purely and excellently echoic. a pony. burrow . proud. hence that rough or whirring-hum pron. ass. derives the final sense from a ‘bur in the throat’ (cf. proud. buricus. bursar . n. however. (whence) physical strength: ‘the strong beast’: cf EIr borr. pride. the trilled r. Ga borr. strong. ghurk (of an adult). a small or inferior horse. itself from LL burricus. sem.

: ? from a PN (manufacturer or first notable wearer). 366 burst . berst-. The OGmc barst-. a (thick) shrub. v. MHG bresten and bersten. e. busby : o. with varr *bhrast-.g. OHG brestan. akin to OHG brust and. hence. G bersten. hence a thicket. See PURSE.o. . loss. break. bush . to burst. OS brestan. damage’. failure. *bhrost-. para 2. bosky.forms. of course. Cf G brechen. boscage. the E ‘to burst’. the outback. E ‘to BREAK’. via ME bersten (var bresten). paras 5–6. also to fail. hence an uncleared piece of country.o. OFris bersta. bursary. See BOROUGH. n. I break. and the IE r is app *bhrest-. OIr brissim. the n derives from OE byrst. borst-forms are metatheses for brast-. ‘a carriage that is for all’ (L omnibus). As ‘injury. crash.. brest. borsten. bury .Origins . whence. MD bersten (also D). barsten. bus shortens omnibus. in Aus. ON bresta. Akin to OE berstan (impf pi burston) are. to OE berstan.

cf boskein (s bosk-). a grove. boischel: OF-MF (presumed) and OProv boissel. ME boskage.) in public-house or to a theatre queue: EF-F busquer. concave side of a club. hence to seek to provide entertainment. as in D. whence. to seek. a thicket. whence E bush. Now. Boscage. the syn bosk. (B & W. a grainmeasure. . comes from OF-MF boscage. ML boscus prob originated both OHG busc (MHG and G busch) and MD busch (var bussche and. prob comes from the MD busch rather than from OHG or MHG. whence EF-F bosquet. bosch). bushy.A-Z 367 1. Mx bass. singer (etc. of C origin: cf Ga bas. OIr bass (dat boiss). the ML boscus either derives from or is very intimately related to Gr boskē. occ bois. busk (2). bushel : ME buschel. to search (the woods): ? ult a parallel to BUSH. See BUSY. n. adopted by E with var bosket. to seek: Sp buscare.) business . dim (-el) of OF-MF (presumed) and EF (recorded) boisse. boschage. MacLennan. whose It shape bosco has dim boschetto. 2. palm of hand: OC etymon *bostā. whence busker. to graze (vt). ME busch (var busk). palm of hand. wooded. busk (1) of corset: var (It busco) of BUST. by abbr. pasture (as Walshe proposes). whence the adj bosky. from ML boscus.

bust (1). gay fellow. lit ‘slow bird'+the MF doublet oustarde (F outarde). a bustard. shaped—log of wood): from the busts often set over tombs (B & W). a—usu. bustard blends OF bistarde.). from ML avis (L auis) tarda. This kind of tautology does occur. a small shoe. prob (B & W) via Gaul L *austarda. hence merely voc. buskin : app a slovened borrowing of MD broseken (o. Hence the AE buster. perh via MF brosequin. n: EF-F buste: It busto: ? L bustum. See BUSTLE. a tomb (orig.o. bust (2) n and v: coll and dial form of BURST. from L auis (ML avis) tarda.Origins 368 busk (3).o. prob (DAF) for *vistarde. .

outside.A-Z 369 bustle . the n business (-ness). itself an extension of the adv ut. n hence v. outwards. From a person bustling (moving fussily) along. except. lit ‘without. var bisig. (hence) except for. (orig) to dwell: cf the 2nd BOWER. except. perh orig echoic. outside (of). is elliptical for but that. conj. from OF-MF . but . outside. the adv busily (-ly). to occupy or employ: IEr. to use. and therefore derives from the prep but. butchery. earlier buten. and OUT. 2. Cf ‘That’s not my pigeon’. vr from būa. derives from ME bocherie. from ON būask. shambles. earliest butan. from OE bysig. derives from ME busi. whence the v ‘to busy’. without. without. orig a slaughterhouse. Hence pidgin (further corrupted to pigeoni). bisgian. butcher . busy . o. on the outside of. besich. pidgin being a Ch attempt at business. prep. var *bis-. via ME busken. via ME bute. from OE būtan (cf OFris būta). a Chinesecoast and China Sea lingua franca. *bes-. LG besig. besides: be-.o. orig an adv. itself deriving. v hence n. akin to MD besech. that’. to make oneself ready. by+ūtan. The latter. elliptical for pidgin English.o: Cf OFris bisgia. ‘To bustle’ derives from EE buskle. itself. derives the bustle worn beneath a woman’s skirt. a freq (-le) of the obs busk. var bisi. without. from the interior to or towards the exterior: therefore see BY. and OE bysgian. to prepare. not my business nor my concern. D bezig.

perh (Webster) from ML buc. where the but. butt (3). and bout. L bōs. handle: ME but. the -uc being app the dim suffix OE -uc. of Gmc origin: cf BUTTE. butt (2). to thrust at. whence ME buttoke.in bucida. butler . a testicle (? orig a bull’s). end. a cask. to push.g. balls. to strike. now vulgar—cf the 1st BALL (and the s. ‘vendor of goat-flesh’. testicles). a sacrificer of oxen (Gr bous. of Gmc origin: cf MD boten. E -ock. a buttock. Dauzat and B & W prefer to derive OF-MF bouchier. a cattle-slayer. the thicker end. butt (1). whence E buttock.Origins 370 bocherie. butte. See BOTTLE. and see the 3rd BUCK. caused by F but. Cf BUTTON. E bollock. to push. he-goat.is prob that of OE buttuc. from Gr bouthytēs. slaughterhouse. . MF-F boucherie. para 3. bucola. goal. from OF-F bouc. A butt with the head drives from the v BUTT. end. See BOTTLE.? coll. stump. Even in ME and indeed in OF. end-piece. The word has been influenced by the 2nd BUTT. to strike. var bochier (MF-F boucher). itself from Gaul *bucco-: cf OIr bocc. para 2. and esp ON bauta. e. from OF-MF bouchier. there has been a certain confusion. MF-F boucher. esp with head or horns or rump: ME but ten: OF-MF boter (MFF bouter). an ox: cf BOVINE). rump. cf OE bealluc. he-goat.

. See the 2nd BUTT. earlier butere: OE butere or. via ME botonen. steep-sided hill: MF-F butte. s. goal. OE buterflēge. The n derives from ME bouton: OF-MF baton (F bouton). then to bud: f. (The OGmc and Scythian etymologies are unconvincing. butter . in cpds. The butterfly. See BOTTLE. buttock . ‘To button’ comes. n and v. was prob so named because a common species is yellow: ‘the yellow flier’. whence the adj—not the n—buttery and the v ‘to butter’: ME butter.a.) 2. cf the element tyro-. boundary: akin to the 2nd BUTT. a lone. the 3rd BUTT. cow (cf BOVINE) +turos. cheese.A-Z 371 butte .e. orig a bud. buttery . para 2. butter: bous. button . thrust. n. from OF- . var of MF-F but. push. very soon the ‘bud’ of a garment. a button: from OF-MF boter (F bouter). n. buttor-: L butyrum: Gr bouturon. orig to strike. buttor-flēoge.f.

. to bend. OHG biogan. buxom : ME buxum. v hence n. to bow.a. ‘To buy’.e. MHG biegen. from boton. pt and pp bought (late OE-early ME pt. buy . Cf: 372 buttress . akin to Go bugjan and OS buggean. buzzard : ME. f. is purely echoic. derives from ME buggen. from biegen. n hence v: ME butrasse. as in ‘a good buy’. *bug-. attached to the r of OE būgan. OS būgan: f. from OF-F. then n ‘projecting structure’: from boter. pliant. to bend: cf the G biegsam. bouterez. adj ‘projecting’.a.e. whence the coll n. Gmc r. the 3rd BOW. earlier boterace: the OF-MF boterez. biggen. boht). akin to Go biugan. busard (suffix -ard): from OF-F buse: L būtiōnem or būteōnem. buzz . acc of . from OE bycgan. later bouter.Origins MF botoner. manageable. earlier buhsum. obedient. the 3rd BUTT. pp. (lit) pliable: OE * būhsum: the suffix OE -sum. to thrust: cf prec and.. bohte. E -some.

and Gr amphi (for *ambhi). MD bie. on both sides. by the side of. var *umbhi. cf the amb. about: the IE etymon would be *ambhi. prep hence adv hence adj. Clearly. and abhí-tas. around. byre . See prec. a dwelling: f. cow-house: OE . byword . bygone is merely ‘gone by. būbō being a redup of echoic bū-. s but-.A-Z 373 būtiō or būteō. therefore. make a circular tour of. with var bye. G bei. according to: akin to OFris and OS bī (or bǐ). as in būbō (gen būbōnis). cf also G urn. cowshed. by . about. OHG (and MHG) bī. mdfn of OE būr. of. by).e.a. bye . to go around. E by. Cf the un-nasalized form in Skt abhi.. an owl. is ult identical with the prefix be-. the 2nd BOWER. Go bi (around. around. OHG bī is ult identical with OHG umbi. perh even at that stage. from—after. around. D bij.(? for *ambi) of L ambīre. be. often. shortened to *bhi (Walshe). around. about. near—by. whence the n (something that goes by or to the side): ME bi: OE bī.and W ambi-. this OGmc bl. hence past’. for. and such C cognates as OIr imb. r perh bū-.

akin to Gr buzēn (adv). s. close-pressed. whence Byzantinism (-ism). Byzantium: bezant or besant. . a gold coin issued by Byzantium throughout the CC6–15. See VERB. L .f. to be frequent The L adj yields E Byzantine. 374 Byzantine . adj of from Gr Buzantion. from . derives from ME besant. itself akin to buzein (s buz-). The Close-Pressed (City)’. elliptical for aes or ‘Byzantine coin’. para 1. from OF-MF besan.Origins . var of OF-F besant. compactly built. Bezant. besaunt.

perh akin to Gr kapros. then a shivering. and to ON hafr. secret. a shudder. The adj cabalistic derives from EF-F cabalistique. the v caprioler was adapted as ‘to capriole’: these two E words yielded resp ‘a caper’ and ‘to caper’. she goat. lore. received. a caper.A-Z 375 C cab . roebuck. from qābal. n. var of caprioler. he-goat. he-goat. ‘To cabal’ comes from EF-F cabaler. varr *kap. to caper. s cap-). a trln of H qabbālāh. The 2nd pet-forms ‘cab-driver’. from L capreolus. from caper. The EF-F capriole. . The IE r may have been *khap-. OE haefer. from capriolo. hence traditional. whence E cabal. is a dim of EF-F cabriole. f capricieuse. like a hedge-hog’s spines. an intriguing group’. 1. secret meeting. 3. from It capriolare. The sensedevelopment of the F and E cabale. adopted from F. cabby. occ cabbala. cabala. it derives from It capo. n and v. was adopted by C17 E. to receive (? ult akin to L capere. n: and cabale derives from ML cabala. Capricious comes from EF-F capricieux. cabriolet. var of capriole: prob from cabrioler. roebuck. var cabbala. capra. 2.or *kep-. the basic idea (Webster) being that of a head with hair ‘standing on end’. itself from EF-F cabale. cabal . a goat) a whim: but capriccio does not derive from capro. a leap. perh rather from its pi capora+riccio. cabal. to leap like a goat. finally (senseinfluenced by It capro. cabriolet. from EF-F caprice. head (from L caput). a horripilation. a wild boar. secret meeters. is ‘(secret) tradition. adj. orig a wild goat. cab shortens cabriolet. secret machinations. The cabriolet was so named (1755) from ‘the leaps made by these light vehicles’ (B & W). itself from It capriccio. hedgehog (L ericius).

cabbage : ME cabage.e. para 2. var of OF-MF caboce: OF-MF boce (MF-F bosse). See CAB.Origins 376 caballero . dim (cf the suffix et) of Picard cambre. to take (E & M). with prefix ca-. influenced by capere.a. itself a denasalized form of MD cambret: either from Old Picard camberete.e. a place of refreshment. protuberance). cabin . perh by f/e. cabaret is adopted from MF-F: MD cabaret. perh a metathesis for LL cannapa. and Mx cabbane (and cab). large room. a vocalized form of MD cabret. In C. earlier caboche: by shape-resemblance from Old Picard caboche. CHAMBER). or from Ar khamārāt. . chamber.: BOSS. hemp. contr of bo-ane.has var cap-. head. cabby .a. varr caberet. F chambre (f. head. both mean orig ‘to take’. n hence v: ME cabane: MF-F cabane: OProv cabana: LL capanna. a stall for oxen. with var bwane. as Dauzat suggests. W cabban (and cab).. cab. hut. but prob of C origin: cf Ir caban. See CAVALCADE. as B & W propose. a swelling (f. perh suggested by L caput.

intimate room—of F cabine (1364). Cable (message) is short for cablegram. however. and are therefore akin to L capere (s cap-): cabin prob has orig sense ‘container’. could have come from MHG kabel. See BOODLE. L cauea. dim of gabbia. orig cant for a gaming-house. cable . hollow. strong rope: MF-F câble: OProv (? rather ONF) cable: ML caplum. a thick. a rope (Walshe). For the F cabine (except for ‘ship’s cabin’ sense. early var gabinet. to mock. B & W postulating an -et dim—F cabinet being orig a small. Webster and Dauzat deriving it from F cabinet. or akin to. cabuus. see: cabinet has at least three different etymologies: OED and EW preferring to make it a dim of E cabin. borrowed from E cabin). but perh a var of MD kookhuis. o.A-Z 377 hence ‘to contain’. sent by electric cable. caboose . long. orig.o.. with r o. already a piece of furniture. cookhouse. a cage or a basket. an adaptation of It gabinetto. a cook’s galley. var cauia. certainly both the OF and the MHG words could derive from Ar . as still naut.o.o. galley. from ML cavea. a word ‘born in the underworld of the rich Flemish cities’.o.. the r of MD gabben (s gab-). contr of ML capulum. to take. ML cavus. some kind of cord. MD cabuse. hence railroad sense: prob either MLG kabūse or. prob not from L cauus. . perh via the presp form. though just possibly from. prob from capere (s cap-). caboodle . n hence v. MF-F cable. better.

See CAB. to drive together). cacique . OIr caccaim. to force: cf COGENT.g. by forcing something into a small space. excrement. to compress. pp of cogere (for co-agere. cachet. to conceal: L coactāre. to hide or conceal: GalloRoman *coactitare (S) and *coacticare (N). incl the corresp nn (e.a . Gr kakkáō. cack . adopted by E: ‘seal of a letter’ (very distinctive). See SHEIK. cacao . but prob Medit: cf Hit sakkary zakkar. See COCOA. Ru kakal’. one renders it less noticeable. hence ‘distinctive quality’. from MF-F cacher.) The word is not only IE. (Cf the element -cace. cache . and other terms. a hiding-place. From the ‘compress’ sense of F cacher derives late MF-F cachet. v hence n.Origins 378 cabriolet . Cache=EF-F cache. n hence v. to defecate. and Eg . because. I defecate. to compress: coactus. para 2. Gr kakkē). hence.. as attested by L cacō.

Cf.a.A-Z 379 foul excretion. The 4th merely represents the E pron of the F original of cadet: late MF-F cadet. and kai-t. sem. (hence) young officer.f.o. itself from LL capitellum. CHIEF. the top.e. See SCRIBE. The Eg kai-t. suggests that the IE (and other) vv are redupp of a Medit r *ka-. dim of L caput.o. excrement.. the si ‘the heads’ and ‘the big white chief ’. cackle . cacophony : Gr kakophōnia. cactus : L cactus: (Sicilian) Gr kaktos. derives from Gascon capdet. s. a prickly plant. Cf GAGGLE and GIGGLE.. cacoëthes scribendi .and phon-. cad . D kakelen): ult echoic. younger son. adopted from MD cakelen (var kekelen. thorns. head: f. thornbush. from Prov capdel. v hence n: ME cakelen. para 8. cadet. whence caddish (cad+euphonic d+adj suffix -ish). a chief. with -t merely indicating the f gender. esp a cardoon: usu said to be o. lit ‘bad sound’: cf the elements caco. caddie (or -y). orig cad was an . Cad merely shortens cadet. but prob adapted from Eg qatcha. itself clearly echoic.

from MF cadas. floss silk. cadaverous. (Craigie. lint. of cadere. pp of kathairein. cadas (cf late MSc cadas. L cadāuer. itself from ML cadāverōsus (suffix -ōsus). prob connected with Sp Cadiz.a. the adj of ML cadāver (adopted by E).) But the ‘heavy woollen twill’ sense perh represents a different word. worsted yarn. itself from EE caddis. caddie (golf). from ME cadace. cadaver . occupying an inferior seat on coach or primitive omnibus.. in short. The 2nd (cf the F cadavérique) is an E var (suffix -ic) of the 3rd (cf the EF-F cadavéreux). from OProv cadis. caddis . from OProv cadarz. a kind of serge made in the S of France.e. cotton wool. var cadiz. as EW proposes. passenger. CATHARSIS). uncleansed. r cad-: the r. esp ribbon. cadaz. See CAD. caddice. caddas). Dauzat and B & W. caddy .Origins 380 unbooked. L cadāuerōsus. aphetically from Gr akathartos. and the ‘floss silk’ or ‘lint’ sense may. CADENCE. cadaveric.a. Both the caddis or anglers’ artificial fly and the caddis fly (and caddis worm) derive from caddis. to fall: f. a-. hence inferior. which has s cadāu-. occ caddice.e. derive from OF cadarce. the sense ‘heavy woollen twill’ used in Scotland derives from MF cadis (1352). the form cadis is app the F prototype. not+kathartos. to cleanse (f.

which has also adopted the F derivative parachute (prefix para-). hence E. L cadere issues.g. represents OF-MF cheance. kātī a solid. parachute. is adopted from late MF-F. e. predicament: cf case in next para. Now cadere has s cad-. deciduous.form. gen -itātis.of Gr kekadonto. incident. recidivous. cadaver (sep). caducous. whence E casuistic(al). cadence . whence MF-F casuel and E casual. comes from ML cāsus. decadent. pp of choir. 5. accident. n). the c/f of cadere: . with derivative cascata (d’acqua). ME cheance. coincident(al). by Music: and It cadenza derives from ML cadentia. whence also chancy: and chance. whence E caducous. the E caducity. whence EF-F. cascade.(whence the E adj cadent). 3. contr of casualty. Cor. happening. imm from Sp casuista. an offshoot from cadent. cadent. coincide.A-Z (1). a falling. var of prec. the derivative LL cadūcitās. whence ME cas. casuistry is an E formation. 4. a case of con-science.—recidivism. through its cas. whence It cascare. itself taken over. hence tending to fall. orig a fall. they have yielded (fallen to opponents). of dice. 1. Cadence.—escheat. perh via late MF-F caducité. occasion. decadence. accident. Occident. accidental. 6. comes from ML cāsuālitās. The pp cāsus has s cās-. influenced by chu.—accidence. from the f pp cheoite (as n). for tea: earlier catty: Malay . presp of cadere. decay. incidental. became. and prob to EIr. with var cadency (-y. The L n cāsus has derivative LL adj cāsuālis. cascade. from ML cadentia (see para 1). akin to Skt çad-. caducity. case. casual. with subsidiary casuistique. to fall. which thus adapts It cadenza. casualty. L cadere also has adj cadūcus. whence. to the kad. chancy. the most important being these. o/s cadūcitāt-. (see esp B & W) derivative EF-F casuiste. to fall because nothing impedes. some have entered E. into a VL *casicāre. falling. case. coincidence. 2. recidivist. mostly based upon cid-. adopted by E.—incidence. 381 caddy (2). whence the n cāsus (gen cāsūs). chance. L cadere becomes OF-MF cheoir (MF-F choir). 7. whence ‘to cascade’. ‘To chance’ derives from ‘a chance’. occidental . L cadere has numerous prefix cpds. whence MF-F cas. cadenza. chute. internationally. fall. hence a lump used as a weight. later case. derives MF-F chute. occasional. n. the o/s of L cadens. Ga càs (kàs). to fall.

adopted by An.Origins 382 accidence. presp of coincidere. adj hence n (whence accidental). coincident. cadge . o/s of occidens. (down) away from+cadere. adj hence n (whence coincidental). adj hence n). o/s of L occāsiō. decadence: MF-F décadence: ML dēcadentia. an abstract n consisting of -ia tacked onto * decadent. presp of accidere. the L neu pi dēcidua. hawker. decay. See CAD. escheator deriving prob from AF eschetour: ME. whence ‘to escheat’ and escheatage (-age). onto. .for ad. derives. from MF. o/s of incidens. hence to sponge: b/f from cadger. incident. derive from recidivous. esp of sun or stars. to fall in with or together. coincidence eases coincident+ce. from F cage (see CAGE). dial and coll. hence to the lot of: ex. hence the west: OF-F occident: L accident-. to carry (as a burden). incidence: via F incidence. to fall off: dē+cid-+inf -ere. ML coincident-. cadet . to occupy the same space: co-+incidere (see below). for accidents. L recidiuus. an habitual criminal. out+cadere. whence the n Occidental. from occās-. from LL incidentia (neupl). to fall back. hence sponger. is prob a var. the derivative L adj occidentālis passed through MF-F to become E occidental. adj from dēcidere. to. prob via MF-F. a wicker basket. itself from cadge. to fall out for. o/s of *dēcadens. presp of incidere.(whence E decadent. accident. cf: occident. pp of occidere (oc. n hence v and the adj occasional: via OF-F from occasion-. escheat. presp of occidere: the OF n arose imm from the L n occidens. the s of occāsus. elliptical for sol occidens. opp Oriental. (adj and) n: where the sun sets. presp of *dēcadere. into. L accident-. from incident-. circumstances. codger. adj hence n (whence incidental). v (whence the pa decayed) hence n: ONF decaër (OF decheeir): ML *dēcadere: dē.for prefix ob-). occasion. var eschëoit(e). a falling away (L dē. deciduous: L dēciduus. has adj decidual (-al). influenced by cadentia. the setting sun. go down. o/s of coincidens. from recidere. away from). to fall upon: in. to fall. o/s of accidens. hence to hawk. to happen: ac. hence deterioration. tending to fall back (re-): ML recidivus. from escheoir (F échoir): VL *excadere. recidivism (-ism) and recidivist (-ist). eschete.

whence Ru tsesar’. 1. a daughter. which. caesa matre nascitur. OHG keisar. of the myth Kadmos. later tsar’. tsaritsa. break.—caesura. is the old L explanation of Caesar: caesus matris utero. Julius Caesar accounts for Caesarean (L Caesarianus) in Caesarean section or operation. 3.—sherry. ML calamina. cadmium. E Czarevna. Perh f/e. slayer of a dragon whose teeth became warriors— whence Cadmean victory. L caedere (s caed-). thus reputedly born. but G Czar in. stop. See CADENCE. an adoption of L cadmia. para 3. Tsar. caducity . whence caesural. hence a part cut off. has pp caesus. whence caesūra. akin to Go kaisar. L Caesar. led to OSI cēsarǐ. apprehended as a pi. Julius Caesar gave his name to Caesaris (urbs). E Czarina. in becoming Go kaisar. calamine (calamine. The latter derives. one who. from Gr kadmeia (‘so named because found near Thebes. 5. n from f of adj kadmeios. . caducous. he tears. with frequent var Czar.A-Z 383 cadmia . the -cide and -cise cpds are treated sep. produces the b/f sherry. adopted by E metric: cf Skt khidáti. from the former. the city of Cadmus’: B & W). wife. whence. an emperor: G Kaiser. tsarevna. is born after his mother has been cut open. The title Kaiser particularizes kaiser. whence E Czarevich. OE cāsere. OB cěsarb: L Caesar. ‘(wine of) Xeres’. 2. Caesar . by blend. whence Tsar. a cutting-off. Kaiser—Czar. A Czar’s son was tsarevich. but prob correct. cut from his mother’s womb. esp to cut off. Caesar’s City: whence Sp Xeres (now Jerez). MHG kaiser. s khid-. a division. s caes-. 4. to cut. by Chem suffix -ium. whence EE sherris. Caesarean. a distorted derivative of cadmia).

W. of a cairn.a.. an eminence. n hence v: OF-F cage: ML cavea. from birds shy of capture. var of *bar(s). Mx carn (karn): perh an extension of OC car-. para 4. See COFFEE. Br. cairngorm. the dead: of C origin: cf the syn Ir (and EIr). caffein(e). hollow: f. Cor. The latter is lit ‘azure of a cairn’: Ga gorm. CAVE. cage . . gen of carn. See KEG. hence a cage: from cauus. See 2nd CASE. esp a rounded heap of stones over. cairn . or to the memory of. a cavity.Origins 384 café . wary. Hence pern the adj cagey. cafeteria. cag . azure+cairn. a heap. L cauea.e. caisson .

MD coeke. cooky. from Picard gaiole. EW derives the F word from Sp calabaza. cajole . a melon.A-Z 385 caitiff .. coke (D koek). from the syn EF gaioler. OHG kuocho (G Kuchen). from Per kharbuz. the D koek has dim koekje. The exact connexion with ‘to COOK’. calaboose .e. the latter. in para 3 of CAPABILITY. perh from Ar qar ‘ah yābisah. n. esp AE. earlier EF calabasse. whence ‘to cake’ and the adj cak(e)y. from ML caveola dim of cavea. a cage. akin to MLG kōke. from Cat carabasa (or -baça). The latter comes from F cajolerie. is obscure. either (Webster). cookie. L cauea. whence E. a cage: f. perh from the syn Ar qar ‘ah. by l for r. MHG kuoche. G kochen. See captivus. EF-F cajoler. The ME cake derives from ON kaka. coec. cajolery.a. CAVE. an -erie (E -ery) derivative of cajoler. (B & W. or more prob (B & W) from Sp calabaza.) cake . with obscure suffix or 2nd element. whence ‘to cajole’. calabash : EF-F calebasse. orig ‘to babble like a jay in a cage’. a dry gourd. from Prov carbasse.

with o/s calculātiōn-. as if from LL *calculābilis. unharmed. via MF-F calamité. to contain. whence calculatory. whence. incalculable. calamine . kēdos. mutilated. See CADMIA. dungeon. to reckon. from L calamitōsus. whence E calculation. perh to Gr kolobos and klambos. The 1st comes from L calcareus. calculatory. o/s calc-. o/s calamitāt-. calamitous . via late MF-F calamiteux. a reckoning. calcine. Incalculable: in-. perh from F. dim of calx (gen calcis) or . f -iteuse. anxiety. calcium. to take. and Skt kadanan. from caber. whence the Sci L calcium and the MF-F calciner.of L incolumis. On the L pp s calculātarose LL calculated. CHALK. destruction (cf the syn L clādēs). from LL calculāre. Cf the element calcareo. the adj of calx. lime. akin to—? from—Galician cabouco. whence ‘to calculate’. which has pp calculātus. to afflict. calcareous . calculable. L capere. affliction. the E calamity (-ity): and calamitās presumably from an adj. and the LL agent calculator and the ML adj calculātōrius.a. jail: Sp calabozo.and: calculable .. not+calculable. from calamitās. calamity. is akin prob to the -colum. Now calculāre derives from L calculus. and perh to Gr kēdein (s kēd-). The adj comes.e.Origins 386 (AE). calculate. calculation. calculus. whence ‘to calcine’: f. calculator.

a book showing interest: calendae (or k-). a shelter.e. whence. adj Kalēdonios). (but also) calends. caudron. a wood or forest. to call between. Calendar: ME calender (or k-): L calendārium. OIr caill. hence (a round) one used in voting or in gambling.A-Z 387 limestone: f. calender . calendar .. for warming: caldus.) 2. CHALK. s cel-). OC *kaldet. The ‘concealment’ origin is doubtful. mdfn of ONF caudiere (OF chaudiere): VL and LL caldāria. attractive. to conceal.e. Cor coid. whence Caledonian. to proclaim (a day) among (inter) the orig days of a month.a.arose intercalātiō. the ‘forest’. caldron or cauldron: ME. perh the -keld of Sc Dunkeld. because such days were proclaimed: from calāre. cf CAUDLE. intercalate. a concealing (? cf L celāre. Caledonia . n from L adj caldārius.. CALORIC. 1. a month.a. from ONF. pebble. a month.. warm: calēre. Br koed. calends. L calāre has cpd intercalāre. warming. an account book.e. to proclaim. kalends. Calendae yields OE calend. Ga coille. and ME kalendes. caldron. 2. comes from L intercalārius. CLAIM.a. F chaudière. Tacitus) for Scotland (cf Gr Kalēdonia. from the pp intercalātus. cf also Mx keyll. to be warm: f. an -ārius (E -ary) adj on intercal-. a stew cooked in one. o/s intercalation-. however. on the pp s intercalāt. hence a children’s counter used in reckoning. the E ‘to intercalate’. Calculus. whence E intercalation. (F. adj hence n: L name (Lucan. and W celydd. calends. intercalary. the inf s. the first day of the Roman month. intercalation. results in chowder. Intercalary. whence E calends. OIr ceil. a woody shelter. adj Caledonius: of C origin: cf W cel.

to turn over. hence to form or mould. 388 calf . the diameter of a projectile. ON kālfr. 2. with var *gwalbh-: cf Ga calpa. var of calibre.o. OE cealf is akin also to OHG (and G) kalb. whence the quadruped calf. an instrument. The Gmc r is *kalbh-. California . itself akin to OE cealf. 1. adj hence n: perh (Enci It) a Sp reshaping—California occurs first in a Sp romance of c1500—of that imaginary land Califerne (o. The derivative It v calibrare has pp calibrato.) which appears in the Chanson de Roland. Go kalbō. a form or mould (cf Tu kalyb). obs calibra). *gwolbh-. from Calicut. a fat man. That the basic idea in IE is app ‘a swelling of the body’ is supported by Gaul galba. and Skt gárbhas. akin to ON kālfr. calico : orig imported. on the Malabar coast of India.—caliper or calliper. calibrate. itself from Ar qālib. pi calves. v. via EF-F calicot. whence ‘to calibrate’. whence Californian. Cal(l)iper. usu pi cal(l)ipers. womb. anl with other -ation nn. hence of the bore of the weapon discharging it: and calibre has come from late MF-F calibre (cf It calibro. OIr colpa. calve. caliber (AE) or calibre. from qalaba. The calf of the leg comes from ON kālfi. calibration. is a form-corruption and sense-change of caliber. See CYLINDER. para 2. a quadruped calf. . calibration. from the OE n.Origins . calf of the leg.o. ‘To calve’ derives from OE cealfian (s cealf-). the IE r. whence.

to trace or copy: EF-F calquer. See CALLISTHENICS. to prevent a ship from leaking by driving tarred oakum into seams: ME cauken: ONF caukier: L calcāre. of horse’s shoe: perh from L calcar (s calc-). o. a spur. occ calque. See CALIBER. Cf prec. to trample.o. call . to trace. Cf: calk (3) or caulk.o. from calx. to trace: It calcare. to trample: L calx. calk (1). a heel.A-Z 389 caliper . orig a heel. Cf: calk (2). (orig) to trample: L calcāre (s calc-). calisthenics . a spur.

earlier calu: OE calu. Ga glaodh. are extremely probable. callow (whence callowness): ME calewe. MD callen. W caled. callosity . kalia. calys. G kahl. a call. hard. a swan. and prob to OSI glasiti (gla. bodily exercise to promote health and grace. caller. v hence n. and remotely to Skt . Gr graphia. buttocks. beautiful writing. o/s callōsitāt-. ON kalla. var calisthenics. call out. bald. calling (cf. callus. to speak. sem. Br galu. as is that of L calāre to L clamāre (cf CLAIM). called. to call. MIr gloed. See CALIBRE. however. is akin to OIr calath. -pygian. fair-buttocked. galwy. akin to OFris kale. callous. see element -graph. its adj callōsus yields E callous and its derivative abstract n callōsitās. indurated skin. to talk. and galu. galùein. to deprive of hair or feathers—to OHG kalo. n. W caleden. also to OIr gall. calliper . callipygian. prob via EF-F callosité. a call. strength. callosity. L callus (var callum). The relationship to L calāre (s cal-) is obscure. v. to call. adopted by E. a callus. baldness.Origins 390 . callisthenics. for -graphy. calas. from Gr pugë. to call. akin to OHG callōn (or k-). both. the E callosity. Gr sthenos. MHG kal. yields. to call.for gal-). writing. VOCATION). see that element. hardness. Br kalet. and glasŭ. Cor colés. galua. For calli-. Cor galow. ‘To call’: ME callen: OE ceallian. . calligraphy . W galw. derivatively. a voice. featherless.

for *kawein (s kaw-). IE r. adopted from OF-F. beautiful (Gr kalo-)+Gr melas. calorific. adj. IE r. whence the superfluous calmness. adopted from F. the heat of the day. The adj calm derives from MF-F calme (adj from n). from L facere. non-chalance. from L calor. from the It n calma. when beasts are at rest.(kaw-) or *kēu-: cf CAUSTIC. black: cf the occ F calomelas: a white resultant of a black mixture. naked—perh to L caluus (ML calvus). heat. callus . the fields quiet—cf OProv cauma. likewise adopted by . var *kla. to make. from Gr kauma. 2. whence MF-F calmer. CHAFE. derives from F nonchalant. a burning heat. via ME and MF-F calme. calmative. nonchalant. s cal-.) Calory anglicizes calorie. heat—from kaiein (s kai-). *kau. Calorific= F calorifique=L calorificus. calorie (var calory). Nonchalance. See CALLOSITY. ON hlāer. heat-making. adj.(or *kle-)—cf OHG lower. caloric . from calēre to be hot. heat. from It calmo. winds fallen. whence the v calmare. from LL cauma. cf the element -fic. Caloric=F calorique. Calmative imitates palliative and sedative. warmth.A-Z 391 bald—prob to OB golŭ. lukewarm. CAUDLE. *kal(var *kel-). (Cf CALDRON. calm. calm. to burn. n hence v. bald. which derives it from L calor. adj hence n. thence to Skt khalalis. The n calm derives. calomel : element calo-. from calma. CHAUFFEUR. whence ‘to calm’. bald. 1. n.

from L calēre. calumniation. from Gr kalamos: f. a reed. and v calumniāri.. ME calketrappe. Calumnia has adj calumniōsus. from caluus. and with LL agent calumniātor. to be hot. a bare skull. a trap for the calk or heel. to care (vi). ONF kauketrape: lit. LL caluāria.e. whence MF-F calomnie and E calumny. not+chalant. hence desirous. whence MF-F calomnieux and E calumnious. o/s calumniātiōn-. adopted by E. to trick or deceive. *kal-. calumet . calumniator. See CAUL. IE r. with pp calumniātes. calumniate . to slander. calumnious. presp of OF-MF chaloir. derives from *calumnus (pa). Red Indians’ ceremonial pipe: EF-F dim (suffix -et) of L calamus. Calvary : ML calvāria. calotte . hence concerned. and with LL abstract calumniātiō.f.Origins 392 E: non. caltrop varies caltrap. HAULM.a. bald: cf CALLOW. s. L calumnia. from caluāri (or -are). calumny. The LL . whence ‘to calumniate’. var of *kel-. whence E calumniation.

and to Skt kaláśas. para 2. calx . (Golgotha is a LL adoption of Gr golgotha. xxvii. from H gulgōleth. a skull..) Cf Luke.e. *kalik-.a. a bud: IE s. which in turn renders Aram gūlgūlthā. a comb: f. Calypso . from gūlgūlthā. and kalikā. as in camshaft (cf SHAFT). See CALCAREOUS. place of skulls. See CALF. .A-Z 393 Caluāria renders Gr Kranion (cf CRANIUM). a cup. with r *kul-. MD cam. xxii. akin to Gr kulix. 33. calve . *kulik-. calyx : L calyx: Gr kalux. See APOCALYPSE. a cup. and Matthew. however. *kal-: possibly. L calix. Cf CHALICE. 33. calypso. *kolik-. Gr kalux and L calix are of different origins. COMB. cam. varr *kol-. derives from D kam.

. -ur. gam. or khab. Cambria(n) . or L camer. a crescent. pern a loan-word: cf Hit kam. curved. pleasant-tasting. to bend. also quamash. sweet. See CHANGE. See CYMRIC.) camber : OF-MF cambre. para 2 camas . (DAE. para 2. an ediblebulbed lily of West NA: Chinook Jargon kámass. cambial .Origins 394 camaraderie . cambium. a bulb: Nootka chamas. varr camer. down. bent. might be a nasalized mdfn of Eg khab. cameras. from L camur or camurus. s cam-. a Norman or Picard form of OF-MF chambre. usu camass. See CAMERA. convexity having a downward curve. convex.

jamal. c1700. with var gemr? The obs camelopard (see (PARD)=L camēlopardus. Cantebruge. (Ekwall. See COME. usu abbr Cantab—was orig ‘Roman fort on the Granta’. thus: kamel (with c for k)+ euphonic l+suffix -ia. Cambridge —the latinized Cantabrigia yields Cantabrigian. later ‘bridge over the Granta’ (whence Cam): C8. the Jesuit reputed to have brought it. OE camel: L camēlus: Gr kamēlos: of Sem origin—cf H (and Phoen) gāmāl and Ar gaml.A-Z 395 cambric: earlier camerike. camel: ME. C11. the Fl-become-F city where the fabric was orig made. C15. from Georg Kamel or Camelli.) came . But surely the source might rather have been the Eg kamál. blending F Cambra and Fl Kamerik. . Cambrugge. camellia is Sc L. Grantacaestir. kamali. altered from camēlopardalis: Gr kamēlopárdalis. from the East to Europe.

4. comrade (whence comradeship) and chum and camaraderie. In chamberlain. is L. var camara (whence pern. from Frankish *kamerling—cf OHG chamarling. the stem representing OHG chamara. curved. camisole. Camorra. camera and in camera. the ‘bedroom utensil’ sense derives from chamber-pot (EF-F pot de chambre). to mean ‘(large) room’. (it) is crooked. chamber-pot. IE r kam-. 3. whence EF-F camarade. camorra). and the E comrade. adopted by E. chamberlain. whence E chamber. in LL. from L camara. 1. 2. camise. came. See CHEMISE. lit ‘in chamber’ or private room. bent. Cf CHIMNEY. The L camera. (hence) chamber fellow. camisade . crooked—cf Skt kmarati. a vault’. In camera. L camera. para 2. L camera became OF-F chambre. was adopted by Sp in sense ‘chamber’. n hence v. cf also the sep CAMBER. Sp camara had derivative camarada. camomile . camera.Origins 396 camelopard . -lain=the suffix -ting. chamber-fellowship. -ara. whence both camaraderie. . by dial var. it derives from Gr kamárā. and a slurring of ‘chamber fellow’ produces chum. See HOMO. camber (sep). and Av kamarā. orig ‘vaulted roof. See CAMEL.—chamber. a girdle. but the entire word comes from OF chamberlenc. para 4. in secret. esp if at all private. whence ‘to chum’.

highwayman. grass. to disguise. Decampment anglicizes F décampement. ‘field of battle’). from the MF champegneul. a plain: ME champayne: OF-MF champaigne: ML campānia. n hence adj and v. itself surviving in AE for college. whence ML campānia. orig a warrior (cf It campione). champaign and champagne. n hence v (whence campaigner). to escape. a remotely possible cognate is the Hit kanza. champignon. OF campegneus. grounds. whence EF-F. whence Champagne. from VL *campāniolus. champion (earliest. and campus. itself from scamper. from W Gmc *kampjo. from ONF.o.—prob a survival from an ancient Italic language (B & W). to deceive. orig—it seems—from a battlefield (Prati). flat country). whence Campānia. whence ‘to decamp’. hence rogue. from ‘to encamp’: en-.—campaign. dé. either. with a fresh suffix. Champion: ME. scamp (rogue) and scamper. by suffix -ment from EF-F décamper.(L dis-). from OF-F. a field. by -ment. away from+camp us in its frequent sense. n and v (whence camper. as Webster. 3. derives from dial scamp. the F province. either from LL campāneus. o/s campiōn-. OF-MF champaigne has MF var champagne. L campus has LL adj campānius (var -āneus). 1. campiun). to disguise. champion. from LL-ML campiō. in+camp. encampment. . or. by an army. or university. decampment. such country. 5. v. encamp. which derives it. the flat or flattish country about Naples. out of. hence in any country. from campus. campagne. 6. Encampment derives. as B & W. 4. The source of all these terms is the L campus (s camp-). camp . perh (Prati) via It *camuffo from ML camuzzum. less prob. or. from *kamp. the scintillant wine made there.o. a sort of cloth—used as a mask. hence E campaign (orig. ‘To camp’ comes from EF-F camper. whence champagne. itself orig cant. orig a cant word: It camuffare. flat country. app o. A scamp. hence a war fought in it or a period spent in it. 8. n hence v: F: by suffix -age from camoufler. Campaign has the doublet champaign. 2.A-Z 397 camouflage . from+ (F) camp+inf -er. of the campi or fields. itself from either Picard or Prov camp. camping). borrowed by G mercenaries from L campus. to roam. 7. warrior. (hence) growing in the fields. decamp. The champignon or field-mushroom is adopted from MF-F. to run hastily or speedily: It scampare (L ex. from It campo. cereal.

canne: akin to OHG channa. See prec. para 5. See the element campani-. campanology . n. Cor canna (kanna): IE s. para 1. perh *gandhn-(Holthausen). whence ‘to can’. a drinking vessel. MHG and G kanne. put into cans: ME. OS kanna. kanne.Origins 398 campaign . can. can . See CAMP. See element campho-. ON kanna. and prob to MIr gann. campus . from OE. camphor . . prob lays a false trail. The LL canna.

kenning. earlier knowleche. wise. to admit. earliest cuthe. to know. G kühn. to know (how). INCOGNITO. I know. OE cunnan is also akin to OFris kunna and kenna. OE cunnan. to+‘to knowledge’. whence Conner and conning. hence. whence E ‘to ken’. cf also Tokh knān. cunning. hovels’. be able.: NOTE. . 7. RECOGNIZE. the -legen. ME kennen. from ME cnaw. is cunning.o. to Go kunnan. ME knowledge. con. acknowledgement. keen. to make known. known. knowledge. and -kannjan. be able. to be able. to know (etc. With GNOMON. OIr gnāth. known. COGNITION.e. 3. 1. NARRATE.) 6. 4. ‘huts. CONNOISSEUR. as in ‘kith and kin’. derives from ‘an erroneous interpretation of the Amerindian word canada or canata. 2. hence sharp. and ON knā. NOTE. to make known. perh for *knēga. (obs) knowledge. but also. to ON kunna. perh comes from the v: ME knawlechen. earlier couthe.A-Z 399 pt could. yields. to know. by would (and should).. -ledge is o. esp to can. The n knowledge. confession. to know. (Holthausen. to know. with RECOGNITION. OE cunnan. Could. keen. to know. therefore ignorant..o. hence know how (to). kenninge). cf OE -cennan. The OE cēne is akin to OHG kuoni. from OE cnāwan (s cnāw-): cf OHG -knāan or -chnāan. hence a kenning (cf OFris kanninge. daringly shrewd. with IGNORE. is ‘to know’. experienced. bold. a caus of can (in orig sense ‘to know’). know. to be able. Prob akin to can. to make known (obs).). 5. RECONNAISSANCE. AGNOSTIC. orig unknown. G können. and kenna. Orig the presp of OE cunnan. sharp. derives from ME coude. ME knowen. whence E keen. Akin to all the prec words. to know (and to be able). OE cūth. and ON . Compare the obsol couth. uncouth—kith. we know it better in the form uncouth (OE uncuth). ken. familiar. etc. .. ME I can. friends. and to OHG -kennēn. etc. GNOME. by confusion. Hence acknowledge. connen). native land (one’s known land)—whence ME cuththe. knowlegen. with derivative acknowledgement. he knows. is OE cēne. to make known. which the earliest explorers took for a placename’ (Enci It). MHG küene. orig the pp of cunnan.a. COGNIZANT. had derivative . from OE cūthe. which has become a simple adjective. See sep ACQUAINT(ANCE) and QUAINT. pt of cunnan (ME cannen. whence Canadian (adj hence n). influenced. Canada . Skt janati. influenced by ON kenna. therefore strange—hence unknowing. to make known. MHG kunnen. confess. through its ME var connen. to know. can. hence (obs) familiar land or district.for ad. daring. ken is. whence ME kene. etc. to know. F. as OED proposes. the E ‘to con’. etc. to discern. with the importantly operative Ic cann (or can). in short. to know. MHG and G kennen. prob. to know (how). relatives. to teach. to know. couth. knowlechen. wise. GNOSIS. kith—whence E kith. etc. known (cf L nōtus). earlier knawen. hence neighbours. as to l. to OHG kunnan. hence be able: with OE cunnan. IGNORANT.. which=ac.

From L canna. . whence both OF-F canal. canary . cancel (v hence n). one of the Canary Islands. from canasto. from L canistrum (f. the latter yielding EF-F canari or canarie. whence (by suffix -ize) canalize. to chenal. derives L canālis.e. whence E canal.e. large ditch. channel.. with senses ‘Canary wine’ and ‘Canary bird’.e.Origins 400 canaille . canal. canal . cancellation. n hence v. chancel. water-pipe. CANE). the derivative Sp adj canario became n. the E channel deriving. chancellor. canasta . from the older form.a. orig an Argentinian card-game: Sp canasta. however. and OF chanel.. CANINE). a basket. chancery. reshaped. was so named from its large canes or dogs (f. whence E canary.. CANE). The L insula Canāria. para 3.a. See CANINE. the Canaries.—incarcerate. after canal. a reed (f. large basket. Two packs or decks are used—a ‘basketful’.a. chancellery. an ‘eased’ form of the earlier canastro.

we must ult relate both these words to CANCER. incandescent—candle. 4. with dim cancelli. 1. the r-n alternation being entirely characteristic of the IE languages. a trellis or lattice. cancer . derives from L cancer. whence MF-(archaic)F canceller. adopted by ME. hence to bar. L cancelli. Cf the Gr karkaron. 2. or cross. OF chancelier had OF-F derivative chancellerie. . incense (n and v). candelabrum . whence E chancellery. seen in L cancer. candour. candidature.—sandal wood. The IE s *karkr. For E. became OF chancel. whence cancerous. yields incarceration. whence ‘to incarcerate’. Clearly the IE r *karmeans hard. to put into prison. CANCEL. a crab. the only important direct impact of career results from the prefix-cpd incarcerāre. cf the element cancero-. 3. which became ME chanceler. Cancellation prob comes from ML cancellātiō. clearly. influenced by agential -or. in E HARD. candidate. akin to Gr karkinos. out.becomes *kankr-. candelabrum. a lattice. incandescence. represents ONF cancre (L cancer).A-Z 401 incarceration. the derivative LL incarcerātiō. lattice. has var carcar: it is therefore a redup of r car-. a crab. Skt . crayfish (hard-shelled). to cover with a trellis or make like a lattice.—incendiary. became E chancellor. f. L cancer becomes late MF-F chancre. unreduplicated. from cancelli (which encircled a seat of judgement or other similar authority). o/s incarceration-. and Skt . adopted by E in Med sense. whence E ‘to cancer’. The var canker. whence cancellāre. adopted by E: the chancel of a church was orig enclosed with lattices. 2. and it occurs. Cancer. pi cancri. L cancellārius. a prison. with pp incarcerātus. with anglicized var canker. karkaros.a.. the malignant growth. o/s cancellation-. The L career. bars. which. (cross-)bars. orig a corroding ulcer. became OF-F chancelier. chandelier. also. para 1.e. See candle in para 3 of: candid . with contracted doublet chancery.

adopted by ME. whence E sandal. Candēla has derivative candēlābrum. shining-white. 2. 5. material for producing a perfume. incandescence= incandescent+the suffix -ce. and Br kann. last para. whence E candescent. Skt candrás. with cognates in C—e. itself from It zucchero candi. whence MF-F chandelle. candle . the former through F. inbeing int. whence OF-F chandelier. to become warm. candidātus signifies and indeed pro-duces candidate: those who sought Roman office wore a white toga. brilliantly white. white. cane sugar. the latter direct from L candor. Less remote is candle: ME. . itself from candēre (s cand-). W cann. the derivative L n incensus (gen incensūs) yeilds OF-F encens. a live coal. Candour.Origins 402 1. candel: L candēla. to blanch. candy is elliptical for sugar candy. as if from *candidāre. rather. less usu than incandescent. with presp candescens. the E candid.. and kannein. o/s candescent-. whence incense. and Skt candrás (s cand-). santalum. candidature=candidate+ suffix -ure. 3. 4. Incendere has adj incendiārius. Candēre has a prefix-cpd of some importance: incendere. whence MF-F chandelier. with derivative or. adj of qand. adopted by E. much as candidacy=candidate+cy. whence OF-F encenser. with pp incensus. EF-F santal. L candēla becomes OF chandoile. usu in the L pi candēlābra. whence EF sandal (MF sandalle). is akin to Skt candana. whence E ‘to incense’. See prec. where candi represents Ar qandi. comes. AE candor. perh via F candide. whence ML sandalum. Candēre has inch candescere. to set fire to. cognate L Gr sandalon. as n. who orig sold mainly ship’s candles. insect-routing wood. akin to Gr kandaros (s kandar-. with explanatory wood added in sandalwood: a fragrant. sandalwood.g. whence the contracted E chandler. the L adj used as n produces the E noun incendiary. The MF-F candi has the EF-F v candir. santalon. to glow white. broken sugar. from presp of incandescere. candēlābrum becomes OF chandelabre. from Skt . one who sells candles. whence E incendiary (cf the suffix -ary). whence. Candidus has derivative candidātus. whence E ‘to candy’. a ‘translation’ of MF-F sucre candi. from OE. full moon. to garment in white. a candle. shining. shining (as in para 1). a candle. r kand-). adopted by E. from candēre. Also from candēre is candidus.

whence ME kenel. prob for *quanis (IE kuan-+-is). app borrowed from EFF. a philosophical school (lit ‘the snarlers’). the r being perh *ku-: cf OIr cū. usu said to be of Sem origin (cf H qaneh and Ar qanah). ON hundr. whence L cynicus. Then the L: canis. whence ME canne or cane: and L canna=Gr kanna. First the Gmc: dachshund=Dachs. dachshund. reed. G Hund. a kennel. the IE s was prob kuon. and Tokh A ku. OE hund. gen con. 2. a reed. a pack of dogs. a more likely origin also than the SumerianAkkadian gin proposed by Hofmann. MELLIFLUOUS).or kwon-. has adj canīnus. 2. is intimately akin to E hound. Caramel. or kuan. whence E cynic. used also as n. cf the element cyno-. itself akin to OFris (and OS) hund. whence the late MF-F canaille. adopted from late EF-F. both meaning ‘dog’. lit ‘dog’s tail’—cf the element -ure. Go hunds.). canine . hund). whence ONF *kenil and MF-F chenil. whence E kennel. 4. whence canaglia. sugar cane: L canna. MF-F canne. Canis has also a derivative *canile.a. Cf CANISTER. 3. whence MF-F (modern sense: C17) cynique. the Gr (kuōn) shapes of an IE word represented in Skt by śván (gen sunas) and in Ve by suvdn-. a dog. cane+mel. has adj kunikos. with consequent extension of the adj to cynical. applied to the Cynics. L canna passes through OProv cana to become MF cane. The Gr kuōn.—cynic (adj hence n). from Gr kunosoura. derives from L Cynosura (a constellation). kennel. with shorter form kun-. comes from OF calemele: ML calamella (-mellus).or kwan-. the L (canis). cynosure. From L canis derives It cane. cynosure. honey (f. a badger+ Hund. partly adopted by E. whence cynical and cynicism. 1. caramel.e. OHG hunt. Here we have the Gmc (hound.. CANYON. whence E canine (cf the adj suffix -ine). but perh rather from Eg ganu (varr gen and kenn). canaille. n hence v.A-Z 403 cane . canister . adj+the suffix -ism). cynicism is an E formation (cynic. the rabble. gen kunos (o/s kun-). CANNON. hound (n hence v). var of cannamella (etc.

became also Sp caña. from kanna. a cannibal.. cannery =can. Carib. strong men). whence the adjj Cariban (-an) and Caribbean (-can). became It canna with aug cannone. n hence adj and cannibalism (-ism). a reed (f.a. calina or galibi (lit. L canna. canker . canon. a reed: f. were anthropophagous: in Cuba.. whence E cannon. para 2. a basket woven of reeds: prob Gr kanistron. whence caño.Origins 404 : L canistrum. . cannibalistic. n+euphonic n+suffix -ery. CANE). cannon . CANE. a large reed. The Caribs. whence. an Amerindian race of northern S Am and the West Indies. became Sp canibal (var caribal). canon or canyon. esp a large tube: whence MF-F canon. Columbus heard the form caniba: the Cariban name.e. See CANVAS.a.e. cannibal . See CANCER. whence E cannibal. or from cannibal. cannabis .

The L canon. whence cañon. gnat: kōn. where cf cunning. whence the ONF canoine. See CANNON.. anl.g. whence ME canoun. Derivative It cannonata prompted EF-F canonade. 2. to know+ortho-graphic n+adj -y: f.e. whence E canon. whence the pl n canonicals. whence E canon.a. v. a rule. . canaeua. e. canny. Akin to Gr kanna (the origin of L canna) is Gr kanōn. in LL. careful: can. named on the list of a large church’s staff. canon. cañon . whence a cañon or deep valley. adopted from Sp: Taino canoa and (Antilles’) Carib canaoa. shrewd. the E cannonade. para 1. has adj canonicus (perh direct from the Gr adj kanonikos). a moral rule. a (large) tube. a curtain. See CANNON. canonical .became kan-. See CANNON. a rule. one over a bed: Gr kōnōpeion. whence L canon. a rule. perh (Hofmann) under the influence of the Ancient Eg city Canōpus. whence. the adj of kōnōps. canonicus has the mdfn canonicālis. officer of the Church. CAN. hence a rule. (LL) a list. whence. mosquito. and officer of the Church. canopy . a rule. ‘To canonize’ comes from ML canonizāre. whence OE canon. a mosquito-net: orig the neu of kōnōpeios. para 2. a clergyman. khnemes. a rod. whence E canonical. canonize. a hollow.A-Z 405 a tube. mosquito. Kōnōps itself is app a loan-word: perh cf Eg khenus. esp a code. a canopy: L canopeum. In ML. canoe: EE canoa. n hence v: EF-F canapé: ML canapeum. highsided. para 2. gnat. duly Englished as canyon. perh via MF-F canoniser.

4. Hence: ‘to cant’. edge. 2. prob via MD: L cantus. orig the corner of the eye: perh of Gaul origin. felly of a wheel (from L). an inclined plane: ONF cant. ONF cant. hence by E. cantata .). HEN. adj and n: the singing. edge (etc. Cantab . but prob from IE s *kanth-. with f cantata. elliptical for ‘musica cantata’: ‘sung music’. perh via ONF cant: akin to cantāre (s cant-). corner.. adopted by E. cantare has pp cantato. adopted by ME. orig a corner. side. cantāre became OF-F chanter. to divide into parts. hence a mountainous district: adopted by MF-F. to sing or chant. L cantus. an angle. Akin is ‘to decant’ (whence a decanter): F décanter: ML decant hāre. whence canter and canting. whence E cantonment. with derivative cantonnement. angle. extension of *kam-. ‘to canton’ prob comes from the MF-F cantonner.a. has derivative OProv canton. See CAMBRIDGE. It. angle. bent (see CAMERA). has dim cantel. 3. L cantus became OF-F chant. whence E ‘to chant’. adopted by E. chanting. curved.e. an iron band around a carriage wheel. edge. 2. to pour from the canthus or edge (the lip) of a vessel. singing. from much earlier. a tilt. a metal tire: Gr kanthos. from L. n hence adj and v.Origins 406 cant (1). hence into districts. whining utterance of certain preachers and. whence E cantle. var of kanthus. of beggars: L cantus (gen cantūs). to sing or chant: f. cant (2). 3. orig an int of canere (s can-).

apprehended as “reserve” ’ (B & W): therefore from L cantus. cantharides . a case for bottles. a slow and easy gallop. to sing: f. HEN.o.A-Z .o. from Gr kantharis. canticle : L canticulum. at the 1st CANT. a cellar. q.a. canter (1). “corner”. canter (2). blister beetle or Spanish fly.e. o. See the 2nd CANT.v. cf the 2nd CANT. adopted by pilgrims riding to the shrine of Thomas a Becket at Canterbury (England). a store (and café) for enlisted men: It cantina.. See para 2 of the 2nd CANT. n hence v: from ‘Canterbury gallop’. L. ‘prob derived from canto. a song. . from canere. 407 canteen : late EF-F cantine. dim of canticum. made from the cantharis (pi cantharides).

cannabis. f. cf the 1st CANT+euphonic i. para 4. see HEMP): its derivative . cantle . where it means ‘hemp’ (indeed.Origins 408 cantilever : ? cant. canvas . for ‘easement’+LEVER. see HEN. See 1st CANT. cantonment. a song: cf 2nd CANT and. canton . an (external) angle.e. v. The 3rd is adopted from L. See 1st CANT.. canto : It. n. para 3.a. See the 2nd CANT. and canvass. canting . from L cantus.

capable. derives from the latter: and the latter comes. cape (garment). later a reliquary or a sacred vessel. hence ME. capability . hence to castigate. cope. with derivative sense ‘arch’ or ‘vault’. to sift through canvas. s. CHAPLET. hence E. n hence v. via ME cappe. a chaplain. Cappa has dim VL *cappella.or *kōp-. chapel. See CANNON. differentiated as canvass. whence OF-MF. from LL cappa. not cappella. whence ‘coping stone’. to take: IE r. adopted by ME. whence E canvas. prob through MF-F capable. then a chapel. to take in one’s hands. whence EF-F chapelle and E chapel. But F canevas could blend Picard canavach and OF chenevas (orig ‘made of hemp’). cape. cap. 1. 1. whence ‘to canvas’. anl with able. L cappa becomes OProv capa. hence E. a short cloak. chapele. ability. capacious. hence to examine severely. to toss in a canvas sheet. a derivative of OF chaneve. whence ME. cope. varr *kep-and *kōp. Cappa has ML var capa. 2. as B & W hold. para 1. hence to sift thoroughly. to contain. hence to solicit for votes: Webster compares OF canabasser. yields ONF-F canevas. a long cape. coping stone. *kap-. from OE caeppe. (then) capable. head (E & M). from LL capābilis. But note that OF chapele more prob derives from ML capella. cap . itself from capere (s cap-).f. a chapel. whence late MF-F. perh from caput. canyon .) B & W. the ML word for ‘chapel’ is capella. . a simple head-covering. Cap. hence to examine thoroughly. however. Whatever the VL or the LL form may have been. 3. after deriving OF chapele from VL *cappella.A-Z 409 VL *cannabaceus. itself from L cannabis. whence ML capellānus. Cf CHAPERON. derives. hempen. cape. explain the ‘chapel’ sense by the fact that ‘it served at first to designate the place where they kept the cape (chape) of St Martin of Tours—a cape venerated by the first kings of France’. (Webster. The former. CHAPLAIN.

notably concipere semina. adopted by E. 5. incapacity renders EF-F incapacité. ME recoveren. 3. with derivative captātiō. 7. from L occupant-. yields recuperation. recuperatorius becomes recuperatory. via OF recovrer. to take together (L con). V cpds in -are include: anticipāre. recuperātor is adopted by E.of the pp captus arise: captiō. recuperdtiuus. whence. to conceive. from the derivative conceptiō. itself from L . (of a woman) to gather the male seed. anl with other -ate vv. the E conception. participant. with o/s capāc-. derives. via EF-F. participable represents the LL participābilis. o/s capācitāt-. recovery is prob recover+n suffix -y. from particeps (see para 8). whence ‘to recuperate’. whence MF-F capture. and the derivative LL captīuāre. concipere. o/s conception-. o/s recuperation-. whence ‘to participate’. to recover. the E occupation. captīuus.arises LL participdtio. to get back. but perh stands to conceive as deceit to deceive. 4. anticipative and anticipatory are E adj formations in -ive. whence ONF caitif. whence the adj conceptual. with pp anticipātus. the true c/f of capere. partly by confusion with caput. they conceive. participare. becomes MF-F capacité becomes E capacity. or. to take to (L ad) oneself. usu in the neg incapacitate. whence. although cf the OF recovree (from recovrer). are E formations. the derivative capācitās. o/s anticipation-. o/s caption-. the derivative captīuitās. a taker. ML captīvitās. whence. the E captation. whence ‘to capture’. adopted by E. LL captor. o/s of the presp occupans. yields anticipation. via OF-F. has pp captātus. legal ad captandum=L ad captandum vulgus. On the s cap. from the var conceveir. has pp recuperdtus. captūra. On the s capt. becomes recuperative. a taking. the ‘E participation. -atory. ML -īvus. with adj occupational. Cpd vv in -cipere (s cip-). head. hence spacious. the derivative anticipātiō. whence capacitate. o/s occupation-. whence. whence occupier. o/s captātiōn-. to contain.for ob-): OF-F occuper: ME occupien. hence to receive: see the sep ACCEPT. whence ‘to anticipate’. ‘to conceive’ derives either from OF conceivre (F concevoir). perh via F occupant. 6. the E caption. whereas participative. whence ME caitif. for the purpose of winning over the crowd by appealing to sentiment. occupāre (oc.arises the adj capāx. from the derivative n conceptus (gen -us) derives E concept. have considerably influenced E: accipere. able to hold or contain. yielding E captivity. esp from ‘ils conceivent’. o/s captīvitāt-. the presp participans has o/s participant-. Also from recuperdre comes. hence n. whence. the E ‘to recover’. whence the E adj. via MF-F. Cf the sep entry CATCH. ML -vare. hence a capturer. and F captif and E captive. where also CHASE. ML captīvus. the E adj capacious. to gather. on the pp s participat. conceit (n hence v. to pursue. via OF-F. the derivative recuperdtio. adopted by E. on the pp occupātus (s occupāt-) arises occupātiō. whence E captious. whence E caitiff (adj hence n). o/s participātion. occupant (whence occupancy) comes. with pp captīvātus. -ory. hence captiōsus. whence the pa conceited) prob comes from the L n conceptus. recuperdre. E ‘to occupy’. LL participator. more prob. has pp participate.Origins 410 2. yielding ‘to captivate’. to take (capere) before (ante) the proper or usual time. The freq captāre. by suffix -ious. to catch.

hence to undertake. yields. whence E inception. to take something offered. interception. fraud. by way of an exception). prob from deception. has pp susceptus. whence E ‘to except’. the E reception. whence receptāculum. esp ‘ils receivent’. to take from underneath (sub).arise LL receptibilis. f of déceptif. o/s exception-. precept. money received. whence. incipere. ‘to intercept’. whence. prob after receptive. comes from OF receivre. perception.arise LL susceptībilis. ‘to receive’. has pp perceptus. percipere. whence OF-MF. ML -īvus. hence to begin. or it represents EF-F concevable. whence ME receite. perceptive is an E formation. suscipere. perh via F. excipere. hence to betray. o/s reception-. neu perceptum. exceptive prob derives from LL *exceptīuus (cf LL exceptīuue. not+conceived+-able. perh via F. whence MF-F. out of. to take from among. or comes. from recipere. f deceptieuse. preconception -pre-+conception. whence E susceptible. has pp receptus. preconceive (whence preconceivable)=pre-. adopted from OF. whence ‘to incept’ and the agent inceptor. via OF-F. perh via EF-F. whence E receptive—and the int receptdre. perceptible (cf E from MF-F imperceptible. whence both the E prep except and the L v exceptāre. neu susceptum. on the pp spraeceptarise praeceptio. whence E preceptive. derivative interceptiō. whence F excepter. on the pp dēcept us (s dēcept-) arises LL dēceptiō. recipere. from percipere. from LL dēceptīuus. neu praeceptum. from the derivative L n exceptiō. interceptive is an E formation. whence deceiver. whence ‘to receipt’. neg . intercipere. via AF excepcioun. whence— prob via MF-F—the E receptacle. whence E preception—the agent praeceptor. has pp exceptus. var of parceivre. with derivative inceptiō. prob on receptive. on the pp s suscept. to undertake (lit. whence E preceptor—the adj praeceptiuus (ML -īvus). prob via OF-F. dēcipere becomes OF deceivre. deceptive either represents F deceptive. exception (whence the adj exceptional) comes. o/s perception-. has pp interceptus. they perceive). adopted by E. whence E. praecipere. neg insusceptībilis. o/s inception-. to take in advance. whence. ‘to perceive’ comes from OF perceveir (esp ‘ils perceivent’. perh via EF-F. elliptical for pecunia recepta. whence OF recepte. whence.arise both LL perceptibilis. before+conceive. i. from LL dēceptiōsus. whence E ‘to deceive’. inconceivable=in-. o/s -ceptiōn-. from ML imperceptībilis). whence. the E receipt. used also as n. dēcipere. has pp praeceptus. the E deception. on the pp s percept. comes from LL dēceptus (gen -us). o/s deception-. whence E receptible—receptiō. deceveir (F décevoir). or it represents EF-F inconcevable. hence E. pp conceptus. hence to recommend or prescribe. hence to capture by ruse.A-Z 411 concipere. and L perceptio. deceptious comes from MF deceptieux. hence to perceive. to take (something) through (something else). deceit (whence deceitful). and the freq inceptāre. o/s interception-. to gather. the general). whence (perh by F example) receivable and receiver. deception. to take separately (ex. conceivable=conceive+ able. they receive. interceptor is adopted from L.e. whence the n recepta. has pp inceptus. whence the Psy percept. to take by causing game to fall (de down from) into a trap. ME deceite. hence to trick. take in). whence the Bio n suscept (cf the El susceptance. eased to recete (F recette). and the LL adj inceptīuus (ML -īvus). influenced by the L. whence E inceptive. whence receptionist (-ist)—ML receptivus. on the pp s recept. to intercept. suffix -ance).

inhabitant of a free town. o/s -itāt-. whence EF-F and E municipal. princeps. whence. the subsidiary LL principdlitds. the E principality—principatus (gen -atūs). commoner is the prefix cpd ēmancipāre.e.. the derivatives are important—principālis (princip-. tongs.represents munia. o/s mancipātiōn-.e. manceps. whence the v principle. emancipatory and emancipist are E formations. o/s port-: f. a taker of what is hot’: L -formus (s form-). cap-a-pie . where the emphasis lies upon the 1st element. whence OF participle.Origins 412 insusceptible. official duties: f. hence principal. princeliness. whence ‘to mancipate’. municipality comes from F municipalité. adopted by E. a prince’s power or domain. capacity . o/s ēmancipātion-. 9. princely. para 2. whence E principate—principium. a portion. L capere has an agential c/f -ceps. pincers. ‘who takes his part of’ (pars. E -al. in: forceps.. a taker-in-hand. with subsidiary mancipātiō. whence E susceptibility—and susceptio. PART). for *formiceps or *formuceps.e. influenced by OF principel. adj suffix). has the derivative Gram term participium. o/s of princeps+-ālis. the derivative MF-F princesse being adapted to princess. which occurs. whence E emancipation. particeps. See FOOT. lit ‘a hot-taker. a prince=primus. taker. Cf HEAVE. whence OF-F prince. and derivative ML susceptībilitās. municeps (where muni. .. seen in mancipāre. first (f. i. adopted by E. pp ēmancipātus. derived anl from L municipālis. hot (akin to WARM) +-ceps. pre-eminence. lit in his hand (L manus: see MANUAL). pp mancipātus. para 15. yielding. the E principle. adopted by E (whence princely). whence E mancipation. MEAN.e. and LL ēmancipātor. via MF principality.a. PRIME)+ -ceps. 8. to transfer (a slave) by selling. with derivative adj municipālis. whence ‘to emancipate’. *primceps becoming princeps. o/s susception-. relevantly to E. in order to possess or re-possess it: o/s mancip-.a. whence E susception. mostly in the pa unprincipled. adj). whence the E adj hence n principal. See prec. the L adj participidlis yields E participial. with subsidiary ēmancipātiō. adopted by E. one who takes something. whence MF-F principe.a. capacious.

hair (Jules Bloch). Cf the element capilli. head+pilus. See CAB. itself from Prov and ult akin to: cape (1). from MF descheveler. from capillus.: ? caput. (1). para 2. prob of Medit stock.. 2. CAPITAL. a headland: MF-F. capillary. apart from+capillus. . a garment. the hair of the head: o. caper.o.e. a shrub. See CAP.o.A-Z 413 caparison . to loosen or disarray (one’s hair). trln of Gr kapparis. The v comes from EF-F caparaçonner. from late MF-F caparaçon (whence the E n). from It capo. adj (‘hair-like’) hence n.a. caper (2). n and v. hence also capillarity: L capillāris. head: L caput: f. Dishevelled is the pa of dishevel. with buds and berries used in sauces: late MF-F câpre: It cappero: L capparis. cape (2). from VL *discapillāre: dis-.

caprice . whence ‘to recapitulate’. to number. via EF-F. to number again. whence. adj hence n. capitation. capricious. hence to distinguish. The adj capital is adopted from OF-F capital: L capitālis.a. whence also capitalism. CHIEF). pp of capitulāre. from ML capitulātus. to cut: cf COMMA. the E capitulation. from capit-. with E-formed adj capitulatory. akin to Gr koptein. from caput. with derivative capitulātiō. has pp tecapitulātus. o/s capit. of the head. Capitation derives from LL capitātiōn-. The cpd LL recapitulāre. and subsidiary rccapitulatiō. o/s of capō. the E recapitulation. Capricorn .e. o/s capitulātiōn-. capitulation. a castrated cock or male chicken: OE capun: L capon-.(f. concerning loss of head. See CAB. the head. para 3.. capitalize. capitulate. capitalist. ‘to capitulate’. o/s of capitātiō. capsize . by heads or chapters. capon . perh via MF-F. See the element capri-. the n capital is adopted from EF-F. a poll tax. o/s -ātiōn-. whence.Origins 414 capital .

captious. head. a snaffle. See CAPABILITY. to capsize. o/s capit-: f. captation . to take—unless it comes from L caput (s cap-). adj from L caput. to turn (F virer) the head (L caput) downwards.a. capstan : MF-F. captain (hence v). cabestan: Prov cabestran. (B & W. para 6. .o.. o. caption . head. as B & W have shown. orig the presp of a v deriving from Prov cabestre.o. from OProv. See CAPABILITY. from Prov capvira. CHIEF.: prob cf F chavirer.o. para 2. to hold. para 3. a strong cord: o. but prob deriving from L capere (s cap-). whence captaincy (suffix -cy): ME capitain: MF-F capitaine: LL capitāneus. (later) a halter.o. See the 2nd CASE.) capsule ..e. halter. (later) a pulley cord: L capistrum. E & M.A-Z 415 : earlier capacise.

earlier des-: OF-MF deschargier: VL *discarricāre: dis. carre. Car. derives from ME. highway. from ONF. hence to place. to carry in a vehicle. Charge. is a dim of OF-F char. from *cars. over). carries a weight: ME chargeour: MF chargeor. Cf CARGO and CARK. captor . Ga and OIr carr. See CAPABILITY. chariot. para car. a load other than of weight: and OFMF chargier (EF-F charger) represents VL *carricāre. para 3. n. carriage. from carier. 2. whence ‘to charge’. carriage. with the ML adj carrārius. later a vehicle. to load. to run: cf current at COURSE. Discharge. n hence v. whence a charioteer. (earlier) chariot. chariote. hence the v ‘to chariot’. a waggon. dray. sledge: OC *carsos (*karsos). whence ‘to carry’. from chargier. See CAPABILITY. upon someone. itself from L carrus. a chariot. orig to load. chariot. caracul . itself from L carrus. chariot. EF-F sitrcharger (sur=L super.e. riddance)+*carricāre. adopted from OF-F. comes from OF-MF chargier. Career represents EF-F carrière. 1. carriage. away or apart from (i. whether a large platter or a cavalry or ceremonial horse. Sur-charge. Carriage derives from ONF cariage. adopted from late MF-F. n and v. from OProv camera. cart. W car. derives from OF-MF surchargier. whence ‘to surcharge’. See KARAKUL. deriving from ML (via) carrāria. and carios. from LL carra (L carrus): of C origin: cf Br kar(r). ME dischargen. Chariot itself. A charger. sledge. derives from ‘to discharge’. captive. (race)course. from carrus. charge. capture. hence a running. career. Cor car. adopted from MF-EF chariot. dray. cf the LL adj carrāricus. a carrying. 4. n. chariot.Origins 416 captivate . 3. carry. from char) derives from ONF car. . itself from L carrus. a road for vehicles. 6. 5. whence carrier: and ONF carier (cf the OF-F charrier.

bean. (large) inn.e. derived from Per sarāī. Caravanserai is EF-F caravansérai (now -serail): Per kārwānsarāi. a carab bean. to cut) +Gr pakhus. o. a company of travellers.A-Z 417 caramel . yields van. caravan+sarāī. a little keras or horn (f. from) Ar qīrāf. a light waggon. later caravans.: ? L caro. cpd of kārwān. alchemists’ ML carratus: (like It carato.: CEREBRAL).o. became MF carvane. caravanserai. See the element carbo-. carapace : late EF-F carapace: Sp carapacho. drastically lopped.a. carat: Gr keration. whence E caravan. thick (cf pachyderm at element dachy-). palace. caravan . (later) a large covered vehicle. carat : MF-F carat. carbine . See CANE. the form -serai being due to Tu serai. Kārwān.o. esp merchants or pilgrims. whence the mod sense ‘covered vehicle’. anglicized as caravansary. a carat. weight of four grains. carbide. flesh (akin to Gr keirein. which.

orig a ret/-hued precious stone: ONF carbuncle: L carbunculus. coal. carcois: perh from MF-F carquois. carcase or carcass : EF-F carcasse: MF charcois. cf the suffix -er. o/s carbon-: perh ult akin to HEARTH. of carburet. Adj: carbonic. card . a bearer of plague-stricken corpses. Adj: carbuncuiar. influenced by chair. a beetle. itself app a mdfn of karabos. carbon : F carbone (cf OF-F charbon. a carabineer. a carbine. a dung-beetle. itself from L scarabaeus. from scarabee. -er. itself from EF escarrabin. carburettor (-etor. to combine (something) with carbon. carabineer (or -ier). from the syn Gr skarabeios. any horned beetle or prickly crustacean: pern cf the 1st CRAB. a quiver for arrows. prob (Webster) orig a carrion beetle. -etter) is the agent -or. The latter is EF-F carabinier. a little piece of carbō (see prec) or coal. coal): from L carbō. whence E carbine: carabine derives from EF-F carabin. perh also cf the Eg kheprer. a dung-beetle. vocalized form of scarrabin. from EF-F carabine.Origins 418 . flesh (B & W). carbuncle . later the precious stone and the tumour. a carburet being a carbide.

whence MF-F carder. hence cartridge paper. 5. cartulary. made of paper. Cartel. 7. hence a graphic presentation of. from ML chartulārium. a slovening of F cartouche. cartography. promulgators and adherents of Chartism. 8. Carte blanche. statistics. carte blanche. 6. 9. to discard: lit. whence anl -grapher. dim of carta: L c(h)arta. and tchamaa.. from EF-F carton: It cartone. a tool used in cloth-making: MF-F carde. a suffix (uccia. a charter. formulated in 1838. from L charta. Chartist. cartridge. a thistle. n hence v. a leaf of papyrus. Card anglicizes MF-F carte: L carta. cartel. hence v and cartoonist). but orig a map. cartoon adapted. a writing: o. to card +cardu(u)s.—écarté. whence E ‘to card’. The Prov cardar derives from VL *caritāre. Carton is adopted. The Chartists. map.. (at cards) to put aside. charter. the sense ‘archivist’ comes from LL chartulārius. var of charta: Gr khartēs. 2. esp nautical. -graphical). The F card game écarté was orig the pp of EF-F écarter. hence the n discard. 3. represents MF-F charte (pron char-te). 4. paper: L c(h)arta.A-Z 419 (1). Charter. Cartulary is a var of chartulary.o. orig a letter of challenge. to card. e. E -ace) derivative of carta.g. n hence v. chartulary. comes from EF-F donner carte blanche. are so named from The People’s Charter. but prob of Hamitic origin—cf Eg tche-t. OF-F charte. ‘To discard’ itself derives from late MF-EF descarter (cf the It scartare): des-. lit map-drawing: cf the elements carto-and -graph. a document. Cartography owes something to F carto-graphic. card (2). Cartridge: earlier cartrage.— chart. a written legal instrument. (a roll of) papyrus. from cardar. lit ‘to give a blank sheet of paper’. as in para 1).o. carton and cartoon (n. itself app a blend of L cārere (s car-). Many sorts of cartridge are wrapped in pasteboard. cf -accia. an -ārium derivative from L chartula. EF cartuche: It cartuccia. L dis. head of a thistle. accounts for E chart. an adj used as n. a playing card+inf suffix -er. hence the tool: Prov carda. to take a card out (é-). much later an agreement between opponents: EF-F cartel: It cartello. dim of charta. paper. aug of carta (L carta.(prefix)+carte. a map. 1. Magna C(h)arta. papyrus. cardiac . complete freedom.

garrulity. adj and n. cf W garm (s gar-). adj of cardō (o/s cardin-). para 3. (s kurd-). Skt . OIr gairim. to incline (a ship) well over to one side. to grumble. L garrīre. a tree-top.o. Br garm. a quivering twig (etc. kar. quiver. voice—to Ga gàir. o/s garrulitāt-. kerran. likewise adopted from MF-F. grief. sem. OHG chara. to murmur. however. OC *gar-. to cry—to L garrīre (s gar-). (Boisacq. EIr gáir.: cf. whence E chary. The n. cur. a many-voiced clamour. and MLG kurren. See CORDIAL. a (loud) laugh. sorrow. Cor garm. The IE r *gar-. ker. he leaps.Origins . to chatter—to Gr gērus (s gēr-). is o. to cry (out). lit ‘growler’. adopted from MF-F. esp to chatter. The adj is currish (cur+orthographic -r+ish.) at branch’s end. hence to go fast and lurchingly: EF cariner. has derivative adj garrulus. and perh to ON hrata. a hinge. s card-. Akin to OE cearu are OE ceorian. complain. whence. as does the It cardinale. to laugh. Doric gārus (s gar-). to talk. Careful=OE cearful. comes from L cardinālis. 4. garrulous. to growl. OHG karrōn. orig any dog. careen . hence turning. whence E garrulous: from garrulus derives LL garrulitās. 2. itself from OE cearu (s cear-). ON kurra. tree-branch. to cry. from ML ‘cardinālis (adj as n) ecclesiae Romanae’: and the E adj. the E garrulity. 3. prob via EF garrulité. adj).o. E cur. the latter perh yields ME curre. ‘To care’ derives from OE cearian (s cear-). a pivot: cf. L cardō. OE cearu has adj cearig. comes. careful. careless=OE cearlēas (cf -less). in order to cleanse it. EF-F caréner. a . 420 cardinal . a waving. var caru (s car-). is clearly echoic: cf Tokh A. and the perh metathetic Gr kradē (s krad-). I cry (out).) care (n and v). akin to syn OS kara—to Go kara. a cry or weeping. itself akin to Gr kordax. careless (whence care-lessness). 5. a lament. MF-F carène. a cry or call or shout. hence (vi) to lurch. 1. chary. from MF-EF carine. to oscillate. ‘key man’. B.

para 2. See CHERISH. r car-: akin to Gr karuon. careful . . the sign Λ: ‘there is lacking’: L caret. caret . perh (E & M) akin to L castus. a nut. career . caress . cargo : Sp cargo. to be lacking. careless. para 2. See CAR. para 2. See CARE. a load. and cf CHARITABLE. is a reshaping of Sp sobre cargo. L super) the normal. r kar-: IE r. hard (cf HARD itself). esp para 4.A-Z 421 ship’s keel: It carena: L carīna. s karu-. Supercargo. *kar-. earlier supracargo. lit a load over (sobre. to load: VL *carricāre: therefore cf CAR. from cargar. orig a nut’s shell. from carēre. s carīn-.

See QUADRA. para 9. caricature . See CANNIBAL. caribou : EF-F (Can F): of Alg origin: cf Micmac khalibu. CAR and CARGO. from caricare. the pawer. therefore. s. kalibu. the pawing beast (Webster).Origins 422 Carib . cark . caries .f. n hence v and the -ist agent caricaturist: F caricature: as a painting term from It caricatura. See CARRION. to (over-)load: VL *carricāre: cf. Caribbean. Cariban. carillon .

A-Z 423 . carnate and incarnate. whence n. carnage . n hence v. carnivorism. O flesh. perh. See CHURL. flesh-eating (cf VORACIOUS). (B & W. whence E crimson. an insect yielding a purplish colouring matter. whence E kermes. Ar qirmiz—from Skt insect or worm (akin to Per kirm and Lith kermis. a false-division adj suffix—cf manovale from mano: therefore ‘(the festival) of flesh’. or its source.) Cf WORM. MLvōrus. from L carnificāre: carni-. s uerm-. however. a taking-away of flesh. n. Carnivora. simply It carne+-vale. by E. Carnivora. a c/f of facere. to make or become flesh.—carnify. EF-F charger. vermilion. Tommaseo & Bellini. Sem. adopted. therefore. to make (cf FACT). CAR. Carmine: OF-F carmine ML carminium: Ar qirmiz. carnivorism=carnivorous+ the suffix -ism. whence the E adj carnivorous and the EF-F adj. c/f of L carō (gen carnis). from the Milanese trans thereof—carnelevale. carnal (carnality) and channel. from carnify. the It carnevale: not from It Carne. carnivore. Now. farewell (sheer f/e). the Byz Gr khermezi has app intervened. 2. carmine . ‘to load (someone) with care’. worm). carnivorous. Prati. anl. the festival before the fasting of Lent. 1. esp para 4. carnation and incarnation (and reincarnation) and incarnadine. In the tortuous peregrinations of the Arabic word. vale!. The full cpds first: carnification derives. carnival. but prob either from ML carnelevamen. as n. carnival: either EF carneval.—further becomes the Sp cremesín. carl or carle. flesh+-ficāre. Ar qirmiz also becomes EF-F kermès. to load: cf. The prefix-cpds include: . derives from ‘to cark’: ONF carquier: cf OF-MF chargier. kermes+L minium (Iberian in origin). EF-F carnaval. or. the flesh-eating quadrupeds: Sci L. carnivore. a fellow. and to L uermis. from the neu pi of L carniuōrus.) Orig. by contr. carnification. crimson. (Hoare.

dim of incarnato. The flower carnation derives from the sense ‘flesh tints’: F painting term. issuing resp into E carnal and E carnality. carotid . from aulos. o/s carnātiōn-. the latter (late MF carnacion. fleshly. whence EF-F carnage. a flute-player accompanying a choral dance. cf incarnate. adj whence v: LL incarnātus. n and v. whence OF-F charnel. derives from L carnātus. adopted by E in sense ‘a mass or collection of animals’ or men’s carcasses’. again. and to Hit karss-. LL carnālis had the ML derivative carnāle (orig the neu of the adj). animals’ flesh. from It carnaggio. Only two much-used simple L derivatives of carō remain: LL carnālis. often in the form charnel house. a part or portion. The former. itself from LL incarnātus. a burial place. ‘To carol’. to Gr keirō (s keir-). then to sing and dance one. a becoming-flesh. 5. earlier choraules. L carō (s car-). now rare. 6. 4. whence Prov carnatge. carnate and carnation. carol . and kartu. from It dial incarnadino. reincarnation: by prefix re-. becomes OF-F. whence the OF-MF n carol. then merely to sing one. adopted by E. comes from OF-MF caroler. orig to dance a carol. a flute: the 1st element is allied to CHOIR. in). o/s incarnation-. comes from EF-F incarnadin. to play a flute.Origins 424 incarnadine. the mod sense deriving. whence E. part of a carcass. for incarnatino. prob from L choraula. distribution. Next. orig in sacrifices. with its derivative carnālitās. future kerō (s ker-). anl with incarnate and incarnation. adj whence v. Cf CUIRASS. to invest with flesh (in-. EF-F carnation). orig a piece of flesh. incarnation. I cut. reincarnate (adj and v). from carnāticum. o/s carnālitāt-. 3. from lit OF carnacion. OF-MF caroler. and LL carnāticum. pp of incarnāre. through F. See CHURL. from LL carnātiō. whence the E n carol. a dance+ aulein. ‘to cut off’: basic idea ‘a piece of flesh cut off’. Caroline . from Gr khoraulēs. itself from khoros. the derivative incarnātiō. is akin to Umbrian karu.

from kara. supposed by Ancient Greeks to cause drowsiness): Gr karōtides. carotid arteries: from karos. carousal is an -al (n) derivative from ‘a carouse’. as in garaus trinken. to gather or pluck. app of Gmc origin: cf OHG karpo. carp (2): ME carpen. s kar-. In its passage to E. th Droughty (gar) out (aus). torpor. and ON karfi. a fresh-water fish: MF-F carpe: Prov carpa: ML carpa. all out.A-Z 425 (artery. carp (1). whence ‘to carouse’ (cf EF carousser): and the n carouse comes fron EF carrouse. See CARPUS.o. to talk: ON karpa. (hence) to slander (cf ‘excerpt’). carpel : SciL carpellum. drowsiness. to feel heavy-headed.o. G Karpfen.of L cerebrum. carp was influenced by L carpere (s carp-). carpal . . var charpfo. cf the cer. the head. themselves o. MHG karpfe. fruit. from karousthai. to boast. earlier EF carous: G garaus. a dim from Gr karpos. to drink it all.

certainly from ML carpita. e. carriage . carrier.g. of the same C origin as CAR.Origins 426 carpenter (n hence v). from ONF carpentier. para 3. carpus . with derivative adj (hence n) carpal : SciL: Gr karpos..a. from L carpere (s carp-).. wrist. from carpentum. wrist: f. The latter (cf the suffix -ry) derives from ONF carpenterie. var carpeta (pi). .or carriage-maker.e. carriage. a waggon.e. carpet : OF-MF carpite: perh via It carpita (sing). HARVEST. woolly cloths.a. whence the E carpenter (cf agential -er): and ONF carpentier (OF-F charpentier) derives from LL ‘artifex carpentārius’. WHORL. waggon. carpentry. to pluck. See CAR. wool: f.

a withered. by metathesis. Crate. whence E carious.) carry . ONF carogne becomes ED karonje. ME carion. carrot . whence the adj carroty: MF-F carotte: LL carōta: Gr karōton. (Boisacq. n hence adj. might equally come from MD cratte. prob orig made of wickerwork. crone. the cart has a name app akin to MD cratte. sem. from VL *carōnia. dial an old ewe. carcass.A-Z 427 carrion . Cart derives. carrion. a knot. cart . therefore to cradle. from OE cradel or cradol. a hurdle. wicker-work. 1. Cariēs has adj cariōsus. head. para 3. earlier caroine. a basket. from OE craet. old woman. D krat. 2. death. comes from ONF caroigne. itself akin to OHG kratte. garlic. from L cariēs. old ewe. caries. var of kara. usu poorish or poor. . n hence v (whence carter). from kephalē. a woven mat or hamper. a basket. by some derived from L crātis. whence. decay (adopted by Sci E). derives E crone. 1. perh from *karos. Gr kephalōton. var of *cariōnia. and perh to Skt grantha (nasalized form). 2. carogne. the head: cf. perh akin to Gr kēr. n hence v. See CAR. cradle. in its contr form kronje.

para 3. para 2. cartography .Origins 428 carte blanche . para 5. cartoon . para 4. para 4. . See 2nd CARD. cartoonist. adopted from F. Cf crate at CART. comes from L cartilāgō. carton . wickerwork. etc. cartel . para 2. akin to L crātis. See the 2nd CARD. cartilage . See 2nd CARD. derivative LL cartilāginōsus yields cartilaginous. See the 2nd CARD. See the 2nd CARD.

goes back to L capsa. chassis. and enchase. para 4. take. legal cause. with several Gmc cognates: cf also the Gr graphein (s graph-). See 2nd CARD. box. case. at GRAPH (cf 1st GRAFT). 2. adopted from EF-F. ONF casse. caisson. chase (jewellery. para 2. carve. CAPABILITY). ME cass. case (2).e. cartulary . occurrence. pt carved. sash (of window).. a little box. para 6. See CADENCE. itself from capere (s cap-: f. Carve derives from OE ceorfan. to hold. from L capsula. a box. chest. to cut. casement. pp carven. hence v (usu encase: prefix en-) in).v. dim of capsa.a. para 7. the E adj is capsular—cf the adj suffix -ar. cascade . q. See 2nd CARD. capsule. vn carving. 1. The L form is visible in E capsule. case (1). Case. . to write. See CADENCE. (hence) to carve. contain.A-Z 429 cartridge .

a scarf. trln of F châssis. from L capsa. from MF-F enchasser: cf para 5). a frame. cash . comes straight from EF-F. whence E chassis. a band. Caisson. E sash (of window) is app a b/f from sashes.. para 2. 5. ‘To chase’ jewellery is aphetic for ‘to enchase’. from LL capsum. See the 2nd CASE. The OF-F châsse yields OF-F châssis. a sing misapprehended as pi. from MF encassement (var of MF-EF enchassement. a frame. by aphesis. from MF-F enchdâser. (later) a groove. etc. See CHEESE. Casement derives. which=en. para 3. casein. See CHEESE. setting of a gem. a box for relics+inf suffix -er: and châsse. from VL *capsiceum. caseic . which thus adapts It cassone. 4. deriving from Ar shāsh. 6. Cf CASH. in+ OF-F châsse. orig a chest for explosives. 8. 7. caseous . a long band of fine material worn as a turban. earlier shashes. para 2. casement . is an entirely different word.Origins 430 3. derives—? influenced by It cassa—from L capsa. whence the E n chase. F châssis perh (Webster) derives rather from OF chassiz. Sash. and in Mod E it is elliptical for casement window. from L capsa. a wide belt. aug of cassa. earliest shasses.

a box: cf the 2nd CASE. the tree concerned. casino . prob via a VL derivative. casseer: MD-ED casseeren. n hence v. to shake. to lack. the E cashier. from cassus. to destroy. Cash. from It cassa). freq of quatere. the goat’s wool used therefor. cashier. cashier (1). either aphetically from EF-F acajou (adopted by E in differentiated sense). with EF-F agent caissier. or direct from the Port aphetic var caju.) cashmere is elliptical for Cashmere shawl. casseren (D kasseeren): OF-F casser (cf Prov cassar): LL cassāre. s. hence. via D kassier. comes.A-Z 431 . cashier (2). to annul. n. See CASH. the Prov caissa. v: C16 casseir. empty. from L capsa. from Port acaju. prob from carēre. orig a money-box. (Not from quassare. the Port acaju represents the Tupi (S Am) acajú. whence. L capsa became. a shawl made in Kashmir (India). n.f. whence EF-F caisse (MF quecce). vain. cashew derives. either through EF-F casse or through It cassa (or via EF-F casse.

saucepan: extn of MF-F casse (now a ladle.Origins 432 . orig to shake vigorously and continuously. a cup.o. from L casa.o. casket : MF-F cassette: It cassetta. (B & W. cassava : F cassave: Sp cazabe: Taino (extinct Caribbean Amerind language) casavi.o. dim of kuathos. Cf QUASH. is the dim of casa. trowel: Gr kuathion. to break.) . ? *cadsa. See CASK. country house. a cask: from cascar. The It casino yields also the card-game cassino. from *cad-. casque . a house. a box: cf the 2nd CASE. to cover—cf the F Alpine dial case. dim of cassa. o. from L capsa.: perh of C origin. a scoop): OProv cassa: VL cattia. to break. adopted from It (orig. Cf CASSOCK. to shake. saucepan. from L quassare. a hut. maniocflour. a lowly cottage. then a skull. o. casserole : EF-F casserole. summerhouse). Dauzat. cask and casque (helmet) both come from Sp casco. a helmet. a freq and int of quatere. jacket. var of *cap-.o. orig a potsherd.

prob akin to L gestāre (s gest-). cassowary : Mal kasavārī. Castaway merely=‘a person cast away’. arises in LL casubla. but the MF-F casaque (cf the EF var casaquin). hooded garment. The latter. close-fitting eccl garment. from ON kasta. from casa. more prob. a small hut. to carry.e. hut: f. ‘To cast’ derives. CASINO. more prob (as B & W propose) comes from Per kazagand. its twigs resembling a cassowary’s feathers. casuaris.. dat casoari. . or. cast (v. cassino . See CASINO. kasuārī. alteration of LL casula.a. prob via the C17 naturalists’ Sci L casoaris. a kind of jacket. The r of casubla is cas-: perh from it arose the It casacca. cassock . whence E cassock. the long. chasuble. prob a fig use of LL casula. to throw. orig a freq of gerere.A-Z 433 cassia : L cassia: Gr kassia. Certainly the E word comes from the F. The mod Sci L casuarius has adj casuarinus. to strip off the bark (Webster). via ME casten. and formed from the s (gest-) of its ppgestus: therefore cf JEST. khesait. f casuarina. var of kasia: either from H qftsrah. hooded cape. castaway. the tree casuarina is elliptical for arbor casuarina. casuari. from qatsa. from Eg khasit. ‘cassowary tree’. orig a tunic. hence n cast and the vn casting). adopted from OF-F. whence MF-F casaque.

hence ‘virtuous. See CHESTNUT. castellan . whence E’to chasten’. hence—by fusion with castus. deprived. incestus (gen -ūs)—source of E incest—whence the adj incestuōsus. soiled. comes from Port casta. whence E incestuous. to reprimand. to lack—‘exempt. o/s castitāt-. The orig castus has cpd castigāre. unmixed) race. 5. castellated . from carēre.Origins 434 castanet . orig a race or stock of men. hence to render. later chasten. chaste. 1. L castus. by anl with other -ise (or -ize) w. becomes OF-F chasteté. well trained. chastise. lit to drive (agere). becoming specialized as ‘incestuous’. ‘conforming to religious rules and rites’. 4. Caste. chaste. whence castigation. whence the nn incestum. free or pure’ of some fault. On the pp s castigāt. The ME chastien acquired. the var chastisen. not+castus). lacking. or punish. The orig castus is akin to Skt well educated. adopted by E. (strictly. punitive. castigate. para 4. whence E chastity. esp sexual. whence chastisement (suffix -ment).arise castigātiō. L castus has the opp incestus. hence to correct. chastisement. whence castigatory. whence E ‘to chastise’. whence ME chastien. castigation—chasten. caste—chaste . o/s castigation-. whence ‘to castigate’. f of castus. See CASTLE. from L (gens) casta. 3. chastity. and castigātōrius. -incest. impure (in-. yields OF-F chaste. sexually chaste’. the derivative L castitās. with pa chastening and pa chastened. with pp castigātus. L castigāre becomes OF-MF chastier (F châtier). incestuous. 2.

whence obsol E castellan. whence E chatelaine. fortified camp. treated sep. Cf Elements. hence n. castral. whence the E v castellate and the pa castellated and the anl n castellation. as in Worcester—-Chester. whence. 2. an ornamental hook. a castellan’s wife. castellation. whence. EF-F châtelain. with pp castellātus. castra. castellation. camp. castigate . -Chester. castor . castle . esp from the ONF (C14 onwards) sense ‘castle’. 4. n hence v. a strongly entrenched. château. as in Doncaster—cester. the derivative castel-lāre. o/s -me tat iōn. has derivative castrametātiō. whence. from the keys she formerly handled. as in Chester and Manchester. castellated.—Akin to CASTRATE. L castrum has dim castellum. whence ONF castelain. camp-surveying. chatelaine. hence a fortified. a castle’s mistress.. whence E castle. Castellum has. have the Pl N derivatives -caster. adopted by E. 5. 1. 435 caster .A-Z . the E castrametation. Castrum. See CASTE. in ML. The basic word is L castrum. para 5. caster. 3. to measure off (metāri) a camp. with f châtelaine. L castellum ult becomes F château (for *chasteau). para 3. whence the E adj castral. See CASTLE. The cpd castrametāri. mostly in pi castra. ME castel. mistress of a large house. whence also OF-MF chastelain. See the 2nd CASTOR. for keys. -cester. an entrenched or fortified place. Moreover. castigation. whence ONF and OE castel. through F. castrametation. a castle’s governor or warden. fortress. to build as or like a castle. etc. castellānus. castellum has adj.

derives from PL kastrom (kas-. from Kastōr. with the L r cas-. para 1. v. s castr-. hence an entrenchment. That secretion was used in maladies of the womb: and Kastor was a noted preserver of women. to turn (in packing. to castrate. neu sing of adj kastorios. The IE r would be *kez-. from L. twin of Pollux. (Boisacq. adj. to throw. castration. castor. castor oil . the E castration.arises the n castrātiō. var *kaz-. prob cf also the Gr keazō (s keaz-. cf the Skt çastrám. castrate . castrated person. (E & M. ‘that which serves to cut’. suffix of neu n). r+-ro-.. pp of castrāre. o/s castration-. The L castrāre. hence a place trench-fortified. I split or cleave. eunuch. and.Origins 436 (1). (lit) a cutting off. hence a fortified camp: cf CASTLE. rendering Gr kastorion. a cutting instrument. (hence) a place cut off. e. from cast.) .or bedleg: earlier caster (still occ used). castral . the n castrate. has the same origin. a rodent: OF-F. but reaches E prob via It castrato (applied to operatic singers) and F castrat. elongation of *kaz-). With castrum. furniture). whence. The secretion castor (whence castor oil) derives from ML castoreum. on the pp s castrāt.) castor (2). cf the Skt çásati. as in the castor of a chair. castrametation. a formative+-m. The Bot adj castrate and the v ‘to castrate’ come from L castrātus. of the kastōr or beaver. he cuts. See CASTLE. n. prob via F. whence L castrum.g. See the 1st CASTOR. a beaver: Gr kastōr.

catfish: with teeth. The other cognates. 2. kit. catnip: cats enjoy it. tomcat. catte. catgut: folklore.A-Z 437 casual . -cradle. W cath. cat’s-claw: a shrub with hooked tendrils. merely serve to indicate that the C origin is at least possible. caz (kaz) and earlier kad. See CASSOWARY. PN Cattos. caterwaul. kitling. cf also Ga and OIr cat. cat. or . catsup. catt. African—but the closest word afforded by Eg is . catty. Catbird: one of its calls resembles a cat’s mew. catfish. or. s catt-. OHG kazza. catkin: cat+dim suffix -kin: it resembles a cat’s tail. caterpillar. catkin. as ‘dupe’ it arises from the fable of a monkey using a cat’s paw to pull chestnuts out of a fire. less prob. made usu from the intestines of sheep. but as E & M suggest. Serb kotiti (r kot-). to flee. cf Gaul *kattos (s *katt-). casuistry. Br cas. casualty.g. cat. -eye. as does a cat’s eye. derived by Malvezin from r *cat-. f catta. para 2. . ME cat derives partly from OE cat. cat’s-ear: a plant with leaves not unlike a cat’s ear. Ru kot. cat’s cradle: strings so arranged as to form a small cradle—fit for a cat. catbird. -ear. Mx cat or cayt. cat-tail. 1. See CADENCE. ON köttr. catgut. Cor câth (kâth) or cât (kât). partly from ONF cat: LL cattus. r cat-: either of C origin. para 2. cat’s-eye: a gem emitting r eflections. -tail. cat’s-paw: a light wind ruffling the water much as it would ripple to a cat’s paw. kitty. -paw. barbels—and ferocity—resembling a cat’s. cat’s-claw. casuarina . See CADENCE. cat-tail (cattail): a plant with furry spikes. cat’s-tail: any of several plants that resemble one. to whelp.—kitten. e. cat. casuist .

The Gr adj katakhrēstikos yields E catachrestic. prob a hybrid. its adj is kittenish and its pet-form is kitty. to inundate: kata-. itself (the -i. down+kluzein. an easing of cat-wail. catacomb : MF-F catacombe: It catacomba: LL catacumba. Two not entirely obvious cpds of cat are: caterpillar: ONF cate plue. to wail like a cat. senseinfluenced by tumba. cat—or of its E-derived var ketta. cataclysm . .of kitling) from ONF caton. cf LG dial katterwaulen. derives from ON ketlingr. from katakluzein. Kit is short for kitten: and kitten derives from ME kitoun. to tattle. from katakhrēsthai: kata-. 5. catachresis : adopted from L: Gr katakhrēsis. to be abed. whence the adj cataclysmic: EF-F cataclysme: LL cataclysmus. either of Gr kata. tomcat+ D wauwelen. the Biblical Flood: Gr kataklusmos. See ACOUSTIC. tomb. a kitten.influenced by the 1st -i. dim of ONF cat. down+L tumba. var catepelose: LL catta pilosa. to caterwaul. Kitling.Origins 438 3. cat. to use. or for catawail. or of Gr kata+cumbere (s cumb-). 4. a misuse. to wash. against (see Prefixes)+khrēsthai. (lit) hairy cat. catacoustics . The adj of cat is catty: cat+euphonic r-f adj suffix -y. caterwaul: either from MD kater. dim of köttr. to lie down.

from katalegein: kata-. See LOSE. catalyst. cataleptic. n hence v (whence cataloguer): MF-F: LL catalogus: Gr katalogos. catalepsy . ref its flowers. (lit) a counting up. para 11. to count (cf LOGIC). catalpa . a list. down+legein.A-Z 439 catafalque . catalytic. (Mathews.) catalyse . catamenia . an A tree: SciL. para 2. lit ‘winged head’. from Creek (Amerind) kutuhlpa. See EPILEPSY. and cf the element -lepsia. catalysis. See SCAFFOLD. to say. catalogue .

See MEASURE. to dash down (kata. catarrh . a waterfall. . earlier catarractes: Gr kataraktēs.Origins . to break). to hurl. para 3. catastrophic. A cataract in the eye comes from the same Gr word. See STRAP. to smite). r pal). para 3. Also catamountain. catastrophe . to break down (kata+ rhegnunai. an easing of katarrhaktēs. para 2. either from katarassein. cat of the mountain(s). cataract : perh via EF-F cataracte: L cataracta. down+pallein (s pall-. down+arassein. or from katarrhēgnunai. 440 catamount = cat of (a) mount. catapult : MF-F catapulte: L catapulta: G katapaltēs or -peltes: kata. See RHEUM.

catechize. catch . categoric(al) . CAPABILITY. down. used int+ēkhein. through. 2. used int): hence ME porchacen.A-Z 441 catawba : Choctaw Katápa. (later) esp in religious knowledge. (lit) to sound through or over: kata. the derivative OF-MF n chace (EF-F chasse) becomes ME chace. a pursuit. pourchas. Katēkhein has (1) agent *katēkhistēs. cf HEAVE. Mathews. var purchacier.. per-=L per. later purchasen. an instructor. to instruct. whence ‘to purchase’. continuing in E.a. whence LL catechismus. later chosen. purchase.. var of Gr katēkhein. whence LL catechista. v hence n (whence adj catchy). OF chacier has the OF-MF cpd par chacier. the E catechism. ‘(a tribe) separated (from other Siouan tribes)’. to chase eagerly (por-.. later chase. for L captāre. to take: f. derives from ONF cachier (cf OF chacier. v and n. Cf ECHO. which becomes porchas. a sound. from VL *captiāre. to pursue. The OF-MF v has derivative n porchace. hence to attain or obtain. etc. to sound. purchas. whence ME chacen. ‘To catch’. ME cachen. from LGr katēkhizein. and (2) abstract-n derivative katēkhismos. chase. 1. catechism . whence ‘to chase’ or pursue. VL *captiāre becomes OF-MF chacier (EF-F chasser). to chase and catch. pern imm from F. etc. from ēkhē. whence E catechist (cf EF-F catéchiste). whence E purchase. catechist. esp with money. pourchace. whence MF-F catéchisme and.e. ‘To catechize’ comes—perh via MF-F catéchiser—from LL catechizāre. int of capere. itself echoic. whence F chasser). 3.

category. to accuse. (lit) purchaser. v (whence caterer). caterwaul . . to+captāre. trln of Gr katēgorikos. to purchase. against. caterpillar . buy: ad. a purchasing). purchaser: AF. aphetic for acatour. (but also) to affirm or predicate: kata. the adj of katēgoria. from LL catēgoricus. an assembly: ult from agein. whence E category (cf EF-F catégorie). and katēgoria derives from katēgorein. cater .Origins 442 . obs for ‘caterer’: ME catour. int of capere. caterer. derives from cater. para 1. (hence) to do: cf ACT and AGENT. from VL presumed. from ONF. catena . to harangue. to drive. the former yielding EF-F acheteur): VL *accaptātor. whence LL catēgoria. See CHAIN. acateor. para 4. to take. (but also) to assert. catenary. See CAT. adj hence (longer form) n. para 4. accaptāre. from agora. acatour (cf OF achateor. whence categorist and categorize (whence categorization). catenate (catenation). also merely int+(the r of) agoreuein. See CAT. Categorical is an E elaboration of categoric (cf EF-F catégorique). through ML factual. purchaser (cf ML acaptātiō.

from katharos. whence E cathartic. para 2. and comes. spotless: o. whence the Med n. concerning (kath’ for kata. perh through MF-F catholique. from catholic.e. whence Catholic. Kathairein has derivative adj kathartikos. church with a bishop’s cathedra or chair: f. catholic . itself from Gr katholikos.a.. adj and n: resp LL-ML cathedrālis (adj of cathedra) and ML cathedrālis (ecclesia). a cleansing. adj. (lit) utterly clean. general. deriving from kathairein (s kathair-. cathedral . catkin . world-wide’. catholic means ‘general. to cleanse. universal: adj from Gr kath holou. where see cathedratic. down. pure. Catholicism (cf EF-F catholicisme). from L catholicus.A-Z 443 catgut . perh akin to L castus (cf CASTE).o. n..o. whence Catholic. concerning) the whole (holos. from Catholic. cathode : Gr kathodos. Orig and strictly. adj. meaning ‘a purgative’. a purification. adj: akin to SAFE). kathar-). See CAT. both by anl. CHAIR. adj. and catholicity (cf EF-F catholicity. catharsis: Gr katharsis. a way (hodos) down (kata).

finally the domesticated bovines.a. chattel. esp movable goods. catel. cat’s-paw . See CAT. Caucasian . . capitālis. and personal property. then of live stock (quadrupeds).. chattel. para 2. The adj derives from Gr Kaukasia. n from the neus of the adj cf CAPITAL and. via L. Caucasus. the region (-ia). but chatel from OF-EF chatel. both from L capitāle. whence. See CAT. chief. para 2. adj hence n. The words are doublets. cattle . para 2. from ME catel.e. See CAT. thus: cattle. itself from Kaukasos. See CAT. from ONF catel. Caucasus: of Caucasian origin. CHIEF.Origins . from the ME var chatel. (lit) concerning the caput or head: catty . Mt Caucasus. resp property in general. f. 444 catnip .

calotte. cauldron . husk.A-Z 445 caucus : perh of Amerind origin. cf APOCALYPSE. from kaluptein. a tile. presumably as a dim. a warm medicinal drink: ONF caudel. a skullcap: Prov calota. a covering. shell. caul . . prob Alg—cf Virginian caucauasu. adj caudal. cauda . from Frankish *skala—cf the Go skalja. conceal: akin to HELL. by metathesis from L calidus. an elder of the tribe. after the Century) from ML caucus—cf LL caucum—from LGr kaukos. see CALORIC. See CODA. b/f from MF-F calotte. callotta: Gr kaluptra. B & W. to cover. derive calotte. however. a membrane. Caul: late MF-F cale. See CALDRON. from cale. for them. a drinking-vessel. which. is aphetic for teale. a counsellor (Webster). caudle . warm: cf CALDRON. pod. but more prob (Mathews.

to accusative (adj hence n). excusive. ‘To cause’ derives from MF-F causer. causation.: ‘Would it be a loan-word?’ (E & M). derivative accusābilis leads. cause. LL causātiō. 1. *khassa. the E causative. whence. adopted from MF-F. accusātiuus. ML -ivus. itself from the OF-F n cause. hence -pleading. perh via F. whence ‘to excuse’. to absolve of blame. an excuse. excusal. whence E causal.o. The cpd adj causidicālis. to bring a lawsuit against (ad. ML -ivus. causative. becomes OF-F excuser. excusable. excuse (n and v). Accusāre.— kickshaw. See CALK. 2. accusatory. The relevant prefix-cpd vv are accusāre. to). accuse. The PL kaussa suggests a loan from Eg khe-t. inexcusable. recusation. has 2nd element deriving from dicere (s dic-). accusative. accusation. remotely. origination. whence accuser.Origins 446 cauliflower : reshaped after the element cauli. elliptical for ‘because (earlier by cause) that’. recusant (adj hence n). excusatory. recusancy. and LL causātiuus. o/s causation-.o. o/s flor-. cf causidical and accuse: o. causidical. yields ‘to accuse’. recuse. Because is. L causa has simple derivatives LL causālis. accusatorial. cause-saying. because. 4. prob imm from MF-F. . cause . intimately akin to Gr kaulos+L flos. 5. L excusāre. whence causation. to accusation. causal (whence causality). from L causa. lit ‘flowery cabbage’: L caulis (s caul-). accusatōrius to accusatory and. accusātiō. perh via *khetsa. whence E causidical. excusāre and recusāre. Causa acquired in law the special sense ‘lawsuit’.—Cf. to accusable. 6. *khessa. a flower. by elaboration. cause. to take out of (ex) a lawsuit (causa). o/s accusation-. whence ME excusen.and the E flower: earlier coly-flory: EF-F chou-fleuri (soon chou-fleur). to say. 3. perh via EF-F. via OF-MF acuser (EF-F accuser) and ME acusen. HEW. prob via F. a stalk. caulk .

either (by paving with lime) from L calx. o/s recusant-. o/s recusdtion-. The Shakespearean kickshaw. 4. comes from ONF caucie. *keu-. from calciāre. L recusdre becomes. Holocaust comes. pp of kaiein. kautērion becomes L cautērium. chose. cautery. (hence) thing. the derivative recusdtio. para 4. 8. caustic (adj and n). from LL holocaustum. causeway . whence both the E cautery. yields recusant. via MF-F cautère. burnt whole: holo-(see Elements)+kaustos. to burn. IE r *kēu-. 3. the E cauter. from Gr kautēriazein. . 7. 2. akin to kausos. from LGr holokauston. and DICT. or (by treading firm) from L calx. from LL (uia) calciāta. para 11. cause. causidical . elliptical for causticum medicamentum. represents EF-F quelque chose. via MF recuser (F re-). 9. The n caustic represents L causticum. excusal. The former is f/e for the latter. 1. ME cauci.A-Z 447 derives from OF excuser. causey. prob via MF-F. the presp recusans. a toy. whence recusancy (t. something: quelque. var *kau-. dropped for ease). adj suffix -ative. prob via OF-F holocauste. Cf INK. yields legal EF-F and E recusation. from L qualis (as in quality). itself from kautērion. whence causticity and causticize. prop the neus of Gr holokaustos. from Gr kaustikos. a delicacy. burnt. and. lime. excusative= ‘to excuse’+n suffix -al. the instrument. from L causa. cauterize (whence cauterization). branding iron. the legal recuse. a burning fever. excusable. heel. from kaiein (s kai-). cauter. now usu a curative branding. to make a road. See CAUSE. a branding iron. ‘To cauterize’ comes from LL cauterizāre. which. holocaust. from kaiein. LL inexcūsabilis gives us inexcusable. causticum being orig the neus of causticus. The derivative LL excūsabilis becomes.

the E precaution. cavalier (n hence adj). from the n precaution. cavalcade . Boisacq thinks kaballēs a borrowing from some language of NE Europe and adduces the OSl kobyla. lean towards C. derives from the E n caution. a hegoat (see CAB. prob via EF-F precaution. sem. prudent. 4. and Skt ākuvate. The LL caballa. not+ caution. whence the Cavaliers (cf L Equites). and therefore to E SHOW. incautious. a horseman. to flee. a security. and the It cavaliere. a fish with an equine head. to run. The C r would be *cab-. o/s of cautiō. after cautionary. perh from the rare Gr kaballēs: Hofmann proposes. L cautus has opp incautus. 3. to take great care. Cor cevil (or k-). adopted by AE . 1. wary. with ML imp cave. cautious. cautionary (adj hence n). cavey. 1. OFris skāwia. Br caval. cavalla. esp a working horse or a gelding. OHG scor/won.) 2. precautionary. although prob influenced by MF-F cautionner. built upon the adj s caut-. a mare (the f of caballus).Origins 448 caution (n hence v). L cauēre has prefix-cpd praecauere. precautionary derives. Mx cabbyl. to be on guard (against. caballero. ākūtis. to notice. with var *cap-. W ceffyl. influenced by caution. whence late MF-F cavalier. the E incautious. 1 understand or notice. 2.= in-. a mare. as in L caper. a gentleman. intention. The C origin (cf CAR) seems the most prob: cf the Gaul PN Caballos. 3. Caballus has LL agent caballārius. whence the si Cavey!. observant. a horse. The imm base is L caballus. in Port. which comes. cavalla. whence. praecautio. the L eques). ML cavēre. E & M. for the Gr word. chivalric. after E cautious. Cauēre has derivative cautus. ‘to caution’. and esp kavís. after mentioning the Gr word and the Balkan possibility. cavalry—chivalry. whence cautious. adopted by E. a knight. adopted by Sp. Having s and r cau-. o/s praecaution-. whence the E legal n caveat. observe. also keffyl. as does Malvezin. let him beware. prudent. incaution. a Balkan origin (? Illyrian). in LL. from L caution-. The base is L cauēre. chivalrous. (E & M. prob via MF-F caution. whence also cautionary (adj suffix -ary). Ga and Ir (and EIr) capall. lest). whence both the Sp caballero. para 2). and with the subj caveat. he intends. on guard. whence. whence. became. cauēre is perh akin to Gr koeō. perh also to OS sfcawon. ‘to precaution’ owes something to late EF-F précautionner (from the n). precaution (n and v). however. a well-born mounted soldier (cf.

prob through MF-F concavité. concavity. L cauus has LL derivative cauitās. adopted by E. Caballus itself became OF-F cheval. cavalry. jaile: OF-MF jaiole (whence EF-F geôle): ONF gaiole: ML caveola. to hollow out. Gr koilos. cavity. the E cavernous. n hence v. whence the rare ‘to cavern’. cavalleria. adopted by E. on horseback. has o/s excavation-. o/s cavitāt-. ML cavea becomes It gabbia. excavate. to ride a horse. excavation. via OF-F caverne. hollow. and cauerna has adj cauernōsus. with zuggabbionc. hollow. adopted by E. gayhol. 2. ML cavus. perh ult akin is HOLE. with a differentiated var. D de being apprehended as part of the word. ML caverna. 5. the ML cavallāria. its OF-F derivative chevalerie yields the E chivalry (cf suffixes -ry. excavator. -ereus. whence EF-F gabion. Gaoler. kooi comes from ML cavea. influenced by F chevalier) blends with the E chivalry to produce the absurd E chivalresque. adopted by It. 1. ML -cavāre. gaol. whence the OF-F agent chevalier. Caballus has a LL derivative caballicāre.—concave. perh via caverneuse. via MF-F cavité. ML cavitās. 6. the E cavity. lanterna— cauerna. the derivative excauātiō. whence E excavation. jailer.—decoy. . prob after navigator. -ery). L cauea. with ML pp excavātus. jail (n hence v). as in the early var couus. a hollow. whence. The late MF-F chevaleresque (from It cavalleresco. after cisterna and laterna. the E cavern.A-Z 449 4. n hence v. with var cou-. 6. whence It cavalcare. ML cavernōsus. a large cage. L cauus has two notable prefix-cpds: (1) concauus. whence E cavalry. whence the EF-F cavalerie. E gaol (now often jail) and AE jail derive from ME gail. with E-formed adj chivalric and F-formed adj chivalrous (OF-EF chevaleros. concavity represents ML concavitās (LL -cauitās). jailer (-or). erus). hollow. gaoler. for the suffix. later jailor. whence. whence MF-F cavalcade. gabion (cf the sep CAGE). whence the n cavalcata. as above. cavern. via its neupl caballāria. prob akin are MIr cūa. Gr kuar. whence MF-F concave. The r is cau-. 4. 5. VL caueola. ML excavātiō. 3. horse soldiers. cave . cavernous. and (2) excauāre. ‘to concave’ represents ML concavāre (L -cauāre). the enclosure for trapping wildfowl. Decoy (n)=D de kooi. cf the suffix -ade. excavator is an E formation. horseman. from ONF gaiole. ML -cavus. later a knight. dim of L cauea. for PL *couos. Caballus has a LL adj caballāris. from L cauus. the f of MF-F caverneux. whence E ‘to excavate’. (hence) a gabion. a military ceremony of inauguration. whence. derive from ME gailer. Cauus also yields—perh. jailer: MF jaiolier (EF-F geôlier): ONF gaiolier. whence.

to censure. to banter. cavillation. Cauillāri becomes MF-EF caviller. from cavillātiōn-. a (legal) quibble. v hence n and the agent caviller. occ caviare: EF-F caviar (earliest as cavyaire): It caviaro (now caviale): Tu khāvyār (modern havyár). itself built on cauillāt-. cavil . derives. para 4. cavort . .Origins 450 caveat . para 1. perh—by dissimilation—from caluāri. from cauilla. caviar . See CAVE. Cavillation. the pps of cauillāri. See curvet at CURVE. perh via MF-EF. Cavey! See CAUTION. to deceive (cf CALUMNIATE). cavity . the o/s of L cauillātiō (ML cav-). mockery. whence ‘to cavil’. a cavilling.

S. cayuse . v hence n: echoic: the cries of crows. prop one bred by the Cayuse tribe of the NW U. the capital of F Guiana.A. rather than of Cayenne. cease .o. cay . cayman : Sp caimán: of Caribbean Amerind origin—cf Galibi cayman and Cariban acagouman. off F Guiana. Guiana and Cayenne (F shape) are the same word.: o. etc. an Indian pony. ravens.A-Z 451 caw . cayenne pepper: Tupi kyinha: from the Tupi version of the island of Cayenne.o. rooks. See the 2nd KEY.

CEDE.. to Skt utsad-. processive. the E cession. proceeding (n)—procedure. The n cease comes from OF ces (F cesse). whence ‘to cease’: and OF-F cesser derives from L cessāre. cedre (F cèdre): L cedrus: Gr kedros. Cessāre.a. recede. whence the n cessiō. in EPISODE and METHOD. intercession. from OF-MF. hence to E SIT. etc. successor. not +ceasing. whence incessancy (abstract suffix -cy). 2. prop a freq of cēdere. successive. cedar. unceasing. concession. presp of cessare). cedar : ME. to cease. to go. concessive. later cesen. the E incessant. processional. with antecedent. to cease. hence to cease: f. abscess (sep). give way (cf CEASE) : perh akin to L cadere (s cad-). intercede.—Prob akin to Gr hodos. precedent (adj and n). 3. o/s incessant-. o/s cessiōn-. precede. secede. the E cessation. Cede comes. (high)way. precession (whence precessional). hence to go back. LL has presp used as adj.v. journey. exceeding.g. proceed. exceed. n+suffix -less (cf LESS). to Gr hodos. secession (whence secessional. cession.. unceasing. successful. to go. precess. concede. to depart: see ABSCESS. via MF-F. ancestor (sep). The presp cedens. . itself from OF-F cesser. whence. hence esp to retire. prob via EF-F céder. Most of the L prefix-cpds of cēdere have affected E. assignor of property. concessionaire. decedent—decease. perh also to L sedere (s sed-). processionary. intercessor. to approach: see ACCEDE. unceasing=un-. yields the legal E cedent. to L citrus. accedere. as. concessionary. hence to halt. walk. via EF-F. juniper. Ceaseless=cease. ult.Origins 452 . succeed succedent—success. excessive. cede . seceder.. whence. (hence) to disappear. cedent. whence. ceaseless. antecede (sep). accession. necessary (sep). at CITRON. juniper: L cedrus is prob akin. succession. to fall. presp of ‘to cease’.e. procedural—process (n hence v)—procession (n hence v). recession (whence recessional). the pp cessus has s cess-. akin to Lith kadagys. hence to halt. secessionist). v and n. via MF-F. The adj is cedarn. excess (n hence adj). with access. incessans (in+cessans. thus: abscedere. to step aside. 1. whence ME cessen. o/s cessātiōn-. recess (n hence v). from L cēdere (s cēd-). precedence. pp cessātus. e. o/s cedent-. q. cease (sep). intercessory. accede (sep). n hence v. with necessity. has derivative n cessātiō. recessive.

concede. succedere. o/s recession-. the derivative EF-F adj processif. to precede. leads to secede. Concedere. whence the pa exceeding. with adjj concessional. ‘to concede’. early also -al. o/s praecedent-. a commoner adj being ML processionarius. o/s succedent-. arise LL praecessio. 11. the presp succedens. the F adj procedural yielding E procedural. becomes MF-F proceder. The derivative L n processeó. forwards). to retreat. yields ‘to recede’. whence. yields recession. has presp dēcedens. represents late MF-F processionnel. The derivative n successus (gen -ūs) becomes E success. whence (or from the F derivative n) ‘a precedent’. prob via MF-F precedent. perh via OF-MF succeder (EF-F succéder). o/s . whence. o/s concession-. intercedere. concessionary. the s of the pp praecessus. from MF-F proceder. becomes MF exceder (EFF excéder). to go out from. on intercess-. perh via MF-F. whence ‘to decease’. to retire. excedere. o/s intercessiōn-. whence E intercessory. whence E precession. whence decease. to go under. and intercessor. whence E excess. on praecess-. Sēcedere. whence. 7. 12. the derivative n recessus (gen -us) yields recess. yields. from the presp.A-Z 453 antecedere. holder of a concession. Succedere. whence. the E concession. the derivative excessus (gen its). to go sē. 8. whence. which=prae. recessive is an E formation. becomes MF exces (EF-F excès). ML -cessīvus. ‘to precess’. The derivative L n processus (gen -us) becomes MF proces (EF-F proces). whereas processional. whence ‘to exceed’. perh via MF-F.or aside. adopted by E. the n proceeding(s). o/s sēcessiōn-. whence ‘to proceed’. hence to be successful. to depart. secedere. 6. perh suggested the E processive. Praecedere. hence fig). the t being omitted for ease before the suffix -ce. f processive. before+ dēcessor. Dēcedere. Inter cedere. and the ML intercessōrius. excessive comes from the ML excessīvus. adj. by b/f. 5. becomes OF-F procession. whence E processionary. accounts for the adj and n succedent. to advance. procedure represents MF-F procédure. praecedere. whence antecessor: see ANTECEDENT and ANCESTOR. 13. L procedere (pro-. adopted by E. adopted by E (cf the MF-F intercesseur). the derivative sēcessiō. the E adj precedent. to march back. to walk or march at the head. (hence) to die. to pass beyond (lit. adopted by ME. the derivative LL recessiō. the s of the pp intercessus. perh via MF-F. Excedere. via ME predecessour and MF-F prédécesseur. procedere. hence to follow or succeed. o/s dēcedent-. the presp praecedens. from LL praedēcessor. 4. its derivative n dēcessus (gen -us) becomes OF-MF deces (EF-F déces). concessionaire. ‘to precede’. o/s procession-. recedere. whence successful and successless: derivative LL successiō. 10. yield position (to). to succeed. yields ‘to intercede’. 9. withdrawer (cf para 6). perh via MF-F. to intervene. leads. whence ‘to process’. to progress. the f of MF-F excessif. the n comes from ML processionále. The remaining relevant L prefix-cpds are concedere. whence precedence. on the pp concessus arise concessiō. perh via F excessive. the E intercession. immodest. arise intercessiō. whence seceder. whence ‘to recess’. becomes. prop the neu of the rare ML adj processionális (whence the F adj). concessive represents LL concessīuus. anglicizes EF-F concessionnaire. whence ME proceden. an extravagance. Predecessor comes. to secession. L recede re. whence the legal E n decedent. o/s prae cessiōn-. whence process. dēcedere.

letter C? ceil. the -cede forms come direct from L -cedere. para 3.o. whence E celestial. Celestial. celestial. to hide. ‘formerly written after the c to indicate the sibilant value’ (Webster). obsol for ‘a Chinese’. 14. to overlay. v .o. or even to caedere (s caed-). to divide by cutting up: ? caelum for *caedlum.e. from L caelum (s cael-). but perh akin to celāre (s cel-). But is Sp cedilla perh not rather the dim of Sp ‘letra Ce’. to cut. o. app from OF-F ciel. Ceiling is vn from ceil. z. celandine . on success-. adj hence n. built. becomes. with basic sense ‘a covering’. canopy or arched covering.Origins 454 successiōn-. skyblue. ceiling. whence E successor. 2. the sky being regarded as ‘cut up’ into regions. celebrate . whence OF celestiel. i.. In short. deduced from ML adv successive. to roof (a room). canopy. the -ceed forms indicate F intervention. prob via OF-F. The OF-F equivalent adj céleste accounts for the colour celeste. derives from ‘Celestial Dynasty’—a kingdom ruled by a heavenappointed dynasty. the E succession. perh via late OF-F. becomes. sky. cedilla is adopted from Sp: dim of Gr ζ (zeta). to cut up. Caelum has adj caelestis. the s of the pp successus. See YELL. 1. the ME successour. the ML adj *successīvus. L successor. sky. yields successive. like the prec.

whence the pa celebrated. and the agent celebrātor. But the most influential derivative is celebrāre. The former=celibate+abstract suffix -cy: and celibate comes from L caelibātus. celibacy . cf -ative) and celebratory (-ory. celebrated.o. adj—cf -atory). o/s of L celeritās. celery : late EF-F céleri: It dial selieri. hence famous: o. adopted by E. celery: Gr selinon. celibate. but perh akin to Skt kévalas. celebrative.) celestial . and the E formations cetebrative (-ive. from) celeritāt-. to frequent. alone. an atus adj from caelebs. r kel-). celebrity.: but perh from IE r *suel-. perh akin to Gr kelomai (s and r kel-). swift.. (Boisacq. The Ancient Greeks used parsley for garlands. I push or excite.o.o. to roll (up). I accost. hence to celebrate.o. and on the pps celebrāt. celebrant.arise celebrātiō. para 2.o.A-Z 455 . celerity : (perh through MF-F célérité. a racehorse. therefore cf Gr kelēs (r kel-). frequented. prompt. perh also to Gr kellō (s kell-. The base is L celeber. celebratory.. its pp celebrātus yields ‘to celebrate’. . a var of *uel-.o. o/s celebrant-. celebration. Its derivative celebritās. o/s celebritāt-. short-ened to *sel-. r cel-. o/s celebration-. meaning ‘single. Its presp celebrans. unmarried’: o. whence. var of It seleni: L sellnum: LGr selinon. celebration. parsley: o. See CEIL. private. prob via OF-F. from celer. itself adj. to wind. yields celebrant. yields E celebrity (cf MF-F célébrité).

influenced by Gr Keltikos but deriving from L Celta. a stake. Celtic. earlier Keltoi. paras 11–12. prob through F Celte. high. comes from MF-F ciment: L caementum. See HALL. with r *cel-.’ cello. it does belong to the celsus group. but prob of C origin. cellarage. an easing of *caedmentum. cellule. See FIDDLE.f. an archaeological chisel. perh of C origin: cf MIr celtair. ME ciment. If. celluloid. flint stone. to . cellar. n (whence the adj cemental)—hence v (whence cementation). cement. Cement. Celt . cellulose. itself from Gr Keltai. whence. perh akin to L celsus. s.Origins 456 cell . often of flint: LL celtis. from caedere. marble chips used for making mortar: for *caedimentum. celt. para 5. The latter comes from the L adj Celticus. and W cellt. to rise or mount. flint. to cut. the E Celt. cellarer. however. adj cellular. it must be aligned with HILL. ‘cellist. Celta is a b/f from the pl Celtae.

whence. to ( declare formally. adj of census. censer is aphetic for incenser: OF-MF encensier. censorship. censual stands for L censuālis. census. the adj of censor. censor (n hence v). 1. from OF-F encens. to chant. judgement. with s . the E censure. Censēre has also the derivatives censūra. E censor has derivative censorship (suffix -ship). to evaluate. IE r. *kēd-. Censorious represents L censōrius. cenotaph .A-Z 457 cut down. via MF-F. adopted by E. he recites or announces. hence a condemning. censorious. itself from Gr koimētērion. of all F word-makers: Rabelais (cf RABELAISIAN). n and v. MF cimetiere.for *can-. whence ‘to censure’. hence to describe officially.or sleeping-place’. r perh *cam. from koiman (s koim-: cf COMA). EF-F cimetière. adj censual. hence ‘burial place’. evaluation. census (gen -us). lit ‘resting. which E has adopted. to tax: akin to Skt ). at the 2nd CANT. . Lit ‘empty tomb’. the most brilliant. the act of taking a census. The EF-F cénotaphe was formed bythe most prolific. s caed-: cf the -cise of CONCISE and PRECISE. perh *kād-. to put to sleep: akin ult to CITY. L censor is the agent of censure (s cens-). censure. the -cide of DECIDE. incense: cf para 3 of CANDID. and MF-F censure has derivative EF-F censurer. See the 2nd ceno.v. q. cemetery: cf OF cimitere. both the OF and the E coming from LL coemētērium.in Elements.

the derivative recensio. centilitre.: F cent: L centum. etc. centimetre. perh via F. See CENTRE. orig 100.Origins 458 2. hence to revise. centaur . to estimate afresh.). hence the 100th part of a dollar. 100: f. centenarian. para 3. and. of course. whence. the E recense.v. the 2nd element (-grade. center ..e. o/s recensidn-. to revise (a text). q. denoting 100. cent. the E recension. etc. See the element centi-. n from adj from centenary. centigrade. etc. centigramme. See the element centauro-. The prefix-cpd recensere.a. HUNDRED. becomes. . at ANNUAL. to review. perh via MF-F recenser.

concentrated. whence the pa concentrated and. o/s ped-. 1. of a cardinal point. The derivative LL centrātus. para 5. . any sharp point (from kentein. centric. 100-footed (pes. hence a geom centre L centrum has adj centrālis. eccentric (adj hence n). however. 4. century. 2. by anl from eccentric). central . away from the centre. out from (ex-) the centre. 3. whence concentricity. subsidiary ML excentricitas. centric was formsuggested by Gr kentrikos. eccentricity. The ML derivative excentricus. perh independently.—concenter. s kent-. centurion . whence centricity. AE center. becomes late EF-F excentricité and E eccentricity (perh. thereby. centri-. adj central. IE r *kent-. MF-F centre has derivative EF-F concentrer. the n concentration. by anl (cf the F concentration). to prick. center. E concentric. concentrate. a foot: cf PEDAL). becomes MF-F excentrique and. hence any point. concentration. E eccentric. whence EF-F and E central. leads to E ‘to concentrate’. See para 1 of: centre. as in centrifugal—see FUGITIVE. concentric. to prick). derives from MF-F centre: L centrum: Gr kentron. Centre. from Gr ekkentros. situated about a centre.A-Z 459 centipede: obs F centipède: L centipeda. o/s excentricitat-. The ML derivative concentricus becomes MF-F concentrique and. whence ‘to concentre or concenter’.

comes from centuriōn-. adj of kephalē. cereal . ceramic . goddess of agriculture. f. to create.a. century came to denote any sequence of 100. From meaning ‘100 soldiers’. but esp of 100 years. n. a company of 100 soldiers. akin to Skt Karbarás. HUNDRED. one of Yama the Lord of the Netherworld’s two dogs: prob echoic. a Gr mythical hound: L Cerberus: Gr Kerberos. of the head: (perh via F céphalique. perh adopted from OF-F. from or intimately akin to L centūria. .. n from adj: L Cereālis. the head: cf the element cephalo-.e. cephalic . See HEARTH. 100: cf CENT and. trln of Gr kephalikos. See CEREMENT. the o/s of L centuriō. belonging to Ceres.Origins 460 Centurion. from centum. from) LL cephalicus. adj. cere . the leader of 100 soldiers. esp of grain crops: akin to creāre. whence ceramics.f. Cerberus . s.

The 4th is the dim of the 3rd. itself formed by anl. becomes the E n cere. n and v. cerebellum. ceremonial.o. cere. pi caeremōniae. ceremoin: MF cerimonie. cerebration. ceremonie (EF-F céré-): L caerimōnia. cerement .A-Z 461 cerebral . adj hence n. ceremonious. leads to the EF-F adj cérébral. from L cēra. cerebration. ritual observances: o. but prob akin to L cūra (see CURE). IE r. the E ceremonial and ceremonious. to think actively. L cerebrum. mental activity. cerecloth (cf CLOTH) stands for cered cloth. cerebrum. whence F cirer. whence E cerebral’. wax. akin to Gr kēros. the latter perh via MF-F. to wax-f suffix -ment: from OF-F cire. to treat with wax. F cire. Ceremony: ME cerimonie. Its LL adjj caerimōniālis and caerimōniōsus become. is suggested by cerebrate. the brain. a cult. cerecloth. head. cerise . whence E ‘to cere’. Ult akin to Gr kara. prob *karor *ker-. Ceres . Cerement=EF-F cirement (obs). from OF-F cirer.o: perh Etruscan (E & M). See CEREAL. wax. Cēra has derivative cērāre. hard. ceremony .

crime. to Gr-derived crisis and critic. discriminate. whence. we wish to be certainly informed. not+ E certain. to+MF certainer (certain+inf -er): cf para 2. ‘a certificate’ derives. adopted from MF-F. via MF-F certificat. via MF-F certifier. hence to decide. certificatory. discreet. to decide. becomes. as an E legal term for a Chancery writ. occ shortened to *kre. adj). certitude. from L incertus. from certiorem facere. the pp certificātus has influenced ‘to certificate’. hence uncertainty instead of the obs incertainty (from EF). to pass through a sieve. discern. prob via late MF-F. akin to Gr krinein (s krin-). to Gmc-derived riddle (a sieve): see sep. certior being the comp of certus. See CHERRY.Origins . the passive certiorāri. Cf: certain . appointed’. 4. L certus has several LL and ML derivatives relevant to E: LL certificāre (c/f certi-+-ficāre. orig ‘decided. uncertain: and uncertain itself =un-. LL certitūdō. derives. to make (someone) more sure. certiorari. 1. The pp of cernere is crētus. 5. certificate. LL incertitūdō becomes. a state of certainty. certificate is an E formation (-ive. 3. The L base is cernere (s cern-). from ML certificātum. acertener: OF-MF a. the E certify. to separate. the E certitude. to decide: IE r. fixed. whence (suffix -ment) ascertainment. to define. 2. discrete. uncertain. *krei-. to separate. prop the neus of the pp.— ascertain. the E incertitude. Certus passes through a derivative VL *certdnus into late OF-F as certain. whence E certainty. a c/f of facere. hence to be certified. certification. is rare singly: see the cpds CONCERN and DISCERN. uncertainty—incertain. adopted by ME and confirmed by E. Ascertain derives from MF ascertainer. perh via MF-F. sure’. certify. certainty. determined. excrement. LL certiorāre. hence to distinguish or discern. certificatory derives from ML certificātōrius. by way of VL *incertānus.—Akin to Lderived concern. to establish (one) in faith. 462 cern . it soon became also ‘decided. incertitude.and often enlarged to *krein-. ML to make certain. of which the adj certus may be a metathesis. . to inform (legally). is short for certiorāri volumus. The obs incertain. to make). OF-F certain has derivative MF-EF certaineté.

adj hence n. para 2. sem. aphetically from L sēcessus. cesspit . Cf the element cervici-. For the 2nd element. EW.. a peat bog. See CEASE. to sigh. a corruption of obs suspiral.P. to breathe. the brain. to sigh. a privy. from OF-MF suspiral. (but. of the neck: adj -al tacked to cervic-.A-Z 463 cervical . cess derives either from cess. from L suspirdre. OED. a place of retirement. . Singhalese or Sinhalese or Cingalese.) Ceylon . cf si bog. cervico-. the o/s of ML cervix. the earliest (C16) form being cesperalle. cession . the neck. cessation . see PIT (hole) and POOL.o. a privy). Webster. a privy. hence adj (whence n) Ceylonese (suffix -ese). perh akin to L cerebrum. L ceruix. E. from OF-MF s(o)uspirer (EF-F soupirer). See CEDE. (Resp. MF souspirail (EF-F soupirail). suggested by cesspool. or from It cesso. or.o. o.

MHG kaf. It is. the Hi name. husks of grain. chafe . para 2. and D kaf.D. akin to G Kaff. to make fun of. to be warm): cf CALDRON and. v hence n: ME chaufen. cha . f. to warm. (Kluge.a. we get Ceylon. has late EF-F agent chauffeur. Hence chafing-dish or -pan—cf DISH and PAN. straw cut fine. MHG këve.)=national -ese tacked onto Sinhala. hence n: from CHAFE. to mix with chaff. F chauffer. via F Ceylan.) chaff (2)..e. phonetically and graphically influenced by chaff (1). contr of L calefacere. to make (facere) warm (calēre. very prob akin to OHG cheva. 2. that. the Aryan conquerors (C5 A. n. a lion). a husk. to warm or heat: OF-MF chaufer (EF-F chauffer): VL *calefāre.Origins 464 Sinhalese (etc. CALORIC. to cut for straw). MD caf. chaff (1). The bird chaffinch is a FINCH addicted to chaff: and chaff derives from OE ceaf. however. -pan . perh in its derivative use as a v (chaff. chaffinch. See TEA. lit and orig a stoker. from Silān (pron see-lahn).). hence the native population: and Sinhala derives from Skt Simhala (? from simha. the conquerors’ name for the island. chafing-dish.

anxiety. a net..A-Z . OFris and OS grimm. 3. untanned leather. o.: perh of Etruscan origin. adj and v. say B & W. para 6. to chain together. whence E chain.) chain .o. with the int prefix cha. G grimm. OS gram. s. the change from sa. vexation: adopted from EF-F. LL catēnula. perh akin to L cassis. whence concatenation. LL has the prefix-cpd concatēnāre. The adj chagrin is. The following derivatives concern E: catēnārius.o. The F n chagrin derives imm from the MF-F adj chagrin. for cf OHG-G gram. enchain. whence catenary (suffix -ary) and catenarian. enchained. fierce: cf GRIM. cf the E ker-. hostile. With cha-. See CHAFE.o. catenation— concatenate. OHG gram would account for OF-MF graim. account for the MF-F adj chagrin. whence catenation.to cha-. o. catēnātiō. and cassis. prob to the 1st chagrin. . The -n is prob due to that of OF-F grain. concatenation. Indeed.: perh of Gmc origin. and this OF-MF grain would. 1. L catēna becomes OF-MF chaeine (EF-F chaîne).0. a chain. whence. a little chain. catena. catenarian. angry. grief. 465 chagrin (1). whence E ‘to chagrin’. 0.f.0. the adj catenulate. all akin to OE-E grim. whence ME chayne (or cheyne). grain. o/s concatēnātiōn-. 2. with pp concatēnātus. var ca-. whence ‘to concatenate’. adj. adj and n.(as in ‘se chamailler’. catenary. OE gram. The starting-point is L catēna. ON grimmr. n and v. with final syllable (? rather suffix) the same as that in the rare L sacena. whence ‘to chain’. catenate. whence catenate. with subsidiary concatēnātiō. grieved. usu spelt shagreen: EF sagrin. whence also the late MF-F v chagriner. (Dauzat. irritated.o. a helmet. as in kerwallop. ON gramr. chagrin (2). F chagrin: Tu . OHG-MHG grim. catēnātus. o/s catēnātiōn-. as Dauzat proposes. to quarrel noisily). anl.

Cf CHALK. four-legged. (B & W. sep. to sit. See prec. Gr hedra. from OF en. 2. which becomes ME chaiere (var chaere). OF-MF chaiere has Central F (MF) var chaeze. chay is a b/f from E chaise apprehended as pl. stone [as in caillou. and the secondary ML adj cathedrāticus. ‘To enchain’ derives from OF-F enchaîner. a backed. element -hedral.v. hence dignity. ML professor’s chair. prob from a pre-L Medit tongue.Origins 466 4. whence E legal cathedratic. cathedratic. in. q. as in ‘to speak ex cathedra’. para 3. LL bishop’s chair. ult. 3. cathedral (adj and n). as from—or as if from—a professor’s chair. See element chalcedo-. chalcedony . down (cf the prefix cata-). a pulpit). whence EF-F chaise. chaise . a pebble]': Dauzat. hence with authority. 1. (ex) cathedra. a shelter. -hedron. dim (cf the suffix -et) of *cala. whence E chair. and.) The original sense must have been “shelter of stone”: from r *cal-. to form kathedra. derivative MF-F enchaîncment leads to E enchainment. combines with kata. E SIT). a seat (cf Gr hezesthai. partly adopted by E in its specialized ‘carriage’ sense. chaise (tongue) and chay. often two-armed seat. L cathedra has LL-ML adj cathedrālis—see sep CATHEDRAL. n hence v. to+OF chaener (from L catēnare). whence L cathedra. which adopts it in C1 8 from Swiss chalet. chair . chalet is adopted from F. . L cathedra becomes OF-MF chaiere (whence F chaire.

var chalongier. para 4. pebble. from Gr khalix. ‘To challenge’. challenge .and *khil-. s. See HOMO.. itself from L calx (o/s calc-). etc. chalk derives from OE cealc. stone. ME chalengen. adopted by ME. often weakened to *kal-.a. with IE r *khal-.A-Z 467 chalice : ME chalis: Central MF chalice (cf OF-MF calice): L calix (o/s calic-). varr *khel.a.. chameleon . akin to L calyx: f. CALYX. . CALUMNIATE. whence the pa challenging and the agent challenger. From OF chalengier derives OF chalenge.f.e. an accusation. n—and v. limestone. to claim. chamber . chamberlain.e. para 3. from L calumniāri. chalk. to accuse. See CAMERA. cf CHALET. to accuse falsely: f. The adj is chalky.. a cup. comes from the syn OF-EF chalengier. whence E challenge. a claim.

acc camōcem: of Alpine origin.Origins 468 chamfer . See: chamois . by eased pron. from L frangere (cf FRACTION). whence. to squeeze. to bite vigorously and noisily: earlier. edge (cf the 1st CANT)+fraindre. a cpd of OFF chant. chammy or shammy (chamois leather): OF-F chamois: LL camōx. n hence v: alteration of F chanfrein. para 6. chammy . to break. also cham. from chanfraindre. prob echoic—cf JAM. champaign . champagne . earlier chanfraint. See CAMP. champ .

whence the adj chancrous. See CAMP. See CADENCE. See CANCEL. chance . para 8. chancre . chancel . para 7. See CAMP. n and v. para 6. para 5. 469 champignon . See CAMP.f. chancy . champion . See CANCER. para 4. chancellor. s. para 1. chancery. chancellery.A-Z .

etc. final sentence. See CADENCE. derives from MF-EF exchange. between). to bend. change (n and v). adopted by ME. (? by metathesis) cabmy. to change. para 5. bent. W. L inter. adj cambial. Malvezin poses PC *camb. prob Gaul: cf OIr camm or camb. and OF-F changer has derivative OF-F n change. cambium. changer. exchange. but changer derives from OF-F changeur. Interchangeable has at least been suggested by the MF-EF entrechangeable. and perh cf MIr cimb. and derivative OF-F adj changeable. interchange. last para. IT cam—Ga. LL cambiāre has derivative n cambium. which duly becomes E interchange. whence E cambial. 1. exchange (n. See CANDID. ME eschange (or -chaunge). changeable. is Prov cambi. itself from MF-EF v eschangier. 4. changeless. is app of C origin.. whence the AIr ‘gombeen man’. esp for an opening ‘exchange’ at chess. 2. esp to exchange. whence exchangeable. The LL cambiāre. and OF eschangier yields ‘to exchange’. 470 chandelier . chandler . Ir gaimbin. which becomes F gambit. Changeless is an E formation. via ME entrechangen. from VL *excambiāre (ex. n. MF-EF entrechangier has derivative MF-EF n entrechange. statute. tribute. tribute. Mx cam—OBr camb. from MF-EF entrechangier (entre. an exchange. interest (on money). Ga càin. 3. likewise adopted. exchangeable. but presumably from It cambio (from cambiare. crooked’. v). 5. Exchange. Br kam—all meaning ‘bent. See CANDID. adopted by E. to bend. whence the general sense ‘opening move’. money-lender. Cambiāre becomes OF-F changer. . cf Cor camma. adopted by E and sense-adapted by Bot. from LL cambiāre). EIr càin. whence ‘to change’. Akin to OF-F change. *cambos. gambit. the E ‘to interchange’. out of+ cambiāre). with basic idea ‘to turn’. an exchange. whence. cambium has adj cambiālis. 6.Origins .

chaos . gas (n whence v). chasmic. chant . para 3. ‘invented’ early in C17 by chemist Van Helmont. to make. chanticleer: ME Chaunticlere or Chauntecler: MF Chantecler. 1. khaos: ‘Halitum illud gas vocavi. the cock in the C13 Roman de Renart. Cf CLEAR and the 2nd CANT. chaotic. with obvious cpds gasbag. chasmal. n +combiner -i-+-fy. See the 2nd CANT. Gas. he sings clearly. gassy=gas+euphonic s+adj -y. (B & W. etc. which= gas. gasometer. was suggested by L chaos or its Gr source. a medieval epic about beasts: il chante cler.) Gaseous= gas+adj suffix eous. non longe a chao veterum’—as Van Helmont himself states. perh owes something to F gazéifier. chantier . . chasmy. See CANAL. See GANTRY. chasm.—with adjj gaseous and gassy—and v gasify.A-Z 471 channel . gasify. para 1. n and v. gasoline (or -ene).

which derives it. the IE r is app *kha. is anl with. adopted by Med for excessive yawning: whence E chasm. ME chappen.or *ghe-. an evergreen oak. whence MF-F and E chaos. e. with its adjj formed with -al. the dim of Biscayan abarra. to chop. . Orig. chapbooks were sold by chapmen. a trader or dealer. chap (2). (later) to cause to crack or split.Origins 472 2. a gaping abyss. 3. -ic. See CHOP. CHEAP. with pa chapped. CHOP. orig of evergreen oaks. from being ‘the atmosphere’ and ‘unformed matter’. as in ‘chapped hands’: f. with varr *gha. of E formation. a man’. with basic meaning ‘to gape’. becomes ‘vast chasm’.e. an oak.. a dense thicket. which. by n-suffix -al. lit ‘trade (or market) man’: f. coll for ‘a fellow. Of Gr khasma. as in Gr khaos. is short for chapman. to cut (wood).. erotic and hypnotic. etc. chap (3).a.a. a vast cleft in the earth: whence L chasma. Gr khaos becomes L chaos.e.or *khe-. an evergreen oak.or *ghau-. jaw.g.. itself from Biscayan dial zabarra. derives from ‘to chap’. a blain. the r is kha-. from OE cēapman. Intimately akin to Gr khaos is Gr khasma. as of Gr khaos. often in extended forms *khau. is adopted from Sp. -y. chap (1). The adj chaotic. hence ‘empty space’.. from Sp chaparro. from syn chaparra. etc. chaparral . later an itinerant dealer.

a.f. often (esp of a woman) anglicized as chaperone. although prob deriving from the E n.. chapel . an escort to a (young) woman: from OF-F chape.a. as protection. one who officiates in a capella or chapel.. para 2.e. CAP. orig and prop for the head. esp para 2.A-Z 473 chapbook . a cap. hat or garland.e. itself from F chaperon. CAP. s. See the 2nd CHAP. represents OF-F chapelet.. a mantle or a churchman’s cope. then. owes something to the OF-F chaperonner. itself a dim of OF-F chape. a chapel (itself from ML capella)+suffix -ain (L -ānus): f. orig a (males’ and females’) hood covering the Middle Age’d head and neck. or OF-MF chapele (EF-F chapelle). . See CAP. from LL cappa: f. Cf: chaplain . from LL cappa: f. is adopted from OF-F chaperon. a garland. ‘To chaperon(e)’.e. CAP. chaperon . Cf CHAPERON and CHAPLAIN.a. Cf prec and: chaplet . OF-F chapelain: either the ML capelānus. dim of OF chapel. a mantle.

chaps is a coll shortening of Mexican Sp chaparajos (or -ejos). f. but now. then.. a turn. head..g. earliest a turn or recurrence: ME char. hence the section itself: dim of L caput. earlier cherre: OE cerr. 2. See the 2nd CHAP. Chare. both n and v. one who does the chars. CHIEF. From the reading of a chapter. esp of work. 1. job. cowboys’ leather separate trouser-legs. cyrr. canons of a cathedral. so called ‘because they protect the legs against chaparros or chaparrals’ (Santamaria)—i. .a. jaw. is a var of chare. from cerran. rare for chares or chores. occasion. chapitre.. from MF-F. a single or odd. predominant every-where—except in charwoman. or chaparreras. has var chore. o/s capit-: cf CAPITAL and. cyrr an. char (1). a body of. esp household. earlier a turn of work.e. esp of the Bible. e. to turn.Origins 474 chapman . Char. comes chapter. worn over ordinary trousers. esp as n. Short for charwoman. whence ‘to chare’. n. at the beginning of all formal meetings of persons in religious orders. chaps (of face).—In AE. title at head of a section. OF chapitle: L capitulum.e. orig mainly AE. chapter : ME. See CHOP. against dense thickets or thorny shrubs. Cf CHAPARRAL above.

to characterize. for cf Eg kha. to reduce to charcoal. žeriù (r žer-). Gr kharaktēr has derivatives the adj kharaktēristikos (an extension of kharaktērikos. or *ghar-. the 1st element being that of CHAR (1) in its orig sense ‘to turn’. A character. hence a symbol. characteristic. IE r. comes. (hence also) to burn superficially: b/f from charcoal. adj hence n. si. whence ‘to characterize’ (-ize)—whence kharaktērismos. characterize. hence a graphic symbol. hence to cut into grooves. var *kher-. to cut (often in extension kars-): perh of Medit pre-Gr stock. perh also the synn kheti and . from kharassein (? for kharaksein). to scratch or scrape. n hence v. See TEA.A-Z 475 char (2). a sign. adopted from F. to cut: cf Lith žerti. para 2. trln of Gr kharaktēr. hence to engrave. whence E characteristic—kharaktērizein. to engrave. charade . to carve or engrave. r kharak-. 1. hence ‘to convert’. from L character. whence E characterism (-ism). 2. whence the obsol characterical). from charra. representation by symbols. *khar-. a brand or stamp. to scratch. conversation. . to sharpen. and the freq žarstýti. lit ‘(wood) turned to coal’. to chatter. to scratch often: perh cf the Hit r kar-. (later) charade. character . char (3). to chatter or gossip: echoic—cf the syn It ciarlare. var *gher-. a marking instru-ment. hence an attribute. whence characterization. through ME caracter and MF caractere (F -ère). derives from Prov charrado.

cf whore. comes from ON hordomr. 1. See CAR. *kar-. and to Go hōrs. adulterer. See 1st CHAR. chare . para 5. para 4. On the Gmc side. See CAR. from L caritās. charity. sep cherish. akin to Skt . ME hordom. hence also the adj whorish. dear. comes from ON hōra. The n whore. whoredom (cf -dom). charge . Charitable. chariot . and to several words in the C and Sl languages. charger. OE hōre. See the 2nd CHAR. lovable. IE r. ME hore. akin to OHG huora (G Hure). . 2. n hence v (cf ON hōra). n and v. beloved. derives from OF-F charité (whence E charity). o/s caritāt-. n and v. charitable . adopted from OF-F.Origins 476 charcoal . itself from carus.

from LL carmināre. to bewitch. HEN. (later) attraction. The latter derives from EF-F charlatanerie (cf It ciarlataneria). to chatter—of ciarratano. the first such cheapjacks (etc.—Cf the 2nd CANT and. to sing. hence to attract strongly. para 5. near Spoleto in Umbria. ‘A charm’ derives from the OF n. charlatan. from canere (s can-). as in B & W. itself (prob not. Prati. itself from L carmen.) Charles . charlatanry. cum dentist. -ry) derivative of EF-F charlatan. See CARNAGE. plying his trade in the streets’. n and v. incantation. but) from OF-F charme. (B & W. MF charmeor) and charming (cf F charmant). app for *canmen (suffix -men). whence charmer (cf EF-F charmeur. (orig) to enchant with magic. an -erie (E -ery. chant. attractiveness. ‘To charm’ derives from OF-F charmer. orig a magical formula. to sing and play. channel . charm . var of cerratano. there long existed the intermediate sense Vendor of medicines and salves. orig an inhabitant of the village of Cerreto. . to sing.) coming from Cerreto. prob an easement—? influenced by ciarlare. See CHURL. esp a magical incantation. on Gmc side. cum juggler. itself from It ciarlatano.A-Z 477 charlatan .

n and v. See id. chart . See the 1st CHAR. chartulary . . Chartist See id. para 7. para 8.Origins 478 charqui . charwoman . para 8. n hence v. ibid. Chartism . See 2nd CARD. charter . See the 2nd CARD. See JERKEE.

para 2. See CASTE. para 2. See CHAOS. See the 2nd CASE. n and v. para 2. chase (2). See the 2nd CASE. para 5. chasm . . chase (1). a pursuit. v and n: to pursue. para 2. chassis . chaste . in jewellery.A-Z 479 chary . See CATCH. See CARE. para 6.

chasuble . ME chateren. chastise . derives from ‘to chat’. orig to chatter. whence the n chatter. para 4. chat. See id. See CASSOCK. ‘To chatter’ (whence chatterer). chastity . n. derives from the v chatter. chatterbox=one who is a box of chatter. château . chit-chat is a redup of chat. n. is echoic. See id. See id. para 2. ibid. chat . chastisement.Origins 480 chasten .

See CASTLE. chaw . See CHEW. there may also. to be bald. E -ism). chauffeur . . para 2. See CHAFE. derives from F chauvinisme (suffix -isme. chay . from F chauvin. by the playwright brothers Cogniard: an -in derivative of OF-F chauve. have been a Nicolas Chauvin (of Rochefort). by the late 1820’s. See CHAIR. chawbacon. so demon-stratively Napoleonist as to be ridiculed by his comrades. orig a naīvely enthusiastic celebrator and eulogist of Napoleon Bonaparte. chatelaine. the Napoleonic veterans tending. in the fact as in legend. para 3. 481 chattel . chauvinism. See CHAT. a type popularized by draughtsman Charlet and then. para 4. chatter . esp as soldier. bald. exaggerated patriotism. See CATTLE.A-Z . in 1831.

cheat . whence—chess being. deriving. controls. to acquire. by etym. Cheapness=cheap. cf also Gr ktáomai. check-mate. to buy. derives from ME cheapien. a . from L caupō. hence an alternating black and white (element of a) pattern: MF eschequier (OF eschaquier). a price. ktēma. there were many shops. a trader. Eschequier becomes ME escheker. 2. v. in short a cheap or market. chequer. check . a bargain(ing). dealing -usu itinerantly—in cheap goods. the king is dead (cf MATE. incl that of the banking cheque (F influence). an interj. ME chek mate. to trade. a possession. cheap-jack. orig an open square. a huckster. checkers (or chequers). perh akin to L cūpa. orig a chessboard. IE r. chequer’. chequered (or checkered). AE check: and a check.v. later a street. chapman. is aphetic for OF-MF eschec. ME chek. cheapen= obs ‘to cheap’. n hence v and further agent cheater and cheatery (suffix -ery): aphetic for escheat (q. a vat. Checkmate (n. adj+the suffix -ness. varr *kha-. and . chessboard. where. warning one’s opponent that he is in a dangerous position. from Per shāh. like OHG koupo. *khai-. exchequer. itself from OE cēap. power. chequered. cheapen. and cheap. to sell. an innkeeper. *khe. from OF-MF eschec (OF eschac): hence ‘to checker. Checkers. to buy. itself from Ar al-shāh māt. para 7) in specific sense ‘act of confiscation’. shah. anything acquired. from OE cēapian. 1. v). E Shah—akin to Skt he possesses. Cheapside. hence (extant in PINn) a market. derives from OF-MF eschec (et) mat. Cheapside. chess. n hence v. ‘To check’. cheapness. rule. a sale or a bargain. chequers is the pl of checker. a trading. king—whence obviously the title Shāh. via Ar. results naturally from the chess term check. whence v). I acquire. sep chap. cheque.Origins 482 cheap (adj and n). A cheapjack is a Jack. orig at chess. whence flow all the other ‘hindrance’ senses. orig a square on a chessboard. trade (in)+v suffix -en. pasha—and satrap. rules. in London. var of eschac which comes. fellow. The OE n cēap becomes the now obs cheap. at CADENCE. whence the pa checkered.or *khei-.

he protects: cf FUR. Checkers. in its E form bashaw. Per shāh becomes Tu pāshā. power. cēoce. made orig at Cheddar in Somersetshire. 4. satrap (governor of a province). . cheerio and cheero. lit ‘protector of the (royal) power’: 1st element akin to Skt . are obsol. however. D kaak. cheep . Somewhat remotely akin is satrap: perh via MF-F satrape: L satrapes: Gr satrapēs: OPer shathrapāvan. akin to OE cēod. prop the pl of échec (from eschec). (later) governmental. the acc pl of eschec (para 1): cf F échecs.o. in ref either to Cheddar Gorge or to the caverns. whence the anglicized title Pasha. through ME ches. a pouch. o. chess. cheer . 5. cheek . from OF-MF esches. n hence v and the adjj cheerful (-ful) and cheerless (-less) and cheery (-y). the game of draughts. dominion (cf para 1). n. chess. comes. a kingly matter—the Exchequer or royal. treasury. akin to MD cake. both the merely graphic E var pacha and the phonetic Tu var bāshā. See CHIRP. Cheddar is short for the very common Cheddar cheese. 3. England: OE Ceoder. hence the coll n (impudence) and v (speak impudently to)—cf the coll uses of lip and jaw—and the coll adj cheeky (impudent): ME cheke. cheoke: OE cēace.A-Z 483 royal game. 2nd element to Skt pātē. is doubly derivative.o.

and L cerebrum. note). caseo-. esp ‘good food and drink (good cheer). brain—cf CEREBRAL. chemist. orig a stained or painted calico imported by Europe from India. chef . face. from OE cēse (var ). chef-d'œuvre. alchemic. alchemist. now a printed. 1. face. head. the -o is perh the brisk. 2. E chint. WHEY. Cheese derives. brightly marked. The sem development is: ‘face’—‘express sion of face’—‘glad or happy expression’—the mood ‘gaiety’ or ‘gladness’ accompanying or causing that expression—the cause of the gaiety. in both. spotted. r cas-): f.—caseic. adj)—casein (case-+Chem -in)—caseous (case+-ous). entertainment. alcbemistic. and fuse. that spotted quadruped the cheetah. aa toast. All three spring from Skt citra (chitra). cheerio!= cheery (times)+hello. coll -o occurring in ‘all-aliveo’ or an ‘eased’ form of ho!. shortened to chit (black ink on white paper). see FOUND. OHG kāsi—from L cāseus (s case-.. chit (document. L cāseus yields caseic (s case-+-ic. good cheer.Origins 484 Prob cheero!= (good) cheer+hello. casein. alchemical. head. through ME chese. variegated. I pour. to melt. face (later chère): LL cara: Gr kara. chemism. for it yields (1) Hi cītā. Cheer derives from ME chere. (2) Hi chīnt. cheese . etc. whence cheesemonger (see MONGER) . para 6. pi chints. cheetah . See CHIEF. caseous. IE r . ‘cheesed off'. chemical. (later) smelt (metals).e. cotton cloth. alchemy. The base is Gr kheō-. however. fusion. kindly encouragement or consolation. etc. cast (statues).. altered to chintz. chintz. itself—like G Käse. 1. E chitty.a. akin to Gr kephalē. welcome. marked. foundry. chemistry.’—‘a shout expressing joy or warm approval’. often glazed. cf bungho !. adopted from MF chere (OF chiere).—For found. (3) Hi (Mahratti chittī). cf the element casei-. let flow.

The last is a si. whereas the Gr past s (in aorist and pp) is khu-. with perh some impulse from the LGr adj khēmeutikos. as Malvezin proposes. from LL camīsa). tunic. to the obs chemic and its surviving extn chemical. smock. whence ML alchimia. in LGr. usu in exten-ded form *kamas-. But E camise. s. perh passed through the derivative Ar qamiş. var camīsia.(*kheu-). to pour. camiza. by aphesis. most prob. to pour. to melt). a shirt. chemism (-ism) app blends E chemistry and F chimisme. juice of a plant. whence MF alquimie. G Hemd). a kind of outer garment. camisole. an infusion. 2. dim of OProv camisa. with elaboration alchemical. often. a woollen shirt. the L past s is fu-. whence MF alquemiste (EF-F alchimiste). to cover (the body). as in khuma. whence E ‘to fuse’ (see FOUND.A-Z 485 *gheu. from LGr kamision. Gr khumos. later. whence prob (though cf the obs alchemistry. with varr alkimie and alkemie. var kamason. itself prob either through C from Gmc *kamītya (cf OHG hemidi. whence E alchemy. from obs incamiciata. whence EF-F camisade. syn of alchemy) chemistry. shirt. 3. whence E alchemist. alchemist likewise leads to chemist. hence to shape by melting.(*kheud-). has derivative khumcia. is presumably a borrowing. then coll. chemise . Cor cams. Chemise. a juice. Cf SHAME. whence the AT al-kīmiyā' (where al is prop the article ‘the’). The ML alchimia has adj alchimicus. camise. W camse. kamis-: cf (Walshe) the Skt samulydm. LL camīsia becomes It camicia. with extension *gheud. ‘familiarization’ of the first: cf chemmy for the game chemin-de-fer. whence E ‘to found’ (see FOUND. as in pp fūsus. and khumos. -quemie. ‘shimmy’. nasalized in L fundere. and agent alchymista. cf Ir caimis. cited by Sophocles.f.) 2. comes from LL camīsa. derived from OPr camisola. has. 3. adopted by E. however. priest’s alb (cf Br kamps). Alchemic(al) leads. however. hence Prov * camisade. adopted from OF-F. para 1. a night attack by soldiers wearing shirts as means of recognition. shift. camisade. their mixing). from LL camīsia. to melt). It camicia has derivative camiciata. a fluid. OIr caimmse. or from C (whence the OHG ?). with PC r *cam-. with dim camiciola. or. 1. whence E alchemic. in form khēmeia. (The Ar qmits. smock. ? a smock: all. adopted by E for ‘a night attack’. whence EF-F camisole (by B & W. the adj alchemistic coming from ML alchymisticus. tunic. from an IE r *kam-. the extracting of medicinal juices (and. chemist .

from VL *ceresia. cherissons. A caress derives from EF-F caresse. ‘cherry-colour(ed)’. whence ‘to caress’: and F caresser derives from It carezzare. Cherishment comes. chequered . Caressing. from OF-MF cherir (esp in such forms as cherissant. from caro. cigar. cherissent).e. caress (n and v). cf charitable (sep). derive by -ing (adj) and -ive from ‘to caress\ cheroot : Tamil . dear to one: f. a curl. caressive. caressing (adj and n). cherishment. cerise. para 3. See CHECK. itself from the late MF-F v caresser.a. CHARITABLE. The latter.. from L cārus. . para 1.Origins . from . from cher. a cherry. cherish . the written form of . See CHEMICAL. 486 cheque . See CHECK. 2. cherry . para 2. orig a curl. chemistry. derives from OF-F cerise. caressive. straight from cherish. by suffix -ment. 1. from L cārus.

cherub . from VL *ceresia. adj). cpd of khairein (s khair-). the reverse is more likely. app mistaken for a pi. var of kerasion. a leaf (cf L folium. para 2. The place Kerasos in Pontus (Asia Minor) might have given its name to the tree and its fruit. to rejoice+phullon. para 3. trln of Gr khairephullon. derives from ONF cherise. and cherry. the fruit. Hence cherubic (-ic. cornel tree. shrewd f/e for chaerephyllum. H pi): H kěrūbh. See CIST. a cherry. para 2. Chester . prob a loanword (? Phrygian) from Asia Minor (Hofmann). . pi cherubim (-im. ME chery.A-Z 487 from Gr kerasia. from Gr kerasos. chess . chest . The Gr kerasos is prob akin to Gr kranos. See CHECK. chervil : OE cerfille: L caerefolium. an aromatic herb culinarily desirable. a cherry tree. See CASTLE. E folio).

chestnut grove (cf the suffix -etum). castañeta becomes EFF castagnette becomes E Castanet. earlier chesteine. from L capra. prob a loan-word from Asia Minor (cf CHERRY): cf Arm kaskeni. chestnut tree. earlier chesten nut. a chestnut. a chestnut. a paired percussion instrument named from its resemblance to a pair of chestnuts. from rafter-like bands on a blazon.Origins 488 chestnut and ‘chestnut’. from OF-MF chastaigne (EF-F châtaigne). chevron : OF-F chevron. chevalier . chestnut. from *capriōnem. CAB. 2. orig a after. a she-goat (f. the -on being partly due to that of OProv cabrion.e. var of kastanon. a chestnut. derves from ME chesten. from L castanea.a. ‘Chestnut’. an old joke or story. acc of VL *capriō. from kask. See FRISIAN. para 6. a small galloon worn as a badge of rank: an -on derivative from OF-MF chevre (F chèvre). (B & W.) . See CAVALCADE. then. para 3). from castaña. 1.. Castanet. from L capra. chevaux-de-frise . earliest chasteine. which has influenced Sp castañeta. prob comes from roasted chestnuts eaten at thegiossipy fireside. L castanea has derivative castanētum. trln of Gr kastanea. from L castanea. para 2.

chawbacon. hence (coll) to harass or tease. orig painters’ si: either short for EF-F chicane or id with C17–18 chic. akin to the syn OHG kiuwan. chew . a rustic. from chicaner. coll chivy. obscure. in nuance ‘to arrange to one’s advantage’. the gum. D kauwen. chic . a setting crosswise. n hence adj: F. MD keuwen or couwen. in the Cheviot Hills of the English-Scottish border. to arrange.A-Z 489 chevy . usu chivvy. and prob to L gingīua. (B & W. chaw (v hence n). v hence n. chiaroscuro . Chaw is a var of chew. from the EE ballad of Chevy Chase—for Cheviot Chase. app from MLG-G schicken (cf ON skikka).) The E chicanery represents late MF-F chicanerie. to pursue. Chicane derives from Villon’s chicaner. earlier a hunting cry. It chiaro. legal trickery. chawbacon. a chase or pursuit. chiasmus : Gr khiasmos. from this habit. . to quibble. to mark with a khi: χ. clear+oscuro. from khiazein. derives from chevy (coll chivvy). ‘To chew’ descends from OE cēowan.

chicane . chickweed. Brit. akin to . chick pea . chick. chicken .). See CICERO. See CHICKEN. See CHIC. perh Ojibwa she-kag-ong. ‘wild-onion place’ (Ency. Chick is app a b/f from chicken: and chicken derives from OE cicen or cycen.Origins 490 Chicago city : Chicago river: Amerind. chicanery. chickadee (NAm bird): from its note. chick . para 3.

Kücken). to MD cuken. cad. mischievous. kikhoreia.). chickweed . cadet. handkerchief. by metathesis for MF cichorée: ML cichorea: L cichoreum (or -ium): Gr kikhora. Chickweed (cf WEED) has foliage and seeds enjoyed by birds (Webster). kieken (D kieken. succory. n hence adj. Chicory represents MF-F chicorée.o. See CHICKEN. cattle. and to ON kiuklingr—also to COCK (bird)..A-Z 491 the rare MHG küchelîn (G Küchlein. o. to slay (not to occidere. and chieftain. whence E succory. to succumb). 2. para 3. chide : OE cīdan (s cīd-). chefd’œuvre. cape (headland). capital. kerchief.o. chickpea .—achieve (etc. perh related to the -cīdere (s -cīd-) of L occīdere. mischief. chicory . chief . .o. kikhōrē: o. captain. kuiken). chef. ML cchorea became MD silkerie and MLG suckerie: whence EE sycory (var cicoree). See CICERO.o.

whence ‘to decapitate’. and in chef-d’œuvre. 9. ME cover chef.and *khap-. occipital. head.e. precipitation. is adopted in the forms chef.g. Handker-chief simply adds HAND.Origins 492 chapter. a clan). ‘master(piece) of work’. perh via F. 3. acquires E adj sincipital. and to OE hēafod. earlier chevetayn. whence E precipitous. whence E mischievous. 2. has pp dēcapitātus. of WI Amerind origin. with presp praecipitans. 5. whence E decapitation. becomes the An n biceps. misfortune. ME cheftayne. with varr *khab. from ML capitānus (var -āneus): cf CAPTAIN. has o/s occipit-. whence EF-F précipice. chief. unfortunate. sinciput. ME meschef. o/s decapitation-. o/s praecipitātiōn-. mischief. Kerchief. elliptical for chef de cuisine. 7. (hence) causing misfortune. 8. surviving in E chieftain. in the sense ‘person at the head’ (of. whence. half+caput).): sep. . be unfortunate: mes-(cf E mis-) from L minus.and is akin to Skt kapālam. Also on the adj o/s praecipit. precipitative is an E formation: precipitation+-ive. whence E occipital. whence the adj (whence the n and the v) precipitate. derives from OF-EF meschef. from OF-MF meschever. two-headed. the basic idea would be ‘vessel’ (Webster). praeceps (whence praecipitdre). in AF. headlong. adopted by An. 6. ON höfuth. e. off from+o/s capit-+inf suffix). and ML derivative n dēcapitātiō-. f -euse. and LL agential praedpitdtor. to behead. therefore. masterpiece. Biceps. adopted by ME and. later ‘person at the head’. precipitance. with subsidiaries praecipitatiō. derives from OF-F couvrechef. chief. If L capere (s cap-) be akin (then cf HEAVE). Through F have come chef. Occiput (ob-+caput). all treated sep. lit a cover-head (cf COVER). OHG houbit (G Haupt). akin to OE hafud. with their subsidiaries. LL dēcapitāre (de-. L caput (orig kaput. a two-headed (i. occiput. precipitate (adj. less+chef. hence n and v). 4. whence praccipitium (b/f from the neupl praecipitia of the adj).—biceps. decapitate. etc. has o/s praecipit-. precipitant. 1. with head before.arises the v praecipitāre. derives from OF-MF chevetain. OF chef has var chief. precipice.—head (behead. kerchief. decapitation. dēcapitāre. whence (suffix -cy) precipitancy. whence E precipice. before+c/f of caput). whence the ML adj occipitālis. occiput. has s cap. gen capi). precipitous. orig ‘the head’. the adj meschevous. adopted by An. whence precipitator. OF-F chef. Praeceps (prae. meschief. with pp praecipitātus. whence the adj precipitant.. likewise sinciput (semi. o/s praecipitant-. The F n has obs adj précipiteux. chigger (or jigger) anglicizes chigoe (cf F chique). OF meschef has. would prob be *khaph-. Go haubith: the IE s. ill result.. adj. the head. LL capus. to fare badly. skull. The L derivatives affecting E are biceps. Mischief. precipitator. the E precipitation. -origined) muscle.

e. See CHILL.—chilly. pl children.a. See BLAIN. whence childhood (-hood). whence Childermas (2nd MASS). varr chilli.A-Z 493 chilblain .g. The late ME-EE sense ‘well-born youth’ survives in the archaic spelling childe. cildamaesse. chile: Nahuatl (Aztec) chilli. See CHILI. Childe Harold. chilli . Holy Innocents’ Day. (hence) womb. OE did has OE derivatives cildisc. . e. to be cold: cf COOL and. COLD. whence childish (ish. Sp chili. f. chile. n hence adj (also chilly) and v: ME chele: OE cele (cyle). belly. akin to Go kilthei. and Skt . adj). intimately akin to OE calan. womb. childhood. cildhād. child . Childermas. chill . childish.. childe. Child derives from OE did (pl cildru). chili .

retained by E: cf the OF var cymbale. chimera . L cymbalum issues into OE as cymbal. chimney : ME chimenee: OF-F cheminée. from kumbē. formerly chimaera. to be curved. earlier chimbe. IE r: *kumb-. flue for heating a room—akin to kamara. trln of Gr kaminos. kumbos. esp a hollow vessel. See CHIMERA. akin to Skt humbha. cimbe: L cymbalum: Gr kumbalon. ME chime. orig a room with a fireplace: LL camīnāta. now often chimerical. cimble. on the Gmc side. coll chimp. a pot. retained by F. hearth. HUMP. and. oven. chimpanzee . represents Kongo (Bu tribe. . S of the Congo) dial chimpenzi. para 3. kiln. Chime. a cymbal. chime . orig a cymbal.Origins 494 chimaera . furnace. cymbal. chimeric. a vault (cf CAMERA). See HIBERNACLE. furnace. anything hollow. from L camīnus. n hence v. derives from OF-MF chimble.

chin. . See CHINA. i. China ware. cheek. varr *khen-. and geneion. cheek. Chinese. cheek. See SHIN. chine . chin: cf OHG chinni. A native is a Chinese. adopted from Sp. jaw (G Kinn.). cf also L gena. chin)—OFris zin-. jaw: perh for *genathos. perh *khan-. OS kinni.) china is short for chinaware. para 3. Gr genus. ware of China: China. *khin-. from the Ch’in dynasty (255–206 B. backbone. chinchilla .A-Z 495 chin . jaw. n hence v: OE cin. chin.e. IE r. dim suffix (Webster): ‘strong little (animal)’. the cognate OIr gin. comes from Quechua sinchi. Chinee . and. from the n Chinese illiterately apprehended as pi only. mouth. from the adj Chinese (China+-ese). lower jaw. Go kinnus. comes the coll Chinee. strong+-lla. and Skt hánus. for sense-kinship. (Cf Gr gnathos. Cor genau.C. jaw—ON kinn.

(edible nut of) the dwarf chestnut of NA: of Alg origin—cf Virginian chechinkamin. tinny sound. hence his speech. See CHEETAH. The lit meaning is prob ‘great nut’—cf Delaware chinqua. (Mathews.Origins 496 chink (1).S. occ chinkapin. echoic. large+(with p for m) Alg min. sharp. a prison. to crack (open). to burst. nut.A. Go keinan. cf JINGLE. *ki-. derives from the jangling of fetters and great keys. the Chinook tribe’s name bestowed by adjacent Chehalis tribe. hence the trade-jargon of NW U. n and v. *kei-. chinquapin . to gape.W. to split or crack open. .) chintz . seed. and S. Canada: Tsinúk. fruit.) chink (2). a crack. (to make) a short. Chinook Indian. IE r. The si chink. (Walshe. a fissure. app derives from obs chine. itself from OE cinu—cf OE cīnan. The wind so named blows from the Chinook lands.

See the element -cheiria. and prob to ON kippa. chippy . hand. to pare or clip. Cf the elements -cheiria and -pod. v hence n (whence sl chippy. akin to MHG kippen. chiropody: chiro-. hence manual care of +pod-. G kippen. carpenter. to strike. chiropractic .A-Z 497 chip . o/s of Gr pous. chirograph . chipmunk . to snatch. chiromancy. a carpenter): OE cippian. chiropodist . ground squirrel: eased from earlier chitmunk: of Alg origin. foot. See CHIP. chirology.

chirurgeon . as in E dial chit. document. at PRACTICE. orig a cub or a whelp. derives from ‘cutting too close’. hence a child: app. to cheat. n hence v (whence chisel(l)er): ONF chisel (OF-MF cisel. at -cheiria+praxis. v hence n: echoic. adj of chiropraxis: element chiro-. See CHAT. v hence n: (? freq) chirrup. chit (1). MF-F ciseau): VL *cisellus. q. sense-influenced by kitten. See CHEETAH. on anl of martellus: L *caesellus.Origins 498 . chirp . note. instrument serving to caedere (pp caesus. q. chit (2).v. . s. a thinning of OF-F chat.f. a cat. a cat. s case-) or cut: cf ‘concise’. ME kitoun.v. chirurgic(al). chit-chat. The sl v chisel. chisel . as in the phon and sem var cheep. See SURGEON. v hence n.

of which it is app a distorted dim. tripe. See CAVALCADE. chlorine=chloros. see elements chloro. chivalrous. chivalric . smaller intestines of esp pigs: akin to G Kutteln. usu pl chitterlings. chlorophyll. Chloral=chlorine. pale-green (ult akin to YELLOW)+Chem suffix -ine. a block or wedge. . Hence chockfull. chloroform. identical with OF çoche (whence F souche). belly. and esp OE cwith. para 6. gut. from Gr khlōros. usu of wood. chloride=chlorine+ Chem suffix -ide. chivalry. MHG kutel. see element chloro-.+alcohol. chlorophyll. chloride. chock . akin to OHG stoc (G Stock) and therefore to E STOCK. chocolate : EF chocolate (F chocolat): Sp chocolate: Aztec chocólatl. log: Gaul *tsukka. Go qithus. chlorine (whence chlorinate).and -phyll. chloral . stomach. chloroform. prob derives from ONF choque. stump. womb.A-Z 499 chitterling . with f/e var chokefull.

choir or quire. chorus. see element choro-. Choir. MLG kāke.Origins 500 choice . chorister. to taste. and esp OE cēosan. or. to suffocate (someone). derivative as vi. . for earlier chorist. with song accompaniment: and khoros is either akin to Gr khortos. enjoyment. Gr geuesthai. through ME choken. a district. mouth—perhaps cf also OE cēace. dancing. Choice derives from ME chois. with specialized sense. and to Skt . Terpsichore. from OF-F choisir. from Go kausjan. a dancing-place. shows the influence of MF-F choriste and its source the ML chorista. to taste. from ML chorālis (L chorus+adj suffix -alis). a place. choral. with khoros. IE r. Gr Terpsikhorē. Chorus has. in order. blends terpsis. 2. sep. n hence adj. pp chosen. choose. by aphesis from OE ācēocian. MHG kiesen. to test or examine. MD cake (D kaak). hence a dance. joy. has come. adopted from OF-MF chois (EF-F choix). whence ME chesen or chosen. a ‘thinning’ of Gr khōros. ME quer (whence the archaic var quire). then to choose.—carol. less prob. orig to perceive. to taste. a courtyard (cf COURT). comes from MF cuer (EF-F choeur. ON kjōsa. gullet. all meaning both ‘jaw’ and ‘cheek’. chorography. the senses ‘choral dance’— ‘choir’—‘burden of a song’. v. cf G Chor). Muse of the Dance and of Choral Song. akin to OHG kiosan. whence n and the agent choker and adj chok(e)y. the E ‘to choose’: all akin to L gustāre. choke . pt chose. OS kiosan. from L chorus. adopted by E and F. The L trln is chorus. var cheken. 1. *keus-. ‘To choke’. with adj choral. whence Terpsichorean. an enclosed place. var kiusan. chorister. he enjoys. prob the int prefix a-+a v formed from the Gmc r occurring in ON kok. Terpsichore. .

chop (1). on anl of Gr kholerikos but from L cholera. choleric. whence ME coler. as EW points out. app influenced. L cholera became MF colere. See CHOICE. Med GALL.—Hence the agent chopper and the adj (of sea) choppy. or from both: f.. to chop: therefore cf: chop (2). cholera.g. the bile. var chap: app from ME chappen. var chappen. v hence n (e.e. choose . a mutton chop): to cut with repeated blows of esp an axe: ME choppen. the adj choleric derives from MF colerique (EF-F colé-) L cholericus. but its meaning from Gr kholera (whence the L word). chop . jaw. bile. prob from MD cappen (D and LG kappen). itself prob from either Gr kholē. a bilious disease. whence E choler.A-Z 501 choler . by Picard choper. E cholera derives its form from L cholera. gall. supposed by medieval physicians to be the source of irritability..a. or Gr kholos. var of OF-MF coper (EF-F couper) to cut.

chord (1). v hence n: to barter. See CORD. its impression.) choral . chopper . imprint. string. chop (4). chopstick : pidgin version of Ch name. stamp. (Y & B. which means lit ‘the speedy ones’—cf chop-chop. hence a licence or permit: Hind chāp. See CHOIR. choppy. n hence v: a seal. thin rope. var of cheapien.a. CHEAP. See CHOPSTICK. .f. to trade: f.Origins 502 (3)..e. See the 2nd CHOP. a pidgin mispron of the Cantonese version of a Pekinese word for ‘promptly’ or ‘speedily’. a brand. to exchange whether for money or in kind: ME chapien. chop-chop . s.

regional geography. chorography : via L from Gr khōrographia. in music. description of a district. See the 1st CHAR. .A-Z 503 chord (2). See elements choro. by Lewis Carroll: a blend of chuckle+snort. chortle was coined. chorister . chore . See CHOIR. See the element -chord. See CHOIR. district) and -graph. para 2.(place. 1872. chorus .

See CHOICE. e. a dish of mixed preserves orig Ch: elliptical for pidgin adj chowchow. christen. an anointing. from OE crisma. sl for ‘food’. chowder . See CALDRON. e. of unknown Ch origin. Chrism. IE r. chrismation. var kowe: OE cēo. hence consecration and a consecratory. chow . cretin. baptismal.Origins 504 chose . akin to OHG kāha and MD cauwe. Christmas. creamy. cretinism. 1. oil from seeds. D kauw: ? echoic. akin to Skt .—cream. criss-cross. from khriein (s khri-). as Chow. to rub. derives. trln of Gr khrisma. chrism .—Christ. an oil used therefor. he rubs or grinds. a breed of dog orig Ch: short for chowchow. mixed. chrismatory. Christian. chrismal. Christianity. consecrated oil. chosen. through ME crisme. para 2. cretinous. *ghreior . chough : ME choughe. itself from LL chrisma.g.g. to anoint. is also. archaic chrisom. garment (var chrisom).

whence E Christ. -masse. o/s chrismātiōn-. para 2. 4. becoming the E n chrismal. yielding E cream of milk (F crème). LL chrisma becomes OF cresme. from LGr khristianizein. in the diall of Valois and Savoy. itself from LL christiānus. Hence ‘to cream’ and the adj creamy. however. cretinous is. Gr khriein has pp khristos. etc. used as n. 5. the ML chrismātiō. however. whence LL Christus. A follower of Christ is LGr khristianos. chromatic .A-Z 505 ghri-. prop the neus of the adj chrismatōrius (whence the E adj). however. and crīstendōm (cf the suffix -dom). whence the Sci L chromium (suffix -iurn). orig syn with Christianity. akin to GRIND. adj then n—E Christian. LL christiānus becomes OF-MF chrestien (EF-F chrétien). n then adj—LL christiānus. This OE cristen has two notable derivatives. cramen. displacing ME and OE crīsten. chronic . The Anointed (One). note. becomes ME creme becomes E cream. whence E chrismal. itself from LL christiānitās (o/s christiānitāt-): christiānus. almost simultaneously (early in C16) n and adj. that the precise OF cresme. whence ME cristnian. christen. a Christian. Christmas. to rub. whence E ‘to christen’ (whence christening. The not imm obvious criss-cross (n hence adj and v) ‘eases’ the earlier Christcross: X for Gr χ (khi). whence Christendom. adj+abstract suffix -itās (E -ity). chrome. obs for ‘chrism’. the v crīstnian. later cristnen. Christian. becomes cretin. whence the LGr Khristos. incrustation)—perh rather vice-versa. 3. merely blends Christ+religious MASS: a C16 reshaping of ME Cristes maesse. LL chrisma has LL adj chrismālis. creamery owes something to F crèmerie. Christianize represents LL christiānizāre. later ME cristmaesse. only later pej’ (B & W). F dial cretin ‘was at first used in pity. the Ch of Christ. yields the n chrismatory. which. See the element -chroia. the neu chrismāle. of Gaul origin (? akin to W cram. whence F crétin. to make a Christian of. 2. yields chrismation. adj and n). Christ . the ML chrismatōrium. a congenital idiot (of the Alps). derivative F crétinisme becomes E cretinism. etc. cream. var craime. whence E cretin. has been blended with LL (C6: VL) crama. of E formation. See prec.

whence chronicler. khronios. with Med sense already recorded in LL. with cpd sunkhronizein (sun. Cf the element chrys(o). with n sense ‘time’. orig a university contemporary. chronicler. LL trln synchronus.o. prob via MF-F chronique. para 3.o. the ME cronicle. 1. The Gr adj is khronikos. synchronization. crony. simultaneously). a register or account of events. comes from Gr khrusallis. as if a dim. whence E synchronous. chub . chrysalis . See element anth-. See HOMO. Renaissance-shaped to chronicle. chronicle.. lit ‘the golden flower’. the E chronic. from khrusos.. The base rests on Gr khronos (s khron-). *gher-. with. whence.and: chrysanthemum . whence ‘to synchronize’. gold (Sem origin). 2. the corresp Gr adj is sunkhronos. but. The Gr v answering to khronos is khronizein. Gr khronos has another adj. chub means ‘log of wood’—therefore cf . chronometer. o. now crony. time. whence the L f sing chronica. whence synchronization. adopted from L. hence an intimate friend. age: IE r. in dial. chthonian . of time. whence. a squat fish: ME chubbe. synchronize. etc. see the element chrono-. esp taking or lasting a long time. whence ‘to chronicle’. The Gr neupl is khronika. whence E chrony. to wear out. L trln chronicus. together. whence MF cronique (later chronique). 3.Origins 506 .

A-Z 507 Nor kubbe. a log. s. and Nor kubben. See CAMERA. Sw kubb. redup chug-chug: echoic. chuckle . the sl chuck. has been influenced by the 1st CHUCK. chuck (1). to toss. chug . to tap (e. a hen. food.f. para 2. chuck (2). Hence the n and adj chummy. a dial var of chock or block of wood. ‘To chuck’ has freq ‘to chuckle’. to make a clucking noise. under the chin). hence the n chuck: perh from chuck. whence the n chuckle. s. which has certainly influenced dial chuck. stumpy (EDD). is echoic. whence the various SE (esp tech) senses. to throw.. .g. chum . Hence the adj chubby. See the 1st CHUCK.f. perh influenced by chick.

church . and Cor caur. . church-yard. derives from D kermis.or *keua. power. validity+the Chem suffix -ine or -in: a substance held to be ‘a basic protein nucleus’ (Webster). have mercy (upon us). from LGr kurikon. akin to Skt śūras. itself. from kurios. a hero. bold. chunk . (Walshe. n hence v. like OHG kirihha (G Kirche) and ON kirkia. log. for kercmis. kyrin(e). whence also the adj chunky. squat. Kyrie eleison. 5. perh (Hofmann) the Gr word derives from a Gr *kuros (s kur-). hence a fair-sized piece. orig a block of wood. churchwarden. to throw.Origins 508 chump . hence coll (cf blockhead) a dolt or stupid fellow. hence also a stumpy person or quadruped. Lord. The Chem kyrine. 1. power. giant. (house) of the Lord. var kermess. Church. cyrice. powerful. and si head: perh chunk+lump. perh of Medit stock. MD ker-misse. strong. the AE chunk. kercmesse. kyrin. king. Kermis. as EW suggests. The eccl Kyrie eleison is the LL trln of LGr Kurie eleeson. W cawr. stump. kirkja. The Sc kirk app owes something to ON kirkia (-ja). a semi-religious out-door festival. the 2nd element occurs in E ALMS. cpds self-explanatory by the 2nd element. The effectual base of all these words is Gr kurios. from kuros. derives from OE circe. represents Gr kuros. to be strong: cf Ir caur. as churchman. s kur-. lord. lit ‘Church mass’. for Gr kuriakon. kirk. the IE s would be *keur-. 6. power. kermess or kermis. the IE r *keu. whence.) 3. for cf Eg khu-t. a master. 4. 2. lord. influenced by the 2nd CHUCK. hero. ME chirche. powerful.

para 6. etc. chyle . See the 2nd FOUND. Charles. whence churl. from OE ceorlisc.. The ML form Carolus derives from G Karl. para 16. chyme. See GRAIN. . Charles. See CADENCE. The hist carl. churn . derives from ON karl. bondman. comes from MHG karl. both are akin to OE ceorl. whence ME cheorl (cherl). a man. para 10. a freeman. the PN Carl derives from G Karl. chute . (now usu) a boor. Carl. occ chutnee: Hi (pron ). with adj churlish. serf. chutney . n and v. the adj is Caroline—cf Carolina. lowestranked freeman. man. a freeman. peasant. adopted from F. f dim from Carolus. churlish.A-Z 509 churl . carl. ? from . to lick.

a scar. cicala. suggests that the PN Cicerō may derive from cicer. pi of cicātrīx. or by b/f from cicātrīces. from MF-F cicatrice. cicatrize derives. a small scar. chich. cicatrize. and Arm sisern (? s sis-).). The obs chich. the extant E term is chick-pea. earlier ciche.and is akin to OP keckers. cider .o. The L cicer. cicatrice . o. chick-pea. The latter is the It (and ML-VL) derivative of L cicāda. var of LLcicātrīcāre (from cicatrix.o. chick(-pea). or. chick-pea. Cicero . from MF sidre. derives. a guide: Cicero and ciceroni (It pl. derives from MF-F chiche. cicatrix.Origins 510 cicada . chick-pea. E. s keck-. the It form Cicerone (cf the F Cicéron) has derivative cicerone. most prob. the o/s of cicātrīx. Cicerō has adj cicerōniānus. pea. via ME sidre. from VL . Ciceronian.) 2. a chick-pea. whence Ciceronian. suggested by cicātrīc-. cìcerones) alike are talkative. has s cic. OF cisdre (EF-F cidre). The derivative ML cicerō. 3. by f/e from the earlier ciche pease. itself echoic: cf the equally echoic Gr syn tettix. from ML cicātrīzāre. 1. cicerone. dim of cicātrīx. (E & M. elliptical for pois chiche. perh via MF-F cicatriser. from L cicer. The first comes either from L cicātrīcula. rare var cyder.

an intoxicant. with adj svperciliosus. The falconry term seel.o. to encircle. Cinch. ME silen. comes from OF-MF siller. Cingere has pp cinctus (s cinct-). a girdle. var of OF-F ciller. before). girdled. from LGr (Septuagint) sikera. whence E sl shicker). from L cilium (pl cilia). from sik’. enceinte. to harness (a beast). hence to surround. cincture.A-Z 511 *cisera. shrine. to gird about (int in-). surrounded. Incingere has pp incinctus. 2. above). eyelash. hence pride. a belt or girdle. n hence v. girt. hut. whence E cinct. tight grip (hence prob also the cardgame cinch). cilium. a strong.o. The adj ciliary=L cili(um)+E -ary. he binds. akin to Gr kalia. to close (the eyes). borrowed from H shekar (whence shikkor. whence *kel-. to hide. from L cingere (s cing-). to hide. pregnant.. inch of sik’eh. eyelid. and Lith kinkýti. the IE r would be *khel-. as in L celāre. addicted to raising the eyebrows. tobacco. becoming E HELL and OHG hulla. from OF-F cil. 3. I hide. hence a firm. to tuck up. r cil-. envelope. and in *hel-. kāñcī. adopted from Sp cigarro. app akin to Skt kañcate. OIr celim. whence E supercilious. praecingere. cigarette. from LL sicera. esp if tight. cinct. The latter. 1. succint. 1. LL incincta. adopted from F cigarette (earliest cigaret). hence something easy to do. derives from the Sp cincha. earlier cigarro. Cingere has three cpds relevant to E: incingere. to gird from below. to gird from in front (prae. supercilious. cigar . to smoke. precinct. surcingle. becomes cincture (cf the F ceinture). the derivative L cinctūra. but perh (Webster) from Maya sik’ar. itself o. to puff. tipsy. is the dim of F cigare. barn. the adj ciliate derives from L ciliātus. succingere. seel. whence F enceinte (m . to gird. ciliary . adj and n. cinch . tingle. 2. shingles (disease). The Sci adj superciliary is anl to ciliary. girth. eyebrow (super. L cilium has cpd supercilium.

is prob elliptical for place. with sense. F cendres. enceinte. over. an acute skin disease. ashes. from LL cinus. held tightly in place. cinereous. is adopted from G (OHG sintar): and it answers to OE sinder. f dim suffix). incinerate. cinct . slag. hence a legally determined district. IE r.cf Gr kon-. cinder . the n enceinte. a girdle (cing-. 2. dross. 6. esp of a church. likewise adopted from MF-F. varr *kin-. a girth. 3. cinchona . o/s ciner-. Cinderella. Sinter. L cingulum has ML derivative cingulus. esp in pl cinders. Surcingle derives from MF surcengle: sur. now usu precincts. dross. Succingere has pp succinctus. OSI sedra. Cf: 4. ashes. derives from LL cendra. 5. OF-MF cengle (later sangle) yields E cingle. sinter. para 2. from L super. whence E precinct. . cincture. immediate environs of a cathedral. *ken-. L cinis. 4. the E Cinderella (-ella. Praecingere has pp praecinctus. var cindra. sing cendre. tucked-up. an enclosure. from L cingulum. gen cineris. s of konis. akin to ON sindr. or forteresse. girdle-area’d: whence E shingles. OE sinder yields E cinder. See QUININE. OF-F cendres has derivative Cendrillon of Perrault’s fairy tale (1697): whence sem. above+OF-MF cengle. and cinerārius. 1. *kon-. though phon from E cinder. hence compressed: whence the E succinct.Origins 512 enceint). has derivative adjj cinereus. a dead coal. dross of iron. adopted by E. incineration. para 2. incinerator. 7. where enceinte is the f of the pp of enceindre (L incingere). whence E cinereous. cinerary. See CINCH. s of cingere+suffix -ulum). whence E cinerary. with its s and r cin. dust. influenced by that of the independent F cendres. whence the ML praecinctum. from L cinis (gen cineris).

perh via MF-F cinnamone. cinematograph. Cinema. hence that which.. from L cinnamon. whence resp the Sci kinesis and kinetic: f. the E incineration. a motion picture: kinēmato. abstract n -graphy: cf -grapher. para 6. incinerates. -graphic. The derivative ML incinerāre. Cinematograph has agent -grapher. movement. etc. o/s incineratiōn-. cingle .A-Z 513 5. whence ‘to incinerate’. from kinein (s kin-).c/f of Gr kinēma. cinematic. cinerary . trln of H qinnamon.. and its adj kinētikos. to move. to reduce to ashes. cinereous. 2. CITE. from Gr kinnamon. is short for cinematograph.. 1. See CINDER. perh ult Malayan (Hofmann). -grapher. one who. See CINCH. has pp incinerātus. perh via MF-F incineration.e. motion. whence kinēsis. its derivative incinerātiō. adj -graphic. cinquain . -graphy. yields. para 4. at GRAPH. cinnamon derives. incinerator.a. with Grecized adj cinematic. cinema . is an E formation (incinerate+agential -or).

from L quinque. n. hence—circus ‘circle’ being displaced by the dim circulus—a circus in the modern sense. becomes ‘about’. circulation. derives from OF-F cinq. decipher (v). cinque. around. circuit (n hence v). 1. circulatory. akin also to L curuus. hence zero. a conflation of the earlier zefiro. circuitous. circum and circa. var *kir-. yields the adv-prep circum. E . See para 2 of: circle. itself from Ar . qq.). the (orig) five charter ports of Kent and Sussex. 2. cipher (n hence v). etc. empty. L circus.or *kerk-. See SCION. The IE r of Gr kirkos. circle. encircle. searchlight. esp of dates. to which E FIVE is ult akin. from the Ar word. 3. ML curvus. and zero represents EF-F zero. therefore. whence cinque. circular. The sense ‘a secret writing’ comes from Commynes’s use (1486) of F chiffre. Cinquain. circlet. from ML. adopted from EF (cf quatrain). by L influence. from It zero. circularize.v. whence both the MF-F cirque and the E circus: and L circus. is akin to Gr kirkos. circulate.Origins 514 . *ker-. cercle. F cinq derives from VL cīnque. circus. n. cifra. zero. curved—cf. as in Cinque Ports. which derives from It. Cinque Ports. sep. zero. (See esp B & W at chiffre and zéro. of the two groups combined. a circle. cion . s kirk-. occ cypher. L circus. s circ-. recherché. The dim circulus becomes OF-F. and circa (cf extra. supra. research. The firm base upholding all these words is the L circus.—search. a violent attempt at the Ar . v (whence researcher). CURVE. ‘To decipher’ (influenced by the MF-F déchiffrer) =prefix de-. v (whence pa and vn searching). in a circle. from+cipher: and the n cipher derives from MF-EF cifre. whence ME. n and v. around.) circa . is *kirk. whence decipherer and decipherment. orig the acc sing (cf the prefix circum). encirclement. five. a ring. whence.

hence also far-fetched. OF cercher has the OF-MF cpd recercher. ‘to circle’. -navigation. ‘To encircle’ whence encirclement (suffix -ment. -scription. whence ‘to circularize’ (cf F circulariser). From L circum. Searchlight is an obvious. . Circlet=circle+dim suffix -et. on the L s circulār. -locutory.v. has pp circulātus. circular . s circul-. para 1)+īre. whence.A-Z 515 circle. Circuit. derivative circulātio. itself from circuīre. Circulus. supine itum (cf ISSUE). cpd with LIGHT. para 4. pern via MF-F. whence ‘to search’. comes from L circuitus. and rechercher has pp recherché. circumcise . q. The derivative ML adj circuitōsus yields E circuitous. 4. the EF-F development of recercher. whence the n research. to gather—to put—into a circle. circumnavigate. circulate. around (f. to go around. by L influence. later serchen. circa (para 2 above). adopted from MF-F. circulation. circum-scribe. vi and vt. the E circulation. circulāri. whence E circular (adj suffix -ar. whence E circularity. its adj circulātōrius becoming circulatory. L -aris). whence ‘to research’. derives the LL circāre. unless it comes from the EF-F recherche. etc. n hence v.a. para 6). to go around or about. at DUKE. yields.e. (hence) go about. circumference. cf the F encerclement)=prefix en-. ME cercle has derivative v cerclen. rather than from L circus. See CIRCLE. whence ‘to circulate’. particularly elegant. circumflex.. in+ circle: cf the OF-F encercler. as adj. itself from rechercher. whence ME cerchen. whence searcher (cf EF-F chercheur) and ‘a search’—cf the OF-MF n cerche from the v cercher. derivative circulātor is adopted by E. 5. 6. (sep circumduce. gen itātis. hence. circumlocution. whence OF-MF cercher (EF-F chercher). CIRCLE.arose ML circulāritās. o/s circulātiōn-. though important. circuit . circuitous. to go. has two notable L deriva-tives: circulāris. whence circularization. a contr of circumīre: circum. -ision. sought after.

f. circumferential (cf deferential)=circum+-ferent+adj suffix -ial: cf also differential. Circumstance. yields E circumcision. with kirk. circumvolution. from LL circumloqui. on navigation. q.. Circumcise: L circumcīsus. para 22. circumvolve. Circumvent. Circumpose. L -nauigāre. circus . a talking abound and about. para 5. pern (E & M) cf the syn Gr kikinnos. For circum-. circumvention. LOQUACIOUS. Hence the adj circum. See SCRIBE.Origins 516 circumspect. See VOLUBLE. para 2. para 4.o. -navigator. Circumlocution: LL circumlocūtiōn-. para 1. para 7. derivative L circumcīsiō.v. pp of circumnavigāre. the derivative circumspectiō. navigator. para 8. para 10. (Mathews. a curl or ringlet: o. cisco .locutory: cf LL locūtōrium. Circumscribe. to sail around. Cf SPECTACLE. o/s -spectiōn-. cirrus (Met): L cirrus. and the entry in Prefixes. Circumspect: L circumspectus. to talk thus: cf LOCUTION. circumposition. circum-stance. See POSE.o. 2. para 5. pp of circumcīdere. Circumference: L circumferentia. o/s circumcīsiōn-. (lit) oily-fleshed fish. Circumvolute. See STAND. circumvent.) . a Great Lakes fish: var of sisco. See VENUE. para 1. a ring. o/s of circumlocūtiō. hence circumnavigation. to cut around. Circumflex.as in Gr kirkos. hence to circumcise. -stantial. a conversationroom. ? for *kirkinnos. itself short for siscowet: Can F ciscoette: Ojibway pemitewiskawet. See FLEX. at CIRCLE. yields circumspection. Circumnavigate: ML circumnavigātus. s. pp of circumspicere. -spection. to look around and about. pp -locūtus. see both CIRCLE. -vention. 1. See CIRCLE.

s kist-. basket: perh cf OIr ciss. bread basket: IE r.e. are extensions of an ult r *ku-. to Gr kistē. whence ME. 3. kinetic. incitation. from Gr kistē. A little’ or nuclea’ ‘city’: a fortress within a city. *kus-. from L cista. as if in a box. excitement. recitation. esp a human’s. In OE. 2.) cit (mid C17-mid C19): short for citizen. the latter prevailed in E. cyst a misspelling of E cist. extension *kist-.a. cistern. chest. chest. resuscitation. in Med and Bot. resuscitate. IE *kis-. *kis-. and perh. s kust-. kist. excit-ant. after all. *ki-. trln of Gr kustis. exciter excitable.. dim of cittàde. recitative. entrails. CITY. recital. L cīuitās. and . *ko-. box. the L cista became cist or cyst or cest: whence ME chist or chest. hence E cistern. basket. basket. The derivative cisterna has the Etruscan suffix -erna. the lumbar cavity. cisterne. The spelling cyst is prop applied. cess.).A-Z 517 cist . Kist is the Sc form. citation. citatory. resuscitative. with varr *ke-. sep at . ainchis. hence OF-MF. body encloses the lungs. as in para 1. incite. cf element cysto-. incitement: recite. sac. sep. akin to Skt . bladder. cyst. *kos-. excitation. suscitate. The chest of an animal’s. 1. gen cīutātis: f. to a sac or a sac-like spore: and it represents Sci L cystis. reciter. If this latter kinship be real. (Perh cf C**T. SOLICIT (etc. excitatory. city: ML cīvitās. incitant. cite . chest. citadel : late MF-F citadelle: It cittadella.

has pp resuscitātus. 2. gives us. whence ‘to cite’. now obsol. presp incitans. from citizen. on anl of ableability. perh via OFF réciter. citizen . becomes MF-F excitation. to raise. to set in motion. yields.a. to adduce or quote. expressly. adj). r ki-). Suscitāre (sus. -ry. LL resuscitātor. the derivative n citātiō. -ship. Ciēre has pp citus. s cit-.Origins 518 CINEMA. whence ‘to resuscitate’. city. whence ‘to incite’. adopted by E. gives. The effective base is L ciēre (s ci-). o/s excitant-. yields—perh via MF-F—incitation. becomes E excitant. excitement=excite+-ment. 5. 3. to raise again. o/s excitation. suscitare and its subsidiary resuscitdre. the E citation. o/s cīvitāt-.. whence ‘to suscitate’. yields adj incitant. incitāre. 6. quick. citified . itself—influenced prob by denizen—from OF-MF citeien. hence to restore or revive. Incitāre. perh via MF-F récitation. to cause to come quickly. to move. resuscitative is an E formation (cf -ive. its LL derivative excitābilis becomes E excitable. n suffix of action). Citus has derivative citāre. cf excitement. whence. to summon forth (ex). (later) to set moving. whence n). Excitāre. o/s incitātiōn-. excitability. whence kinein (s kin-. presp excitans. forward. recitative comes from It recitativo (adj. adj hence n. derivative n incitātiō. prompt. . whence. yields MF-F inciter. Recitāre. itself prompted by the ML recitative. hence to read loudly. through OF-F exciter. whence recital (-al. accounts for E resuscitation. CITY. prob via MF-F. Citāre has the following relevant prefix-cpds: excitāre. 1. akin to Gr kiein (s ki-). to stir Citāre becomes MF-F citer. para 1. its re. by suffixes -ry and -ship. from ML cīvitās. reciter= recite+-er. for incitement. to repeat names of defendants. the E recitation. The derivative LL resuscitātiō. o/s incitant-. See CITY. and the adj citatōrius yields citatory. to move. 4. adopted by E. to convoke or summon. a city state: f. derivative excitātiō. o/s citātiōn-. whence the adj citus.for sub. redtare. hence to provoke or excite. ‘to recite’. excitatory perh derives from ML *excitatōrius. o/s resuscitātiōn-. The two longer words derive. the E ‘to excite’. from OF-F cité. hence thrust. to summon. citeain. has pp suscitātus.e. under). derivative recitātiō. ME citezein (var citesein).‘again’ cpd resuscitare. by name. o/s recitātiōn-.

whence hide. whence civilisation (F influence) or -ization. husband. yields. itself from L citrus. short for hīgid. 2. EF-F civilité. and (Hofmann) prob to the ke. house. and ON heimr. L cīuitās. civility.of the syn Hit keta. the E civil. city-state. whence ‘to civilise or -ize’. akin ult to Siva. hence of a good citizen. family (cf syn hīred). from OF-F cité. is recumbent. citron tree. sep citadel and citizen. sense of citizenship. cedar. citrus. hīwan (pl). to lie down. excessively urban. (earlier) jumper: cf CEDAR. to make or render. Prob cf HOME. whence. also OE hīgan. civet . from AT zabad. civicism. pl of cīuis (ML cīvis). as above.of Gr keitai. citrous derives from L citrōsus. IE s *kei-. very prob via MF civileté. n). citric=citron (or citrus)+adj suffix -ic. citric. household.A-Z 519 citron . home. whence—cf ethics from adj ethic—the n civics. Gr kedros. the derivative L cīuīlitās. and hīwo. issuing. citrange. Citron. Shiva (Skt śiva. LL affability. civilian (-ian. has adjj cīuicus. citrate=citrus+ Chem suffix -ate. ML cīvīlis. civilize and civilization. Citrange blends citrus+orange. the substance. a contr from ML cīvitātem. civilian. ML cīvīlitās. akin to. prop an aggregation of cīues. E civility. an old land-measure. village. hence dear to one) and to sep HOME. cedar. Citify. civic. civil. soon predominating. and its source. orig sufficient to maintain a family. *hi-. in PGmc—cf OHG-MHG-G heim. cedar. of a citizen. in Gr and L. musk. friendly. 1. ML cīvicus. both derive from It zibet to. he lies down. The MF-F civil has derivative EF-F civiliser. civics. citrous. is either an alteration of L citrus or from LGr kitron. acc of cīvitās. and Go haims. City itself comes. citizen. r cī-. and. s cīu-. esp citified. akin to the kei. whence E civic. adopted from MF-F. citrate. prob via MF-F. rather than from. represents city+i for y+-fy. cīuīlis. o/s cīvīlitāt-. city. citify. adj of citrus. 3. whence the n. a citizen. and as *hei-. the zibet (var zibeth) or civet cat. and hīd. r *kei-. hide of land. civic . from ML zibethum. hence well-mannered and well-moral’d. through ME cite. L cīuis. to render urban. village. hence the adj. Both L citrus and Gr kedros are prob of Medit stock: perh cf Eg seb or seb-t.

presp of clamer. from L clamāre. reclaim. to cry out. var *kla-. a din. exclamatory. declaim. *klar-. For echoism. civics.—clamant. the E clamour. to clap. derives from OF-EF clamer. re-clamation. conclamāre. to call (out). via OF-MF clamor. claimant. proclaim. o/s of clamans. relevant to E. IE r *kal-. L clamāre is akin to calāre. exclamation. to summon. Claimant. L clamāre has. to call or summon. cf SMACK and CLATTER and CLANG. disclaim. 520 civil . ‘to claim’. s cal-. loud. claim (n and v). whence. adj (clothed. clear. the E clamant. with AE clamor reverting to L. and clamāre has derivative clamor. deriving from ‘to claim’. 3. clamour. claime. these prefix-cpds: acclamāre. acclamation. itself from OF-EF clamer (il claime. derives from L clamant-. clamur (cf the EF-F clameur). clad . ‘to clamo(u)r’ follows from the n. a body of hired applauders. clack . proclamation. a shouting. presp of clamāre. and clārus. derives from the pp of OE . to clothe. however. 1. arrayed). civility. declamation. . and kalein. with extensions *klam-. See CITY. conclamation. acclaim (v hence n). whence MF-F claque. akin also to Gr kalētōr. dēclamāre. clamorous. civilize (-ization). cf DECLARE. the ML adj clamorōsus yields E clamorous. clamo(u)r. See CITY. 2. v hence n: echoic: cf MF-F claquer. ME claimen. he calls). s clam-. a herald. declamatory.Origins . s clar-. has perh been influenced by OF-EF clamant. exclaim. -er. The n claim derives from OF-MF claim. para 3. para 3.

mostly in rhetoric. to call openly. 7. to cry back at. either loudly or suddenly. ‘To disclaim’ derives. to appeal to. clear-seeing: OF-F clair. whence ‘to reclaim’. whence the E adj conclamant. reclaimen. whence E declaim. yield—perh via F—E declamation and declamatory. perh via MF-F. from AF desclamer (F des-. whence. cf E CLEAR. The shellfish clam is short for clamshell (cf SHELL). cf exclamatory. to address noisily. Prōclamāre. derivative exclamātiō. from conclamatiōn-. whence ME reclamen. derivative prodamatio yields proclamation. plead noisily. only erudite or rare terms issue from inclamāre and succlamare. *klam-. prdclamare. perh thence. becomes MF-F reclamer (il reclaime). clam : clamshell. 8. rarer than the E n conclamation. used as n. cf MHG klamm. and dēclamatōrius. clairvoyance . a denial. from L dis-. a fetter. a bond or fetter. Acclamāre.A-Z 521 exclamāre. o/s of L conclamātiō. Conclamāre. o/s -clamātiōn-) is. leads. Gmc r. yields disclaimer. (Walshe. a clamp. has presp conclamans. yields EF-F déclamer. 9. to call out. presp of OF-F voir. *glem-. the derivative dēclamātiō. the 1st element being clam. apart): and this desclamer. cf CLARIFY. o/s exclamation-. 10. to see.) Cf CONGLOMERATE. from OE clamm. becomes ME proclamen. IE r *glam-. anl. 5. derivative reclamātiō yields reclamation. anl. Exclamāre. yields ‘to acclaim’. for proclamatory. voyant. constriction. to cry out to (ad). customary. whence the modern n acclaim—acclamation (L acclamātiō. 6. *glom-. hence to declaim. exclamatory imitates declamatory. and klamere (G Klammer). reclamare. EF-F b/f from MF-F clairvoyant. clamant . akin to CLAMP. however. disclamation and disclamatory are ‘reversions’ to imaginary L words. to exclamation. whether altogether or vigorously. leads to MF-F exclamer and. o/s dēclamātiōn-. 4. Dēclamāre. ‘to proclaim’. E exclaim. Reclamāre. to cry out. o/s conclamant-. to call noisily.

clay.v. clamorous. q. at CLAM. clamour. as also in LG): akin to CLAM: prob echoic. clammy app derives from OE clām. See the 2nd PLANT. CLIMB. para 2. clannish. prob an echoic mdfn of. clamor . influenced by OE clamm. clamp .Origins . See CLAIM. 522 clamber : ME clambren. See CLAIM. clan . clandestine . a fetter. para 6. Hence the tool clamper. akin to. para 2. n hence v: a holding or binding device: MD clampe (D klamp.

itself from LG Klappholt: echoic G klappen. to fit noisily together. clap . to clap. See LAUGH. itself echoic. Cf: clapboard : f/e for obs clapbolt. claque . n hence v. para 13. para 2. to clap: echoic. v hence n: ME clappen: OE clappan. 523 clang . prob comes from MD clanc (D klank). para 6. wood. clank . (claeppan) to throb: akin to ON klappa. clannish . bang to (cf prec)-+G Holz. See the 2nd PLANT. See HALL. Cf prec and also CLINK. clango(u)r.A-Z .

clarify : OF-F clarifier: LL clārificāre. See CLACK. from ML clāriō. dim (cf suffix -ette) of EF-F clarine. cleret’.. modifies MF claron (EF-F clairon). lit clear (clārus): cf the elements clari. ME clarioun. light red wine. from L clārus. . the adj being the dim of OF-MF cler.a. o/s clāriōn-. CLEAR. orig the f of the old adj clarin. clarinet : F clarinette. from clārus (cf prec): f.e. Cf the next three entries.and -fy..e. clear-toned: f. See element -sonance and cf prec. to render (-ficāre for facere) glorious. clarion .a. a musical bell. clear—cf the F clairet and see CLEAR. CLEAR. clarisonous .Origins . 524 claret is elliptical for OF-MF ‘vin clairet’ (extant).

from calāre. classificatory prob= classification+adj -ory. adopted from F. also the EF-F classique. CRASH. hence to summon. metathesis of clapsen. remove from a specified class. to make.C. classicism. cre ated by Servius Tullius (C6 B. to call.e. classification. clasp . 4. 3. is prop the pp of déclasser. the classics: hence both the E adj and the E n. v hence n: echoic. a group liable to be summoned: perh for *calassis. 1. CLEAR. the classici. SMASH. SPLASH. cf BASH. from L classis.A-Z 525 clarity : perh through EF clarité (EF-F clarté): from L clāritās (o/s clāritāt-).. cf CLAIM. hence the agent classifier and the abstract classification (? borrowed from F). ‘To classify’=L classic+element -fy. classicist. itself perh akin to CALL. prob orig a summons.). classic. class . adj (elaboration classical)—hence n. came. Déclassé. hence a summoned collection of persons. déclassé. to mean ‘writers of the first rank’. v hence n: ME claspen. clash . in the term scriptores classici. classificatory.a. abstract n from clārus: f. freq of clap in its sense ‘to fit noisily together’: akin to CLIP. classifier. n hence v (cf F classer). . The adj classicus. classify. 2. The n class derives from MF-F classe. whence classicism (suffix -ism) and classicist (-ist). applied in gen to the civic classes of the Roman people and esp to the 1st class.

and prob suggested by the syn L clausula. lit a thought closed. cf the D var kletteren. a rattle. claustrophobia : SciL cpd of L claustrum. fear.v. See 1st and 2nd CLEAVE. clausa being app the f of clausus. claustral . in Elements. pp of claudere. to clatter: echoic: cf BATTER and SPATTER. is adopted from MF-F: ML clausa. perh a b/f from OE clatrung. q. the close of a rhetorical period. to rattle. clause . clave . Cf cloistral at CLOISTER. Cf CLEF. . to clatter.Origins 526 clatter . whence clausal (-al. adj). but prob from MD clateren. hence to end. perh elliptical for sententia clausa. to shut. v hence n. a confined space (see CLOISTER)+comb -o-+-phobia.

) clear . D klei. L clauicula. cleanse. ML clavus. . OHG kleini. n). GLUE. . MHG kleine. dim of clauis.a. MHG klā. derivative secondary adv . clay akin to MD clei. ‘To claw’ derives from OE clawan.. claw . OHG klāwa.A-Z 527 clavicle . collarbone: EF-F clavicule: ML clavicula. a key. derives from clean. and claudere. OFris klāwe. v. is akin to OFris klēne. adj. narrow. to close (cf CLAUSE). whence E ‘a claw’: akin to G Klaue. Clean. to close. occurs also in the closely related clauus. v (whence cleaner. klāwe. from OE . ON klō. adv. adj cleanly. adj. via ME clene. whence clean. cleanness. has OE derivatives . klē. sem cf the E FINE. (Walshe. derives from OE OHG klīwa. hence small. elegant. a nail. whence OE adv . clean . little key. which derives. itself from OE clawu (var of clēa). secondary adj . ‘stickiness’: f. whence cleanness. pure. elegant. The r clau-. G Kleie. adj. small. adv. and prob to CLEW. whence cleanly. OFris klāi. G klein.e. bran: basic idea. The OE adj . and v . small. whence adj clayey (-ey). adj. neat. cf the 1st CLEAVE. whence ‘to cleanse’.

Gr glia. to adhere. cf. clear in sound. akin to MD cloot. clearstory . via ME cleer. to repeat again and again (‘stick to a subject’). cleave (1). OHG klīban. cleat . prob also to ON klifa. n. Clear derives. OS klibōn. to cry out. akin to OHG klebēn (vi). from OF-MF cler (F clair). as in calāre (s cal-). therefore. cleavage derives from the 2nd CLEAVE. hence to sight: akin to clamāre. The L r is clā-. D kloot. v. clearance (suffix -ance) and clearness (-ness) from the adj.Origins 528 . n hence v: ME cleete or clete: OE clēat. more remotely. a ball. CLAY and GLUE—and CLIFF. cleave . archaic clave and clove. with extnn clam-. clifian. pp cleaved: ME clevien. hence adv. earlier cler. Cf CALL and CLAIM.is perh a metathesis of cal-. cliven: OE cleofian. and. See CLERESTORY. and to CLEW. clivien. cleovien. glue. pt cleaved. itself from L clārus. MHG and G kleben. adj. to summon. L glūs. clar-: and clā.

akin to OHG and OS klioban. clove. tongs (a split instrument). cleaver .g. MHG and G klieben.. a chasm (gap). q. at end. which serves to CLOSE a door. clematis . clef . akin also to Gr gluphein (s gluph-). and ON kliūfa (kljūfa). and pp cleaved. to seize. cloven: ME cleven. ME cleken or clechen—akin to CLUTCH. See prec. to carve.v. is adopted from OF-F. See 2nd CLEAVE. adj and n. to forcibly part (e. G Kluft. akin to the OFris kleft and the E n cleft (ME clift)—cf the pp cleft used as adj. in golf. A butcher’s cleaver (instrumental -er) derives from the v. earlier cleoven: OE clēofan. derives from the mainly Sc cleek. at element glypto-. . archaic clave. which takes it from ML clāvis. cleft . cleft. to split. L clāuis. in music. a key. cleek . See the element -clema.A-Z 529 (2). by splitting) or divide or pierce. cleft. pt cleaved. and OHG kluft.

feminines deriving from L Clemens. cleric. the clergy. clerical (whence clericalism). The L opposites inclēmens. perh from *clināre (s clin-). OC *klār-. clinch. inclemency. whence both the E clement (cf the MF-F clément) and the L clēmentia. derives from the OE var cleric and the LL clēricus alike. clement. vt). clergy . to hold fast. v (whence clincher) hence n. in LGr. Clementine. via OF-F clerc and OE clerc. PN from clēmēns. a plank. a piece of wood used in drawing lots. whether moral or physical. 1. akin to OIr claar. clench . inclemency. i.e. inclēmentia result in E inclement. s klēr-. L clēmēns has o/s clēment-. ‘clear storey’: it rises clear of the other roofs of the building. adopted from OF-F. the c being changed to g. Clerk comes. Both clench and its thinned var clinch derive. akin to OHG klenkēn and MD clinken. v hence n. n. both from LL clēricus. via ME clenchen. Clergy derives from ME clergie. *klār-. a priest. hence. clerestory varies clearstory. an allotment of priests. clerk (n hence v). Ga clār. Clementina. Clement. 2. to bend (vi. Clementine adapts F Clémentine. E cleric. from klēros. hence. allotment. where it=clerc+ suffix -ie. clerkly.Origins 530 clemency . (F clergé: OF clergie: LL clēricātus . the derivative LL adj clēricālis yields E clerical. Clementina is It. belonging to the clergy. whence E clemency. well attested in cpds. from OE -clencan. hence lot. gentle of character. whence clergyman. IE r. W claur. Clerkly=clerk+adj -ly. cleric. D klinken—and to CLING. inclement. from LGr klērikos.

chliwa). through ME clewe or clue. whence cleverness (suffix -ness): prob from ME cliver. CLAW. was orig the pp of the echoic clicher. prob either from OE clibbor. cliwen. derives. to stereotype. and MD cluwen. however. adhesive.A-Z (gen -ūs). Cf. akin also to Skt glāuš. also cluwe. akin to syn OHG kliuwa (chliuwa. n hence v. a claw. in Ancient Gr myth and fact. CLEAT.v. cleowen. at HAND. therefore. q. suggests ME cliver. Therefore cf: click .) 531 clerk . hence a discovery that assists in the solution of a crime. skilled. dexterous. from OE clifer. cliché . See para 1 of prec. or from ME clĭven. used for finding one’s way out of a labyrinth: hence. a means of discovery. A ball of thread was. CLOD. expert. EW. clever . to adhere—cf the 1st CLEAVE. dexterous. clew or clue (whence clueless). ball. skein. OE clīfan. priestly office or life. D kluwen. from OE clēowe. with sem parallel in handy. ball. adopted from F.

n hence v. to clap (see CLACK). n and v. to climb. cliff . whence AE clientele. ON klīfa. MHG and G klimmen. para 4. to make a noise.Origins 532 . clique. akin to OS and ON klif. climatic. climacteric. climacteric. adopted by E.—acclimate. akin to OHG chlimban (klimban). to which a nasalized cognate occurs in CLIMB. clime . climax. This OF cliquer has derivative MF-F clique. acclimation . whence a closely knit circle. climb . akin to claquer. without nasal (n). Cf the 1st CLEAVE. prob akin to the 1st CLEAVE. a resounding blow. with ‘to click’. climate. climax. whence cliffy: OE clif. cf the OF cliquer. See CLIME. for climbing is a progress marked by continual sticking (holding tight). client . climacter . later a noisy band of persons (cf claque at CLACK). climate. Click is echoic. derives from OE climban. and to ON klifa. clientèle. See LOUD. climacter. v hence n. and.

treated sep. with adj climactic. 6. hence. reclinate. round or rung of a ladder. some-what oddly meaning ‘sloping upwards’. vi). with adj klīnikos. s klīn-. E acclimation is adopted from F. from Gr klīma (s klīm). declination (and declension). But E has coined ‘to acclimatize’.A-Z 533 and acclimatize. to remove oneself (hence to fall. synclinal. C. 5. a bed. whence EF-F déclinaison. to lean towards (ad) or against. clinical. a ‘decline from the nomina-tive’. to+euphonic -c+climat+ inf suffix -er. 1. declinature is anl with curvature. whence E adj hence n climacteric. 2. 10. o/s klīmat-. the Geol adj acclinal. whence declinatory. inclinator and inclinatory seem to be E formations. syncline. to deteriorate). recllndre. Klīnein has yet another relevant derivative: klīnē. inwards. etc.—Gmcderived LEAN. a rhetorical climax. whence adj climacterical. Note that the Geol n syncline. syncline is a b/f from synclinal. inclinable. Clime represents L clīma (s clīm-). whence the adj acclinate. Gr klīnein leads to L clīnāre. L dēclīnāre (vt and vi). gen klīmatos. esp in its Med sense. *klei-: cognates in Gr. hence that region’s weather. proclivity. Skt. (of a stratum) ‘leaning upon another’ =L acclīnis+E -al. whence E clinic. whence E climate. v. with+klīnein. whence L clīnicus. inclinatory. to turn oneself away (de). itself. . see Elements. -cline. 3. reclination. all treated sep at CLIVUS. however. o/s clīmat-. in LGr. decline (v. to slope. from L inclīnātiōnem (o/s inclīnātiōn-). perh via MF-F déclinatoire. yields OF-MF decliner. clinic. as if from Gr *klīmak-tikos. L acclīnāre. o/s dēclīnātiōn-. hence ‘to acclimate’. 4. acc of inclinātiō. hardly found outside its compounds and their cognates: acclīnāre. hence a region on the earth’s surface. tending to refuse. to slope together (so as to meet): sun. an inclining. recline. as in: 7. from L ad. whence L clīmactēricus. esp an earth-point’s obliquity in relation to the sun or the imagined inclination or slope of the earth towards the North Pole. declivity (-itous). perh via MF declinacion. 8. a couch. proceeding by steps or stages. adj whence n. and disinclined. to lean. whence E declension. through ME inclinen (var enclinen). to fail. adopted by E. 9. OF-F climat has derivative v acclimater. Gr klīnein. n). with subsidiary adj clinical (-al). ‘An incline’ (cf the OF-F enclin) derives from ‘to incline’. hysical then emotional. to slope: IE r. dēclīnātiō. as was inclination. whence the adj synclinal. Possibly. n). hence an important step or stage. declinature.yields OF-F climat. from OF-MF incliner (var encliner): L inclīnāre (vt. L clīmat. inclīnāre. yields declination. has pp acclīnātus. to avoid. a ladder (‘it leans aslant’: L & S). hence L. Klīmax has subsidiary klīmaktēr. inclination. acclinal. which =a for à. dēclīnāre. inclination. whence L climacter. acclinate. gen clīmatis. Gr klīma derives from Gr klīnein. declinatory. or cause to lean. acclimatization. whence the adj climatic (ic). has also the derivative klīmax. ‘a decline’ adapts EF-F déclin (OF-MF de-) from décliner (OF-MF decliner). itself anl to acclinal. whence ‘to decline’. climax. signature. Sl. incline (v. in fact an inclination. disinclination.—enclitic. L. The adj disinclined and disinclination are likewise E formations: cf the prefix dis-. whence acclimatization. Inclinable was adopted from MF-EF.—L-derived subsidiaries acclivity (-itous). klīmaktēr has adj klīmaktērikos. repre-sents the Gr sunkllnein. whence ME declinen. whence E. Dēclīnāre has two relevant derivatives: ML dēclīnatōrius.

LL has the adj encliticus. a prison. deriving from Gr enklīnein. a fast mover (esp ship). struck. whence in the same grammatical sense. to incline: cf. clinch . a brick so hard that. Clinker. L redtnare. the influence of Gr en.Origins 534 11. has derivative klinchaerd. D klinken. has o/s reclīnātiōn-. var of clincher (from ‘to clinch’). the pp reclīnātus yields the Bot redinate. The si clink. 12. in. at CLENCH. . q. ‘to move quickly or suddenly’. clinic . stony matter. whence E reclination. See CLENCH. and to OE -clencan. the E enclitic. upon the OF var forms. to adhere.v. clinical. para 4. cling : OE clingan. to lean back. OHG klungilīn (? dim of OHG klunga). a ball of thread. bent backwards. MD clinken. hence n). Clinker-built comes from clinker. clink (v. it rings: hence the E clinker. but encliticus is a mere trln of Gr enklitikos. ME clinken. akin to G Klüngel (s klüng-). See CLIME. LL reclmatio. prob derives from the clink of chains. in para 9. a leaning back. kind of brick. app derives from MD clinken: echoic: cf CLANK. yields MF-EF rediner and E ‘to’ recline. (LL) to rest. derives from ‘to clink’ in its secondary sense.

to embrace. Clio . through ME clippen. to shear: prob echoic. and L globus. clip hooks. also CLASP. globe.A-Z 535 clinology . clip (2). Cf the element clino-. This v clip derives. MHG klāfter. width of the outstretched arms. hence also clipper (it cuts through air or waves) and the vn clipping. to cut (off). ME clippen. See LOUD. clod: cf. ‘To clip’. clinometer. and glēba. See CLICK. clip (1). hence also clippers. hence n. comes from ON klippa. I embrace. whence G Klafter. GLOBE. OHG chlāftra. a fathom. to embrace. and Lith glòbiu (s glob-). para 5. GLEBE. klyppa. akin to OFris kleppa. from OE clyppan. hence n. clique . cluppen. . to cut. klippa. therefore.

o/s prōdīvitāt-. accounts for E de-clivous. ML acclīvitāt-.e. down from. adj of cloāca. o/s dēclīuitāt-. L acclīuis (ac. inclined pro or forward. from OF-F cloche. r clī-. the E clyster. clyster. 2. cloak . as in clīnāre (s clīn-. 4. acclivitous—acclivous.Origins 536 clivus (in An). whence proclivitous. L prodiuis. r clī-). esp obliquely forward. gives us prodivous. to wash. ML dēclīvitāt-.a. accounts for declivity. with derivative klustēr. to cleanse with water. o/s acclīuitāt-. to cleanse. ML -īvis. cloak. sense ‘enema’. to which clīuus is intimately akin: f. because of a ‘filled’ cloak’s bell-shape: from ML clocca. acclivity. whence declivitous: cf prefix de-. Cloacal represents L cloācālis. CLOCK. adj form of clīuus). ML ivus. hence a hill. cloacal. now obsol. L clīuus. declivity. yields acclivity. -īvus. has s clīu-. to+clīuis. ML clīvus. proclivitous—proclivous. ML acclīvis. var of cloche. 3. whence L clyster. cloche . akin to Gr kluzein (s kluz-. whence adj acclivitous. a slope. derivative ML dēclīvitās. from *cloāre. yields the E adj acclivous. ? through MF-F clystère. L dēclīuis. CLIME. whence... a privy. bell: f.a. a cleansing injection of water. cloaca . var acclīuus. var of rare cluere (s clu-). declivitous—declivous. ML prōdīvitās. proclivity. para 1. r klu-). derivative acclīvitās. ML dēdīvis. a sewer. 1. with subsidiary. gives proclivity. derivative prōclīuitās. n hence v: ME cloke: OF-MF cloke for cloque. var prodmus. for ad. cloca.e. L dēclīuitās. a bell.

hence the v.: pern cf CLOD. ‘blended’ with cloister. an enclosure. clod. OF-MF clostre derives from L claustrum. pp clausus: f. a later form of ME clot. cloister (n hence v). whence claustral. clock. clot (n hence v). explains cloistral. With OE clot(t). stump: o.. prec. clog . cloisonné. clōgh. from OE clot or clott. bell. from claudere. which. clod . whence a heavy shoe and also an impediment. cloistral—claostral—cf the element claustro-. block of wood. to close. acting as a barrier. of C origin: the EIr cloc. later an enclosure. earlier a lump. an airtight utensil in cooking. the modern differentiation between ‘clod of earth’ and ‘clot of blood’ being a natural development.o. bell-shaped hat: adopted from F: f.a. Claustrum had LL adj claustrālis. bell): either from OF-MF cloque.a.e. cf Ga clag. incidentally.. Cf: clock .o. var cloca. Cloister derives from ME cloistere. From ME clogge. orig a block of wood. cf G Klotz. Prob echoic. cf also CLOUD. Cor clōch. W cloch. a blend of the OF-MF clostre with OF-EF cloison. a short. whence. a means of closing. thick log. . and MHG kloz. The former derives from ME clodde. bell. which has var cloche (the F form). a bell. adapted from OF-EF cloistre (whence EF-F cloitre). a clod.e. was ‘brought to the Continent by the Irish monks’ (B & W). block. a block. or from ML clocca (C7). a tight. n hence v: ME clok or clokke: MD clocke (cf D klok. CLOSE.A-Z 537 .

OIr clo. to open that which has been closed. itself consisting of claus(pp s of claudere)+suffix -ūra (E -are). clot . comes from L clausum. the pp s (cf para 1.has prompted ‘to enclose’. kinds of cloth. with the IE int prefix s-. from VL *inclaudere. 4. cloth.s of OF-F enclore. itself from OE clāth.Origins 538 close (adv from adj. n. ‘To clothe’. The adj dose. whence ME clath. from L disclaudere (cf prefix dis-). disclosure. hence a small room. Closure. Enclosure comes /from OF-MF. to close. enclosure. prop the neu of clausus. MLG slūten. as in clāuis. from L claudere. derives from OE clāthian. a garment in particular. to shut in. OHG sliogan (pron slioyan). from the enclos. to lock. pl cloths. Closet is the MF-EF closet. the G schliessen. adopted from OF-MF. an enclosure. garment.—disclose. r clāu-. ME clothen. ME clos. and kleiein (s klei-). from L clausus (s claus-). derives from ME closen: inf suffix -en attached to clos-. 7. to close. 1. derives from ‘to disclose’. to close. earlier clathen. strictly en-. to shut. n hence v. and clāuus. ME from OF-F clos. and several Sl cognates in kl-. from the pres-ind s of OF-MF desclore. s claud-. conclusion. enclose. closure. v). closet. and. earlier desclosen. imitating closure. The v close. to close or shut. pp of claudere. 3. ddethan. from L incūdere. 1st sentence) of OF-F clore. later . to close. dim (cf -et) of the n clos (as in para 2). derives from OF clos. nail. a bolt or a key (? PGr kláwis). cloth . The n dose. 5. 2. clothe. the F s enclos. a nail: cf CLAVICLE and CLAUSE: cf also Gr kleis. ME disclosen. Close. a key. to close. in+‘to dose’: Cf INCLUDE. a small enclosure. OFris slūta. pp of claudere. See CLOD. cloth in general. garments. derives from ‘to close’. Disclosure. 6. comes from LL clausūra. and clothes.

ME clouten. nail: f. See prec. Hence cloudless (suffix -less) and cloudy (y. hill(ock): basic idea. mass—cf CLOD and its derivative clot. n hence v: ME cloud. earlier clud.) clothes .v. a lump. The ‘to strike’ sense of clout derives from the ‘patch clumsily’ sense. See 1st and 2nd CLEAVE. . Cf: clout .. MHG kleit (G Kleid). cloth.a. at CLOD. (Walshe. rock. rock. pt. lit ‘nail of clove’. hill(ock). pern cf OE clīth.a.e.e. derives from OE clūt. ON garment: f. clove . ‘To clout’. as used in cooking: ME clow: MF-F ‘clou de girofle’. and E clot. a small cloth or piece of metal. a patch. Fris klūt. plaster. earlier clutien. adj). retained by E: akin to OFris klāth. dress. clove .A-Z 539 . klēth. kerchief. akin to ON klūtr. cloud .. hence ‘clove’: L clāuus (ML clāvus). q. CLOSE. cloud: OE clūd. ‘to clout’ orig meant ‘to cover or bandage or patch with a (piece of) cloth’.

has OHG form chlēo. MLG klē. clown is o. hence—boors seeming funny to townsmen—a funny fellow. and D kloen. a jester. clover derives. -ere. hence a boor. choke up. from OE clāfre or . esp to excess. pp. a buffoon.o. because the G Klee. akin to MLG klever and MD claver. hence to glut or satiate: from OF-MF encloer (cf the F derivative enclouer: en+clou+-er). through ME clover. a nail+inf -āre. s chlē-.o. ‘lump—lumpish’. clown. orig to drive-in a nail. MLG -ver). the NFris klönne. from kluwen. cloy (whence the pa cloying) shortens the obs accloy. earlier claver. (Walshe. itself from ML inclāuāre: in+ clāuus. club . hence to stop up. hoyden. D klaver: app the r cla-+ an obscure element -fre (MD -vere. Cf 1st CLOVE. clumsy boor. a clew: basic idea. clover. however. n hence v. Icelandic klunni. See 2nd CLEAVE. Orig (C16) a farm worker.: cf.Origins 540 cloven .) clown .

LG klukken. whence the v. clump . D klomp. IE r. whence clumsiness (suffix -ness). MD clompe or clomp. G glucken. to be or become numb: intimately akin to Sw dial clumsig. hence a cluster. var klompe. akin to OE clympre. heavy weapon of wood. a lump. . hence a knob. also G Klampe. from clumsen. clumsy . hence a group. D klokken: echoic. See CLEW. G Klumpen. a clump. hence also a heavy blow (cf CLOUT). numb with cold. hence a bunch. *gleb-. and MLG klumpe. and globus (see GLOBE). Clump app comes from MLG klumpe. var klumba: akin to CLUMP. *glemb-. MD clocken. *klamp-. a clog. clue . IE s. cluck . and ON clumba. derives from ME clumsed (pa from pp). (heavy) piece of metal. var *glomb-. a sod (see GLEBE). orig forcibly associated: ME clubbe: ON klubba. (hence) clumsy. as in L glēba. an tinshaped mass. a lump. var *glob-. usu with bulbous or knobbed striking end. a clamp: OGmc s. akin to MHG klucken or glucken. v hence n: OE cloccian. var *klump-. also akin to CLAM. benumbed. a club.A-Z 541 (n hence v).

var clicchen (wl. spatter: f. to grasp. coaches were first manufactured (B & W). See CLOACA. i. both EF-F . from G Kutsche. from OE clyccean.Origins 542 cluster . either from Hung kocsi. ME cluchen. itself a dial derivative from the mainly Sc cleck. derives from EF-F coche. a grasp or a grasping. supposedly. CLOD.a.f. s. clutch (cletch.e. akin to cling. where. the Hung town where. coaches were first manufactured. a claw (usu pl clutches). spat.v. ‘(carriage) of Kosice’ in Czechoslovakia. n hence v: OE cluster. The n clutch. or from Cz cotchi. q. derives from ‘to clutch’. seize. clutter . coach . Perhaps. akin to OE clot(t). to hatch. varies cletch. supposedly. n hence v. from ON klekja. however. ‘(carriage) of Kocs’. cf Nor ‘klekke (ut)’. at CLOD. n and v: var of clotter (n from v): a -ter freq of ‘to clot’: cf pat. or brood of chicks. clyster . But a clutch of eggs. clitch). ‘of Kocs’.ence the dial clitch). hold tightly.e.. patter.

MD cole. charcoal prob from *goulo. (wood-) charcoal. n hence v: ME cole. better caudex. prob derives from coaly. perhaps via MLG kogge or MD kogghe. Collie. the s of coagulātus. G Kohle. var kuggr. something that causes coagulation. a ship. to drive: cf COGENT (f. cogo. coal . cf OIr gual.. helper (cf ADJUTANT). The transition from sea. to coagulate: co-. whence E collier. akin to OHG kol. itself formed upon coagulāt-. together+agere. o/s of coagulātiō. 3. from coactus. to drive (hence. from ON kuggi. a treetrunk. charcoal. coal. ACT). coal-black. The latter comes. a fellow-helper: co-. prob from coagulum. made from cōdex. a large.a.to land-conveyance is far from impossible: cf the AE use of ‘to ship’. the French coquets’ (rare dim form). pp of cogere. OFris (and MLG) kole and ON kol. which the English call cogs. ME col has derivative colier. the mineral sense hardly antedating C13. cocca. a barge or passenger boat or merchant ship. 2. together+adiūtor. coagulation. app influenced by collier. coal.A-Z 543 coche and G Kutsche derive from ML cocha. pern akin to the jual. . MHG kol. esp a barge. from L coagulātiōn-. according to the region. coadjutator needlessly lengthens coadjutor: ML coadjūtor. it burns (Holthausen). the sense also in OE. coagulate . Du Fresne’s Du Cange defines cogo as ‘a kind of ship. pern via MF-F. n). The ME cogge is usu said to come. charcoal. varr coccha.e. LL coadiūtor. But the OF coque or cogue or predominantly coche might rather (DAF) come from L cōdica (nāuis). earlier col: OE col. black-and-white sheepdog. whence—influenced by the obs coalery—colliery (-y.of Skt jualati (jvalati). force) together. cogga. pp of coagulāre. kolo.

2. by v suffix -en. from MF coster.Origins 544 coaming . the sense being ‘a (protective) framing’. costal. whence. coarse . 5. costard—costermonger. C16–17. 3. whence the Med adj costal and its cpd intercostal (inter-. a coaming. and perh also L os. OF-MF coste derives from L costa. from LL. a frame. from It. coat . OF coste (see para 1). a coast. prob akin to OSl kostǐ. from OF-MF costoier (later côtoyer). to prevent water from entering: o. The E coastal (coast. lit a small rib. coast (n and v). bone. 4. n+adj -al) was perh suggested by L costālis. a raised frame. between). hence common (cf common in its subsidiary sense ‘vulgar. costier. Skt ásthi. dim of côte. goat) being presumed and possible (B & W). accostare. ‘To coast’ derives both from ME cost en. whether at floor (orig. hence side (of the body). earlier costien. corse. rib+suffix -ard. a bone. has perh been blended with E ‘incoming (water)’. from OF-MF coste (F côte). cors. a rib. from OFMF coste. Nor karm.o. lit to come to (ad) the costa or side of a person or a land.o. and from costeien. Accost (v hence n). whence ME cost. is app ‘a ribbed apple’. apple-seller (cf MONGER). became eased to costermonger. whence E coast (n). The obs costardmonger. the general run of things (as in ‘of course’). connoting largeness. accost. intercostal. Costard. a rib. coastal. a k-prefix (as in caper. an apple with prominent ribs or angles. coarse’). comes from OF-F accoster. hence coast.: but cf Nor lukekwarm. usu course: app from the n course. cutlet. ‘to coarsen’: C15. deck) or at ceiling level. Cutlet is a f/e adaptation of syn MF-F cōtelette.

stone of fruit. as EW has proposed. (Walshe.g. power. a room. a seal. whence the ML cotta and the OF-F cotte. with basic idea ‘something plump. yields cove.) Cf COTILLON. esp if sheltered. hut. Cobalt. inlet (e. derives—because miners used to find the metal dangerous to work. a fool. to CUB. a lump or heavy piece. app of Scan and LG origin. a coarse cloak. a short. OE cofa. etc. G Kotze. itself o. a coat of rough material: prob from Frankish *kotta. OF-F var cotte. of Gmc origin: cf OHG chozza. var kub. prob derives from OHG *kobwalto. but perh. bay). often with spelling cobold: and Kobold. cob . cove (Geog). . goblin. the G Koben. n hence v (whence vn coating). E WIELD. derives from ME cob.) 2. household gods. and. from F cocasse. the ore being arsenical—from G Kobold. cell. var kob. a block or stump: akin also. whence the pa and vn coaxing.. gods. cob of corn. OE cofa. esp if round’: cf D kobbe. likewise adopted by E. sem. the Arch sense owes something to both of the others. in cpds. Fris kobbe. ridiculous (recorded in E in 1546): cf hoax from hocus. a tunic. to rule or control... etym. MHG kobolt. the OE cofgodu. derives from OF-MF cote. from coq (cf COCK). (E) a small. a hovel+walten. a G word.A-Z 545 . therefore. foolish. -kubbi. ME cote. earlier cobbe. ruler): cf. akin to ON kofi. a room+godu. MHG kobe. Cocasse is a var of OF-EF coquard. a seagull. coax .o. (Sc) a rock-hollow. kobold. MHG kotze. gnome. hence nut. kozzo. cobalt . esp a dupe. (Kluge. seems to derive from the obs cokes. stocky horse. ON (and Ice) kobbi. a household spirit (lit. 1. familiar spirit. var cox. and.o. vain.

prob.Origins 546 cobber (Aus). mate. a lump. si now coll for ‘comrade. chum’: Yiddish chaber (pron khah’ber). to make. a freq of cob. itself akin to COB. comrade. hence a clumsy worker. to patch or patch up: o. cobble (2).f.. s. See prec. a boot-and-shoe mender. or to mend. a cobblestone (also a piece of waste metal). Agent cobbler (ME cobelere).o. from ME *cobelen. hence to pave with cobblestones: dim of COB. cobold . cobra . however. to strike or thump. cobbler . cobble (1). roughly.o. See COBALT.

A-Z 547 : elliptical for Port cobra de capello. akin to kikkos. Akin to CUCKOO. perh akin to LL . a spider. m cochino. yield a valuable dye. Cochinilla is the dim of Sp cochina. adopted from Quechua or Aymara (var cuca). A Sp word (earlier. coccyx . a Bact cell (c/f element -coccic. but prob Eg. OE -coppe+WEB.o. cocaine is a Chem -ine derivative of coca. cochineal. akin to F cochon: ‘prob formed from the cries uttered by those who call pigs to the trough’ (B & W). a grain. itself o. a seed. cobra deriving from VL *colobra.o. cobweb . Cf coco and COCOON. lit spider-web: ME coppeweb: obs cop. from L colubra. cocco-): Gr kokkos. ME coppe. hooded serpent. in the specific form of the cochineal insect. orig a wood louse: the dried bodies of this parasite. a SAm shrub with medicinal leaves. coccal is the adj of coccus. a sow. itself from Sp cochinilla. cochineal adapts EF-F cochenille. cuca). the sheath containing the seeds of a pomegranate: exotics.

better cutiōnes. a faucet. cockspur: a cock’s spur. hence a fool or a vain. and cocky. hence a district. coquetry. skin (‘thick-skinned creature’: E & M). with derivative coxcombry (suffix-ry). mussel: f. confident movements of a cock’s head. hence crooked. prob from a cock’s upright posture when it is crowing. hence the wearer. tip upwards. coxcomb. e. and (vt) to set upright. from kokhlos. noted for much past fighting. with legs cocked or turned up. squinting. occ corrupted to coxcomb. esp a rocking horse.a. cockscomb. akin to konkhē . 3. ME cocken. was worn by jesters in their caps. or euphem for cack.e. cochlea (whence cochlear: cf adj suffix -ar): L for ‘snail’ or ‘snail’s shell’: Gr kokhlias. Prob from ‘a cock’ derives ‘to cock’. 4. resembling a cock’s comb. a squinting eye: cock. G Käfer. faucet. cockchafer. or a country. include cocker (agential -er).. that a child rides astride. cockhorse. from cutis. to strut. MHG kever. a pit for cockfights. the male of the common domestic fowl. cockpit. lit a fighter. prob from the brisk. coll adj cocky. 1. (obs) to fight. to gnaw: Walshe). i. derive quite naturally from a fancied . cock-eyed. hence (?) a lively. a badge that. Derivatives of ‘to cock’ include: cock-eyed. cockhorse: anything. come the senses (vi) to turn up. cocktail. CONCH. cocksure: as confident as a cock. cockscomb: a cock’s comb.—coquet. hence prob the v ‘to cock’. silly fellow. a hat’s brim. cockpit. to tip up-f EYE. The cock of a gun and cock. cocksure. or plants with features resembling one.e. cockspur. stick up. wood lice. Certain derivatives of cock. a firearm’s hammer. snail. hence the cap. akin to OHG chevar. cocktail. 2. dung+chafer (OE ceafor. shellfish having a spiral covering. cheerful. prob ‘the gnawer’.g. from cock-eye. a fop. for cf MHG kiven. either used fig in ref to size. penis). as confident as a cock. cock (bird. and the foll—and many other—cpds: cockchafer: cock. any creature with tail resembling a cock’s. cocker (spaniel). basically spirituous drink.Origins 548 cuciōnes. sing cutiō.

prob echoic. brother. The bird cockatoo derives perh from D kaketoe. from the scoldings to be expected from elder brothers and sisters. cockatoo . whence ‘to coquet’. faucet or tap. fabulous serpent: MF cocatris. Cf COCKADE. coqueter has derivative EF-F coquetterie. cock: cf para 7 of 1st COCK. app deriving from L coco coco. but prob from Port cacatua. and then. finally. a cocking mechanism. itself from Mal kakatūwa. The n cock derives from OE cocc (predominant form). to OSl kokotŭ. OF-F coq has the derivative late MF-F adj coquet. perh elliptical for chose cocarde. (hay)cock .A-Z 549 resemblance to the bird or its head or its comb. whence E coquetry. from OF-F coq. sister+tuwa. from OF-EF cocard. 6. prob from the ‘faucet’ sense. cockatrice . clod. coquet has derivative EF-F coqueter. very soon. old. influenced by OF-F coq (the bird cock) but deriving . 7. akin to the rare ON kokr. lump. the true C18–20 SE word for ‘penis’. n hence v: prob from ON kökkr. from cockatoo (squatter or farmer). LL var cucurru—cf the syn Skt . 5. to LL coccus. whence also Nor kok (cf Da kok). vain. small farmer. to OF-F coq. coquard. Aus si cocky. cockade : EF-F cocarde. but perh a cpd of kaka’. both soon nn. heap—cf Sw koka. the cock’s cry. vain thing. as vain and swaggering as a cock. The sense-development of the n seems to be: male bird. f coquette.

para 3. a small boat: ME cokbote. CALCAREOUS). metathesis of L crocodīlus. cockhorse . female treader.. cocker (spaniel).e. See 1st COCK. by f/e alteration from MF cocadrile. para 3. cockboat . q. cockchafer . para 1. See 1st COCK.a. See 1st COCK. cockle (1) . to tread. var of OF-EF cocodril(l)e. cogbote.Origins 550 either from LL *calcatrix. from calcāre. See 1st COCK. in latter half of COACH. para 1. far more prob. or. heel (f. cock(-)eyed . f/e for ME cogge. from calx.v.

pampered. to+coquin. vain. cockroach is a f/e adaptation of Sp cucaracha. an insect. q. derives ME cokeney. a shell: L conchylium: Gr konkhulion. para 1. OF-F coquin being prob a pej derivative (cf coquard. -ay. of cocks+ey. etc. earlier cokenay (or -ey): milksop (Chaucer). cockpit . B & W. The former etymology would seem to be the more convincing. cf G Hahneneier. foolish. though perh from MLG kak.v. cockle is app an anglicizing of COCHLEA. however. dim of konkhulē. a pillory: thus EW and. The OED. mdfn of konkhē. Cockney : ME coknay. in part.: OE coccel. at 1st COCK. then townsman.a. in E folklore. later coquille. beggar. small or misshapen eggs: the phrase is applied to milksops. even though the latter is the better attested. from a-. . after him. corn cockle. and coquet) of coq. ay. CONCH. a (large) shell: f.. darnel. rogue+ inf -er. See 1st COCK. L ad. lit a cock’s egg: ‘cocks’ eggs’. lit rascally.e.A-Z . Webster and. soft-shelled). very soon after being applied to eggs (easily broken. from coken. 551 cockle (2) . an egg. then (c 1600) Londoner: perh by aphesis from some MF dial form corresp to EF-F acoquiné. an aug derivative of cuco. a daw. are. perh from L cucus. itself akin to CONCH. a bivalvular mollusc: ME cockille: MF cokille. In warm the cockles of one’s heart.

See 1st COCK. See 1st COCK. . cocksure . fruitstone: Gr kokkos. a grain. para 1. para 1. cocky . adj. n. coccus.Origins 552 cockspur . See COCKATOO. coco . cocktail . Cf COCCAL and COCOON. para 1. kernel. See 1st COCK. See 1st COCK. a seed. para 1. cocky . whence coconut (wrongly cocoanut): Port and Sp coco: L coccum.

adopted from It. cocoon. a sack. testicle (whence the E dial and obsol si cods. hence a pod or husk (as in peasecod).o.. a small bag. from coco. kernel: f. akin to ON koddi. See coco. itself from -Nahuatl or Aztec cacahuatl. from L coccum. cod (fish) is o. itself identical with cod. the seed of the cacao tree. L cauda. 2. from OE codd. and ‘to cod’ or hoax. whence the erudite E (and F) adj caudal. a tail. the E coward. derives from Sp cacao. comes from L cōda. fellow. a shell. a Sp word influenced by prec. a pouch. cocoon : EF-F cocon: Prov coucoun. fool.A-Z 553 cocoa .: ? suggested by cod. and MD codde. the enclosed part of a fishing net. a small bag. (earlier) egg-shell. testicles). excrescence on a plant. coda (Mus). also to OE cēod. coco. cōda.o. pillow. LG küdel. cēoda. prob belong here. The si cod.a. coconut . thus: coward . a var of cauda.e. OHG kiot. has a far more notable derivative. as also the E Sci adj caudate.

Origins 554 (whence cowardly: -ly. codicil . codify.o. L cōdex becomes MF-F code. hence a legal codicil.) Cowardice. adopted by E. (The L word.o. See CODE. dim of L cōdex. or from F. and E HEW. hence. codify. n hence v (whence decode and encode). a tuft. whence app ‘to codify’. earliest a tree-trunk or a shrubstem. paras 1 and 2 resp. codification. beat. whence. app derives either from CAUDLE or from its ONF source. from OF coe. orig cowardly. a writing tablet. a coward. consisting of a waxsmeared board for writing (whence ‘book’). perh (E & M) akin to L cōda. tail+pej suffix -ard: coe deriving from L cōda.. usu said to be o. See CADGE. only very improb akin to L cūdere. derives from OF-F couardise. is prob (Webster) akin to Lith kuodas. in L. slowly. tablet. codex—codicil. the F code has derivative codifier. hence memorandum. a book in manuscript. in E. to cook. ME cowardise. 2. tail. lit ‘with tail between legs’.’ coddle . from couard. an ancient manuscript. with var caudex (cf the cōda-cauda var). 1. codger . code . adj): OF-F couard. . but. esp boil. codicillary. itself from L cōdicillus. hence to pamper. The last comes from L cōdicillāris (-ārius). of a codicil.

wine. caffein(e). café. coerce . whence coffee-bean. para 3. E coffee. lion’s heart. comes from It caffè: Tu qahveh (kahvé): Ar qahwah. whence codlin(g) moth. a self-service café.. para 2. coffee. whence the AmSp cafeteria. was orig a hard-cored cooking apple: F cœurde-lion. . coffee shop. whence E. coercion. F café has derivative caféine (Chem -ine). -house. whence AE. cahvé. cafeteria. like the EF-F café.A-Z 555 codlin or codling . a kind of apple. Tu kahvé. cafeteria. See AGE. angli-cized to caffeine (or -in). (hence) hard core. also becomes Sp café. coffee . coercive. coeval . etc. See ARK. See the element -coele. coeliac . hence a place where they sell it. but also coffee.

cog . excogitation. an Arch and miners’ securing device. prob derives from cock. whence L cōgitāre. MF-F coffre. the derivative excōgitātiō (o/s -ātiōn-). whence. has the int-freq derivative agitāre (see AGITATE). to force. linked. on the other hand. excogitation. excogitator. to think actively about. cogitation. cogitative. to set astir in one’s mind.. perh via F. by suffix -cy. cogency derives. coffin. which. whence E coffin in its modern sense. ACT. q. to secure (e. from the 1st COCK. container. perh of Medit stock (? cf Eg and qar. whence. . Agere (s ag-). cogitative. excogitative and excogitator are E formations. which. to ponder deeply: the pp excōgitātus yields ‘to excogitate’. yield E coffer. The pp cōgitātus yields ‘to cogitate’. LL cōgitātiuus..a. cogitate . o/s cogitation-. excogitate. its derivative cōgitātiō. cogitator. adopted by E. MF-F cofin. (lit) drive (agere) together (co-): cf COAGULATE and. the M F cofre. E cogitation. itself from cogent-. 2. Cōgitāre has subsidiary excōgitāre. 1. cōgitātor. and. a basket.Origins 556 coffer . basket). o/s of cogens. perh via F. from cogent. at para 2. becomes LL cophinus. has derivative *co-agitāre. ML -ivus. on the one hand. to drive (see ACT). f. presp of L cogere.v. The Gr kophinos (s kophin-). to thoroughly think out. whence ME coffin. make ready a fire-arm). basket. whence ME coffre. excogitative.e.g. cofer. in turn.

cognition . whence the n recognitid. to cognize or know again (re-). an object of knowledge. cf cognitive. for recognitive. adopted by military E. o/s cognition-. has derivative cognitiō. cognizance. s recognit-. cognizable. reconissance. early form of nōscere.A-Z 557 cognac is adopted from F: made at Cognac in the department of Charente. earlier conoissance. The pp cognitus. in part. para 9. 4. See NATIVE. cognitive (-ive) arises. The effective base (f. owes its sense to L recognōscere. whence E cognition. cognate . cognation. presp of conoistre. L recognoscere has pp recognitus. cognitive. ME conisaunce. from L cognōscere. is prob a b/f from cognizance. to know (cf NOTION). whence cognizable. whence. whence OF-MF reconoistre. connoisseur. whence E recognizance.—recognition. 1. perh via F. whence. on the pp s cognit-. Recognize (whence recognizable). wholly. itself from OF-MF conoistre. from conoistre. the OF reconoissance becomes F reconnaissance. preserved in the neubecome-n cognitum. with presp reconoissant. cognizant.e. recognizable. recognize. whence ME reconissaunce.: CAN) rests upon L cognōscere. recognizant. 3. recognizance. the adj cognizant prob represents OF-MF conoissant. cognomen . the OF-MF reconoissance. Cognize. to learn about. a cpd of co-. adopted from OF-MF. recognitive. Connoisseur is adopted from F (now connaisseur): OF-MF conoisseor. reconnaissance. the E recognizant and. the E recognition. o/s recognition-. cognize. 2. together+gnōscere.a. to know.

para 4.(acc cohort em). adhaesiōn-). cohere . yields ‘to cohere’.. L cohaerēre (s cohaer-).e. See HABIT.. a farm enclosure. cf cohesive (? after adhesive).(cf the real adhaesiō. hence division of an army camp.a. o/s cohaerent-. cohort : MF-F cohorte: L cohort. coherence. E cohesion. para 10. HESITATE. yields—perh via EF-F cohérent—the adj coherent. coif . later a garden) together (co-): f. coherent.Origins . See NAME. o/s *cohaesiōn. cohesion. to stick (haerēre) together (co-). and the derivative cohaerentia—perh via EF-F cohérence—coherence. hence a subdivision of the Legion: a contraction of *cohortus. o/s of cohors.e. cohabitation. 558 cohabit . f. The pp cohaesus (s cohaes-) has subsidiary *cohaesiō. cohibition. HORTiculture. Cf ADHERE and INHERE and. its presp cohaerens. hence the appropriate number of soldiers.a. cohibit . para 11. F cohesion. See HABIT. lit an enclosure (hortus.

Now. coinage. hence v.G. who signified his approval by stamping it. with var quoin. E -age).a sharp tool. ‘To coin’ derives from OF-MF coignier. var cofea. 1954): OF-EF coing became EF-F coin. wedge. n. head-dress. wedge-shaped. he weighed the tin and then Chiselled a small piece from the corner (coign) of each block of tin and assayed it for quality before stamping it’ (W. and Skt . to dress (someone’s) hair. whence E coinage: and OF-MF coignier (later cogner) derives from OF-EF coing. by psilosis from Gr skuphion (s skuph-). See LEGEND. later a piece of metal certified by the assay-master. cf L culex. with s cun-.—cuneiform. quoin. itself from OF-MF coife or coiffe. Devon. coil . the v deriving from coiffer: and OF-F coif(f)e comes from LL cofia. a cup: shape-resemblance. a gnat. whence a wedgeshaped or triangular coin. See COIN. whence. coign . the E coif. coincidence . an angle or a corner—whence E coign—a wedge—a metal stamp. coin .Hoskins. r perh *cu-. skull. n. mdfn of skuphos. coign. Specialized in Arch as ‘a solid exterior angle’. via ME coyfe. para 6. cap. n and v (whence coiner. whence coignaige (-aige=F -age. coiffure. OF-EF coing derives from L cuneus.A-Z 559 . derive from MF-F coiffer. adopted by E. coining). earlier cuphia. in tin-mining. adopted from F. coiffeur. Both the 2nd and the 3rd. From cuneus: cuneiform.

and OE heals: IE r. whence ME coler. with cpd collarbone (cf BONE). . Col. from It colare. in a mountain chain. pith. coller. para 7. coītion: L coitum. a pass that. a filter. for colke. a hole (id in MLG): cf E dial kelk. collarbone. a sieve). L collum has adj collāris. any hollowstalked plant. because it is the residue of coal after it has been ‘destructively distilled’: Webster. a sieve (cf L cōlātōrium. o/s coitiōn-: f. from syn L cōlāre. or.a. supine of coīre..e. sieve. whence the n collāre (prob elliptical for collāre uinculum. is adopted from OF-F: L collum. strainer. whence E collar. neck. coincident. itself from L cōlum. app comes either from It colino. coincidental. core. less prob. ON hals. coīt . perh influenced by ME cole. neck-bond). to go together. core or pith. 1. ML cōlātor. often phon spelt cullender. separates two adjacent peaks.Origins 560 . OHG. who adduces Sw kalk. s col-: cf OFris. to strain or filter. hence for straining. coal: the ‘core’. ISSUE. and Gr gelgis (s gelg-). derivative L coitiō. whence Sp colador. to turn. coler. 2. whence OF-MF colier. Go. The EDD offers E dial colk(e) or coke. coke : ? ME coke. See CADENCE. ‘to collar’ derives from the n. clove of garlic. collar. (a dish) to be strained or sieved. colander . from L (lanx) cōlanda. and adduces OFris kolk. col . perh *kol-.

of course. JELLY. Colic derives from MF-F colique: L colica. kale. the colon. whence.A-Z 561 cold . OHG-G kalt. ME cold.f. Kale is the N form: Sc kale or cale or kail. cabbage salad. cole . GLACIER. (part of) the large intestine. colon (in An). with var *gel-. The adj cold. coldness. cawl. collaborate . adopted by E. akin to OFris and OS kald. earlier cald. and gelū. ME col. identical with the E word. The AE coleslaw. IE r. intimately akin to ON kāl: L caulis (s caul-). 1. colic . akin to Gr kaulos (s kaul-). coleslaw. Go kalds. adj of kolon. the plants rape and kale. n from the f of the adj colicus. Cf CHILL and COOL and GELID. derives from OE cald. collaboration. . collaborator. frost. adj. very cold. *gal-. severe cold. ON kaldr. cāwel. E colic has dial and coll redup collywobbles. L colon. by suffix -ness. represents D kool sla. s. derives from OE cāl. See LABOR. hence n and v (OE cealdian) and. 2. a stalk. stomach-ache. var ceald. Cole. from Gr kolikos. kool being MD cole. sick with colic. more remotely to L gelidus. The Gr kolon has cognates in Arm and Lith. colewort (cf WORT).

meal. collation. colleague . Note that the E collation is lit a bringing together. See COLLATE.. See LABOR. hence a comparison of. See the 1st TOLL. collar . para 6.g. para 2. manuscripts. See LATERAL. collateral . collation . para 2. orig a light evening meal in monastery. collarbone.Origins 562 collapse . hence a meal. e. See COL. collate . after the reading aloud of collations. or Lives of the Fathers’ (EW). para 2.

collie . EIr cale. collide . See LEGEND. collegiate. collection. para 7. college . collier . collector. See LEGAL. para 6.A-Z . 563 collect . colleen : Ir cailīn. Cf the suffix -een. collective. See COAL. collision. girl. para 3. para 7. dim of caile (id in Ga). para 3. See LESION. See LEGAL.

Origins . collocution . See locate at LOCAL. para 3. collimation. collodion . 564 collimate . See LESION. para 2. collocation. collocative. para 5. para 5. colliery. collision . collineate . See LOQUACIOUS. See LINE. See LINE. collocutor. collineation. collimator. collocate . para 3. See COAL.

colloid. colluvial . See LAVA. colluvies. See COLIC. glue+ -ōdēs. See LOQUACIOUS. See colony at COLONIAL. collusive. -like.A-Z 565 . from eidos. Cologne . para 4. para 9. collude . Both come from Gr kollōdēs. colloquy. form: cf the suffixes -ion and -oid. collywobbles . See LUDICROUS. s. like glue: kolla. para 3. colloquial .f. colon (1) . with adj colloidal. adj hence n. collusion.

hence member (clause) of a sentence. colonial . See COLONIAL. Colonial is adopted from F: its source the MF-F colonie derives. para 2. from L colōnia (whence Cologne). 566 colon (2) . Colonist and colonize (whence colonization) are E -ist. limb. to cultivate: cf CULT. from colonna. colony. from colere. from Gr kōlon. adj hence n. whence semicolon. See COLIC. colony . a settler. a column (cf COLUMN) of soldiers. See COLUMN. colonel . in punctuation. colonist. colonnade . orig a farmer. . -ize formations from either or both of E colony and L colōnia. member. comes. large intestine. an -ia derivative of colōnus.Origins . This 2nd colon has come. like E colony (perh with F intervention). whence coloneley. through L colon. colonize colonization. straight from EF: It colonnello. like earlier coronel.

varnish does. HILL. See prec. comes from OF-MF descolorer: des. color . a metrical foot of three long syllables. (hence) finishing stroke or touch: s koloph-.. the State of Colorado. to conceal. derives not by adoption from L color (s col-) but through OF color. trln of Gr kolossos. e. hill: f. Colorado .a.e. discoloration blends ‘to discolo(u)r’ + coloration. r kol-. 2. . The Gr kolossos is prob akin to Gr kolophōn.for dis+colorer from L colorāre. ‘To discolo(u)r’. var colour (cf the assimilated F couleur): and L color is very prob akin to L re/are (s cel-).of L collis. para 2.v. summit. huge. akin to the col. o/s colorātiōn-. used also as adj for ‘reddish’. itself orig the neu of L colosseus.g. L colorāre becomes Sp colorare. Colosseum. The derivative colorāre. whence late MF-F and E coloration. The 4th is a var of the 3rd. 3. E molossus. colossus. derivatively. q. to colour—E ‘to colour’ derives from OF-F colorer—has subsidiary colorātiō. Coliseum. colosseus became (EF-F and) E colossal. L colorābilis yields colo(u)rable. from colossus. a huge statue. Coloratura—orig. ME descolouren. hence Rio Colorado and. ML—is imported from Italy. cf Gr Molosso s. colossal . as. with pp Colorado.A-Z 567 colophon : LL: Gr kolophōn. colour. at COLOPHON: in form..

the little grebe. The IE r. columnist. 1. sep colonel.o. a summit (cf CULMINATE and. young horse—ass—camel: OE colt. coulter: ME colter. would be *kel-. any cutter. therefore. Hence coltish.Origins 568 colour . an Arch column. but certainly from) LL columbīna. columniation. A columnist (suffix -ist) writes literary or journalistic columns: and column derives from L columna. colonnade. of or like a columba or dove: ‘from the fancied resemblance of its inverted flower to a group of five pigeons’ (Webster). young ass or camel: mainly Scan: ult akin to CHILD. colter . column . . esp ploughshare and knife: o. colt : ME colt. akin to L columen. culter: OE culter: L culter. ‘both birds having been named from their colour’ (Boisacq): cf kelainos. sombre. from columbīnus. var *kol-. See COLOR. sombre. columbine : (perh via MF-EF colombine. With L columba. columnar. cf Gr kolumbos.o.

n hence v: OE camb. gomphios. tooth. coma (2) . 2. whence F colonnade. last sentence. combatant. and Skt jámbhas. adopted by E. HILL).A-Z 569 f. I sleep profoundly. coma (1) : Gr kōma. supported with columns. See COOMB. Columna becomes It colonna. lethargy. I lull to sleep. combative. nebulous mass. var *gombh-. The Arch columniation is oddly formed from L columnātus.. *gambh-. blur of light. . akin to OHG kamb (G Kamm) and ON kambr: more remotely. combe . adj).a.is formed the E adj comatose (suffix -ose). molar tooth. See COMET. and koimaō. intimately akin to kōmainō. tusk: IE r. whence colonnata. r kōm-.e. cf the suffix -ade. On the o/s komat. (lit) profound sleep. combat . to Gr gomphos. comb . para 3. See 2nd BAT. its LL adj columnāris yields E columnar (-ar. s kōmain-.

parvenu. together+bini. outcome. two at a time. cf also Skt gámāmi. IE *gwem. Skt . s bain-. whence OF-F.Origins 570 combine . MD comen. etc. pp of combūrere. which. burnt. from bis. prevent— convention. commen. s cum-: akin to OFris kuma. convent. combustion. combustion—from combust. intervene—advent. treated sep. s uen-. preventive. to burn. suggested by the 2nd. the o/s of LL combīnātiō-. twice: cf BINARY. convene. koma. invent. with such adjj as conventional. and such Gr cognates as acrobat and the n base: all recorded sep in this dict. whence ‘a combine’: com-. whence. to burn on both sides.and prob r ū-: cf Gr heuō. MHG komen. comes from combination-. I burn. such F ‘intermediaries’ as adventure. Skt . for the pp ustus. cf Gr bainein. formed—like LL combustiō. The 3rd is an E formation (-ive). the s of combustus. has s ur. D komen. come . Adopted from MF-F. But cf such Latin cognates as advene. avenue (and venue). revenue— provenance. itself from LL combīnāre. combination. prevention. pp come. v hence n. hence E. ‘To come’ derives. virtually a blend of co-urere. . presp (and vn) coming. combustible suggests a LL *combustibilis.or *guem-: cf L uenire (ML venire). burnt up). The principal prefix-cpds are: become. event. Go qiman. combustible . obvious cpds. come-back. o/s combustion-. 3. I go. invention. income. perh via MF-EF. to go. The etym constellation of come is too vast to be conveniently grouped. perh via MF-F combiner. subvention. for *guemīre.(cf the obs E adj combust. ON koma: Gmc *kwem-. the E ‘to combine’. OS cuman or k-. combinative. pt came. 1. and. L urere. G kommen. OHG queman. 2. sep become. to burn together or simultaneously+ambūrere. through ME comen. from OE cuman. oncoming. incoming. earlier cumen. oncome.

comedy .. MHG kūme. See EDIBLE. oncome. komē becomes L coma. scarcely. (lit) the long-haired. comedian. and MHG kūm. comet . from komē. on-kume. ult from OE utcymen. See ODE. n. from koman. to wear one’s hair long. trin of Gr komētēs. and OHG chūma. for utan-cumen. by -līc . para 3. derives. whence comeliness (-ness): ME comlich or comeliche. whence adjj cometary (cf F cométaire) and cometic. mainly Sc: ME on-come.o. comédienne. earlier cumlich: OE (E -like) from .o. fine. weak.) comestible . var of comētes. (Walshe. on-kumen. and G kaum. comfit . comedic. outcome. vi. from L comtēa. like OF-F comète. adopted by E Astr and Bot. hair. ME on-comen. tender. app derives from obs ‘to income’ (OE incuman). comely . prob from obs outcome. adj. oncoming. n. para 2. delicate: akin to OHG chūmo. sorrow. pretty. from presp of obs oncome. vi. elliptical for astēr komētēs. long-haired star. beautiful.A-Z 571 income. weakly (adv). n (cf REVENUE). itself o.

r kop-: IE r *kap-. Cf CAPON. para 7. comfrey . earlier cosmis. to smile. comfortable. f. from cōmis. perh from IE r *smei. varr *kep. courteous. comic(al) . clause.Origins . to cut off: s *kopt-.) comma : L comma. (E & M. See SOLID. See FORCE. with co-(for con-. courtesy. See ODE. para 7. para 2. to laugh (cf SMILE). affable. (later) comma: Gr komma.and *kop-: cf Alb kep. para 4. o/s cōmitāt-. comity : L cōmitās. ? for *koptma. from cum. . 572 comfort . See CONFECTION. from koptein. clause. with) used as an int prefix. s. I cut or dress stone.

commend . again+commencer. commemoration. commemorative. recommencement. And OF-F commencer—whence OF-F commencement. from OF-F recommencer: re-. See MANUAL. an int (com-. commandery. Recommencement. adopted from EF-F. See commence . commemorable . by suffix -ment. INITIAL. whence ME comencer. with. commandment. commemorate. commencement. commander. para 22. MEMORY. commendatory. commandant. together) of initiāre (orig ‘to initiate’ someone into esp a religion. commensurable . See MEASURE. adopted by E—is OF comencer. commmemorator.e. recommence.a. from C5). commensurate. then. commendation. whence ‘to commence’. para 6. . OF comencer derives from VL *cominitiāre. para 6. derives.A-Z 573 command (n and v). ‘to begin’: f. See MANUAL. commandeer. para 24..

See MIND. para 7. para 3. para 2. See MINOR. commutation . para 2. commentary. commentation.Origins 574 comment . commentate. See MARKET. commerce . commercial. para 15. commiseration. commère . . comminute . v. comminution. commiserative. See MISER. n. para 4. comminatory. commentator. See MINATORY. commiserate . See FATHER.

para 9. commodious. See MISSION. See MODAL. commissure . See MIX. See MODAL. . committee. commissioner. commissionaire. para 8. commission (n hence v). commix . para 11. commissariat. commode . commodation. para 8. coramodate . commit . para 14.A-Z 575 commissar . commissary. commodity. See MISSION. para 8. See MISSION.

orig merely common wealth. from the adj commun. one who holds something in common. public welfare: cf VOLITION. communicable. commonweal and commonwealth. the MF communalté (F communauté). food eaten in common).v. from commūnicāre. commoner. communicative: prob via MF-F communicative. from LL commūnālis. commonsense. to take Communion. para 2. v. o/s communication-. commonweal. Commonness merely attaches the suffix -ness.Origins 576 commodore : earlier commandore: prob D kommandeur: certainly OF-F commandeur. communicate. knowledge). 3. communicant. to F communal (see para 3). common . blends as it were the two predominant ME forms. communication. Common.—commune (cf the adj communal) and ‘to commune’. earlier common sense: cf the F le sens commun and see SENSE. hence. f of communicatif. commun and comon: OF-MF comun. communication. from *commūnicus. from commūnicātus. commonsense. commonalty anglicizes. from L commūnicant-. 2. adopted from OF-F. pp of commūnicāre. at MANUAL. to render available to all. commonness. itself from OF-MF communer. itself prompted by Gr topos koinos. commoner. communicatory. communiqué. para 22. 1. communicate. earlier common weal: archaic form of commonwealth. OF-F commun: L commūnis. n. to impart (news. in the ME period. . para 17. q. hence nn common (land held in common) and commons (the Commons. adj (with neg uncommon). The L origin appears very clearly in: communal. mdfn of L commūnis. deriving from ‘to commune’. sep MEAN. such cpds. communicable. adj. to be consulted f.a. Cpds worth a remark include: commonplace. presp of commūnicāre. from the v commander: cf command. Communion. as commonplace (n hence adj). o/s of commūnicans. for -tie. from LL commūnicābilis. mdfn of commūnis. communist (adj communistic). prob via MF-F. commune. adopted from MF-F. community. commonalty. to share. LL commūnicātiuus. held in common. from L commūnicātiō. in LL. communicative (neg in-). communion. communicant. from ML commūnicātivus. perh suggested by OF-MF communier.e. all easily derivable. which attaches -té. imitative—cf F lieu commun—of L locus commūnis.

4. commotion . LL excommūnicāre. communicative. 5. from commūnis. from F communisme. See COMMON. with pp excommūnicātus (used also as n). The prefix cpds are two: LL incommūnicābilis. from F communiste. an official occupation (with secondary sense ‘present one gives’—cf REMUNERATE)+-is. communion . with+munus. held in common. communité. whence E (and EF-F) incommunicable. communicate . explains excommunication. n from the pp of MF-F communiquer. o/s commūniōn-. from L commūnitās (o/s commūnitāt-). whence the E ‘to excommunicate’ and the pa and n excommunicate.A-Z 577 communicatory. See COMMON. Communion is a sharing with God. to communicate. from L commūniō. to exclude from the Eucharist. from LL commūnicatōrius. communication. o/s excommūnicātiōn-. community. and communist. para 10. perh via OF-F. Basic idea of munus is ‘exchange’: see MEAN. communism. adj suffix. para 3. n and v. derivative LL excommūnicātiō. L commūnis=com-. commove. derivative LL excommūnicator is adopted by E. See MOVE. communion. communiqué. para 3. from OF-MF communeté. commune .

n hence v. para commutable . compaction. companionable. communist. See COMMON. comparative. See PACT. Communion. See PANTRY. communism. commuter. para 3.Origins 578 . companionway. commutator. compare (v hence n). etc. compart . comparison. commute. para 5. para 18. compact . comparator. commutation. company. companion . para 9. companionship. See PART. See MUTABLE. See PAIR. para 8. See COMMON. compartition. 3. comparable. commutative. companionate. . compartment. para 3.

para 7. para 8. para 5. See PATIENCE. para 14. compatibility. compendent . compendious. compassion . compassionate (adj and v). para 15. See FATHER. See PEND. compendium.f. See PAIR. compatible. See PACE. para 5. compellation. n and v. See the 2nd PULSE. compel . s.A-Z 579 compass . . compeer . compatriot .

See PLEASE. para 15. competence. compete . competition. See PETITION. compilation derives.e. .Origins 580 compensate . complacent. to press. compensator.a. together+piiare (s pīl-). prob via MF-F. See PEND. competent. PILE. L pilare derives from plla. to press together. para 4. hence to gather together. Derivative MF-F compiler leads to E compile. compensatory. para 3. compensative. See FATHER. para 9. pillar. complacence (or complacency). hence to compile: com-. compère . compensate.. compensation. competitor. itself from compīlāre. competitive. from L compīlātiō (o/s compilation-). pillar: f.

. completion. complexity. See PLY. complaisance . complemental. complainant. complaisant. para 3. para 9. para 9. complement (n hence v). complete . See PLANE. complanate . complaint.A-Z 581 complain . complementary. See PLEASE. complex . para 20. See PLENARY. complanation. para 8. See the 2nd PLAIN. complexion. adj and n. para 9. See PLENARY.

compliment (n and v). complication. complicate. complot . para 9. para 23. para 21. See PLANE. complice . . para 10.Origins 582 compliance . compliant. complin (AE). complicity. complimentary. See PLY. See PLY. para 11. compline. See COMPLY. complicant . See PLENARY. See PLENARY.

on anl of pliant. orig to complete. para 4. compost and compote. compose . See POSE. ‘To comply’ derives from It complire. cumplir: cf COMPLIMENT. composite. compound (1) . whence pa composed and agent composer. comportment. adj hence n. compliance. component . compliant. compliant. to compliment. compositor. para 6. from Sp complir. Compliance=compliant+-ce. See the 3rd PORT. influenced by the n in: compound (2) . an enclosure: Mal . para 6. See POSE. composition. composure. comport .A-Z 583 comply .

s.f. compulsion . compromise . para 7. See POSE. para 20. compressor. comprehensive. compression. See MISSION.f.Origins 584 . whence adj and n compound and agent compounder and pa and vn compounding. n hence v. See PREHEND. para 9. comprehensible. para 6. See the 2nd PRESS. compromit. occ comprize. See ROLL. comprehension. to combine. comptroller . See PREHEND. compromissary. para 5. compress . comprehend . para 7. to mix. s. comprise .

See ODE. See CAMERA. para 2. See the 2nd COUNT. See PUNGENT. con . para 8. compulsive. compunction . para 19. compute. para 2. See the 2nd PULSE. Comus . concatenate . compulsory. See CAN. computation . para 4. para 3. to learn by reading.A-Z 585 . comrade .

See CAPABILITY. conceive. concenter . concavity. conceal . a -ment formation from OF-MF conceler (il conceile. See CAPABILITY. See CAVE. and conceler derives from L concelāre. concealment. 586 concave .a.. conceivable . concatenation. he conceals). para 7. conceit . an int (con-) of celāre. HILL. to hide. at concipere. concede .Origins . The latter comes from MF concelement. See CHAIN. See CEDE. para 2.e. s cel-: f. para 7. at concipere. para 5. para 3. whence ‘to conceal’.

1. to regard. CERTAIN. concentration. whence n. concentric . concertina. decided. a concerted piece of music. I combine. para 7. (hence) to concern. itself from ML concernere. formed upon Gr .) concert . to act together. compare. (E & M. to mingle together. concentrate. Prob on the anl of other musical instruments: concertina from concert: perh. from LL concernere. to contend. to pass through a sieve. hence the F concert. disconcertion. decide. See CENTRE.A-Z 587 . and concernment (by suffix ment). certain: f. See CENTRE. para 2. suggested by It concertino. and falsely referred to cernere. the pa concerned. perh from EF-F n concert but prob from It concertare.a. hence sure. to strive. ‘To disconcert’ derives from obs F disconcerter (dis+concerter). to mix. conception. agreement. the prep concerning. a development. The It concertare has derivative con-certo. 2.. concern . concept . sunknno. active agreement. n. ‘To concert’: EF-F concerter. a brief concert. however. determined. to agree. pa disconcerted. from certus. adopted by E. para 3. See CAPABILITY. a concert. 3. dim of . disconcert.with+certāre. L concertāre. to be rivals: con. v (whence pa concerted). v. ‘To concern’ derives from MF-F concerner.e. hence disconcertion. later a musical concert.

reconciliation. 2. becomes—perh via late MF-F—concision.. Derivative L concīsiō. COUNCIL) has pp conciliātus whence ‘to conciliate’ . from L reconciliare. o/s reconciliātiōn-. perh orig echoic: akin to Skt conciliate . The former (cf EF-F concis) represents L concīsus. to E recon-ciliation. o/s conciliātiōn-. o/s concīsiōn-. used int+ caedere.Origins concerto. 1. . conciliator. to bring together again. to reunite: re-+conciliāre. trln of Gr konkhē . Derivative L reconciliātiō. concessive. shell. Conch derives from L concha. reconciliatory. . to cut: cf CAESAR. perh via MF-F. concision. derivative L conciliātiō. conch. prob suggested the E adj concili-atory. leads. conciliatory. explains MF-F and E conciliation. L conciliator. reconciliatory=re-+conciliatory. adopted by E (cf MF-F concilateur). L conciliāre (f. reconcile. conciliation. to cut into pieces: con-. cut off short.a. 588 concession .e. See CEDE. conch . perh via OF-F. ‘To reconcile’ comes. cf the element concho-. whence conchoid (-oid). para 5. orig the pp of concīdere. para 1. concise .

an agreeing.a. ‘with (con-) a key (clāuis)': a key-lockable (room): f. conclusion. para 5. para 4. f. has derivative concordia.A-Z 589 conclamant : conclamation.. L concors. to close: cf CLAUSE and CLAVICLE. (general) agreement. arise: conclūsiō.a. heart). ML -ivus. para 2. o/s of concordans. o/s conclūsiōn-. L conclāue. via OF-F concorde. to be in agreement. orig the neu of *conclāuis. concoct.e. adopted from OF-F. On conclūs-. concomitant . whence. See 1st COUNT (nobleman). See CLAIM. the E n concord. concoction. . s of the pp conclūsus. with+caw. whence E conclusive. concord . LL conclūsiuus. conclusive.e. perh via MF-F. CLAVICLE. o/s concord-. Cf decoct and see COOK. formed upon concordant. the E conclusion. via F. gen cordis. concordant Concordance. int (con-) of claudere. the E adj concordant). conclave: MF-F: ML conclāve. from adj concors (con-. comes from LL concordantia.(whence. Cf CORDIAL. agreeing. Cf: conclude . whence. concordance. ‘To conclude’ derives from L conclūdere. presp of concordāre.

para 5 and heading. to desire: cf cupidity at COVET. See COURSE. para 10. o/s of concupiscens.Origins 590 concourse . concretion. on concupiscent. The 2nd derives from L concupiscent-. concubinage. from LL concupiscibilis: concupiscere+ -ibilis (E -ible).arises the LL concupiscentia. concupiscent. presp of concupiscere. . concurrent. prob via MF-F. concupiscence . para 5. See COURSE. See CRESCENT. See HIVE. prob via MF-F. inch of concupere. concrete . the E concupiscence. concubine . concupiscible. concur . to desire ardently: con-+cupere. concurrence. concupiscible derives. para 2. whence.

whence pa condensed. conduction .e. condemnatory. condemnation.A-Z 591 concuss . Derivative L concussiō. to shake (quatere) violently (con.a.. para 8. from LL condensātiō. para 7 (at condicere). from L condensāre (int con-+densāre. condense .a. See DICT. condemn . ‘To concuss’ represents L concussus. concussion. condescend . to thicken: f. QUASH. whence. perh via MF-F. The n derives.used int): f. . condescension.. See DAMN.e. DENSE). ‘to condense’. pp of concutere. condensation. o/s condensation-. o/s concussiōn-. See ASCEND. via MF-F condenser. explains concussion.

condone. condition . from L condīmentum. very (int con-) worthy (dignus: f.a. See DOLOR. to pickle. a spice.e.Origins 592 condign . condonation . from condīre. See DICT. conditionate. through MF-F. . DIGNITY). para 10. condominium . See DONATION. well-deserved: MF-EF condigne: L condignus. condiment derives. para 2. See dominium in DOMESTIC.. para 2. condole . conditional. condolence. para 5.

conduce . The geom cone derives from the cone of a tree. n hence v. See DUKE. conductance. See DUKE. conduit . conductor. conifer. cone . para 9. Cf: conduct .A-Z 593 condor : Sp cóndor: Quechuan condor. See DUKE. s . para 8. adj coniferous. conic (whence conics) and conical. conduction. esp of a pine: L cōnus: Gr kōnos. para 6. See DUKE. condottiere . para 6. 1. conducive. conductive (whence -ivity).

whence confectioner and confectionery (-ery): cf para 3. See FABLE. 2. confectionery. The 3rd=the 1st+-ment. orig in It sense ‘confections. to make: f. L conficere. confetti. with extension conical. L conficere becomes OF-F confire. pp desconfit. from ML conferentia. conferment. confabulation. The Gr adj kōnikos becomes EF-F conique and E conic. to consult: . the E confection. comfit. See FEDERAL. via late MF-F conférence.Origins 594 kōn-(=IE *kō-+n infix). adopted by E. The L cpd adj cōnifer. confederate. conference. used also as n. formed from the o/s of the presp of conferre. has pp confectus. 2. to bring together.e. confection . pp confetto. Conficere has in VL the cpd disconficere. 1. whence OF desconfire. with pi confetti. L conficere becomes It confire. confectioner. para 2. confederacy .a. confabulate . cone-bearing (cf element -fer). becomes. the 2nd derives. OF desconfire has derivative desconfiture. whence the E ‘to discomfit’. pp confit. confer . whence E discomfiture. to prepare (int con-+facere. 3. with conse-quent adj coniferous (cf -ferous at -fer). via OF-F. sweetmeats’. confederation. FACT). para 1. whence the rare E v confect. derivative L confectiō.. is adopted by E as a n. with its n use borrowed by E in form comfit. o/s con fectiōn-.

See FIGURE. confid-ante. configuration . The 2nd. from L confessiō. confidant. and its subsidiary n confessionāle becomes EF-F confessional. Conferre yields ‘to confer’. to confess. para 3. para 5.e. confessional (adj. to confess. to . confident. bring: f. passes into E. s of confessus. pp of confitēri. via OF-F. to speak: cf PROFESS. confessor. Confession derives. to bear. confetti . n). LL confessor. via OF-F.A-Z 595 con-+ferre. confess . from L confess-. FERRY. confide . See FAITH. confine (n and v). derives by suffix -ment from MF-F confiner. adopted from EF-F (obs).. akin to fāri. from LL confessāre. adopted by E. the derivative ML adj confessionōlis yields E confessional (adj). See CONFECTION. int (con-) of fatēri. confidence. confinement.a. para 12. adopted by OF (whence the F confesseur). confession. ‘To confess’ derives. o/s confessiōn-.

o/s of confirmātiō. limits. conflagration . Confiscāre. esp in pi fines. end. itself from L confirmātus. See FLATUS. the E confines. The last is an E formation: -ory attached to confirmat. by b/f. MF-F confirmer and ME confermen. conflation. the sing confine. from firmus. to hold within limits. FINAL. from confiscāre. whence ‘to confiscate’.Origins 596 border upon. to strengthen. solid: see FIRM). . limiting. and MF confines represents LL confines. The last is an E formation. from the L adj confinis. -firmen. later to confirm. confirm . from L confiscātiōn-. bordering: int con-+finis. confiscation. confirmation. See FLAGRANT. prob via MF-F.. whence ‘to confine’. a treasurer. the E ‘to confirm’. pp of confirmāre (int con-+firmāre. firm. conflate . MF-F confiner derives from *OF-MF confines (later confins). confirmation derives.a. a treasuring). via MF-F. to safeguard in a special basket or fiscus: see FISCAL. via OF-EF confermer. borders: f. para 2. confiscation derives. whence.e. confirmative and confirmatory. from L confirmatiōn-. confiscator. confiscatory. confiscate (adj and v). confiscator is sense-adapted from L confiscātor. to strengthen. whence. whence. has pp confiscātus. para 4. from LL confirmātiuus (ML -ivus). o/s of confiscātiō (lit. borders. esp in sense ‘to appropriate for the treasury’. indeed.as in confirmative.

conflictive and conflictory. to strike or clash (flīgere) together. the derivative LL n conflictus (gen -us) yields ‘a conflict’. connection. -ent. conformity.A-Z 597 conflict . conform . para 5. para 5. pp of conflīgere. See the 2nd FOUND. See FLUENT. . becomes confliction. the s of L conflictus. See FORM. the abstract conflictiō. to conflict: cf AFFLICT and INFLICT. para 6. confrontation. confront . v. See FRONT. confluence . L conflictus yields E ‘to conflict’. o/s conflictiōn-. para 4. n. confound . conformation. The two adjj are of E formation from conflict-.

or both. ‘to congeal’ derives from MF-F congeler. See GENERAL. confute . perh via MF-F congélation. int con-+futāre. congelation. ‘K’ungmaster’. (Enci It. The 3rd derives. See the 2nd FOUND. from confutāre. the E ‘to confute’. the 2nd derives from confutātiōn-. confusion. confutation. perh an int or a freq. of Pekinese K’ung fu-tzu. o/s congelātiōn-. congeal . to freeze (gelāre: cf JELLY) hard (int con-). the 2nd=‘to congeal’+-ment. o/s of L confutātiō. congealment. of fundere (see the 2nd FOUND): cf REFUTE. confutative. K’ung the philosopher: K’ung was his family name. from congelāre. The 3rd=confute+-ative. perh via EF-F (obsol). whence. from L congelātiō.) confuse . from congelāre. Cf: . to fell.Origins 598 Confucius : L form. Hence the adj Confucian. congener . para 20. to abase. earlier Confutius. para 5.

gongrus: Gr gongros . para 20. para 8. para 9. mostly as pa congested. See GERUND.A-Z 599 congenial . in LL and glossaries. conger : ME congre. congeries . conglomerate . whence congeniality. congest . See GENERAL.being due to the frequency of conin L words: akin to Gr gongulos . See GENERAL. congrus. See GERUND. the L con. congestion. Cf: congenital . para 20. round or rounded. congestive. and. var cungre: MF-F congre: L conger. var ganger.

the E congruity. L congruentia. o/s incongruitāt-. 1. See GRADE. congratulation. to come together (con-). congress . perh via EF-F incongruité. to rush into)+ ruere. . para 7. congruity. to be harmonious: con-+formative g (cf ingruere. pp of conglomerāre. LL congruitās. incongruity. whence E congruence and var congruency. conglomeration. congregate . See GRACE. congregation. Incongruous comes from L incongruus. para 11. congruent.gruent . whence E con. ruin: f. L congruens. to rush. Cf CLAM. from LL incongruitās. incongruous. congratulatory. incongruity. a (down)fall. formed from conglomerātus. para 5. RUIN. perh via late MF-F congruité. incongruence. formed from incongruent-. incongruence from L incongruentia. whence. o/s congruent-. with adj congregational. 2. adj hence v. incongruent. These neg (in-) L forms may be referred to: L congruus.Origins 600 . congruence (or congruency). o/s of conglomerātiō.e.. congratulate . The latter—cf AGGLOMERATION—derives from conglomerātiōn-. congruous. whence E congruous: from L congruere.a. congressional. to roll together (con-) as if into a ball (glomus). adj (whence n and v). to coincide. See GREGAL. harmony. o/s of L incongruens. itself akin to ruīna.

from ML conjectūra. s coniectūr-.e. n. most prob. comes—perh via EF-F—from ML conjectūrālis. coniferous). conjecture (n.. conjugative. however. from the LL coniectūrāre. resp para 13 and para 14. Cf: conjugal . LL coniectūra. the v conjecture perh derives either from the E n or from MF-F conjecturer (from F conjecture). JACULATE. conjunction. the adj conjectural. conjectural. to throw: f. ML conjectūr-. Conjective adds adj -ive to the obs v conject. L coniectūrālis. conjugation. hence to conjecture. conjugate (adj. conics. Conjectūre. conjoin . conjuration . an int of coniicere (pp coni(i)ectus). v). conjuncture. from ML conjectāre. para 17. See CONE.a. to conjecture.A-Z 601 conic(al) . derives. conjugant. See JOIN. See JOIN. conjoint. to throw (con-). conjunctivitis. conjunctive (adj hence n). conject . from the pp s coniect-. LL coniectāre. conjunct. v). -iicere being a c/f of iacere. conjective. perh via F. n. but.

See NATIVE. connive. var conjurer. See COGNITION. conjure. earlier connivence. connatural. L conniuere. to wink: whence ‘to connive’. para 2. connection or connexion. OFris hnīga. whence connector or -er. to shut. para 9. See the 2nd NET. connote: cf denote. connivance . connect . para 8. but see NOT-ABLE. ML conivere. connate . to bend. derives either from EF-F connivence or its source.) Connivance. (Cf OE . IE r. para 4. esp the eyes (to). connotation . to lean upon. para 9. LL coniuentia. Go hneiwan. ML con(n)iventia. perh *kneigh-.Origins 602 . OS and OHG hnīgan. conused int+a cognate of nictāre. See JURY. connoisseur . . connective (whence connectivity). and conjury (now usu conjuring). better coniuere (or -ere). whence conjuror.

conscription. See SCRIBE. . See QUERY. conquer (whence pa conquering). See SCIENCE. consanguineous . consciousness. consecration. conscribe . conquest. consecratory. conscript. See SACRAMENT. Conquistador. consecrate (whence pa consecrated). consanguinity. conscience . See SANGUINARY. conscionable and unconscionable. para 5. para 8. See LYMPH. para 4. para 15. para 11. conscientious. conscious. para 5. conqueror.A-Z 603 connubial .

consentaneous. conservation. consentience. para 8. v. conservatism. conservancy. para 15. consentive. consension . consequence . consent . See SEQUENCE. consensus. See SERIES. consequent. conservator. para 8. n. See SENSE. consecutive. conserve . n. para 8. . para 15. See SENSE. See SEQUENCE. conservative (adj hence n).Origins 604 consecution . consentient. conservatory and conservatoire. v. consertal .

ML conservant-. inconsiderate. is adopted by E. L conseruāre. pl dēsīderāta. ML conservatōrius. inconsideration. the E consideration.is ‘not’. considerable. inconsideration. ‘To consider’ derives from OF-F considérer. appears in L conseruātiō. 2. the E conservative. yields the adj conservant. The base is ML servāre. in. the E conservation. perh akin to L seruus. neu dēsīderātum. ML conservātiōn-. the r si-. Consīderāre has derivatives: LL consīderābilis. s serv. adopted by E. perh via F. ML conservāt-. ML conservantia. L seruāre. pp used as adj for ‘carefully examined’.(L). whence ‘to desiderate’. consign . used as n. inconsiderate. consideration. becomes E desiderative. The pp conseruātus. considerate. prob via OF-F. from L inconsiderātus. whence conservatism. s conseruāt-. L consīderātus. L conseruātor. hard to understand. LL conseruātiuus. o/s conseruant-. the E n coming from the ML neu conservatōrium used as n. o/s consīderātiōn-. *guardian. used also as n. to cease to view. The L presp conseruans. int (con-) of seruāre. sīderālis. o/s inconsiderātiōn-. mostly in pi sidera. ML -ivus. o/s dēsīderātiōn-becomes E desideration. PRESERVE.(ML) or seru. the word is perh Medit: cf Eg siu. hence homo consīderātus. from L consīderāre. and prob akin to L seruīre. neg: inconsiderable. with pp dēsīderātus. whence both EF-F considérable and E considerable. whence. very prob via MF-F. whence E considerate. whence also the F conservatoire. RESERVE. 1. from LL inconsiderātiō. hence to regret the absence of. yields the adj conservatory. to serve: cf the other cpds OBSERVE. with prob r ser-. to examine carefully. ML conservāre. LL conseruatōrius. Inconsiderable derives from LL inconsiderābilis. whence the blended E sidereal) comes L dēsīderāre. slave. one who thus considers others. and LL dēsīderātiuus. the derivative LL conseruantia. ML conservātor. consider . 3. derivative dēsīderātiō. its derivative consīderātiō. Likewise from sīdus (adjj sīdereus. becomes OF-F conserver becomes ‘to conserve’. whence.A-Z 605 1. to keep safe or well. are adopted by E. the stars: if the s be sid-. 2. prob orig a term in augury and therefore deriving from sidus (o/s sider-). o/s conseruātiōn-. ML conservātive. yields. OF conserver has derivative MF-F n conserve. yields conservancy. In all. to preserve.

s. console (v). consignee. See SIST. console . consignor. para 13. consolation . para 6. consignation. See SIGN. n. INSIGNIA.f. consignification .Origins 606 . consolidation. See SOLACE. par 3. consolatory. consistence (or -ency). consistent. para 13. consols . consist . consolidate . para 6. consignify. RESIGN—but see SIGN. consignment. See consolidate at SOLID. etc. Cf DESIGN. See SOLID. consistory.

See SERIES. consonant. para 6. consortium. conspicuity . See SON ABLE. See SOLID. See SUM. See consolidate at SOLID. consort . para 6. para 5.f. consonance . s. See SPECTACLE. para 8. conspectus . 607 consommé . para 7.A-Z . para 6. consortion. consound .

the predominant adj is now constabular. conspire. 608 conspiracy . constabulary (adj hence n). adopted from OF-MF (OF var cunestables). para 22. conspiratorial. See the 2nd SPIT. count of the stable. constancy . by. See STAND. Derivative ML constabulārius. derives from earlier ME conestable.f. the officer in charge of the Emperor’s stable. constat . conspirator. See SPECTACLE. later the head of the household army: lit. constable . para 8. para 22. See STAND. conspicuous. Cf COUNT (the person) and STABLE. which adapts it from LL comes stabuli. yields the E constabulary. constate. constant. para 3. of. conspiration. conspue . para 8. Constable. the same in ME.Origins . . s. See SPIRIT. for a constable.

itself deriving from L constipāre. constipation. constrain . or being crowded. constitute. constellatory. perh via MF-F. esp to surround or enclose narrowly: f. pp of constipāre. . Constipate derives from L constipātus. constituent. para 6. together: int con-+ siipare. constraint.a. consternation. consternate . o/s of LL constipātiō.f. The latter comes.A-Z 609 constellate .e. to press.. s. a crowding. See STAND. from constipātiōn-. See STRATUM. constitutive. See STAR. or crowd. COSTIVE. constellation. para 22. constipate . para 4. para 7. constituency . See the 2nd STRAIN. constitution. together. to press. constitutional.

Origins 610 constrict . See STAND. construction. consultatory. proconsular. consular. consubstantial . para 6. See STRUCTURE. of a consul. s of consultus. construct . The last represents L prdconsulāris. is built upon consult-. consubstantiality. constrictive. from L prōconsul. consultant =consultant-. to consult. Consul has adj consulāris. . adopted by E—as is the simple consul. para 35.—construe. therefrom. to consult. consultor (or -er). whence constructional (-al. which is concerned in the other E words. The last. pp of consulere. office. proconsul. constructor. consult . See the 2nd STRAIN. for ‘to consult’ derives. adj). hence the offices. consul . whence E consular. constructive. para 6. constringent. constriction. v hence n. and n consulatus (gen -ūs). prob orig ‘one who is consulted’: see next. constrictor. adj (whence n) and v. consultative. consulate. consultation. consultant. but it is the derivative consultāre. whence E consulate. adopted from L. via MF-F consulter.

consultation derives. para 3. perh via EF-F consultatif. ML -ivus. content (adj. consummator. See SUMPTION. contents. continence. whence consumer. consumption . consummative..e. See SUM. whence container. from consultātiōn-.a.A-Z 611 o/s of the presp consultans. TENABLE.e.a. consultative derives. perh via MF-F. contagious. to retain: f. Cf intact. to hold (tenére) together (con-). para 3. n. whence v). See COUNSEL. countenance (n. o/s of the derivative consultātiō. incontinent. consummatory. continent (adj. consume . consummation. . f. to contain. see TACT. from LL consultātiuus. v). continental. v). consumptive. consummate . whence n). 1. contentment and discontent (n. All these words come from L continēre. See SUMPTION. contain . incontinence. contact (n and v). to hold within. and consultatory from *consultatōrius. paras 13 and (contagion) 14. para 5. contagion. contactor.

neg L incontinentia yields incontinence. contango . contemplant. adopted by ME. however.) 4. o/s continent-. See TACT. from L contentus. the OF content has derivative MF-F v contenter. 5. whence ‘to content’. has derivative late MF-F n contentement. neu contentum. para 12.Origins 612 2. var conteinen. ML exhibits continentia in the secondary sense ‘demeanour’. surviving into E. contaminator. with later var countenance. yields E content. Continēre has pp contentus. usu pi contents. Discontent. whence ‘to contain’. Content. con-temptation. para 14. and discontentment are E dis. in turn. ‘that which is contained’.formations. archaic adj and living v. contemplate . contemn . quietly pleased or satisfied or happy. and incontinens yields incontinent. which. contemplative. influenced by L terra continens (source of the F terre continente). v. See CONTEMPT. state of quiet satisfaction. n. See TACT. contamination. s. which takes in OF the distinct form contenance.f. (B & W. derive OF contenance from OF contenir. contaminative. contemplator. The OF-F contenir becomes ME contenen. para 1. Continēre has presp continens. used as n. which. adj. 6. app derives from the adj content. adopted by E. contemplate. contaminable . with adj continental. whence. . duly adapted by E as contentment. derivative L continentia leads to OF-F continence. adopted from MF-F content. the n continent. whence the E adj continent. 3. contaminate.

See CONTAIN. prob via EF contemner. para 15. 613 contemporaneous . hence E. contumacious. para 11. contemptuous. contemptible. to cut: sem cf cutting.A-Z contemplatory. Contemptuous is an E -uous formation from contempt.—Perh akin: contumacy. Contemnere is an int (con-) of the syn rare temnere. the E ‘to contemn’. 3. with insolence. contend . whence. whence contender. the E contum cious. hence n). by suffix -ious. the pp s contempt. and contumely.(pp contemptus) has further derivative LL contemptībilis. e.and is perh akin to Gr temnein (s temn-). Perh akin to L contemnere is L contumax. contumelious. whence EF contumelie. itself from contemnere. Benveniste attaches contumēlia to tumēre (s turn-: see TUMID). perh via EF. o/s contumac-. whence. the derivative L adj contumēliōsus becomes E contumelious. contumax has derivative contumācia. contemn.g. Also perh akin to L contemnere is L contumēlia. which derives. whence E contumely. to slight or despise. an insult. See TEMPER. a slight. contempt . contemporary (adj. contemptible. from L contemptus (gen -ūs). See TEMPER. . para 8. 2. whence MF-EF. whence contemner or -or. para 4. Cf intend—but see TEND. 1. whence E contumacy. to be puffed up. content . which has s temn.

See CONTAIN. See TACT. para 13. See TEND. contextual. contest .) See TACT. contiguous. para 8. contexture. hence n. contestation. context .Origins 614 contention . See TECHNIC. continence . contentious. contestant. contingency . para 12. . contingent (adj. para 15. para 2. continental. contiguity . para 8. contestable. continent. See TESTAMENT.

via MF-F. o/s of continuātiō.implies a breaking-off. ME continuel. and discontinuance. from L continuitās (o/s continuitāt-). (almost) to ensure the continuance of: cf. continuation derives. or imitate. continēre. continuum. to hold together. and for the basic idea ‘holding on’. See TURN. 1. discontinuation is adopted from MF-F. edict: cf BAN. however. discontinuance is AF (from the v). comes straight from L continuus. from continuus. The ‘active principle’ of L continuus springs from its source or. continuity. with one exception. discontinuous. continuation. . contrabando): contra (orig L). continuity. continuance. continue. discontinuity. 2. continent at CONTAIN. edict. para 5. ‘To discontinue’ derives from MF-F discontinuer. OF-F continuel. from L continuātiōn-. continuance is adopted from OF. see TENABLE. contortion. contour . para 2. contort . and discontinuity=dis+continuity. or are present also in F: continual. comes from L continuus. whose neu continuum supplies a n to modern Physics. at the least.A-Z 615 continual . via MF-F. ‘to continue’ passes through OF-F continuer on its journey from L continuāre. therefore. itself from continuus.terms likewise come. The con. its influential cognate. discontinuation. from the v continuāre. from. a ceasing. continuous. para 7. continuous. against+ bando. See TORT. contraband : EF-F contrebande: It contrabbando (or perh its Sp ‘imitator’. Dis. discontinue.

Origins 616 contract . para 12. See TRACT. contradict . See DICT. contractile. contractor. contralto . contrapose. comes straight from It: contra alto: cf alto at ALTITUDE. contradiction. contrariety. like so many terms in Mus. a contrivance. contraption . contractual. contradictory. contrary (adj hence n). para 7. The 3rd comes. See POSE. itself . contraction. perh blends contrivance+adaptation. from LL contrārietās. para 7. contraponend . via ME contrariete and OF contrarieté. whence contrariness. contraposition.

against). s. . contributory.a. contravention. derives from EF-F contraste. See THROW. contribution. See TRACT. STATE. contributor.A-Z 617 from L contrārius (from contra. See TRIBUTE. contrectation . contrast . from It contrasto. is the LL *contrastāre.e. n. contrition. from L contra stāre. whence. para 8. via EF-F contrasted the E ‘to contrast’: and It contrastare. orig a contest.f. contrite . whence. para 12. itself from contrastare. contravene . contribute . See VENUE. via OF-MF hence ME contrarie. the E contrary. to be opposed to. to stand (stāre: f. para 6. cf STAND) against (contra).. para 12.

See PIERCE. controversial (whence controversialist). contumelious . control (n.Origins 618 contrivance . See VERSE. contrive. para 15. See CONTEMPT. para 3. para 2. See TROUBADOUR. controller. para 2. See ROLL. . contumacious . contumacy. contumely. controversy. para 7. v). para 3. controvert. contund . See CONTEMPT.

See URBAN. contuse . convalescent. contusion. to roll (uoluere. But most prob a punning. para 2. is borrowed from the si term. volvere: cf involve) around (con. ML convolvere. conurbation . from L conuoluere. mock-L var of QUANDARY.used int). See VALUE. ancient city of India. a famous. ML convolvulus. the ending might have been influenced by Trivandrum. para 13. one’s belongings or odds-and-ends. Dial con(n)undrums.A-Z 619 conturbation . a caterpillar that wraps itself in a leaf. . all+mock-L ending). para 5. para 1. itself of academic origin. convalesce . a bind-weed (the convolvulus). convalescence. See PIERCE. Perh suggested by L conuoluulus. conundrum : orig Oxford University si: of mock-L type: EW compares the later panjandrum (Gr pan. See TURBID.

convene . inconvenient derives from inconvenient-. converge . whence ‘to inconvenience’. convector. conveniency. o/s of inconueniens. 3. ML convenīre. covenant (n hence v). 2.— coven (or -in). ML -venient-. 1. para 12. paras 9–10. whence E convenience (with rare derivative v) and conveniency. ML convenientia. ML conventiō. whence. convent and its adj conventual. becomes OF-MF covenir. The contr L couenīre. See VIA. via OF-F convenir. whence E convenient. its sense as neg of convenience. 4. or from OProv coven. to unite. ML convenient-.. conuentiō. contr form of conventus. E convention. var covine. yields conventicle. Cf VENUE. ML conv-. COME.Origins 620 convection . 5. ML covenīre. adopted by E. the E ‘to convene’. o/s conuenient-. ML conv-. its LL adj conuentionālis. whence E convent . from ML coventus. and their negg. para 11. The n inconvenience. conventicle.e. pern via MF-F. used also as n ‘an agreement between persons or esp parties’—and. o/s conventiōn-. of a convent. to come (uenlre. a meeting. L conuentus. its derivative conuenientia. the Gallicism convenance derives from F convenir. convenient. covenanter. convenance. disagreement. yields conventional. conventionalize. conventional.a. as this n. itself prob from It covento. whence conventionalism (-ism)— conventionalist (-ist)—conventionalize (-ize). takes its form from LL inconuenientia. accordant (para 3). a convent. The L derivatives relevant to E include: presp-become-adj conueniens. its dim conuenticulum. its derivative v has agent covenanter. neg of conueniens. convenience (n and v). convention. var covin or covine. ML conventus (gen -ūs). orig vi: f. For paras 1–3. presp covenant. cf VENUE. conuentus. The effectual origin of all these terms is L conuenīre. its ML adj conventuālis yields conventual. s uen-) together (con-). whence. the E word is now applied only to an assembly of witches. Coven. derives either from OF-MF covin.

para 15. v. para 14. para 12. convictive. convey . para 13. -ancing). conversant. hence v—whence conveyancer. convert . See the 3rd VERGE. See VIA. v). conversation. conveyor. conversational. para 5. para 2. whence pa convincing. n. convivial . converse . convex . conversion. See VERSE.A-Z 621 . conveyance (n. See VERSE. conviction. convergent. conversance. convince. convergence. See VICTOR. convict (n. convexity. See VIA.

convolvulus . convolution. convulse . convulsant. See VIVA. See VIA. See VELLICATE. para 15. See VOLUBLE. convivium.Origins . para 4. convoy . convulsionary. cony . convulsive. convolute . para 2—and cf CONUNDRUM. convoke. para 10. 622 convocation . convolve. para 5. -ity. See VOCABLE. See VOLUBLE. para 6. convulsion.

a cook. Cf: cooee or cooey: Aus echoic. to cook. cook (n. to cook: Italic r. coo is echoic: cf the cow’s moo. with pp dēcoctus. See CAKE.A-Z 623 or coney. whence ‘to concoct’. 2. o/s concoctiōn-. connoting ‘trade of’. hence to cook entirely. cool . itself akin to *pekw-. to reduce (dē-. down from) by cooking. with pp concoctus. perh via MF-F décoction. and derivative dēcoctiō. rabbit (skin or fur): MF-EF conil or connil: L cuniculus. cookie or cooky (small cake). as seen in Gr pessein. and derivative concoctiō. whence. 1. to cook. with var *pokw-. o/s dēcoctiōn-. var of coquus. n. var of *kekw-. IE r. whence E concoction. itself from L cocus. and dēcoquere. I cook (cf the syn Alb pjek). The latter merely attaches -ery. whence directly the v). Two L derivatives concern E: concoquere. A cook derives from OE cōc. from coquere (s coqu-). whence ‘to decoct’. app of OSp stock. lit to cook together (con-). ? *kokw-. the owl’s toowittoowoo. with var *pakw-. as seen in Skt pdcami. cookery (C14 cokerie). the E decoction. *pekw-.

cumm. coolth . the word having been so used. and ON koela. to curve or bend. a coomb. curvature. cooly . OE cōl is akin to OHG kuoli. The last derives by suffix -th (as in warmth) from the adj cool. G kühl. v. coomb or combe. in Port. whence E cool. is basically a curved hollow. See COOLIE. a hollow (cf Ga com. W cwm. proposes derivation from Kulī. . a hollow. declivity. however. coolant attaches suffix -ant (n) to the adj cool. var Koli.Origins 624 . coomb—Mx coan. coolness. See COOL. C cūm. a native (usu unskilled) hired labourer: cf Tamil kūli. to cool—also to CHILL and COLD. Ir com. coolth. in C16. the n cool derives from the adj. couan. EW. therefore. cf also ML comba. of C origin: cf OIr comm. adj. . a narrow—or a short. hire (n). coomb—Br kom(m). derives from OE cumb. the chest)—Cor cūm. occ cooly: Hind hired labourer or servant. coolie . Malvezin postulates C *comb. a trough. whence also coolness (ness). steep—valley. from the OE adj cōl. ‘to cool’ descends from OE cōlian. MHG küele. cooler. the name of a native tribe of Guzerat (Gujarat) in India. coolant. var of *camb. cool. n. small valley. var of cumba.

from ärä‘kuněm. co-optation. para 4. co-ordinate . para 2. with+ordinate.A-Z 625 coon . co-operative. -ordination: co-. para 3. raccoon. comes the A si coon. Rac(c)oon -is of Alg origin: Webster compares Virginian ärä'kun. ‘he scratches with his hands’ (feet). s. coop (n hence v). the quadruped.f. cooper. Coon.v. with adj coony. . raccoon or racoon. hence the fur. co-opt . See OPERA. co-operate . merely shortens raccoon. black-marked. a Negro. co-operation. See OPINE. para 4. q. from its predominant grey. See HIVE. at ORDER.

a blow. from LL colaphus. a kick.e. top. capture: L capere (s cap). cope (2). colper. to take. whence A si cop. on the ear): IE r. . rather duck-like bird: ME cote or coote: cf D koet. summit: akin to G Koppe. top. OE cop or copp. either from Gmc *kuppa head. cop (2). cope (1). with OF var colp: VL *colpus. an extant form adopted by E (cf coup de grâce). a black. n. a capture. a cuff or punch: Gr kolaphos.g. and OFris kopp. E si cop. head. to seize. to catch or capture (si and dial). or from LL coppa.a. to hit. a cuff (e. summit. cop (1). catch. hence a heap or pile (cf the Afr kopje. head. to strike resoundingly. MD coet or cuut: ? echoic. v. a policeman. v (to deal adequately with): ME coupen: OF couper. head. G Kopf. CAPABILITY. n. strike. hillock. and E si copper. from coup.. policeman: prob OF-MF caper. top. hill): ME cop or coppe. cuppa—cf CUP.. See CAP. dim of D kop.Origins 626 coot . to catch: f. (powerful) stroke. contr of VL *colapus. prob *kola-.

para 2. to barter. copper (1). coper .A-Z 627 cope (3). para 1. of Kupros or Cyprus. anciently renowned for its copper mines. (horse) dealer. Cypriot(e) is a F formation. to pare. coping stone. See COPPICE. See CAP. ME copen: MD copen: akin to CHEAP.f. Cyprian=L Cyprius+E suffix -an. copious . s. a coll form of Cyprium. Cyprian copper: Gr Kuprios. . elliptical for Cyprium aes. See COPY. derives from E dial cope. the metal: OE coper (or -or): L cuprum (adj cupreus: E cupreous).

coprological . coppice and its contr form copse: OF copeiz. to behead. Copt . to pare). or even deriving from. See COPPICE. skull.Origins 628 copper (2). to cut: VL *cuppāre. from VL *cuppum. policeman. copra : Port (and Sp) copra: Mal koppara: Hind khoprā: perh akin to. See the 2nd COP. from coper (whence the tech cope. Skt kharpara. See element copro-. copse . skull. from LL cuppa: cf CUP and also COUPON. var couper.

cuple). copulate. L copula becomes OF-F couple (OF-MF varr cople. abundance. 2. esp in versification. to bind. from ML cōpiāre. para 6. to unite. and—clearly operative—L opus. (large) number: co-. copulation.arise copulātiō. itself from L copulāre. ML cōpia becomes OF-F copie. o/s copulātiōn-. via MF-F copier. ‘to couple’ derives from OF-F coupler (OF-MF varr copler. abundant. akin to Skt apnas. copious. whence copulatory. ‘to copy’ derives. hence power. OF-F couple has the MF-F dim couplet.A-Z . from ops (gen opis). property. copulative. becomes E copious. Coptic. copy (n and v). abundant supply. soon with predominant sense ‘two linked persons’. derivative L opulentia yields EF-F and E opulence. whence copulative. cupler). 629 copula . n and v (whence coupling. wealth. opulent. couple. copulatory. whence. copyist. copyist merely attaches the agential -ist to the v copy. hence E. abundant. coquette. coquet . L ops has adj opulentus (for the suffix cf fraudulentus: E & M). and syn LL copulatōrius. . coquetry. 1. On the pps copulāt. the E copulation. from ML cōpia. See 1st COCK. copyright. adopted by E. and coupler)—couplet. Copula is L for ‘a bond’: for *co-apula: co-. to bind (together). with pp copulātus. together+a derivative from apere (s ap). See EGYPT. 1. para 1. L copula has derivative copulāre. a transcript. rich. 2. from L cōpia. work (cf OPERATE). together+*opia. and the L adj cōpiōsus. perh via MF-F. adopted by E. whence the E n copy. Copyright is the exclusive right to copy. ML -ivus. whence MF-F. and the LL adj copulātiuus. whence ‘to copulate’. n.

g. L chorda becomes OF corde. e. L coruus (ML corvus) marīnus. OF-F corde has the OF-F aug cordon. however. coral-pink. cordon. cormorant. king’s cord. 1. be a contr of the earlier fabric colourderoy (F couleur de rot. orig a raven. whence F cormoran and E cormorant. corduroy. anything round. comes from F: dim (-el) of OF corb. coralline. becomes OF cormareng (for corb marenc). cord. syn chord. from ML corvus. Chord. coral . from Gr korallion. corbel . thin rope or stout string. king’s colour). raven. derives from L chorda. trunk. cord . adopted by E. prob echoic. 2. pebble.Origins 630 coracle : W corwgl. (EW. a bright tawny.) . catgut. Perh from F *corde de roi. whence E cord. ornamental cord.(Mac-Lennan). ult akin to YARN. which may. var coralium. L coruus. coracle. derives E corduroy. hence ‘to cord’. a coracle: akin to EIr (and Ga) curach. The Arch corbel. L corallum becomes OF-EF coral (EF-F corail). perh of Sem origin—cf the H gōrāl. trln of Gr khordē. raven of the sea. hence cord. The adj derives from LL corallīnus. from corallum. ‘the purple’— but in mid C17. coracle: OC *kuruko. mdfn of corwg. n hence v.

from the L cpd misericordia. The cpd misericordia derives. 4. corduroy . 5. to feel pity (from miser. whence cordiality. s. var corage. 2. courageous—discourage. and MF enco(u)rager. concord. L cor. HEART). f courageuse. encouragement.. itself either from MF-F cordial or from ML cordiālitās. after dynamite: from CORD. whence the adj courageous—cf the OF-MF corajus.f. the E cordial. and encourage. sep core (of fruit).e. perh via MF-F cardiaque. cardiac. whence. See CORD.a. which has adj kardiakos. whence ME corage.e. has ML adj cordiālis. whence curage. heart. whence L cardiacus.A-Z 631 cordial (adj hence n). the E cardiac. is Gr kardia (f. misericord. courage. Intimately akin to L cor. whence E courage. as. gen cordis. illuminatingly peripheral to Gr kardia and to E heart. OF-MF corage has derivatives MF descoragier. o/s cordiālitāt-. whence E encouragement. record.a. o/s misericord-: misereri. with subsidiary MF desco(u)ragement. intimate. whence E discouragement. with subsidiary MF enco(u)ragement. o/s cord-. para 1. cordiality prob derives from the late MF-F cordialité. whence ‘to discourage’.). sep accord. of the heart. 3. cf Hit karza. ult akin to HEART (f. o/s of cor. whence. compassion: from misericors. F courageux. wretched)+cord-. via OF-F miséricorde. cordon . whence ‘to encourage’. cordite : by Chem -ite. 1. L cor becomes OF-MF cuer. discouragement. perh via MF-F. heart+abstract suffix -ia. discord.

HEART. Corinthian .e. worker (-ier) in cordoan. oak. whence ‘to core’: ME core: prob from L cor. ‘of Cordoba’. heart. cormorant .Origins . para 2. See CORD. corque. (B & W. n hence v: Sp alcorque: Ar al. n from Ar adj-become-n cortobanī. cf CORDIAL and. Cordovan leather: OProv cordoan. cork-oak. 632 cordwainer : ME cordwaner: MF cordoanier. . f.) core (of fruit). See CORBEL. a re-shaping of Sp cordobán. it was the Arabs who founded the leather industry of Cordoba. the. cork . prob from L quercus.. akin to FIR.a. See CURRANT.

para 2. perh *gran-. grain: OE corn. on foot. See HORN. See HORN. *kurna-. see CROAK. para 4. See HORN. cornet . corneous. OHG.—For corncrake. IE r.A-Z 633 corn (1). ON korn and Go kaúrn. corn (2). cornea . para 2. and to L grānum (cf OIr grān). OS. corner . general European r. Gmc r. para 3. See HORN. cornice . Cf GRAIN. akin to OFris. para 2. perh *grnom(Walshe).

coronary.Origins 634 . The Cor name is Cerneu or Cernow (or K—).of L curuus (ML curvus). See HORN. corona. cf the Br Kerneu. The adj=Cornwall+-ish. coronet. basic idea. Gr korōnē. coroner. adopted from EF after being adopted from It. See HORN. n and v. corollary. s korōn-. cf the curu. a crown. 1. curved. the Headland Welsh: C corn (akin to L cornu. a headland. comes by contr from L corōnis. crown. cornute . para 5. cornicle . para 4. coronation. mdfn of korōnē: f. the n derives from OE Cornweallas. coronated. corolla . with r korō-. Cornwall. coronal (adj hence n). . See HORN. the foundation. Cornish . cornucopia . The pedestal is L corōna. a horn. horn). a circle or ring. to curve. (the) Headland. cf WALES. WELSH. trln of Gr korōnis. para 5. CROWN.. prob from korōnos.a.e. curved.

whence crown. The rural crowner is a dial alteration. on corōnāt-. corset. corpulent. adj and n. incorporation. corpulence. corporate (adj. corps. 4. ‘to crown’. o/s corōnātiōn-. See COROLLA. a little crown: cf the suffix -et. corpus. corporeal (whence corporeality) and incorporeal. s of corōnātus. corsage. para 2. corpuscular. corpse. See prec. whence the n corollārium. and corporeity. adapted by E: a coroner represents the Crown.f. v). whence the E corollary. para 3. OF-MF corone. incorporator. s. para 3. from L corōnāre. See COROLLA. coronet . whence the rare ‘to coronate’. corpuscle. whence E coronal. whence coronary. adopted by E. coronation . and dim corolla. corse. ME crounen. L corōna becomes OF-MF corone. the E coronation. becomes ME corune. and incorporate (adj. with adj *corollārius. .A-Z 635 2. derives from OF-MF coroner. whence the AF agent coroneor. surviving mostly in the Bot and Zoo pa coronated. rare v)—corporation—corporative. arises LL corōnātiō. var corune (cf the F couronne). and corōnārius. coroner . whence. whence E coronet. and derivative v corōnāre. earlier corunen. coronere. corselet or corslet. OFMF corone has MF-EF dim coronete. L corōna has adjj corōnālis. perh via MF-EF. with pp corōnātus. later croun. corporal . 3.

The effective origin. but the Army corporal. E-ive). the L corpus (adopted by E for ‘body of a man’s work’). para 7. to incarnate—an int of corporāre in its passive sense. orig to slay. surcoat.. On the r corp. derives from LL corporeālis. come: OF-F corsage. earlier cors. Also on the L o/s corpor. incorporation derives from LL incorporātiō. Incorporeal derives from L incorporeus. from L caput (f. whence E corporeity. corpusculum. LL bodily nature. derives from LL incorporātus. L corpus has o/s corpor-. represents EF corporal. come: corse. later the waist of a woman’s dress. bodice. with IE r *korp-. archaic spelling of corpse: OF-MF cors. ML stoutness. earlier corselet. adj and v.a. however. adopted from OF-MF: from L corpus. prob via OF corporal. perh from F corpusculaire. whence. from It caporale. and perh the OP kērmens. a MF-F dim (-et) of cors: orig. then to furnish a body and. incorporate. corps. pp of incorporāre. therefore a dim of corpus. body+suffix -age. The Eccl n corporal (a Communion cloth) derives from ML corporāle. CHIEF). to take bodily shape. orig the head. on which arises corporālis. body. adopted from F. 5 5. prob via late MF-F. becomes E corpulency and.) 2. well-bodied. with potent var *kerp-: cf the Av kehrpem. lit ‘little body’. whence. a chief. corpulence. LL corporātiō (corporātus+suffix -iō). the E corpulent. corset. . 3. whence the E corpuscle.Origins 636 1. o/s incorporātiōn-. incorporation. prop the neu of corporālis. with a sense-differentiation present already in Classical L: EF-F corps. body. 4. corpse: ME corps. LL corporātiuus (-iuus.arise: LL corpulentus. last a flower. although forminfluenced by the E adj. Imm from F. whence. L corporeus. form. o/s corporeitāt-. whence the E adj corporate and the rare v ‘to corporate’. in passive. worn at waist or.arise: corporāre. corps . 6. from capo. basque. as now. o/s corporātiōn-. adopted from OF-F corselet. incorporate and incorporator are E formations. whence the ML corporeitās. on bust. hence stout. has s and r corp-. 7. corporeal. from OF-MF cors. of the body. See prec. as above. dim (elet) of Of cors. E corporative. corslet. earlier cors. with adj corpuscular. influenced by LL incorporālis. via MF-F. or a bouquet. a f/e var of EF-F caporal.e. ML -ivus. Also from F. a woman’s bust. the E adj corporal. whence E corporation. with pp corporātus. etc. (E & M. its LL derivative corpulentia.

See CORPORAL. to run: L currere: f. corral : Sp corral. para 5. a native village. from corro..f. para 5.A-Z 637 corpse . a ring. corpuscle . correct . cattle pen. from correr. corpulence . See CORPORAL. esp for cattle. COURSE. enclosure. corpulent. village in S Afr. corpus . para 7.e. The Port curral.a. corpuscular. See CORPORAL. becomes D kraal. See CORPORAL. a yard. s. para 1.

Origins 638 (whence correctness). to run: L currere: f. corridor . to engage oneself to (do something): cf RESPOND. See RELATE. o/s correspondent-. See REX. para 2. ‘To correspond’ derives from ML correspondēre: cor-. yields E correspondent. See REX. The ML pp corresponded. correlate . correspond . para 11. para 27. used int+re+spondēre. for con-. correlative. correption . adopted from EF-F: OIt corridore.e. correspondence. corrective. correctitude. para 27. corrigible . COURSE. correlation. .. See RAPT.a. correspondent (adj hence n). corrector. correction (adj correctional). whence the pa corresponding. whence correspondence (cf the MF-F correspondence). from correr.

corroborative. . corrosible.A-Z 639 corrival . See ROBUST. See RAT. See RUPTURE. corroboratory. whence the pa corrugated.f. corrugation. corrupt . para 10. corroborator. corrode . corruptible. corroboree is adopted from the Aus aborigines. para 4. See RIVER. para 4. s. corroboration. para 3. para 5. corroborant. See RAG. corrosive. corrosion. corrodent. corruption. corroborate . corrugate .

cortege . .) corse . para 6. corslet . corsair : MF-F corsaire. para 3. (B & W.e. See CORPORAL. See CORPORAL..a. earlier corsar: OProv corsari: It corsaro: ML cursārius. See COURT. corset See CORPORAL. adj become n: L currere. para 6. See CORPORAL. para 7. to run: f.Origins 640 corsage . COURSE. para 6.

corvée . The adj cortical merely tacks -al to cortic-. to sparkle. L coruscāre (orig. a ruby—a red. from Skt kuruvinda. to shatter. bark being easily cut—or separable—from the trunk. o/s coruscātiōn-. and perh to L corium. cortical. perh *ker-. . leather. cosh . akin to Sl kora. coruscation. has pp coruscātus. IE r. var *kor-. n hence v: akin to. Cf CUIRASS. becomes E coruscation. QUASH. to cut. prob echoic). coruscate . to crush. derivative LL coruscātiō. indeed prob from. crystallized form of corundum. corundum : Tamil kurundam. o/s of L cortex.A-Z 641 cortex . para 5. bark. bark. See ROGATION. whence ‘to coruscate’.

occ elaborated to cosmical (-al. 5. yields EF-F cosmétique and E cosmetic. adj. 1. For the cosmo. whence n. Derivative Gr kosmētikos (from the ‘order. 3. the IE r being *kens-. See SINE.Origins 642 cosher . etc. 2.. see the element cosmo-. The Gr s kosm. See KOSHER. See: cosmic . and mikros. s cens-. adj). hence the world. big.recurs. . whence L cosmicus. in macrocosm and microcosm: MF-F macrocosme. var *kons-. whence E cosmic.cpds. para 6. esp in cosmetics. The source of all these terms. para 1. to order. small: the latter. cosmopolitan. Gr mikros kosmos. cosmetic . long. as in cosmology and esp in cosmopolite (-itan) and cosmopolis. to speak or announce authoritatively (Boisacq). as opp MF-F microcosme: Gr makros. cosine . see POLICE. LL microcosmus. the Gr kosmos (prob for *konsmos). pl cosmetics). adj hence n (usu.—cosmetic. order of harmony. whence the n use. has s kosm-. cosmos—cf the element cosmo-. macrocosm and microcosm. perh akin to L censēre. in its L form cosm(os). for cosmopolis. Gr kosmos has adj kosmikos. to think. harmony’ sense of kosmos). skilled in adorning. 4.

para 2. n and v. var quzāq. costly. cottager. an adventurer. v. . See COAST. cosset . costard . See COAST. para 22. . costermonger . See COAST. para 4. derives from cosset. Cf the EF-F Cosaque. a pet lamb: ? OE cf SIT.A-Z 643 Cossack : Ru kozak. See STAND. var kazak: Tu quzaq (kazák). para 4. costal . lit a ‘cot (cottage) sitter’— cost .

reproduced in works of art’ (B & W): from It costume. and OE stīf (see STIFF). of or for oneself—cf SUICIDE. to become accustomed: con-. cottage. costumier. custom. itself from sui. cottager. used int+ suēscere. See COZY. derives from the F v costumer. cosy . C19– 20. constipated. costevé (orig. etc. whence costiveness (-ness): MF costivé. a dress. crammed (together). See COST. orig the pp of constipāre. from consuēscere. itself from F costume. cotter or cottar—cottier. n hence v. (earlier) custom: LL *costūmen: L consuētūdō. together+ stipāre. compact. costume . The latter. earlier ‘truth of usage. to press: stipāre (s stip-) is akin to Gr stiphros. a suit of clothes. to accustom. . pp): L constipātus. to cram: con-. to become accustomed (to): suēscere (s suēsc-) is orig the inch of a Lucretian suere (s su). adopted from F. costly .Origins 644 costive . cot and cote.—coterie. clothes. dress..

Cottier. a set or circle of persons. See COT. secret. pern of C origin (? *cut. from cota.(*ku-). OE cot or cote. MBr ortfennec. adapts MF cotier. cottage. cottage. 4. LG Kot or Kote. in C14– 16 an ‘association of peasants holding in common the lands of a lord’ (B & W). COAT. cotta (para 1). 3. now only hist. Cottar or cotter.a. AE cotillion: elliptical for F danse avec le cotillon: late MF-F cotillon. E -ery) coterie. ME cotage. ON kot. and cüth. hut. antedates ME cotage. akin to MD kote. Malvezin adduces an OF (and F dial) cute. hut (ML cota. and has IE r *keu. pi cotāgia. obscure. Cottage. cottier. petticoat. influenced by Ga coitear. and Cor cudhe.. hide-and-seek. hence. Br kut. and. hut. to hide. with var *cot)—cf EIr coite. W cwt. from OF *cote. cottager. var coterius. cotter. Ga coit. ME cot or cote. Cote. cottar . to cover. OF *cote has derivative MF-EF adj cotier. See COT. cotton . mid C17 onwards. cotillon . hence as in dovecote.e. kuza. deduced from the OF-MF syn cotin. para 3. basically. hut. which is akin to Skt kuharam. and proposes kinship with Gr keuthein. cotta: from OE or ME). cottage . itself from OE cot. whence (f -erie. dark place. to hide. a hole. hidden. tunic. derives app from ML cottārius or cotārius. to hide. rather adds suffix -age to ME cot than comes from AF cotage (from OF *cote)—note that ML cotāgium. para 2. is a var of the syn cot. dim of cote. OF-EF var of OF-F cotte. here in sense ‘woman’s dress or robe’: f. hut.A-Z 645 1. agential -er attached to cottage accounts for cottager. to hide. 2.

lit ‘khet or plant [usu. accouchement. shrub]+en or of+ *shen or hair’. which takes it from Sp cotón. G keuchen. The A cottontail. and the A cottonwood a cottony hair-tuft investing the seeds (Webster). Accoucheur. then the place one does this: whence E couch. orig to place firmly. derive from OF-F accoucher. has a tail with white-tufted under side. and ‘to couch’. MD cochen. v hence n: ME coughen or coghen. prob both of cotton. adopted from EF-F. accoucheur. otton. ‘To couch’ derives from OF-F ‘se coucher’. couch (2). partly adopted by E. a re-shaping of Ar qufun. to go to bed. an int (con-) of locāre. it has the OF-F derivative n couche. to put oneself to bed. to cough: clearly echoic. var . adopted from OF-F. and Eg shent. the ‘hair plant’ being prob the shrub that is the cotton plant: cf Eg shenti.a. then go to bed: a. intimately related to OE cohhetan. Coucher has presp couchant and pp couché. both occurring in E Her. to place: f. (?) a hairy plant. Cf Eg ‘khet en shen’. var cuchen. to cough. tree. cloth.e. OF-F coucher derives from L ‘se collocāre’. couch (grass). a person’s horizontal outstretching. wood rabbit. to (L ad)+coucher. to gasp—cf MHG kūchen. to gasp or pant.. to breathe heavily. MHG kīchen. para 8. f mid-wife. obstetrician. could . a delivery. couchant. to breathe. from collocāre. accoucher has also the OF-F derivative accouchement. f accoucheuse. LOCAL.Origins 646 —n hence adjj cotton and (-y) cottony and ‘to cotton’—derives from ME coton. tunic. app an int of *cohhan. D kuchen. cough . to blow. a form of bed. to put to bed. orig to put to bed. for á. See VIVA.

A council derives from ME counceil. prob from—consulere. ‘to counsel’. from L consiliārius. council . There has been some confusion between this and the prec word. . county. together +the r of a simple v app lost. All stem from L comes. hence an assembly. whence E counsel. to call. summon. The latter derives by agential -or from the former. adapted from OF-MF cuncile. themselves from L concilium. concomitant. hence the deliberation or counsel. 647 coulter . cf the formation of: counsel . a calling together. a nobleman. orig on the march: contr of *comites. through ME counseiller and OF-MF conseillier. para 1. esp if deliberative: con-. to consult (an assembly). councillor (AE councilor). a place of deliberation or counsel. akin to—indeed. together+ calāre. OF-F conseil. viscount. to deliberate: con-. influenced by the ME n.A-Z . and L consilium becomes OF-MF cunseil. give counsel. whence ME counseil (var conseil). but pern akin to L censēre. whence. whence ME conseillen. to state or give an opinion. count (1). See CAN. counsellor (AE counselor). a companion. to gather for deliberation. to be of the opinion. com-. prob with influence from counsellor (see next entry). The 2nd derives. itself from consilium. n and v. L consiliāri becomes OF-F conseiller. See COLTER. ? from consiliāri. var concile. to deliberate. 1.

Comes has o/s comit-. orig a body of well-born men. agential suffix. the derivative ML concomitantia yields concomitance. reputable. Putāre has the following cpds relevant to E: amputāte. whence E count. derivative amputātiō. to count or calculate: perhaps there were two separate rr. o/s disputātiōn-. disputāre. a supposing. whence also LL putātīuus. pp député. to prune (or cut) around (amfor ambi-. Putāre. whence ‘to amputate’. derivative OF-MF conté or cunté yields E county. dēputāre. supposed or reputed. amputation. hence n. a comes having. computāre. has derivative v comitāre. LL dēputātiō. dispute. whence computation—and computātor. amputate. orig the estate of a count or an earl. their (district. whence disputation—LL . perh imm from EF-F. counter (token). whence putative. to reckon. accountant. the territorial division county has been influenced by L comitātus. 3. whence putātiō. purified. pure. countless. recount. computative is an E formation. whence ME vicounte. o/s amputātiōn-. etc. whence ‘a dispute’ (cf EF-F dispute). imputation. imputative. to count (int con-). imputable. ML putātīvus. computative. yields deputative. whence OF-MF visconte (F vicomte). derivative OF-MF contesse yields countess. para 1. whence E deputy. From the acc comitem derives the OF-MF conte (F comte) or cunte. 4. account (n and v). count (2). o/s computātiōn-. whence E putation. whence the E adj. the presp concomitans has o/s concomitant-. whence viscountess (cf F vicomtesse)—with OF visrestored (silent s). whence computable—computātiō. 3. s of pp disputātus. L comes has the ML cpd vicecomes. (b) to purify. whence ‘to depute’. on both sides). in C4.—putation. accountancy. compute. deputy.used int). deputation. on disputāt-. esp to count) deriving from the L putus. disputant. whence ‘to com-pute’. become a personage employed at court—a companion to the Emperor. disputatious. to esteem. arise computābilis. whence ‘to dispute’. The base is L putāre. whence (!) ‘to deputize’. recountal. pp amputātus. from the supine s (it-) of īre. LL dēputātīuus. Comes. to go+-es. whence ME desor disputen. (a) to prune. impute. with cpd concomitāre (con. 1. hence their status.. to accompany. disputation.Origins 648 with+it-. to correct (an account)—hence. depute. amputative is an E formation in ive. to think about contentiously. 2. o/s putātiōn-. whence E viscount. concomitant. esp (of money) unalloyed: prob akin to Skt pūtás. (E & M. yields MF-F députation and deputation. n and v. of) authority. to compute. with the latter (to purify. yields amputation. 2. on computāt-. repute. putative. o/s dēputātiōn-. perh via MF-F députer.and MF-F disputer. LL to allot. reputation.) Cf PAVE. has pp putatūs. arise disputātiō. to cut downwards (dē-). becomes OF-MF des. s putāt-. s of pp computātus. adopted by E. computation. ML -īvus. o/s comit-. enumeration.

ME counten. A re-count (recount) derives from ‘to re-count (recount)’. adopted by E. becomes OF emputer. and F compter. disputatious. count again. a ‘blend’ of OF-MF cunter and conter. however. F á. contable.A-Z 649 disputātīuus. ML -īvus. yields—prob via late MF-F réputation—reputation. counter. o/s of presp disputans. aconter (a. a reckoning. n. aconter. para 4. 6. OF-MF reconter (re-. 4. to count. from cunter. and reputed. imputative. v. derivative LL reputatiō. whence ‘to impute’. to count. and— perh via MF—reputable. and recompter. whence both repute. See 2nd COUNT. to tell. 5. L computāre has. comes from OF-MF acunter. to reckon or examine accounts again and again. E ‘to account’. derives from disputation. o/s imputātiōn-. whence disputative—LL disputātor. acont. to think over. accountancy derives. ML computātōrium. from computāre. See CONTAIN. imputation—LL imputātīuus. countable. whence ‘to repute’. o/s reputātiōn-. yields. contouer. L computāre. Countless derives from count. to tell. OF-MF cuntable. a reckoning. earlier acunt. whence accountable’. LL computus (gen -us). via F. to count again: cf the differentiation of OF-MF conter. OF-MF cunte and conte. para 3. LL to credit to. whence ME acounten. ME counte. by -cy. presp of acunter. hence to charge or impute.for in-) the reckoning. deriving from ME acount. whence F raconter. as in para 4). conter. countinghouse. to relate. to put into (im. OFMF cuntouer. n. recountal= recount. disputant derives from L disputant-. An account. MF-F imputer. acontant. from accountant. important issue in E. prob via late MF-F. to relate. ME contour. conter). countable . n. thus: ‘to count’. v-fthe n suffix -al. derivative ML imputābilis yields imputable—LL imputātiō. into F conter. counter . pa. whence MF-F réputer. countenance . imputāre. a reckoning device. reputāre. again+ conter. count. orig identical with ‘to recount’. to+cunter. ML -īvus. OF-MF acuntant.

countermine : counter (1)+MINE. on which money is counted. against. counterfeit . q. derives either from F contremande (from the F v) or from ‘to countermand’. Counter. lit to make against the law: cf the 1st COUNTER and OF-F faire. esp as used in cpds. countermand . to counterfeit. from L facere. orig pp of contrefaire. an effectual reply. at FACT.Origins (1). v: partly from counter (1). to make. . a reckoning device. n. See 2nd COUNT. itself from OF-F contremander: contre (L contra. hence the table. counter (3). to command (cf COMMAND). against)+mander. para 4. the opposite. derives from counter (1). The ‘shop counter’ (display table) derives from the board. v. hence n and v: a ‘blend’ of OF-MF contrefet and MF-F contrefait. 650 counter (2).v. and partly from encounter. L mandāre. adj. adv hence adj: F contre: L contra.

See PUNGENT. para 9. n. countersign . coverlet (MF-EF contrepointe). a . See PEND.f. comes from EF contresigne. counterpoise . coverlet (see PANE). v. counterpoint . counterpart : 1st COUNTER+PART.A-Z 651 counterpane is a blend of the obs counterpoint. and pane. counterscarp . n. para 23. from the source of ‘to countersign’: EF-F contresigner. See SCARP. s.

See 1st COUNT. See 2nd COUNT. para 2. para 14. terra. hence distinct from it.a. See 1st COUNT.f.Origins cpd of signer: f. elliptical for contrāta regiō or c. region or land set over against (contra) another. s. country (whence countrified): ME cuntree or contree (or contre): OF-F contrée: ML contrāta. 652 countervail . countess . para 4. coup .. SIGN. countless .e. para 2. county . See VALUE.

. couplet .e. COPPICE. to cut: f. courage . para 2. para 4. derives from OF-F couper. See the 2nd COPE. See COPULA. courageous. para 2. See COPULA. courier . See CORDIAL. s. coupon . See para 5 of: course . 653 couple .f.a.A-Z . adopted from OF-F.

a two-wheeled chaise. whence cursive. from L cursor. n: EF-F discourse L discursus. precursal. Currere has presp currens. derivative concurrentia yields concurrence. Discourse. o/s dēcurrent-. recursion. concourse. a racecourse. 2. hussar. o/s current-. arise concursiō. pirate (cf CORSAIR). adopted by E Math. curriculum. to run. huzar. from discurrere. to discourse. 5. succursal (adj and n). precursor. excursive. Recourse: MF-F recours: L recursus. procursive. to run back (re-). e.g. succo(u)rer. appear in easily recognizable dress in the remaining E words: concurrere. procurrent. IE r perh *khar-. current (adj and n). incurrent (whence incurrence). has prob intervened. discourse. 3. from Byz Gr koursōrios. incur. cursory. from OF corre. 10. derivative ML currentia yields currency. from L currere. 4. adj-become-n from koursōr. car. itself from It corsa. precursive. The L cpds of currere. . The E hussar derives from Hung huszár. cors). to run. transcurrent. on concurs-. the adj current’. flowing. itself from L cursus (gen -ūs). concurrent. runner. which is of C and Gmc stock: cf the C CAR and the Gmc HORSE. s of cursus. prob partly via OF-MF. a running. succour (AE succor). whence decurrent. concursus. L cursor. scour. free-booter. curricle. 8. its LL adj curriculāris. a chariot. o/s discursiōn-. s of the pp concursus. whence cursory. discurrere. courier. currency. but prob from the OF presp-become-n curant (or corant). a skirmisher. from It correre. has presp concurrens. and concursus (gen -ūs). running. on which arise discursiō. hence a general course. whence. from recurrere. streams or stars. excurrent. derives from discourse. discursion. precursory. with influence from MF-F course. the n current derives perh from the E adj.. recursive. Concourse: MF-F concours: L concursus. recourse. a race. excursus. L cursōrius. n hence v (whence courser. o/s concurrent-. L currere has the folllowing simple derivatives (from curs-. a place for running. to run together (con-).Origins 654 . with dim curriculum. to run. A course derives from F cours (OF-MF curs. to run together. occur. 1. whence discursive—discursus (gen ūs). whence concursion. o/s concursiōn-. from L currere. adopted by E. whence concurrent.—Cpds in the L mode: concurrence. has presp dēcurrens. from concurrere. L currere has derivative currus (gen -ūs). v. s of pp cursus) relevant to E: ML adj cursīvus. decurrent. 6. occurrence. decursive. excursion (excursionist). recurrent (whence recurrence). 9. becomes E curricular. with varr *khor-. from L currere. precurrent. and the ‘carriage’ sense of curriculum becomes E curricle. a race. discursive. runner. a running. adopted by E. dēcurrere. *khur-. whence discursion—ML discursīvus. occurrent. s discurs-. a running. has pp discursus. sep corral (incl kraal)—corridor—corsair—and coarse. to run down. course of. incursion. to run to and fro. separative). 7. pp of currere (v cur-). to run. influenced by OF-F coursier). adopted by learned E. discursus. of a course. from curs-. to run. from correre. lit to run to and fro (dis-. recur. cursive. to run. decursive is an E formation upon the pp dēcursus. Courier: MF-F courrier: It corriere. of a carriage. to descend at a run. from Serbian husar. ML cursārius.

as in the late EF-F adj succursal. from OF-EF escourre. o/s transcurrent-. rare var of corteis. o/s recursiōn-. and pp praecursus. ME socouren. derives from ME court. n (whence courtly) and adj and v. to run under or towards. to run ahead. ‘To court’ has perh been influenced by F courtiser. whence LL excursiō. o/s excursiōn-. to run forward. has presp excurrens. courtesan from F courtisane. hence all the other senses. precursory (L praecursōrius). and pp recursus. E ‘to succo(u)r’. excursive is an E formation. to run back. 1. whence recursion. auxiliary. ‘To scour’ or run swiftly or rovingly. cort. whence excurrent. via ME or OF-MF from ML succursus (gen -ūs). from OF-MF corteis. o/s percurrent-. adopted by learned E. transcurrere. with adjj precursal. whence recurrent. whence praecursor. court. anglicized as precursor. present oneself to. for it seems to come. has presp praecurrens. incursive is an E formation. for con-. has presp prōcurrens. s excurs-.A-Z 655 excurrere. a contr of cohors. procursive is an E formation. built on succurs-. cort being the clearest derivative from L cort-. curteis. recurrere. to run in front of. curt. curt. whence ‘to incur’. to run onto or against. has presp incurrens. Courteous derives through ME courteous. adj of cort. occurrere. var of escorre. precursive. also to run again.a. whence incurrent. recursive is an E formation. app simple is prob cpd. whence incursiō. whence ‘to occur’ has presp occurrens. percurrere. from the same forms in OF. whence ‘to recur’. whence precurrent-. praecurrere. prōcurrere. o/s cohort-: co-. s incurs-. whence (after occurrence) recurrence. has presp percurrens. courtesy. curtsy (n hence v). o/s recurrent-. derivative ML occurrentia yields occurrence. the n succo(u)r comes. with+ s and r id with those of hortus. whence the adj transcurrent. whence incursion. from L excurrere (as in prec para). forerunner. has presp transcurrens. by aphesis.e. courtesan. to run forth. courtier. auxiliary institution. whence procurrent’. to precede. court . to run across or beyond. o/s incurrent-. incurrere. 2. s recurs-. and pp excursus. a court mistress. hence run to the help of. succurrere. adopted by E. to run out. s of the pp succursus. 11. to run through. f of late . A court or area enclosed by buildings. o/s praecurs-. HORTICULTURE. whence the adj percurrent. whence OF-MF sucurre or soucourre. o/s excurrent-. courteous. to return at the run.. o/s -current-. whence recursiō. curtain. o/s incursion-. along with derivative n succursal or succursale. has presp recurrens. o/s occurred-. whence occurrent. and pp incursus. o/s of cors. a garden: f. whence excursion (whence excursionist: -ist)—and excursus (gen -ūs). a branch (of business).

sister. LL cortīna. whence EF-F cortège. On cort-. Cf COZEN. becomes OF-MF cortine. which. court). tapestries being characteristic of courts. etc. contr of L consobrīnus. takes the sense ‘curtain’ under the influence of L aulaeum or aulaea (Gr aulaia. cousin. a tapestried screen in front of a fire. etc. See HIVE. o/s of cors (as in para 1). from soror. para 6. var of courtesy. curt in. sisterly. See COBALT. 4. cove . It corte.a. couvade . hence a curtain.e. with+sobrīnus. from the adj curteis. prob for *sosor: f. cousinly. SISTER. Courtier derives from court: by agential -ier. court. adopted from F Cousin. balancing fraternal (-nel). a mother’s sister’s child: con-.. through ME. whence E cortege. arises the LL cortīna. orig a cauldron. adj). small inlet. contr of curtesy. from the L word. from aulē. ? at first. derives from ML cosīnus. from It cortigiano. OF-MF cosin (var cusin). occ var curtīna. E curtain: cousin . f sobrīna. has a derivative corteggio. ME cortine.. courtesy. cove (1). coz. 3.Origins 656 MF-F courtisan. orig the adj of corte. Coz is an EE pet-form of cousin (whence cousinly: -ly. sororal. sister-hood. cousinage. hence used as n for male or female cousin on the mother’s side. a tapestry. a courtier. from OF-MF curteisie. para 2. is an E and F formation. whence sorority. cortoisie.. Cousinage (-age) is adopted from OF-F. court. curtsy (or -cy). curtine. Soror has ML derivative sororitās.

The cpds discover. its opp operīre explicable as ob. Operīre. 657 coven . v). adopted from OF-MF. coverage. to open. para 13. covered. to shut. covenant (n. OF-MF descovrir (F découvrir). lit and factually bed-cover. para 11. which must then have a sense it would need an Aquinas to adequately postulate: perhaps aperīre is fundamental. that man. A coverlet. LL discooperīre. Discoverer and discovery=discover+ agent -er. ME covrelyte. covet . See CONVENE. bed. 2. both on the basis of an assumed *uerīre. contrasted with recover. to cover. active ‘not’+ ‘to cover’.A-Z (2). derives from OF-MF covert. re-. like its opp aperīre. discover and n -y. See CONVENE. covenanter. para 4. int (co. uncover. 1. para 5. to cover. get back. a fellow: si: Rom covo. is multifariously explained by E & M and by Walde. The last. and cf VENUE. coverlet. 3. derives from MF covrelit (Mod couvre-lit). covert (adj and n) and coverture. un-. uncover are easy: ME discoveren. cover . v hence n and. hence hidden—whence both the E n covert and the E adj covert—orig the pp of covrir (F couvrir). against+aperīre. to keep hidden. by suffix -age (cf acreage). E ‘to cover’: L cooperīre. re-cover. again+‘to cover’.for con-) of operīre. derives from L lectus—cf the 2nd LIE. lit. with *obaperīre becoming operīre.

IE r. cowardly. OS kō. from cupere.) The cpds of cow present no difficulty. See HIVE. cow . (B & W. covin . earlier cu: OE cū. to daunt or overawe: ON kūga. to L bōs. from VL *cupidietās. note cowslip. to oppress. *kwō. to Skt gāús—cf the Lett guovs: Gmc r. coward . cowardice. whence ‘to covet’: and OF-MF coveitier derives from VL *cupidietāre. to desire: cf CUPID. (Walshe. D koe. MHG kuo. and ON kýr. cow (2). See CODA. OHG chuo. MD couwe. para 2. whence kyen. OE cūslyppe (lit cow’s droppings). usu coe. The latter derives from OF-MF coveitos. from OF-MF coveitier. The OE cū is akin to OFris kū. para 4. Gr bous.Origins 658 . G Kuh. an alteration of L cupiditās. whence kine. covetous. female to ‘bull’ (cattle): ME cou.) covey . para 6. pl . *gwōw-. . See CONVENE.

coxa .) cowslip . cape. cugele: L cuculla. para 2. prob of C origin: C *cucullos. to cover: cf Br kougoul. See HEEL. Cor cugol. para 4. n hence v: ME coule. redup from C *cuc-. coxcomb . cox . cf SLEEVE. couele: OE cuhle. See 1st cow. var of cucullus. See GYRATE. cape.A-Z 659 cower . (Malzevin and Malzevin1. s.. Short for COXSWAIN. para 4. s cucul-. cowl . cap.f.

cozen . See QUIET. para 2. 660 coxswain . coyote : ASp coyote: Nahuatl coyotl. para 1. See 1st COCK. coy . See SWAIN. obsol ‘to cheat’: EF-F cousiner. para 3. cozy .Origins . to cheat. coz . See COUSIN. lit to treat as if a cousin: from OF-F cousin (cf COUSIN).

v hence n: ME cracken. crash. whence ME crevis. (EW. break. 2. to crack or crash. The freq (or dim) of ‘to crack’ is ‘to crackle’. peevish.A-Z 661 . cf CRASH. also to Skt . whence. to make oneself comfortable. OHG chrebiz. a brittle biscuit. cradle . crack . cosie. akin to OHG chrahhōn. snug.) crab apple: cf Sw krabäpple: perh from:— crab . from MF-F craquelin. LG krabbe. occ cosy. Hence both crabbed. a crustacean: OE crabba. also to boast: OE cracian. adj and n: cf cracknel. esp as n in ‘tea cosy’: Sc cozie. cracknel . to crack. from MD crakelinc (D krakeling). he rustles or rumbles or roars: clearly echoic. of Scan origin—cf. 2. See para 2 of prec. perh indeed from. to crack. to crack. whence crackling. by f/e. MHG-G krachen. akin to ON krabbi. and crabby. from MD craken (D kraken). Nor koselig. morose. craken. from kose sig. whence MF crevice (F écrevisse). G Krebs. the E crayfish.

and prob to L gremium (s grem-). OHG-G kraft. para 2. group of persons. whence craggy: C. cram . strong: perh akin to ON krefia. Mx creg. perh with basic idea ‘to hang suspended’: cf EIr crec. D kracht. crake . E -y). W craig. as also in Ga. ON kraftr. 662 craft . to demand. to squeeze. and Skt (s grām-). whence craftsman. Ir craig or. MD craft or cracht. pl kerreg. pl creigiau. strength. art: akin to OFris kraft or kreft. akin to ON kremja. Br karreg. creag.) crag . from OE craeft. crafty. (Walshe. an armful (hence the lap). The adj crafty derives from OE craeftig (adj -ig. See CROAK. E CRAVE. strength. See CART. hence also crammer: OE crammian.Origins . Cor clegar. skill (hence cunning). v hence n. Perh cf: cramp . OS kraft. cf ON kraefr.

r kran-. Hence ‘to crane’. n hence v. the machine. Gr geranos. crank (1). from MD crampe or cramp. skull. allied to late MHG kran. the bird. weak. convulsion. r cran-: ML cranium: LL cranion. partly from MD cranc. head: cf CEREBRAL. ( ). adopted by E. confined. The E n perh derives rather from the E adj cramp. perh cf crimp. akin to Gr kara. ill). cranberry : LG kranbere: cf CRANE and BERRY. itself prob from OHG kramph. cramp. tender. MHG krampf. cramp is akin to CRAM. cramp iron. akin to ON krappr (for *krampr). MHG kranc. the machine used for lifting heavy weights: OE cran. crane (bird). squeezed in. G Kran. hence. cranial is the adj (crani-+-al) of cranium. G Krampf. D krank. cf OHG kranuh. bald head: Gr kranion. distorted. long-necked bird. strait. Both the mechanical and the Med sense come. crane . allied also to W and Cor garān and Gr geranos (s geran-): ult from ‘the bird’s call gru. ‘from the long slender beak of the carpels’ (Webster). If the r is cram-. from which L grūs [cf F grue] is more directly derived’ (Walshe). G Kranich. krane. a painful contraction of muscles: akin to OHG krampfs. the bird. contracted. s krani-. s crani-. has derivative geranion. weak (OE cranc. from the instrument’s long neck. shaky: partly from next. the latter via OF crampe. with syn crane’s-bill. G krank. crooked. whence L geranium.A-Z 663 . MLG krampe. adj: bent. . brittle. MHG kranech.

either from VL *crena. from OProv. yields the OF-MF. or crenellated. or from Gaul *crināre. (dial) ill.o. var cren. Cf CRINGE.o. of approx the same meaning. . n hence v: something bent or crooked. influenced by 1st CRANK. by the way. esp as a mechanical device. o. derivative OF-F créneler. crappie . cranky . leads. embrasure in a battlement.. to indent. derives from prec. to E crenellate. and to crenellation. anl. a notch. lit an indention. cranny : E dim (-y) from OF cran. See CRISP. akin to OIr ar-a-chrinnim. twisted or disordered. adopted by E. derives either from F dial crape or from LG Krape. from OF-EF crener. Am freshwater fish. hence a crotchety person: OE cranc. dim crenel.Origins 664 crank (2). to (cut with a) notch. crape . para 2. *Crena. I disappear (B & W).

coloured linen. itself by suffix -itūdō from the adj crassus. prob akin to Skt . whence E grease’. perh influenced by late MF-F graisser. a heavy.A-Z 665 craps . crassitude. ult echoic—cf G krachen. crate . s crass-. r cras-. at hazard. v hence n: ME craschen. ‘to grease’. 2. crassness. crassitude derives from L crassitūdō. Cf CRAB. from E crabs. via the VL derivative n *crassia. with varr OF-F graisse and MF gresse. and therefore cf CRACK. and hence also greasy. for cf Ru krashenina. fat. crash (2). is merely a sense-changed F craps. gross. thick. The 3rd derives (suffix -ness) from the 1st. earlier crabs. crash (1). whence ME grese (var grece). entire. coarse linen: app of Ru origin. Am game played with two dice. crass . 1. From L crassus. a two-aces throw. to crash. the v has agent greaser. derives OF-MF craisse. the lowest throw. a game of dice. hence.

Cravate prob derives imm from the G dial form Krawat. to crack. and later. orig a drinking vessel. is a var of F Croate. via L crater. esp wine with water: s keran-. from G Kroate.Origins . prop the presp of craver. craven . o/s of crepans. cravat : EF-F cravate. applied esp to wood and fabrics. crever: L crepant-. adj hence n: ME cravant. certainly the word belongs to the considerable echoic group in cr(kr-). whence the vn craving: OE crafian. presp of crepāre. akin to syn ON krefja (or -ia): cf CRAFT. adopted from OF-MF cravant (OF-F crevant). fig. to persons: s crep-: prob akin to Skt . rattle. (B & W. IE r *ker. para 2. crackle. from Gr kratēr. See CART. to demand. hence a volcano’s crater (cf EF-F cratère). to mix. descends. he laments.) crave . craw . from kerannunai. a neckcloth worn by a Cravate. 666 crater .

from CRACK. collar. to scrabble with one’s hands. para 1. to break. (Walshe. MHG krage. craze . the adj crazy: ME crazen. OHG krago. by dim -on. See the 2nd CRAB. chalk. neck. q. windpipe. insane. chalky. whence E cretaceous.f. cracked. at 2nd CRAB. crasen. an animal’s stomach: ME crawe: akin to OFris kraga. .f. from MF-F craie. adj crētāceus.v. adopted from EF-F. sem. G krabbeln. neck. crayon . perh also to Gr bronkhos. (Walshe. MHG krabelen. s. para 1. Sw kräla. a bird’s crop. to break: echoic: cf Sw krasa.) crawfish is the predominant AE form of crayfish. derives. to crawl: Gmc r. Note that EF-F éraser. v hence n and the agent crawler: ON krafla. to crawl. s.A-Z 667 . derives from the E v. the pa crazed. crawl . from L crēta. akin to CRASH: cf. EF var ac(c)raser. collar.) crayfish . G Kragen. v hence n. prob *krabh-.

Crease is an easing of creast. a cock’s comb. para 6. a bird’s tuft (if on the head): o.Origins 668 creak . para 4. See CHRISM. cream .o.a. crestfallen (from cockfighting). crease (2).e. See KRIS. creamy. See CREDENCE. v hence n and the adj creaky: ME creken.o. n hence v. crest.. creamery.. an obs var of crest: OF-MF creste (EF-F crête): L crista. to shake or cause to tremble. creance . crease . Derivatives: crested. CROAK. n hence v. crestless (-less). but perh cf ON krista. to croak: f. create .

derivative creātiō. derivative recreātiō. as in L. creedal (ism). from criar. somewhat obscured in Skt. discreditable. o/s recreātiōn-. credulous.A-Z 669 . miscreant. procreative. 5. recreative. and recreate. incredible. credenda. and to E crib (manger. whence re-create. whence the Credo or Christian confession of faith. and with an alternative *krad-. creātor. (re-create) recreate. a Creole being. leads. hence a (living) thing created. where prō-. emphasizes the physical acts of conception and birth. with inf crēdere and s crēd-. creature. 1. from L creāre. The base is formed by L crēdō. akin to G Krippe. whence ‘to create’. (E & M. procreate. recreation. MHG krippe. crēscere prob began as an inch of creāre. recreative is of E formation. adopted by E. forward. LL creātūra. any professed belief. to engender. creative is an E formation (creat-. Creāre has pp creātus. was orig a rustic term. cause to grow. cf L Cerēs (q. yields creation. whence. has pp recreātes. credible. incredulity. credulity. forth. derives from Frankish *kripja. credential (adj hence n. but W credaf. to grow. credo. a creating. has pp prōcreātus. to cause to grow again. as in C (cf OIr cretim. OHG krippa or kripia. derivative procreātiō. whence credo.—creed. Somewhat less obvious is Creole: late EF-F créole. as it were. creance. I engender—Lit šérti.) 2. creditable. clearly allied to crēscere. to give new life to. creator. creation. s of the pp+ -ive). discredit (v hence n). I trust or believe. recreancy. IE r *kred-. creditor. incredulous. credit (n and v). to recreation. Prōcreāre. a by-product of certain racial and sociological conditions. L creāre (s cre-).v. with var *kret-. o/s creātiōn-. hence to come into existence. to nourish. at CEREAL)—Arm serern. derivative LL recreātor is adopted by E. to produce. The obscure Port suffix -oulo prob answers to the L dim -ulus. 4. procreator is adopted from L. Recreāre. accreditation. incredibility. esp credentials).—accredit. 1. to produce again. the E creature. earlier EF criole: Sp criollo: Port crioulo. credibility. with adj recreational. 3. credence . accredited. prob via OF. credent. whereas procreative is an E formation. crèche . leads to procreation. hence to revitalize or refresh. to refresh. creative. creant— recreant (adj hence n). through MF-F. . procreation. to nourish or rear. procreator. to breed. o/s prōcreātiōn-. child’s cot). adopted from MF-F. I believe). whence ‘to procreate’. *krat-.

adj creant. but late MF-F crédit. after creditable. to surrender. o/s crēdulitāt-. para 6. (B & W. derivative ML crēdentia yields credence and also the adj. reputation. the negg incrēdibilis and incrēdibilitās become incredible. presp of creire. small inlet.(cf the prefix mis-)+creant. credential. its derivative crēdibilitās. whence EF-F crédit. and its derivative crēdulitās.has derivative crēditor. Two F prefix-cpds of credere are relevant to E: EF-F accréditer (a. whence ‘to accredit’. Cf miscreant: OF-MF mescreant: mes. to believe (L crēdere). (AE. things to be believed. I believe (cf para 1). See prec. Aus. from ML crēdentia (cf para 2). incredulity. the adj discreditable. is extant in recreant. tending to believe. from ML (se) recrēdere. credibility. 6. cowardly. however. The v ‘to credit’ prob derives from the n. comes direct from L crēditum and fathers the E credit. become credulous and credulity. neu crēdit urn apprehended as n. whence the n. back+crēdere. 7. derivative is recreancy (recreant+-cy). Crēdere has presp crēdens. accreditation. the former deriving from ME crede. yields o/s crēdibilitāt-. OE crēda. reputation. to+credit+inf -er). orig the presp of recreire (var recroire). hence n. incrēdulitās. the negg incrēdulus. EF-F discréditer. is adopted by Theo. 4. whence. creed . 3. from LL crēditāre. coward. Other notable E derivatives from simple crēdere are creed and creance. crēdulus. anl. perh aided by MF-F crēditeur. believable. the E creditor. from L crēdō. reputation. cf . The EF-F discréditer owes something to LL discrēdere.Origins 670 2. to believe. L crēdenda. are relevant to E: crēdibilis. whence the It n credito. whence the n discredit and. to disbelieve. o/s crēdent-. 5. to go back on one’s faith. re-. whence credible. hence doctrines. Two simple L derivatives of crēd-. has derivative creditable. in cpds. become incredulous. believing. lit believer. incredibility. whence E credit. creek . whence ‘to discredit’. whence credent. Crēdere has pp crēditus. that is the general view. commercial credit. NZ) a brook or rivulet: ME creke. and the latter from OF creance. s of crēdere. The pp s credit. It perh comes. whence the pa accredited and. crike: ON -kriki.) Credit. at least. trust. from OF-MF.

cremate . See CRANNY. akin to MD crupen. s crem-: perh akin to HEARTH. curved. inlet. fisherman’s basket or trap: OF-MF *creĭl. basic idea. crenellation.A-Z 671 MD creke. LL cremātor is adopted by E. crenel . crematory (adj and n). to burn esp corpses. crenellate(d). v hence n (whence creepy) and the agent creeper: ME crepen. yields cremation. and ON krjūpa. s crēop-. and crematory its E derivative. . from a dim (? *crāticula) of L crātis. creel . pp of cremāre. s. but crematorium is Sci L. greïle. cremation. bent. o/s cremātiōn-. creep . Derivative cremātiō. perh also to Gr grupos. creopen: OE crēopan. wickerwork: cf crate at CART. D kruipen. Cf CRIPPLE. earlier. to creep. D kreek. perh ‘to walk with back bent’—so as to keep out of sight. creese . ‘To cremate’ derives from L cremātus. Basic idea: a bend in the coastline.f. See KRIS. for greïl.

from creper. twilight. flesh+-sote. crackling. LL derivative crepitātiō. to crack (f. L crepitāre.a. from L crepusculum. to preserve. crepitant . o/s crepitant-. yields the adj crepitant. creosol =creos. from the pp of sōzein. is a freq of crepāre. pern of Sabine origin.Origins 672 Creole . crepuscular is the adj (-ar) of crepuscule. See CREATE. dusky. para 2.a. c/f of creosote+-ol. yields crepitation.(short for creoso-).. oil (f. var crepuscle.. crepitate. crêpe . to crackle.e.e. its pp crepitātus yields ‘to crepitate’. c/f of kreas (gen kreōs). o/s crepitātiōn-. and creosote=creo-. OIL). . its presp crepitans. para 5. CREVASSE). crepitation. Gr kreo-. Cf crape at CRISP.

accretionary. increase. grow(n) together. is akin to creāre. and ‘to accrue’ derives from the obs n accrue. excrescent. pp accrētus (s accrēt-) yields the adj and v accrete. Its presp crēscens. concresce. with presp accrēscens. excrescence (or -ency). o/s crescent-. presp concrēscens. L concrēscere. s. o/s accrēscent-. whence the Byzantine. s of crēscere+-ive. and derivative L concrēscentia yields concrescence. yields accretion. n and v (whence pa decreasing).A-Z 673 crescendo . n. The adj crescentic derives from the n crescent. concrescence. Crescendo.e. with its own abj accretionary. as in ‘the crescent moon’. Accrual=‘to accrue’+-al. (vi) to grow. accretive—accrue. is adopted from It crescendo. 2. of: crescent . o/s accrētiōn-. decrease. to produce: f. derivative concrētiō. recrescence. and increment. accrete (adj and v). soon applied to persons: from the pp. yields ‘to concresce’ or coalesce. accretion. accretive is an E formation. whence the E adj accrescent. adj and n. o/s concrētiōn-. and increscence. para 1. CREATE. n and v (whence recruiter). to grow (para 1). of creistre. concrescible is an E formation. whence the E adj. an increase or accession: F accrue: MF acreüe. the derivative L accrētiō. crew. the LL derivative accrēscentia becomes E accrescence. yields concretion. hence reinforcement. concrescible. 3. itself from crēscere.. perh via force creüe. hence to become congealed or condensed. appears to come. whence the n crescent in several of its senses. sep concrete and concretion. but crescent. crescive. hence come to add itself. n and v (whence increaser and pa increasing). via ME cressant. See para 1. to increase itself. concrete and the v ‘to concrete’. national emblem. incremental. hence an accretion. L crēscere. 5. increase. adv and adj. Several L prefix-cpds affect E. recrescent—recruit. o/s concrēscent-. growth. cpds: accrescence. Not immediately recognizable as from crēscere is the E crew: MF creüe (F crû).f. 1. from OF-MF creissant. later the Tu. to grow together. crescive=L crēsc-.a. adj. recruital and recruitment—‘rooky’. yields the adj concrescent. whence the n.. which develops its . gerundive of crescere. 4. hence n. crescendo. the waxing moon. from the f of the pp (acreu) of OF-MF acreistre: L accrēscere. orig the presp of creistre (F croitre). and decrement. excrescential. The pp concrētus yields both the adj. a continuous growing. increscent. the first being accrēscere (ad+crēscere). from L crēscere. accrescent. accrual. to grow.

with its own adj incremental. L excrēscere. becomes OF encreistre. the L neu pi excrēscentia. o/s incrēscent-. whence both the E n recruit. whence recrescent. a re-shaping) and the E excrescence. L dēcrēscere. whence E ‘to recruit’. perh from OHG kresōn. whence ME encresen. in ML. used as n (‘excrescences'). to form excrescences. See CREASE. has presp recrēscens. hence to grow or become less. whence the E adj excrescent. Army si rooky derives from the n recruit. recruital is an E formation (recruit. cretaceous . cress : ME cres(se) or kers(e): OE cresse or caerse. Derivative L incrēmentum (cf dēcrēmentum in para 6) yields E increment. later incresen. from OF-MF decreis (var descreis).form of the ME v. apprehended as f sing. The presp incrēscens. waxing.Origins 674 own adj concretionary. to grow out from. D kers. (Walshe. chressa. has presp excrēscens. crestfallen. with pp recreü. Whereas recruitment was prompted by F recrutement. o/s recrēscent-. 10. to grow down (de-). 6. 8.used int). whence the OF-MF excressance (F excroissance. from the OF v. L incrēscere (in. var of recroistre. and the late EF-F v recruter. via *rekroot. 7.) crest . to grow again (vi). via ME decrees. becomes. var excrescency. whence ‘to increase’. o/s excrēscent-. the n decrease derives. to grow larger. by contr and metathesis. cerse: akin to MD kerse. 9. to creep or crawl. with var recrute. whence the adj increscent. with n increscence. whence recrescence. discresen: E ‘to decrease’. lit a reinforcement. L recrēscere. and OHG chresso. with dim -y attached to rook-. app from the en. whence the EF-F n recrue. has the LL var discrēscere: hence OF-MF decreistre. the n increase derives from ME encres or encrese. The derivative L n dēcrēmentum becomes E decrement. MHG (and G) kresse. descreistre: ME decrecen. Recrēscere becomes OF *recreistre. v+ suffix -al). a new growth (recrescent+-ce). with its particular adj excrescential.

a manger. CRASH. the game of cribbage. a Normandy village. whence also ‘to crib’ or confine. See CRAYON. the sense ‘to pilfer. to crack open. for the fabrics manufactured there. and from ME crevice. a manger: akin to OFris kribbe. IE s *krep-. from crever. cretinous. derives from Creton. with 2nd b euphonic: OE cribb. to plagiarize’. whence. crib . krippa. See CRESCENT. renowned. 675 cretin . para 2. I croak. from L crepāre (s crep-. cretinism. . crevice. Sense-differentiated into large or deep crack or fissure’ and ‘crack or fissure’. var crevace. (B & W. whence the other senses. Gr krazō. by suffix -age. IE r *kra.A-Z . whence. crew .) crevasse . cretonne . adopted from F. See CHRISM. OF-MF crevace. not very clearly. cf CRACK. scream). from OF-MF crevace. para 5. crevasse and crevice come resp from EF-F crevasse. OHG kripia. bawl. since C1 6. to burst.or kre-.

cf also MLG krebe. OS krippja. crick in the neck. Crime. akin to CREAK: in short. a hook. crime . incriminatory. Cf: cricket (1). 1. as in town crier. a basket. a staff or stick: akin to CRUTCH and to CROOK and OF-F croc. .Origins 676 MHG (and G) krippe. a goal stake at bowls: MD cricke. L corbis (s corb-). adopted from OF-F. criminology (whence criminologist). criminate. o.. derives from L crīmen. recrimination. crimination. with a top cross-bar. basket. and even OHG (and G) korb. recriminate.) crier . criminality. echoic.o. criminal. chirping insect: ME criket: OF-F criquet: MD crīkel. recriminatory. incriminate. *that which serves to sift (hence. incrimination. cricket (2). criminatory. but prob a thinned CREAK. (Orig there were only two stumps. See CRY. criminous.o. game: EF-F criquet. MD cribbe (D krib) or crebbe. hence v. incriminator.

arise crīminātiō. crīmināre (or -ārt). becomes recrimination. guilty. accuser. On crīmin. whence ‘to criminate’. hence also of (a) crime. recriminator. into.a. 3. L crīmen has o/s crīmin-. crīminōsus.and sense-adaptation of OE cringan. cringle. prompted by criminator and criminatory. whence ‘to incriminate’. para 1. MD crempen: akin to. against) has pp incrīminātus. to sift: f. 5). criminatory is an E formation.A-Z 677 to decide). both incriminator and incriminatory are E formations. 5. on which arise: LL crīminālis. by.is built criminology (cf the elements -ology and. whence. from the ML derivative crīminālitās. decision. pern via OFF criminel. crimson . v hence adj and n. o/s incrīminātiōn-. has pp recrīminātus. the derivative recrīminātiō. to accuse. adopted—though seldom used—by E. . CERTAIN.e. 4. cringe . esp a legal one. o/s crīminālitāt-. crimp . whence criminous. now mostly in the two cpds (paras 4. its LL derivative incrīminātiō. The LL cpd incrīmināre (in-. whence ‘to recriminate’. 2. again. derives—perh via EF-F criminalité—criminality.. to make a counter charge. See CARMINE. whence the n criminal. yields incrimination. -logy). the E adj criminal. including the ‘decoy’ v and n: MD and LG crimpen. crinkle (v hence n). on the pp s criminal. the crime: for *cernīmen (cf regīmen from regere. is a form. The ML cpd recrīmināre (re-. for an accusation. at -loger. finally the object of the accusation—the misdeed itself. whence pa cringing. crinkly. hence an accusation. of. ME crengen. back at). q. whence crimination. has pp crīminātus. from cernere. s reg). var crincan. and the agent crīminātor. whence criminological and criminologist. CRAMP. ‘To cringe’.v. recriminatory (var recriminative) are E formations. o/s crīminātiōn-. perh—in Middle Gmc—a thinned form of. o/s recrīminātiōn-.

to sift: f. creupel.e. Crisis is the L trln of Gr krisis. Cf DISCERN (and DISCREET) and SECRET. CERTAIN. D kring. critic. See para 2 of prec. . and MD cring. var crinc. from krinein. criticaster. 1. crepel. MD crepel. 2. Allied is crinkle. hair)+It lino (Gr linon. and prob to OE crēopan (see CREEP). flax. n hence v: ME cripel. MHG-G krüppel. a freq of cringe. the derivative n has adj crinkly. a spiral.a. s crin-. It crino (L crinis. crengen. crupel: OE crypel. crinkle . cripes !: euphem for (by) Christ! cripple . criterion. itself from It crinolino. MD cring has dim cringel. to turn. a circle: cf the 2nd CRANK. akin to OFris kreppel. D krengen. crisis . crupel. a sifting. critical. critique.Origins 678 to yield. criticism. para 1. and is akin to MD cringen.. criticize. whence the naut E cringle. crinkly. D kreupel. crinoline is adopted from F. hence linen).

already in OE. hypercriticize. adj hence n (whence adj crispy) and also crispness (-ness). F crisper has derivative crispation. of C origin: cf Ga and EIr crith. criterion . criss-cross . whence. with anglicized spelling crape. Criticaster is an E formation (critic+ pej suffix -aster). whence L criticus. curling. *krit-. and ML criticāre. ‘to crisp’. criticize. . critique. C r. crisp . para 3. (m) a fabric (c14). Hypercritical. F crisper was OF cresper. represents Gr kritikē (tekhnē). The adj crisp.A-Z 679 2. para 2. See CHRISM. See CRISIS. whence crêpe. and W crych. to be extremely ill. On s krit-. whence a critic. to quiver. adopted by E. The EF-F hence E. undulatory: metathetic for *kripsos. whence E critic. a judgement. a standard or means cf judgement. (of hair) curly. critique. to quiver. Med critical goes back to LL criticus. 1. from the adj crespe (L crispus). perh via F crisper. derives from L crispus. able to discern—judge—discuss. curly. the E criterion. in grave condition. hypercritic were perh suggested by the EF-F hyper critique. Gr krisis has adj kritikos. hence quivering. critical. criticism. para 2. 2. curly. Gr has raised also kritērion. the critical art. whence adj critical (-al) and the n criticism and v criticize. a criticism. the L pp crispātus yields the adj crispate. to curl. (f) a sort of pastry (c13). to tremble. See CRISIS. perh aided by LL critērium. adopted by E. ‘To crisp’ derives. critic . criticaster. after poetaster. from L crispāre.

crockery. var crocca. a rook. v. an old or decrepit horse. and syn OE krog: beyond OGmc.o. kruog. also to OHG krōg. 3. from n croak (from the v). MHG kruoc. a crow: ult echoic. the adj croaky. para 2. o.o. frequenter of grain fields: ME crake. orig a crow. akin to ON krukka. The latter=crock+suffix -ery: and crock derives from OE croc. an old or barren ewe. prob influenced by the secondary. 2.e. coll. ‘potsherd’. Cf CREAK. CRUET. hence. a broken-down person. i. crock (2). crochet See CROOK. a pitcher. meaning of CROCK (1): cf Fris and LG . with cpd corncrake. G Krug. croceous . 1 To croak’ derives from the r of the OE syn crācettan: cf CROW: ult echoic. crock (1). a piece of earthenware. prob from ON krāka. See CROCUS. Akin also is the bird crake. Cf.Origins 680 croak . hence agent croaker and vn croaking.

a worm: ‘lizards sun themselves on smooth stones’ (Boisacq). adj of crocus. D kroft. crocodile . worm of the stone: krokē. The v ‘to crock’. croft . of Sem origin: cf the syn H karkōm. a pebble. esp ‘the lizard of the Nile’ (sem. See CROOK. Croesus . to disable or to become disabled. whence crofter.A-Z 681 krakke. with basic idea ‘a . as rich as: L trln of Gr Kroisos. owes something to each crock n. crocus . croceous. decrepit horse. esp one with a cottage: akin to MD croft. lizard. a fabulously wealthy king of ancient Lydia. (Hofmann. c/f kroko-+ drīlos. saffron. an old. crocket . hence man: prob akin to CRACK. field. para 2. and perh to E CREEP. The latter derives from L croceus. a (small) enclosed field. Cf COCKATRICE. derives from OE croft. cf ALLIGATOR): dissimilation of *krokodrīlos. hillock. whence the adj crocodilian: EF-F crocodile: L crocodīlus: Gr krokodīlos (later krokodeīlos).) Cf the element croceo-. trln of Gr krokos.

a small hook. crook . crooked+ BACK. 4. perh influenced by late MF-F crocheter. from ME crok. a hook. knitting done with long. para 2. ‘to crook’ derives from ME croken. whence E crotchet. whence E crochet. even in its criminological sense: and ME krok derives from ON krōkr. whence ME crucche. See CHRONIC. whence E crotch. cronk . 5. akin to OF-F croc. 1. See CARRION. n and v (whence the adj crooked). See the 2nd CROOK.Origins curving’. A direct dim of OF croc is MF croche. whence ‘to crochet’. esp that of the body. hooked needle. a curl or crocket (ONF croquet. para 3. esp if unreasonable. whence a crook. OF-F croc has OF-F dim crochet. a hook. a (small) hook. whence the adj crotchety. (basically) a bend. OF-F crochet yields also ME crochet. The latter=the now obs adj crook. hence a whim. From ONF croquet derives the game of croquet. from OF crochet). crony . the Mus crotchet also derives from OF-F crochet. orig applied to a hooked stick used in the game. Akin to ON krōkr and OF-F croc is OE crycc. crookback. 2. (Webster. 3.) 682 crone . from Frankish *krōk. a fork. a hook. whence E .

weak). 1. the fork of the human body. The Gmc *croppa. a harvest. 6. (a) swelling. The F la crosse. whence the bishop’s crook itself. crupper. MD crop. lends its name to lacrosse. croup. i. trunk of body. to become hooked-like or bent. accounts for crutch. the hooked stick. craw. whence ‘a crouch’ and the agent croucher. whence MF crocier or crossier. croupier. top. cf also OHG chrucchia. crook (2). whence OF-MF croce. with var croccia. whence ME croupe. OF-F croc has the derivative cpd v MF encrochier. whence E ‘to encroach’. owes its form to E crook. a lame or ill person’s supporting staff. the crozier. 9. craw. hump. whence encroachment (suffix -ment). an ear of corn: akin to ON kroppr. a plant’s top. also to perch. certainly ult echoic. from OE crop or cropp. a quadruped’s hinderpart. croon . and OHG-G kropf. crop . EF encrocher. hence ‘fork’. crop. yields OF croupe. 7. to fasten to (en. but its sense mainly to G krank. G Krüche. basic idea. a hook. has MF derivative crochir. Frankish *kruppa. esp those of Canada. on the horse’s . whence the likewise Aus si syn cronk. OF-F croupe has derivative EF-F croupier. into) a hook. the game played orig by the NA Indians.e. whence E ‘to crouch’. MHG kruche. Akin is CRICKET. OF-F croc. ill (MHG kranc. a crutch. a bird’s craw. staff-bearer. the basic sense ‘hook’. orig one who rides. With OE crycc. esp in its personal meanings. v hence n and the agent crooner: MD cronen (D kreunen). E croup. to whimper or groan: perh cf GROAN. n hence v (whence cropper in farming). the bearer of a bishop’s crook (pastoral staff). D krop. hence seize. with a propping crosspiece. whence E crozier or crosier. A crop derives from ME crop or croppe. whence ME cruchen. a hump. 8. From the Gmc r of crutch and crook derives ML crucca. 2. Aus si for ‘ill’. MF-F crosse. later crouchen.A-Z 683 crutch.

hence a representation thereof.. hence. crucifix. crux. crucify. adopted by E. a being attached to a cross. c/f of crux+suffix -ibulum). (B & W. whence E group. See CROOK. aided by late EF-F grouper. n hence adj (‘not parallel. crucifixion. the E ‘to group’. 2. whence OF-MF cropiere (F croupière). cruciate. hence an assistant at a gaming table. 3. lit and fig.) croquet . excruciation. has E adj cruciferous. becomes It gruppo. crossstaff. P Gmc *croppa. LL crucifer. o/s crucifixiōn-. the decisive point. whence. has pp crucifixus. excruciate. para 6. crucial. v). yields cruciation. o/s cruciātiōn-. crosstree. whence EF-F groupe. becomes E crucible. The L adj crucius becomes EF-F crucial. crossword. to torture on a cross. a leather strap passing under a horse’s tail.o. Webster suggests kinship with the n RUNG. crosier . the subsidiary LL cruciātiō. crucifigere itself becomes OF-F crucifier. in LL. para 3. a perpendicular supporting a horizontal beam. he who or that which bears (cf the element -fer) a cross. See CROOK. v). whence E crupper. athwart. whence the vn grouping. 3. LL crucifigere. cross . hence n ‘the crucified Christ’. to crucify. cruciform. whence ME cropere. hence loosely the Cross. whence the E adj cruciate. has pp cruciātus. OF croupe has var crope (the earlier form). crusader. derivative LL crucifixiō. behind the guiding horseman. and other obvious cpds. contrary’): crossbow. The keyword is the L crux. whence ‘to crucify’. to crucify. adopted by E. a group. crosspatch. cruiser. crusade (n. but app Punic (Carthaginian). hence an earthenware pot for the melting of metals. Longobard crūp(p)a.Origins 684 croup. the likewise derivative cruciāre.o. cruise (n. 1. a light burning before the Cross. the Cross upon which Christ was suspended: o. a problem. a cluster. crucible. 4. o/s cruc-. yields crucifixion. From the derivative sense ‘torture’ comes crux. cross-shaped. hence a hanging lamp. Cruciform=of . The ML crucibulum (cruci-.

. and ME cros. 4. para 2. yield E cross. See CROP. crotchet . L crux becomes MD cruse. whence crusen (crucen). whence cruiser and ‘a cruise’. crosswise. and OIr cros. See CROOK. L crux becomes Sp cruz.used int). crotch . See CROOK. sem. whence ‘to cross’. o/s excruciātiōn-. para 2. extant in ME: ME crois. to move. 8. para 7. 6. has pp excruciātus. esp to sail. cruyse. derivative LL excruciātiō. whence cruzada. See CROOK. whence ON kross. crouch . whence ‘to excruciate’. to torture thoroughly (ex. The adj cross-country derives from ‘a run made across country’. hence crusader and ‘to crusade’. hence ‘to cruise’.A-Z 685 the form of a cross. L crux becomes OF-MF crois (F croix) adopted by ME. of body. whence the pa excruciating. 5. whence late OE cros. crotchety. from the Cross marked upon the soldiers’ breastplates or shields: cf the It crociata and late MF-F croisade. para 3. whence E crusade (suffix -ade). The prefix-cpd excruciāre. 7. croup (1). D kruis. both sem and phon. yields excruciation. D kruisen.

akin to OHG krā (also MHG). croupy. a crowing sound. s. crowbar .f. the bird: OE crāwe. akin to OHG krāēn. Adjj: croupous (Med).Origins 686 croup (2). krāwa. . but early applied to the cock’ (Walshe): cf Lith grōju. G krähen: ‘orig must have denoted the sound made by crows. I croak. and to ‘to crow’: echoic. krāha. to croak. groti. to cry or speak hoarsely. croupier . See CROP. Such cpdd as crow’s foot are self-explanatory. See prec. Hence crow. so named because orig beaked. crow (2). a bar of iron. G Krähe. hence crowbar. or one like it: OE crāwan. to utter the cock’s cry. MHG kraejen. crow. crow (1). to croak: echoic. an affection of the throat: from the now only dial ‘to croup’. para 2. krāja.

whence the pa curdled. para 2. to press. to push hard. See CROOK. crucible .A-Z 687 crowd . n and v. crowner . whence the freq ‘to curdle’. earlier cruden: OE crūdan. Prob from OE crūdan is ME crud (var crod). ME curd (with adj curdy). adopted by E. para 6. and to MD crūden to push or shove. crozier . whence ‘to curd’. akin to creōdan. See COROLLA. cruciate. crucial . See COROLLA. whence. See CROSS. by metathesis. para 4. crown . coroner. para 3. v hence n: ME crouden.

crucify. with s crūd. to bleed again. cruel. kruog (G Krug). the 1st CROCK. cruelty. from crūdus. 1. seen in crūor (s crū-). cruelty. a pitcher—cf. . rawness. derives crūdescere. crucifixion. 2. therefore. coagulated blood. crudity. hence recrudescence. delighting in blood. becomes OF cruelte. bloody-handed or -minded. with presp recrūdescens. var cruie. cruel. Also from r crū-. hence predominantly a pool of blood. o/s recrūdescent-. from Frankish *krūka. akin to MHG krūche (cf the MF-F cruche). See CROSS. also to OHG krōg. bloody flesh. undigested matter. with secondary sense ‘raw’. to bleed.(cf fidelis from fides) derives L crūdēlis. 3. flesh. para 3. o/s crūdēlitāt-. o/s of L crūditās. whence OF cruel. and Skt kravís. See CROSS. recrudescent.is an extension of of r crū-. See CROSS. bleeding. hence cruel.Origins . crucifix . crude . Its s crūd. recrudescence. whence the E adj recrudescent. para 3. with cpd recrūdescere. akin to Gr kreas (for *krewas). From crūdus. whence E cruelty. derivative L crūdēlitās. cruet is an AF dim of OF-MF crue. para 2. adopted by E. raw meat. 688 cruciferous . Crudity derives from crūditāt-. hence to break out afresh.

whence—influenced by crumby—crumbly. further off. ‘curler’: MD crullen. cruiser. See CROSS. crooked’ and ‘a hunchback’. crumby (whence the sl crummy. D krullen. whence ‘a crumple’ and the pa crumpled. . to curl up. a crumb. akin to OE crūma. been crump. crump (1). OHG krumb. ‘To crumble’ is a freq of ‘to crumb’ or break into crumbs: cf the G krumeln. derivative v ‘to crump’. lit. with OE var crumb: akin to OFris krumb. ‘crummy’ : see prec. MHG (and MLG) krūme. dial for ‘bent. crumble. cruller . and. also from the n. in E. para 6. orig to crumb. crūme. MHG krump. to curl: cf CURL. from Krume. cut into rings or twists. and ON krumr. The adj crump has always. with freq crumple. a small heap. G krumm. (of fabrics) to cause to wrinkle. to become wrinkled. lousy). crumb . a small cake. (vi) to crumble away. the L grūmus (s grūm-). n hence v.A-Z 689 cruise .

crural . -podhan. and crammwyth.Origins 690 crump (2). pancake. crumple . pancake. See CROP. v hence n and the adj crunchy: earlier craunch: echoic. crumpet : ME crompid cake: OE crompeht. pancake. -pothan. a flat. to make a dull. para 3. thin cake. crunch . See 1st CRUMP. hence n: echoic. crupper . crumpet. to crunch. heavy thud. from the OE adj crompeht. pancakes—Br krampoez. for cf W crempog. or a flat. full of wrinkles or crumples: perh of C origin. Cf SCRUNCH. krampoe’ch. -pednan. thin cake—Cor crampethen.

to gnash. incrustation. hard. var of OF-EF croissir. to incrust. C. and derivative v crustāre. whence the adj. Echoic. coagulated: cf Gr kruos (s kru-). 4. The cpd incrustāre yields ’to incrust’. whence E crustose. etc. jar. lobsters. crustose. incrustation. crack. extreme cold. to gnash. crustation. anl. n hence v and the adj crusty. para 5. pot: MD cruese. See CROSS. v hence n and crusher and pa crushing: ME cruschen: OF-MF cruisir. crustaceous. See the element cruro-. crash. shrimps. crust . with pp crustātus. crabs. crustate. cf CRASH. Sl. from P Gmc *krostian—cf Go kriustan. Sci L coins the adj crustaceus. whence encrustment. break. The keyword is L crusta. varr croese and crose: of Gmc orgin—cf the MF-F cruche and E CRUET. crusader. L crusta has adj crustōsus. crustate. and crustallos. From L crusta. 2. 691 crusade . the L pp incrustātus accounts for the adj incrustate and. the IE r is app *kru-. croissier. whence crustation. a hard.—incrust or encrust. ice or CRYSTAL. 1. presumably comes from MF encrouster. with cognates in Gmc. wrinkled covering. and the obs v. hence E. hence a crust on bread or cake. crustacean (adj hence n). perh via learned EF-F incruster. . whence both E crustaceous (suffix aceous) and E crustacean. the v ‘to encrust’. cf the Zoo Crustacea. for EF-F. barnacles. 3.A-Z . cruse . crush .

para 1. para 2. from the source of ‘to cry’: OF-F crier. hidden. itself from L quirltare (s quirīt-). hidden. a cry. crypt . to cry out. s quīr-. from kruptos. orig to implore the Quirītēs or Roman citizens. Gr kruptos. para 5. Cryptic derives from crypticus. kruptē. perh elliptical for kruptē oikēsis. crier. cryptogam . Cf APOCRYPHAL and GROTTO. to wail. Derivative agent. secret. has derivative n. ML vir. See CROOK. pp of kruptein. perh akin to L uir. to hide. .Origins 692 crutch . hidden. s krupt-. cry . crying. call out. perh *krubh-. cryptic. a man (cf VIRILE). cryptogamous. derivative vn and pa. sing quīris. See CROSS. IE r. to hide. crux . a hidden room. The n derives from OF-F cri. See MONOGAMIST. the LL trln of Gr kruptikos.

EW more firmly the Nor kubbe. ice. n hence adj. From crustallos derives L crystallum. whence cubicity and the extended adj cubical. cubbe: o. frost: cf CRUST. whence. cube . the E crystal. cubbyhole : cubby. a nook. adj of Gr krustallos. crystallography (see the element crystallo-). cub . n hence adj and v: the young of canine and feline quadrupeds. trln of Gr krustallinos. a block or stump. perh via OF-F cristal. whence crystallization. See the element crypto-. a pen or stall. n hence v. crystal . a dog. para 10. The OED tentatively compares the rare OIr cuib. from MD cubbe. a cattle-shed: cf COVE.o. crystalline. crystallize (crystal+euphonic l+-ize).A-Z 693 cryptogram . confined space.o. from cub. a snug. from kruos. a bin or cupboard. crystal. kub. adj. the basic idea being shapelessness. See HIVE. a stall. orig of the fox: C16. Crystalline derives from L crystallīnus. cubic. para 1. .

). whence. See HIVE. cuckoldry. . itself from L cucūlus: echoic. cuckold . 2. cubicular. para 7. s. Either from the cuckoo’s habit of laying eggs in another bird’s nest. See HIVE. whence ME cocold (etc. whence E ‘a cuckold’ whence cuckoldry (suffix -ry for -ery). See: cuckoo . From L cucūlus comes the erudite adj cuculine. cubit . from the F var cucu derives MF cucuault. cubist. or from the female’s never remaining long with the same male. L cucūlus has transferred sense of ‘adulterous lover’. 1. cubism .f. with many IE cognates. in F (sem as differentiated cocu). adj cuculine. See HIVE. cuckold (n hence v). MF cucu). that of ‘betrayed husband’. para 10.Origins 694 cubicle . Cuckoo derives from EF-F coucou (OF-EF cocu. para 9.

cf H quissu’a (Hofmann) and prob Eg ashep. hence ‘warning. cocombre and OProv cogombre. Akin to BITUMEN. cuddle . prob cf also COG. akin to MHG-G kugel. tail. (derivatively) end. to hug or fondle (ult from L collum. . v hence n: perh a freq of the now only dial cull.a. in an actor’s speech’. var of cauda. var of the now dial coll. (Walshe. itself from L cōda. comes from OF-F queue.. with varr cwudu. from L cucumis. tail. cwidu: the latter yields the chewable QUID of tobacco. o/s cucumer-. sikuos. kule. cud : OE cudu. ME cuggel. tail: f. G Keule.e. gesture. cudgel (n hence v). derives from OE cycgel. with the syn Gr sikuon. akin to syn Gr kukuon: of Medit stock. certainly as ‘tail-like plait’ and ‘tapering rod’ (as in billiards) and prob as ‘last word(s) or act.A-Z 695 cucumber compromises between ME cucumer and ME cocumber: prob via MF coucombre. CODA. a ball. F queue. a cudgel. itself prob a var of MHG kiule. prob a var of CODDLE. hint’.) cue . neck: cf COLLAR).

a cavalryman with a cuirass. r cor-. See KITCHEN. L corium. sem.Origins 696 hence a file of persons. Note that MF-F coiffer. cuirass : MF-F cuirasse. to buffet: cf. o/s excoriātiōn-. the ME var coffe suggests derivation from the s of COIF. off+ s cori-+inf suffix -āre). cuisine . to cut: cf SHEAR. as in Gr keirein (s keir-). leather. esp if waiting. intestinal membrane. hide) or. s cori-. whence perh (EW) the ME cuffe. L corium has LL derivative excoriāre (ex. later an ornamental wrist-band. from OF-F cuir. and CORTEX. to strike flat-handedly. and also CARNAGE. either from It corazza (via the L adj coriāceus. has the MF var coueffer. a blow. whence ‘to excoriate’. to cut. yields excoriation. orig of leather. reprimand. pern from ME cuffe. cuggermugger . derives from ‘to cuff’. See HUGGERMUGGER. cuff . has been adopted by E. . E cuff. later that part of a glove which covers the wrist. by -asse (E -ass). late ME cuffe. r of khorion. a glove. to take the hide off. final para. MFF cuirasse has EF-F agent cuirassier. coffe. out from. the coll dress down. to flay (lit and fig). from L corium. 2. derivative ML excoriātiō. ‘as if a mitten or cuff were a cap for the hand’ (Webster). akin to Gr khor-. with pp excoriātus. to dress the hair. to beat. with derivative v ‘to queue’. a breastplate. leather. a mitten. then the sleeve-part covering the wrist. and ult to IE ker-.

derives from culmen. a reed: IE r *khal-. stalk: akin to E haulm. earlier colpa. ME halm. upper part. s. See LEGEND. OE healm.a. r perh *col-. culpable .issuing in L and in Gmc. exculpation. adj of culīna. app a contr of the syn columen. stem. (act of) negligence. whence culpability. with extension *khalm. to come to a peak. L culmināre. exculpable. whence. a hill. inculpatory. culmination.f. whence . a fault (as in mea culpa. exculpatory. to blame. culminate . para 6. yields the adj culminant. kitchen: f. 1. inculpation. L culpa. The pp culminātus yields ‘to culminate’. Derivative culpāre.. inculpate. has s colp-. culm . my fault).e. itself akin to Gr kalamos. culprit. culminant.A-Z 697 culinary : L culīnārius. akin to columna (cf COLUMN) and to collis. a stalk: L culmus (s culm-). culmination-. cull . KILN. anl. summit. presp culminans. has derivative culpābilis. exculpate. o/s culminant-.

both cumbersome (-some) and cumbrous (for cumberous: suffix - . then fig). with derivatives cultivable and cultivation adopted by E. cultivated land. var of cut prisf. cultivator. a cultivating. derives from LL inculpābilis: in-. prob influenced by OF-F couvert. the E cult. culture (G Kultur). suggests a ML *exculpāre. with pp *exculpātus. akin. The LL cpd inculpāre. cultivation. from the n. not+ culpābilis. attested in cultiua. sep COLONIAL (etc. Culprit= OF-MF cul(pable) prit. to clear of fault or guilt.. ML cultivāre becomes late OF-F cultiver. derivative LL inculpātiō. perh via EF-F culte. gen us. ML exculpātiō. a channel.o. The pp cultus has subsidiary LL adj cultiuus.o. cumber . to flow.Origins 698 culpable. whence. culvert : o. to move around (a place). whence E exculpation. accusation. inculpatory is an E formation. to cultivate (lit. the E culture. 3. itself from L colāre. cultural. prist is a var of OF-MF prest (F prfr).). from LL praestus. has pp inculpātus. whence ‘to exculpate’. whence the n cultus. with pp cultivātus. *kwel-. blameless. 1. to WHEEL. MF-F cultivateur becomes E cultivator. cultivation (soon fig). therefore. cultivable. to blame. f couverte. with subsidiary exculpatory. elliptical for cultiua terra. v hence n. o/s exculpātiōn-. culturist. esp in cpds. yields inculpation. perh from EF coulere. hence active care. ready (to prove it). covered (over). cult . 2. whence the ML cultivāre. coulouere (F couloir). to till or cultivate. prob via MF-F culture. whence ‘to inculpate’. Its pp is cultus. cf the element -cole. to impute something to (in) somebody. orig a tilling. culturist (ist). whence also cultūra. 2. adj) and. from cōlum. o/s inculpātiōn-. a filter. whence ‘to cultivate’. Inculpable. to filter. from OF-F couler. whence. IE r. hence the religious sense. whence cultural (-al. The starting-point is L colere (s col-). cultivate.

ME cumbren. 1. cumulative. accumulator. loins+ Per band. a band or bondage. cumulation. L cumulus. accumulate (adj and v). to put heap to (ad) heap. yields accumulation. has s cumul-. cummerbund : Hind kamarband: (via Ar) from Per kamar. accumulative. cumulative is of E formation. cf L tumulus. 2. an abatis (felled trees used in fortification)+inf suffix -er.A-Z 699 ous). has pp accumulātus. then an excessive heap. a heap (whence the E Met sense). cumulate (adj and v). whence ‘to cumulate’. yields cumulation-. ‘To cumber’. to obstruct: en. See KUMQUAT. from OF-F encombrer. a mound. and derivative accumulator is adopted by E. var of combren. derivative LL cumulāteō. The cpd accumulāre. accumulation. cumin . o/s cumulātiōn-. cumulus. with prob IE r *cum-. has pp cumulātus. the E encumbrance (suffix -once) derives from OF-MF encombrance from encombrer. is aphetic for late ME encomber. cumquat . to heap up. o/s accumulation-. Derivative accumulātiō. accumulative is an E formation. . then a surplus. Its derivative cumulāre. See KÜMMEL. in (used int)+combre. whence ‘to accumulate’. Late ME encomber becomes E ‘to encumber’.

D kunte. to know. skin. But is it not probable that the word is of common Medit stock? Eg offers qefen-t. from L cunnus.or *keus. mother. cupola. ship. vulva. MD conte. a small burial-place. vagina. See the elements cunei-(of a wedge) and -form from FORM.and with true IE r *ku. adopted by E. vagina. MLG-LG kunte. The presence of t in the Gmc has long puzzled the etymologists: even Walther von Wartburg aligns the Gmc kunta. L cūpa has dim cūpula. also to MF (and F) con. small cask. to hide or conceal. para 3. n hence v. cup . the posterior. both adj and n deriving from the presp of OE cunnan. cupule. tail. A cupboard was orig a shelf (BOARD) . recorded once in OE: OFris kunte. extension of r *cu-. A cup. cunt : ME cunte (occ counte). There are also several Sem cognates. hole. akin to ON kunta. cupboard. Hofmann proposes an orig *kuzdhos. OF varr cun. a tomb. with the L cunnus only under the aegis of a question-mark. and Skt kupas. from L cūpa. for cunnus. the skin being a coverer. E & M adduce the syn Gr kusthos and the Per kun. hole. cunning . itself from LL cuppa. s cun-.Origins 700 cuneiform . which has s cut-. cup. *ku-. for kusthos. akin to the n-lacking Eg ka-t. a tub or a cask: akin to Gr kupē. ME cupp or cuppe. with extended r *kus.or *keu-. hut. See CAN. but they omit to cite the Hit kun. The basic idea is prob ‘essential femineity’. women collectively. whence the Bot cupule (suffix ule). cunne: like It conno. L cūpula becomes It cupola. derives from OE cuppe. and he adduces L cutis. kunte. wedge-shaped. vulva. well.

from cupidō. cupreous . Cupid= L Cupidō.o. the god of Love. See CUP.A-Z for cups and dishes. perh an int of capere. cupola . s cup-: o. to desire. cupule . See CARE. cur . desirous. Cf COVET. desire (of love). to take: to long to take. o/s cupiditāt-. See the 1st COPPER.o.. 701 Cupid . from cupidus. cupidity. from cupere. . the E cupidity. See CUP. para 5. via MF-F cupidité. Cupidus has derivative cupiditās. whence.

AE n. curate. curator. proxy. procuration. curé. curiosity. care.o. .o. procuress. curable. a curve. bent. anxiety. This n curb derives from OF-F courbe.a. L curuus. hence a medical cure. to cleanse. insurance. cure . See kerb at CURVE. curb (1). incurable. curious (incurious). procure. procurable.—accurate. surety—assure. para 1. Therefore cf: curb (2).Origins 702 curate . procurer. hence v). crooked: from ML curvus.e. curved. curd . medical care. whence ‘to curb’ or restrain. with adj proctorial). and insecure. procurator (and proctor. is o. L cūra. insecurity. hence a curved instrument or device: from OF-F courbe. sure. insurable. secure (adj. See CURE. curved. curator. CURVE. E n: a restraining strap or chain. a restraint or check or hindrance. accuracy. scour. assurance— ensure—insure.. bent: f. security. n and v. It becomes OF-F. curative. See CROWD. curdle. 1.

MD schuren. 8. and prōcūrātor. adopted by E. Unsure. a doing business through an agent or a substitute. its derivative cūriōsitās. Cūrāre has the foll derivatives relevant to E: cūrābilis. whence security. whence procurable. hence inquisitive. as well as the adj insurable. MF-F curé also comes from this ML n. anxious about. with derivatives the abstract insurance (cf assurance) and the agent insurer. 3. o/s sēcūritāt-. without+-cūrus. var procuracia. whence ‘to ensure’. 5. whence E curious. from L cūrāre. and LL prōcūrātōrius. a needless syn: prōcūrātia. -ive. whence ‘to procure’. becomes OF procurer. whence procuratory. 7. whence E ‘to scour’. from cūra. L prōcūrātor became OF-MF procuratour (EF-F procurateur). L sēcūrus has LL derivative assēcūrāre (as-for ad-. to give care to (ad). o/s cūriōsitāt-. LL excūrāre. derivative OF seurté becomes ME seurte becomes E surety. from cura: ‘without anxiety or care’: whence the adj secure. whence E procuracy. whence E curate. Irreg formed from cūra is the adj cūriōsus. to cleanse by rubbing hard. the ME procutour. to. the neg L incūriōsus yields incurious. prob via MF-F. in ML. hence that agent or substitute: whence ‘a proxy’. held over from para 3. with pp accūrātus. whence the adj accurate. later proketour. procuress. to occupy oneself with (prō. L sēcūrus becomes OF seür. later sure. (Curative is from F curatif. be careful about. to take care of. the L prefix-cpd sēcūrus: the privative prefix sē-. L prōcūrātiō has. sur. o/s prōcūrātiōn-. whence curable. yields curation. perh by confusion between AF enseurer and ME assuren (see next para): whence ‘to insure’. used int). hence to provide oneself with.) 2. insecurity. whence ME procuracie. From curiosity. with several obvious derivatives. whence OF-MF aseürer. to render safe or secure. . yields OF-MF curiosete (EF-F curiosité). whence. the s of the pp prōcūrātus. 9. whence accuracy (accurate+-cy). 6. later sur (F sûr) whence ME seur. by aphesis. There remains. Now ME procuracie has the ME contr prokecie. adopted by ME. ‘To cure’ derives from OF curer. whence E curiosity. whence OF-MF escurer. whence curacy (curate+-cy). on prōcūrāt-. procurer. arise prōcūratiō. to rub hard.A-Z 703 hence ME. ‘to assure’ has agent assurer and pa assured. procuration. from its LL neg incūrābilis derives incurable pp cūrātus becomes the ML n for ‘one charged with the cure of souls’. prōcūrāre. whence. derivative OF-MF aseürance becomes ME assuraunce becomes E assurance. is an E formation. 10. to clean off. used derivatively as adj and v. whence ‘to assure’. by contr. adopted by E. agent cūrātor. cure. 4. L sēcūrus has derivative sēcūritās. Late ME sure has derivative ensuren. whence E proctor. for). whence. The foll prefix-cpds affect E: accūrāre. derives curio. derivative cūrātiō. therefore. OF seür has an AF derivative enseurer. by abbr. The ML *insēcūrus and insēcūritās yield insecure. o/s cūrātiōn-.

a curl. v hence n (whence the adj curly): ME curlen. a curl. curly. curlew : MF corlieu or courlieu (C13). akin to MD krul. para 5. krullen. MD crulle or crolle or crol. curious. curio . curiosity. MD crullen or crollen. to curl: perh ult akin to ROLL and ROUND. to curl. See prec. para 1. para 2. See FOCAL.Origins 704 curé . curfew . MHG krol. D krul. by metathesis from krul. EF-F courlis: echoic (cf Picard dial corlu). curling . curly. See CURE. B & W. curl .

hence n. currency . ill-tempered heart. curmudgeon . the Scottish game. licentious. ? cf the Shetlands and Orkney dial curmullyit. a rake. a low rumbling or murmuring (cur-mur). current. See COURSE. grapes of Corinth (F Corinthe: L Corinthus: Gr Korinthos). a dark. is played with curling stones: from CURL. Corinthian. currier .A-Z 705 .: perh akin to the echoic Sc curmurring. curricle . .D. curriculum. para 8. currant : elliptically from AF raisins de Corauntz.D. the ancient city being noted for luxury and licence. Corinth has adj. para 7. See COURSE. From 2nd CURRY.) Derivation from F coeur méchant. the Gr city of Corinth being prob the orig centre of exportation. whence curmudgeonly (-ly. ill-favoured fellow. a source of grumbling.o. adj): o.o. (E. is ‘erudite’ f/e.

I blame or chide. to curse. whence the pa accursed.Origins 706 curry (1).: perh from ML cursus. from LL cursus. n and v. a. The OE word is o. accurse. however. to curry leather’. See COURSE. (cf Ga coirich). from OF coroz. OIr cūrsagim. itself from late OE curs. esp ‘to curry a horse. with r cūrs-. cursive . the order of a church service. to anger. from L corruptus. curt . EW suggests that OE curs derives from ONF curuz. I chide. curry (2).used int+cursien. para 6. para 4. pp of corrumpere (cf CORRUPT) : a likelier origin. See ARRAY.o. a dresser of tanned leather.o. anger. ‘To accurse’ derives from ME acursien. whence currier. cf. a COURSE or series of prayers (esp prayers of imprecation). cursory. whence ‘to curse’: ME cursien derives from OE cursian. from OF-MF corocier. v. akin to the syn OIr cairigim. whence ‘a curse’. from VL *corruptiāre. curse . n (hence v): orig a condiment: Tamil kari.

ML -vātiōn-. cut short. See COURT. 2. ML curvātus. pp curuātus. from It corvetta. whence the obs E curtal. to curve. later kirtle. 2. the v curtail. whence the n curvet (made with arched back). derives from curve. bent. hence wearing a short frock: whence. ML-vatūra. whence curtailment. coussin (as still): Gallo-Roman *coxīnus. whence curtness. n. whence EE corvetto. curtail. which derives from ML curvus (L curuus). o/s curuātiōn-. now usu a woman’s short skirt. prob the pp of a lost v from the IE r *ker-. ML curvus has It dim corvetta. curtsy. . cut off. adj. to bend. ‘cushions being orig intended for chairs and forms’ (B & W). Curt (cf the OF-F court. para 4. to shorten. to cut. having a short tail. L curuāre. derivative curuātiō. curtsey . whence ML curvāre. short) derives from L curtus. OF-F court has derivative MF courtault (EF-F courtaud). cushion . whence the adj curvate. extant in E. yields curvature. See COURT. yields curvation. n hence v: ME cusshyn. 1. curtain . coissin (C12–16). f/e-influenced by TAIL. Prob from L curtus derives OE cyrtel. para 2. the thigh. curve . from L coxa. whence ME curtle. curved. derivative curuatūra. cuisshin: OF cussin (C12).A-Z 707 . ‘to curve’ derives from It corvettare.

. pleasure: Per khūsh.o. para 5.g. e. pleasant. ‘to cuss’ is an AE coll form of CURSE . custodian . the pp cussed has derivative cussedness.a. a pointed end.Origins 708 cushy (sl): Hind khush. of a spear: o. at CUSTOM) .v. influenced by Hind khushi.e. a crusted pie: MF croustade. See the 2nd SPIT. a crust: f. custard : by metathesis from ME crustade. sl for ‘a fellow’. from OF-MF crouste. cuspidor . cusp : L cuspis (r cus-). contrariness. is short for customer (q. cuss . pleasant.o. CRUST.

customary. usual. varr ketten and kitten. and therefore to HIDE. cutten. to dock. hence adj and n. sark) corresponds exactly to F écourté’. somehow blending with LL consuētūdinārius. to+custume.A-Z 709 = custody (y becomes i)+n suffix -an. dim of cutis (s cut-). the doublet customer. (Hofmann. ‘cutty (pipe. perh akin to Gr keuthein (s keuth-). influenced by the syn ML custūmārius. cuticle : L cuticula. customary dues. as n. OF custume and its var costume are adopted by ME: whence E custom. var of acostumer: a-.o. o/s of custōs (s cust-). ‘To accustom’: OF acustumer. by -ia from custōd-. and is o. and custody derives from L custōdia. yields E customary—and also. C14). cut off. a guard. Customs.e. is not to be sneered off.o. . orig a toll-gatherer. aphetic for acute. cut short (see CURT). L ad. customer. as n from adj.a.. ult skin to the E n HIDE. v. to hide. Hence the pa cutting and the agent cutter (the boat cuts through the water). a guarding. cut . to shorten. for.: EW’s conjecture that it derives from OF-MF escurter (F écourter). accustom. skin.) custom. derives from ME cute. The derivative OF adj costumier (C12. cutte. and Skt kuharam. var of costume+inf -er: f. is merely the pl of custom in its obsol sense ‘a duty expected by ruler or government’. I shall hide. from L curtus. as he remarks. a hole. COSTUME. keusō (s keus-). cute is prop ’cute.

earlier codull. The former derives from OF-F coutelier (cf couteau. but deriving from) ME cotul. a knife): LL cultellārius. . See CUT. a little knife. cutlery. (influenced by CUT. para 5. a knife: see COLTER. itself from L cultellus. s. knifemaker.f. OE cudele. cutlet . Cf: cutler . dim of culter.Origins 710 cutlass : EF-F coutelas. itself from couteau. akin to COD. and 1st element cuttle. from cultellus (see CUTLASS). cutter . prob a reshaping of It coltellaccio. cuttlefish has 2nd element fish. the latter from MF-F coutellerie. See COAST.

with adj Cyclopean. which thus adapts Gr kuklaminon (or -nos). shirt or chemise. perh via EF-F cycle. cyanide tacks Chem -ide to cyan-.A-Z 711 cutty pipe . the IE r being *kuk. perh via the id MF-F. bi-. tricycle. trln of Gr kuklos. cutty sark. A sark. 1. cyclamen is adopted. whence bicycle (n hence v). . cyclic. hence also a wheel. cycle . hence a circular movement in time. three. s kukl-. from L. Tokh A kukal. s of cyanic (acid). cyclone. See CUT. cyclonic. n hence v. Cf the element cyano. cybernetics . circle. derives from OE serc or serce. the coll bike derives from the wrong division bic-ycle. two. for cyclo. See GOVERN. bicycle.cpds in general. Cyclops (see the element -ope). Gr kuklos. with elaboration cyclical—cf encyclical. tri-. itself from Gr kuanos. E cycle derives.or *kak-: cf Skt čakráš. akin to ON serkr. from L cyclus. ring. has r kuk-. and tricycle. see the element cyclo-. para 3.

cyder . OF cisne. the prefix-cpd encyclical. a circle. in+kuklikos: ‘circular (letter)’. 2. to shine. a circle. calender. adj hence n. . Irreg from Gr kuklos. ‘To calender’ (cloth) derives from MF-F calandrer. to roll. (Cf B & W at calandre.) cymbal . adj of kulindros. (Boisacq. LGr enkuklikos ( ): en. and . IE r. all ult akin to WHEEL. as the E n does from MF-F calandre. LL encyclicus. white. prob akin to Skt śakunas. Cylindrical is an -al elaboration of the obsol cylindric. a swan: VL cicinus: L cycnus: Gr kuknos. is the E cyclone. n and v. Gr kulindros. whence the adj cyclonic. a wheel. perh orig a large white bird. Gr kuklos has adj kuklikos. (Hofmann. contr to kuklōn. to curve. tacks -al to the adj encyclic. from MF-F cygne. cylindrical. See CHIME. 1 encircle). 1. a round container. a round hole. I go round. in -et. 3. via Sci L cylindricus from Gr kulindrikos. L cylindrus. Cylinder derives from MF-F cylindre. itself obscurely from Gr kulindros.) cylinder . or more prob from Gr kukloōn (presp of kuklcō. akin to Skt . shining-white. whence L cyclicus. app *kel-.) 2. to bend. a large bird.Origins 712 Tokh B kokale. brilliant—cf Skt śōcati. app from ML calendra. from kulindein. whence EF-F cyclique and E cyclic. cygnet : E dim. from Skt śucis. See CIDER.

land). Cymric adds adj suffix -ic to the Cymr. the Welsh. See CANINE. a compatriot (com.A-Z 713 cyme : L cyma. s. See CANINE. cynical. cynicism.f. Cambria is the ML name for Wales: from W Cymru. whence Cambrian. cypher . cynic . Cymric . young cabbage-sprout: Gr kuma. Wales: Cymry is the pl of Cymro. adj hence n. with+brog. from cymro. Cambria. orig anything swollen: cf CAVE. para 4. Cyprian .of W Cymry. cynosure . See CIPHER. and Cymru.

czar . para 4.Origins . . Cypriot. See CIST. 714 cyst . cf the element cysto-. cytology . See the element cyto-. See CAESAR. para 3. See COPPER.

played with knucklebones or pebbles. See CANINE. ‘To dab’ ME dabben. e. ‘To dab’ has the obs thinned form dib. 3. dabble. darse: OF dars (F dard): LL darsus.g. para 2. and as pl dibs. n and v. of Gaul origin. 1. v)—dibbler. prob derives from MD dabben. from the sense ‘to dip into water’ comes dapchick. dabbler. n. with freq dibble. v). dap (n and (v—dabchick. is a var of ‘to dab’. dibble (n. From the basic sense ‘to strike smartly and lightly’ (vt.. dactyl . or flattish. dabster. dib. app echoic. and dabble is a freq of ‘to dab’ with agent dabbler. app derives from ‘to dib’ or dab lightly. whence the n dibble and the agent dibbler. dace (fish): ME darce.A-Z 715 D dab . Dap. butter’ and the coll sense ‘somebody very smart at’. dachsh und . hence sl for ‘money’. mass of.—dib (n. dabster is derivative (cf the suffix -ster). soon dabchick. a children’s game. to gently drop a bait upon the water. 2. hence vi) come the answering n and the sense ‘a flat. as counter or token.

narrow form (B & W)..e. date fruit. the Gr daktulos. FATHER. a finger. Skt tatas. the adj of daktulos. L dactylus. s daktul-. Dad is the usu E form (cf the Ir daid and Cor. dado is adopted from It: from L datum. look!) of deiknumi. whence the E date (fruit). but perh Sem. given (pp of dare. Gr tata or tetta.Origins 716 . E dactyl: perh for *datkulos.. f. dadda. Nevertheless. via L dactylicus. daddle . from Gr daktulikos. The Arch dado was at first the die-shaped part of a pedestal. cf also Ru táta. Gr patēr. See DAWDLE. prop the neu of datus. dactylic. point out. either via OProv datil or via It dattero.a. daemon . hence the metric foot .o. dad . has r *dak-. the transition from ‘finger’ to ‘date fruit’ arising from the fruit’s long. akin to the deik-(cf Hind dekho. grandad (grand dad). o. familiar (prob orig childish) forms of L pater. Br. dada is the form that corresponds most closely with L tata. is Sem and that daktulos. date (fruit). to give): cf DATE (2). The adj dactylic comes. via L dactylus. . Skt . a date (fruit) being very prob Sem and certainly. W tad).o. the finger being the orig pointer. I suspect that the Gr daktulos. whence pet-form daddy. yielding. a die. See DEMON . dada. I show. the OF date (MF-F datte).

+TYPE. defte. gentle or mild. or perh It. is a doublet of daft. orig a Spaniard. dagger : MF-F dague: OProv. fitting. trln of Gr asphodelos. gadof. c1838) + comb -o. Dago . sem. to grow strong: perh akin to FORGE. daggarium. deft specializes as ‘adroit’: cf. SOFT. due. daggarius. Whereas daft specializes as ‘stupid’. to be suitable to or fit for. whence deftness. suitable. daga: ML daggerius. ME defte.. and gadob. akin to Go gadaban. a (sharp) point.o. daft . ‘stupid’ as well as ‘meek’. the affodil or asphodel: EF-F asphodèle (cf MF afrodille): L asphodelus (whence E asphodel). the latter deriving from ME dafte.A-Z 717 daffodil : D de affodil. Deft. fitting. var defte: ME dafte. deft. the Sp equivalent of James.o. but prob of C origin—cf the syn OIr daigean: OC *dag. itself o.o. daguerreotype =Daguerre (F inventor. earlier dagga: o. derives from Diego. derive from OE gedaefte. akin to OE gedafen (s -dafen) or gedēfe (s -dēfe). and ON dafna. suitable.o. .

dairy : ME deierie. See DAWN. s. an -ery derivative from ME deie or daie. to knead. adj. kneader of OE dais . dainty . a maid: OE dāh (see DOUGH): cf Gr deigan. . derives from the n: see DECENCY. para 8. See DEMON.f. daimon . daily .Origins 718 dahlia : Dahl (a Sw botanist)+flower-name suffix -ia.

See DISH. 1519 onwards. made orig of white wool from Dalmatia (B & W). Gr tholos (s thol-). with dale. Dalmatic represents the syn L Dalmaticus. 2. dam (1). at Joachimst(h)al. Dalmatian (dog). comes the dollar. derives the OF-F dalmatique. suggests that OE dell is a mutation of OE da el. from G thaler (now Taler). more remotely. dale comes from the OE dael. AE. Dally has the redup dilly-dally. Dalmatic. whence. joyous. yet declares it o. a quadruped’s mother. Through LG and D daler.A-Z . 2.o. syn of deslier. and. E and. short for Joachimsthaler. from ‘to dally’. and OHG tellla.o. dalliance comes. a rotunda. delle.o. via L Dalmatica uestis. The former is the E adj (-an) for ‘of Dalmatic’. ‘day’s eye’. itself from OF dalier.. to rejoice. 719 daisy : ME daiseie: OE daeges ēage. in Bohemia. made. whence E dalmatic. a priestly vestment. a valley so much smaller than a dale. which. See DAME. much later. DAF has OF daillier. Cf OPHTHALMIA. by suffix -ance. cf OFris and MD del. joyous+ inf -er. a coin worth 3 marks. dalmatic. St Joachim’s Valley. o. akin to OE—whence E—dell.o. cf OS and Go dal. OHG tat (G Thal). Dalmatian garment. enjoy oneself: des. With dell. with ref to the flower’s yellow disk. ON dalr. from L lactus. Eccl LL dalmatica. . but perh a var of OF deslier (vi). para 3.used int+ lie (contr form).

derives from L domina. a fine or penalty: f. . damascene). applied esp to swords marked in a peculiar way (damascened. The L Damascus becomes It Damasco.. var damm.. IE r. Hence ‘to dam’.a. The L adj is Damascēnus.e.a. either from the syn OFris damm. akin to MHG tam and OE fordemman (for-. damson. adopted by ME. perh cf the H Dammeseq (the AT Dimashq) and esp Dumashqa in the Letters of Tel-el-Amarna. f. from L damnum. OF-MF damage has the OF-MF derivative damagier. to stop up: notably cf the syn ON dammr. (water confined by) a barrier: app taken by ME. from OF-MF. plum of Damascus. DAMN. f of dominus. lord: cf DOMINIE and. damascene . Damascus. n: ME. damage: suffix -age tacked onto OF dam. perh * dabma (Walshe). whence E damask. damask. whence E damson. whence damasco. damages.Origins 720 dam (2). dame . and L Damascēnum (prūnum) becomes damascēnum (mostly in pl damascēna). Madam anglicizes F madame: ma dame. whence ‘to damage’. with var dam (extant in E). Gr Damaskos. a figured fabric. famed for its silks and its steel. private+demman). from OF. master. whence E Damascene.e. or from MD dam. an ancient Syrian cultural and industrial city. is L Damascus. my lady: cf the It madonna. DOMESTIC. from adj Damascene. v. whence ME damasin. damage .

comes from L damnāre. whence MF-F indemnité. The adj prefix-cpd indemnis. damnable. hence. 4. n hence adj (whence dampness) and v damp (whence damper) and v dampen (whence . worthy of a penalty. damnation. to make.—darn (it)! and darned. with extension *dap-. damnatory. has LL derivative indemnitās. to injure or fine. to fine. damp . whence LL damnificāre. and the adj damnātōrius. whence damnatory. and daptō. damnous. 2. penalize.—sep damage. loss. prob via MF-EF. perh prompted by L condemnātor. condemnatory. monetary fine for material loss. Damnāre has the prefix-cpd condemnāre. o/s damnificātiōn-. whence E indemnity. condemnation. I share. derivative condemnātiō. has LL derivative damnābilis. hence a penalty. whence both the n damnātiō. he shares. o/s damnātiōn-. the E condemnation. ‘To damn’. prob via OF-F. indemnify (whence indemnification. damnation. Damnum has adj damnōsus. s damnāt-. condemnatory is an E anl formation. whence ‘to damnify’. damozel . whence ‘to condemn’. s damn-. perh akin to Gr dapanē. perh *da. whence. whence EF damnifier. condemn. expense. a condemner.A-Z 721 damn (n hence v). See DAMSEL. indemnificatory) and indemnity. 5. in Law. Darn it! and darned are eupheum for Damn it and damned. injurious. (Hofmann. whence the legal damnous. damnify (whence damnification). ‘to indemnify’ = L indemn-+connective -i-+-fy. damnāre itself.) 3. damage. hence to Skt dāpayatē. not). IE r. OF-F damner. unharmed (in-. a not being hurt. whence OF-EF condemner. acc indemnitātem. ME damnen. from damnum. expense. yields. damnable. the LL derivative damnificātiō. The v damnāre has pp damnātus. whence late OF-F. 1. s indemn-. becoming damnification.or *dai-. hence E. condemn. and the cpd adj damnificus damage-causing. o/s condemnātiōn-. to share.

very closely akin to ON dampi. (vi) to move here and there. lord: f.Origins 722 dampener): MD (and MLG) damp. itself from the v dancier. s. var danser (as in F). The MF-F demoiselle.e. a gentlewoman: VL *dominicella. n and v (whence dancer. damson . despondency.a. app of Gmc origin—cf OHG dansōn. whence EF-F mademoiselle (ma. f of mon. var danse (as in F). Dan (title: cf Don). dancing). G Dampf. See DAMASCENE. dance . ME daunce. derives from OF dance. and to DUMP. steam. derives from OF-MF damoisele. vapour. f of dominus. The OF v yields ME dauncen or daunsen. master. var damoisele (influencing damozel). See DOMESTIC. para 6. and to OHG-MHG damph. cf DANDLE. DOMESTIC. cf E THIN. earlier damaisele. dust. B & W. however. to stretch out (here. my). to steam. propose a Frankish *dintjan. dancetté . whence ‘to dance’. as in the syn D deinzen. and DIM—cf MHG dimpfen. one’s limbs). (Walshe. dim of L domina (cf DAME).) damsel and archaic damozel: ME damesel. young lady.f. A dance. dameisele: OF dameisele.

however. Danegeld was a tribute (with OE geld. to saunter. cf YIELD) paid . Dane . akin to LL Dani. Danish. the former is o. Dane derives from Da Daner. a fop. from ON Danir. scab. Danelaw. sem cf DAISY. a b/f from Sc and North Country dander. perh.A-Z . Dandy.) Danish=Dane+adj -ish. scurf-f ON hrufa. Danes.. a petform of Andrew.0. 723 dandelion . whence the coll adj dandy and the literary adj dandiacal. is 0. a word used by Scott: sem cf the F flâneur. para 4.f. See TOOTH.o.o. dandy . (The OE form is Dene. n. para 10.0. dandruff app blends E dial dander (var dan). para 2. esp as the term was first used on the Scottish border and St Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland.: perh from Dandy. See GONDOLA. See TOOTH. dandle . s. Danegeld. scurf. the latter akin to OHG hruf and MD rove.

Dangerous—in ME ‘haughty (like a master). (later) difficulty. at least. danger . later danger.e. esp a lord’s power. itself from VL *domniārium. from OF danger. law of the Danes’. Danelaw derives from or was. earlier dangier. 2. dominion. endanger. dangier. suggested by OE Dena lagu. f. dangle . daphne . dangerous’—derives from MF dangeros (F dangereux). dap . NE England under the law of the Danes. akin to DAMP.Origins 724 to the Danish invaders of England. from L dominus. the territory of the Danes: cf MARK. danger. para 2. and -ing-): app the freq of a v akin to DING. lord: cf DOMINIE and. dank . master. derives from MF-F danger. The cpd endanger=(to put) en-. Denmark is Da Danmark.. orig a lord’s jurisdiction or power.a. earliest dongier. adj hence n. 3. dangerous. whence the pa dangling: of Scan origin (cognates in -ang. cf the redup dingle-dangle. See DAB. is of Scan origin (cognates in -ank and -unk). jurisdiction. hence difficult. 1. DOMESTIC. in+danger. Danger. power. ME daunger.

inf gadaúrsan. MHG tapfer. shrub or its flower. audacious action. G tapfer. perh rather was Chaucer’s durring don (daring to do) supposed by Spenser. hence a dog with spots above the eyes. the inf being durran (s dur-): akin to OS gidar.A-Z 725 . to dare. to be courageous. earlier I dear. to mean ‘bold. for its source. dare . v hence n and the pa and vn daring. and is presumably a dim thereof. from OE ic dear.) dark . IE r. strong. to Skt dharšati. and his misapprehension. derives—via L—from the Gr nymph Daphnē. hence ‘blot’ or ‘spot’. tharrein (r thar-). a spot. dapple . 1. and Go gadars. to be courageous. to OHG tar. where gi-. to Gr tharsein. chivalrous action’. I dare. who coined derring-do. IE r. to several Sl words. orig ‘brave’: MD-D dapper. akin to OHG tapfar. Lith drasus. e. dresus. he dares. ga. and OFris inf dūra. brave. (EW. inf gidurran. weighty. ‘To dare’ comes from ME I dar. derring-do. *dhars-. derives from ON dapi. pern *tab-. App derring-do. itself of Medit origin. n hence v and the pa dappled.g. a pool. and ON dapr. changed into the daphnē or laurel tree whence she gets her name. bold. app meant orig ‘a small splash’. nimble. heavy-hearted: with Sl cognates. dapper . heavy. perpetuated. prob echoic. audacity. has fathered a word. *dhers-. is a contr of daring [to] do.are varr of the OE prefix ge-. the ON depill. inf turran (MHG turren). 2.

darn (1). in the dark. the C r being *dar-. v suffix). stockings). para 4. with early var dern: Channel Islands F darner. dark-red—Ga dorch. . to mend (e. darling . ME darke. darkness. to darn. cut or tear. para 8. See NEGRO. Mx dorragh(e)y. para 1.. darkling. to split or divide. dark. hence also darkness (-ness) and ‘to darken’ (-en. comes from OE *dearc (OE deorc): cf OHG tarchanjan. adj +-ling. adj hence n.g. dull. render obscure. and to several C words. torn. adv. See DAMN. The last=dark. and the adj dark.Origins 726 . darn (2). a piece: akin to syn W and Cor darn. and derg. a piece: Br darn. in darn (it)! and darned. to patch: NF darne. earlier derk(e). W duog. See DEAR.g. e. to hide. OIr dorche. rainy weather. to Lith darga. but akin also to Skt dērna. earliest deare. darnel . obscure. derner. dart (n hence v): OF-MF dart (MF-F dard): like the OProv dart and the OHG tart (javelin.

dastard . prob via MF-F date.of ON dasask. For -ash.arises L datīuus. prob comes the E n dastard. gnash. cf clash. crash. fruit. ‘To date’ comes from MF-F dater (from the n). whence the n. data is the pl of L datum. he gives). lash. he gives. pash. ML datīvus. daze (v hence n). suitable for giving. Date in chronology derives. ‘To daze’. comes from the r dasa. darath. and the adj dashy (-y): ME daschen: of echoic Scan origin. to grow weary and exhausted. from the ML n data (var datum). the agent dasher. and ON darrathr. v hence n and the pa dashing. etc. pp of dare. mash. From the ON pp dasathr. whence the freq ‘to dazzle’.A-Z 727 dart). used in this sense. weary and exhausted. orig for littera data. akin to Skt dádati. whence the F datif and the E dative. data being the ‘first word of the formula indicating the date on which an act [or document] had been drawn up’ (B & W). letter given. to give (cf dat. orig the neu of datus. 2. . ME dasen. date (1). On the pps dat. with cognates in Gr and Sl: cf DONATE. dagger. dash . See DACTYL. flash. dart. adj hence n. smash. it derives from Frankish *daroth—cf OE daroth. whence dastardly. thrash.

to ON dōttir. G Tochter. to plaster (cf ADOBE). para 2. earliest dohter: OE dohter. See DATA. to certain Sl. daughter (whence daughterly): ME daughter. int of domāre. v hence obsol n (whence dauntless). perh *dhugter.Origins 728 date (2) in time. but. Cf the distribution of and varr in BROTHER. to smear: MF-F dauber. OS dohtar. daub (v hence n and agent dauber): ME dauben. var of OF-MF donter (EF-F dompter): L domitāre. via ME daunten. but not to C nor to L. to whiten (dē. MHG-OHG tohter. para 1. Go dauhtar. daunt . . as B & W propose. earlier doghter. by aphesis (in a dial) from OF-F adouber as influenced by Sp adobar. words. See DATA. from OF danter. derives. as so often stated. akin to OFris and MD-D dochter. to Gr thugatēr. to tame: cf DOMESTIC and TAME. to piaster. white 4-inf suffix -āre). dative .used int+albus. prob not from L dēalbāre. dohtor. and notably to Skt : IE prototype.

a jackdaw. or sent. ii. See DELPHINIUM. 5.) daw . beloved. The Davy of Davy Jones.) David. Davit. perh (EW) an ‘allusion to David being let down from a window (1 Samuel. app a freq of the . is akin to the dial daddle. from OF daviot or daviet. MHG tahe: ? echoic.A-Z 729 Dauphin . David is the H Dāwid or Dāwīd. and. in AE. Daviet. a large well-upholstered sofa. dawdle . the prophet Jonah of Jonah and the Whale. prob arises from Jonah. far too un-British explanation of this orig and predominantly British term. xix. to Davy Jones’s locker. v (hence n). St David being the patron saint of Wales—cf sem DANDY. is akin to OHG taha. drowned. being made into Jones and supplied with a fitting Welsh Christian name’ (EW). the malevolent spirit of the sea. (See P2 but cf EW. 12)’. davit. (Webster has a far too erudite. Davy Jones(’s locker). as in gone. a naut crane. to toddle. whence dawdler. dim of David. from Daviot. ‘formerly called Jones. a small writing-desk. davenport . derive prob from an E cabinet-maker and from an Am furniture-maker. ME dawe.

*dhagh. IE r.(Gmc r *dag-). See DASTARD. harvest-time. diaconate. dade. varr *dhegh-and *dhogh-.o. . dazzle . the basic Gmc idea being ‘hot period’ of the 24-hours cycle. E -like).o. to become day. it burns. (Walshe. day . para 2. and dègti. See DASTARD. Now. itself of Scan origin: cf Da. to walk unsteadily. heat. OS dag. summer. The adj daily. 2. then dial. See prec.Origins 730 C16–17 SE. and Lith dãgas. dawn . an -ing n from ON daga.. and dáhati. Nor. derives from dawning. itself o. to burn. (vt) to support with leading strings. O Fris dei. OE daeg survives as day (ME dai) and is akin to ON dagr. daze . diaconal. for cf such remoter cognates as Skt nidāgha. v (the n from the v). deacon. whence the adv.) The cpds are self-explanatory. to become daeg or day. Sw dagning. akin to OE dagian (late ME dawen). daybreak. Go dags. cf OFris degelik. OHG (and G) tag. but prob echoic. derives from OE daeglīc (daeg+-līc.

derives from OE dīacon: LL diaconus. ded. via ME deed. ‘To die’. and. 1. OHG touwēn. whence deafen (-en. app dēad was orig the pp of a lost OE v for ‘to die’ (see para 3). a servant. OHG tōd (G Tod). a part or share. in LGr a minister of the church: dia-. hence also deaden (-en. at FUNERAL. ME deken. to Gr tuphlos (s tuphl-. OHG toub. perh a dissimilation of *thuphlos. I am active in service+-os. IE r. thoroughly. the basic meaning is perh ‘dull. deathless. I hasten. from OE dēad. comes from ON deyja. whence diaconate. ME dien. to kill. earlier deyen.—to die. akin to Go diwan. cf also OIr duine. stupid’—cf the perh cognate DUMB. hence to do business. and ‘office of’ n diaconātus (gen -ūs). akin to Go daufs and ON daufr.’). to be or render misty or obscure. subject to death. in. man (subject to death: a mortal) and prob L fūnus. phon cf DEAF. OS dōd. OHG-MHG tōt. v) and deafness (-ness). v). comes from OE dēaf. Go dauths. 2. whence E diaconal. OS dōth. ‘to deal’ or share. whence ‘a deal’ or piece of .—perh akin to sep FATIGUE. and to OFris dēia. OS doian. OE dēath is akin to ON dauthi. derivative OE dēathlīc.—death. dead-like. G tot.v. less nearly. Deadly comes from OE dēadlīc. dead. With dead. lit I raise dust (konis). also to OFris dāf. trln of Gr diakonos (Ionic diēkonos). subject to death. deathly—deathful.A-Z 731 1. yields E deathly. whence vn and pa dying (neg undying). the E dead. (Walshe. ON dauthr. deadly. 2. (later) causing death. q. whence E death. in all things+enkonéō ( ). deaf. of the Gmc words. to die. r tuph-) blind. whence. *dheubh-. dead . to cause to die. 3. LL diaconus has adj diaconālis. deal . OS dōf. Also from this lost v comes OE dēath. (later) causing death. adj hence n (‘the dead’) and adv. m n-suffix. OE dēad is akin to OFris dād. used int+ konéō.) deaf (adj. hence n ‘the d. G taub. Deacon. deathful (-ful) and deathless (-less) are post-ME formations. Go dauthus. death-like. enkonéō consists of en-.

. plank. a board of pine or fir wood. OE has a cpd (with var ordāl). intimately akin to MHG dile. to distribute or share out. OHG dil.a. with cognates in Sl. dene. to divide. to cut into parts. L decem. plank. The OE thille has cognate thel. water. cf OFris dēla. derives from OE . whence dean. either of the two shafts of a vehicle drawn by one horse. With the OE v. OS dēlian. earlier daelen. a part.(cf the Go us-). also from the v: dealer and the pa and vn dealing. 10 (f. deal (2). a judge’s sentence against the prisoner. hence to divide into parts. Go dailjan. perh ult akin to L telius (s tel). board or plank. leader or chief of ten persons. akin to OFris (and OS) dēl. whence E thill. ‘The various kinds of mediaeval ordeal (by fire. ME delen.and er. hence a share. combat) were regarded as judgements of God’ (Walshe). this or(perh cf ORT) being influenced by G ur. TEN). judgement. plank. whence deanery. The IE r is *dhāi-. from .Origins 732 business. ON deilja. earth. Cf dene. a judgement. and OHG-G urteil. board (G Diele. and the ME deene.) 2. dear . perh reinforced by MLG dele. OE thille. has LL derivative decānus. 1. see DEN. plank). which becomes OF deien (cf OProv degan). ON thili. doyen. dean . IE r *tel-. derives from MD dele (D deel). partly adopted by E. (Whitehall. dean (2). Go dails. whence both the F doyen. OHG-G teil. ‘To deal’. lit a dealing out. cf MD ordeel.e. ON deild. var of dāi-. D oordeel.

ON . endear. dearness. adj. dearth. See the 3rd BARK. var dīere. whence endearing and endearment. 3. E darling.. debase . See BASE. BAR. 2. See DEAD. OS diuri. through ME dere. earlier deore.A-Z 733 (adj hence n). OE dēore has derivative dēorling (-ling.a. death . 4. 1.e. hence scarcity. deathly. whence dearness. hence precious. f. to+dear. akin to OHG tiuri. G teuer. MHG tiure. debark . in. from OE dēore. derives. ‘To endear’=en. connoting a possessor of the quality implied by the adj): whence ME derling. See DISBAR and. debar . highly esteemed. para 2. highly priced. used as v: to render dear to. hence famine: whence E dearth. darling. Dear. debasement. para 3. debate . para 3. ME dere has derivative derthe.

debauchery. whence debilitation. orig to entice away from one’s work. is clear enough. whence ‘to debauch’: and F débaucher derives from OF desbochier. physically weak. from bauch (earlier balc. away from +r bil. later bau). a beam. appears to consist of dē. and dēbilitāre. to Gr belteros (r bel-). debilitate. better. the E debility.answering to Skt balam. to be idle: des-. Dēbilis has derivatives dēbilitās. The n debauch anglicizes EF-F débauche. to render weak. strong. apart from+ -boschier. and to OIr ad-bal (r bal-). from the v: debaucher. strength. whence. (s bal-). debilitant—with pp dēbilitātus. para 2. debit . See DEBT. to quit one’s work. itself from the MF-F débaucher. o/s ilitant-. with presp dēbilitans. o/s debilitātiōn-. debilitation. whence n. debenture . weakness. from Frankish *balc (cf BALK): the semantic development. L dis-. debilitant .Origins . para 3. L dēbilis. debility. infirm. 734 debauch (n and v).+adj suffix -ilis. as detailed by B & W. with bil. . perh via MF-F debilité. for *baucher. para 3. whence ‘to debilitate—and with a pp-derivative dēbilitātiō. See DEBT. dēbwhence E adj. See 2nd BAT.

adj hence n. is a contr of *dēhabēre. L dēbēre. AREA. cf also BRUISE. debenture. v hence n. deboshed is a C18–19 Society form of debauched (see debauch). to have or possess (habēre: cf . to put into the mouth: em. debit. duty. from early ML brisāre.—devoir. Ga bris. endeavour (AE endeavor). the sea): Sp desembocar: des-. The base. down from +brisier. to flow (into a lake.for de-. to break. from MF debrisier: de-. mouth (L bucca)+ inf -ar. mouth cheek)+inf suffix -er.a.for en. where aire.—due. flow out: EF-F déboucher: dé. usu area. bird’s nest. of Gaulish origin—cf OIr brissim.in+boca.. debtor. to break. to shatter. 1. briser. debris : EF-F débris. (down) from +bouche. L dis+embocar. mouth (L bucca. of good stock or race. to emerge. debt .A-Z 735 debonair : ME debonaire: OF de bon aire (F débonnaire). The n debouchment anglicizes F débouchement (suffix -ment). I break.e. derives from L area: f. debouch . indebted. Cor brewy. to owe. Cf disembogue.

whence the adj decadal: MF-F decade: L decad-. the ME endever or endevor (en.. was OF deveir. to strive. F devoir. as if ult from L *dēbitās. (B & W. OF-F devoir. debt. from +but. whence the n dever. dettur. 6. with E then reviving the b of the L word. whence ME dettour. (With AF dueté. o/s dekad-: f. (moneys) are owed.) required by ruler or state. n hence v: EF-F début. the latter from L dēbitum. to put oneself in duty. adopted by ME. o/s of decas (s dec-). in). 4. whence. whence. with L b restored. the former prob from VL dēbita. dettur. either f sing from neu pl or simply elliptical for pecunia dēbita. whence ME dettour. mark (in game or sport)+inf suffix -er. detour). whence. has OF-MF pp deü (F dû). From dēbentur. owed. s of pp dēbitus. whence the E adj due. 2. usu in pl debentures. whence ME endetted. soon used as n. its neg is undue (un-. L dēbēre becomes OF-F devoir. cf OProv deuta. not) with derivative sense ‘excessive’. comes the commercial share known as a debenture. partly adopted by E in ‘pay one’s devoirs’ or social duties. duty. with pp endetté. to owe.e. soon also a n. 5. On dēbit-.) decade . deute. debut . and thus accounts for OF dette. whence ‘to endeavour’. VL app substituted dēbita. the OF detor (detur. MF-F but prob derives from Frankish *but. money owed.Origins 736 HABIT) by holding it from (dē) someone (E & M). devor. hence any service (etc. via se mettre en devor. whence ‘to debit’. whence the E indebted. therefore due. arises the agent dēbitor. a set or group of decem (s dec-) or ten: Gr dekas. o/s *dēbitāt-: whence E duty. the E debtor. stump or block of wood. therefore to be paid or otherwise performed. to owe. 3.) 7. however.a. influenced by OF-F dette. to make it one’s duty. as if harping back to L *indēbitus. OF-F dette has the late OF-F cpd endetter. for dēbitum. beginning (of a career): from EF-F débuter: de. The pp dēbitus has neu dēbitum. TEN. decadence . due conduct. to put or bring into (en) debt (dette). whence the E debit. Prob from deü comes AF dueté.

See CAMP. decadent. para 7. 737 decamp . L trln deca). decanter.A-Z . decant . para 2. See 1st CANT. See CADENCE. para 2. para 3. decapitate . para 7. decathion is an athletic contest (see ATHLETE) of ten events (Gr deka. decease . See CADENCE. decay . See CHIEF. decapitation.

s. whence decimation. with pp decimātus. whence E decuman (esp wave).. decimal (adj hence n). o/s decimātiōn-. hence the Am coin of 10 cents (one-tenth of a dollar). whence E dicker. 1.. a decuplet or set of ten musical notes. a division. decuple. para 6. of the tenth. L decem has adj decimus (whence the PN Decimus. etc. November.. December. October. 3. as tithe. L decem has derivative decuria. whence. decimation. TEN). with sub-sidiary LL decimātiō. whence prob AE dicker. decimate. para 7. L decem has also adj decumānus. deceit . 4.a. 2. See CEASE. whence E dime. group of ten: whence MLG deker. decuman. part. G Decker. one in ten. dime. 1 soldier in 10. para 7. a set of 10 hides. for mutiny) or. tenfold. See CAPABILITY.Origins . December . dime (F dîme). See CEASE. 738 decedent . after couplet and triplet.var. decuplet. decuplus. para 6. tenth (part). derives from L decem. whence ‘to decimate’.f. a tenth part (cf tithe). L decima (pars). also on the decu. with suffix as in September. See CAPABILITY.g. a bartering. becomes OF disme. it being the 10th month in the ancient Roman year. deceive . . to take 1 in 10. dicker. whence ML decimālis. later. whether as punishment (e.e. whence E decuple. 10 (f. lit the tenth-born). whence E decimal—whence also LL decimāre.

whence E indignant. whence E decorous. yield indency. unworthy. is akin to Gr dokein. Decency comes from L decentia. whence OF-MF desdeignier. s dok-. Dignus has LL cpd dignificāre. o/s of LL decorāt iō. OF-MF desdeignier has derivative OF-MF n desdeign. likewise adopted by E. comes more prob from F dignité than from L dignitās. to deem worthy. The F dignitaire. esp decet. thing of beauty. whence ‘to dignify’. dainty. disdainen. digneté. dignity. disdayn. the E indignation. worthy. whence disdainful. Less imm obvious a derivative is ‘to deign’. whence. s of the pp indignātus. whence LL indignāri.A-Z whence ‘to dicker’ or barter. formed upon decent. used as n. 1. o/s indignant-. 5. decorate. the o/s of decens. var daintié. whence E indignity. whence ME dignite (dignete). L decor has adj decōrus. 3. whence decorative (-ive. prob via OF-F. the opposites indecentia.(whence the E decent). merit. decorum. whence dignified. fitting. The L opp indecōrum (in-. s dec-. decoration comes from decorātiōn-. whence ‘to decorate’. to seem (good). whence EF dignifier. L decorāre becomes MF-F décorer. is the neu of the adj indecōrus. whence ME desdeyn. disdain. The L neg indignitās. is adopted by E. to be angry with (as at some unworthy act). the L neu decorum. 7. 6. . ME deinen. he is gracious 2. 739 decency . decent—indecency. adj). although passing through F. thoroughly worthy (con used int+ dignus). 4. decorātor is adopted from ML. it derives from indignus. is the adj dignus. s of the pp. Very intimately akin to decet. are L decor and its virtual syn decus. decorative. decorous. a c/f of facere. indecent. it is fitting or seemly. thoroughly deserved. q. almost embalms L condignus. whence ‘to disdain’. whence dainty. indecens. with derivative dignitās. s dec-. with pp decorātus. 8. whence décor. indignation. to make. décor. o/s indignation-.—deign. Condign. on indignāt-. as in ‘condign punishment’. not). whence ME-E dainty. L dignitās has acc dignitātem. dignity (in various senses). whence dignity. sep. decorator. desdain. whence disdain. decoration. deignen. dignified. dignitary. from dignus. yields late MF-F indignité. adj. whence E dignitary.v. n. c/f+-ficāre (var of -ficere). L decēre. whence OF-MF dignité (extant). becomes VL *disdignāre. all akin to DOGMA. o/s decor-. ornament. and Skt daśasyati. whence perh—though more prob from the former— the E indecorous. o/s indecent-. it is seemly. indignant. o/s indignitāt-. whence the v decorāre. (later) to haggle. adopted by E. arises LL indignātiō. presp of decēre. whence ME desdainen. with LL var indecōrōsus. indecent. whence OF-MF deintié. he seeks to please. to render worthy: digni-. from OF-MF deignier (F daigner): LL dignāri (dignāre). formed upon decorāt-. LL dēdignāri (-āre). hence the predominant E sense. to think unworthy. with presp indignans. Also akin to decet.

-ment. c/f of caedere) thoroughly (dē-. decipher . down. s caed-. indecisive=in-. s dēcīs-. decide . but perh owes something to the ML adv indēcīsim. See DECEMBER. indecisive. caedere. is perh akin to Skt khidati. ‘To decide’ comes from MF-F décider: L dēcīdere. the E decision. 1. whence both the L dēcīsiō. hence to decide. Décīdere has pp dēcīsus. whence MF-F décisif and E decisive. decimate. whence. to cut (-cīdere. and the ML dēcīsivus. 2. para 1. deciduous . without the lawsuit being decided. decisive—indecision. para 7. 3. decimation. decimal . See CIPHER. See CAPABILITY. -er. prob via MF-F décision. o/s dēcisiōn-. used int). he tears. whence pa decided (neg undecided). not). Indecision derives from EF-F indecision (in-. decision. Cf CONCISE. See CADENCE. not+decisive. . para 7.Origins 740 deception . deceptive.

used int+clārāre. declare . to cover: f. declamatory. declarative. on dēclārāt-. deck . derives from MD dec (D dek). declaration. from decken (D dekken). declamation. See CLAIM. the E declaration. THATCH. declarant. whence E declarant. L dēclārāre has presp dēclārans. o/s dēclārant-. to make very clear: dē-. and LL dēclārātiuus. ‘To declare’. decisive. para 4.a. whence declarer. Declaratory is either an E formation (-ory. prob via OF-F. para 2. para 6. to make clear. whence E declarative.a. declaim . See DECIDE. See CLASS.A-Z 741 decision .e. LL dēclārātivus.e. via MF declarer. declaratory. declarer. s of the pp dēclārātus. adj) or a derivative of EF-F déclaratoire. o/s dēclārātion-. from L dēclārāre. comes. from clārus.. déclassé . n. . clear: f. whence.. CLEAR . arise dēclārātiō.

para 8. decoct . See CLIME. declination. decode . declivitous . See CODE. See COL. See CLIME. para 8. para 2. declivity. para 3. decollation . décolleté. See COOK. See CLIVUS.Origins 742 declension . decoction. . decline .

decorator. para 1. n and v. decoy . decretal. n hence v. decorum. decorate. decree . See COMPOSE.A-Z 743 decompose . The adj decretal comes from LL dēcrētālis. pnra 5. decorous . decoration. See CRESCENT. See CAVE. whence OF- . of a decree. See DECENCY. from L dēcrētum. See DECENCY. para 2. decorative. para 3. decrease . decomposition. para 6. décor .

to crackle. decrepitude. (vi) to crack or split or tear noisily: echoic. to sift. pp crepitātus. yields crepitation: crepitātiō is built upon the freq crepitāre. yields the E adj crepitant. MF descrier: des-. whence ‘to crepitate’. L dis-+crier. Whereas the ML derivative dēcrepitūdō yields MF-F décrépitude and. pp of dēcernere. decretal . whence E decree: and dēcrētum is prop the neu of dēcrētus. o/s crepitātiōn-. decrepit. Cf CRAVEN. the presp crepi tans.Origins 744 MF decret. Gmc) in cr-.f. n): F décrier. kr-. decrement . o/s crepitant-. See DECREE. para 6. the LL derivative crepitātiō. used int +crepāre (s crep-). See CRESCENT. cf all the other echoic words (Skt. whence decrial (-al. q. whence ME decre. E decrepitude. s. decré. to decide: dē. perh from dē-. hence to decide: cf CRISIS. Gr. Decrepit anglicizes MF-F décrépit: L dēcrepitus. from +cernere. decuman . at CRY. L.v. perh independently. decry .

dedicatory. para 6 at deducere. para 2. para 10. See COURSE. deduction. decuplet. decursive. dedicator (and dedicatee). deductive. para 2. deed . See DUKE. para 8. 745 decumbency . dedication. deduce . See DECEMBER. See DECEMBER. See HIVE. at dedicare. decuple . dedicate . decumbent. para 8. decurrent . See DICT.A-Z .

sem. See DOOM. OHG tior. dīor. r *dub-. E animal from L anima. dofn. breath. para 2. MD diep. diepe. OHG tiof. MHG-G tief. defacement. deer. soul—the Gr theos. v): and the adj deep. later deer. deepen. deep. D diep. adj. reindeer+ . beast. Deep. var of *dubos (or* doubos). 2. (Walshe. OIr domain. prob to W dwfn. OS diop. MHG-G tier. The latter comes from ON (hreinn. Go diups. OC *dubnos. 746 deem . beast. djūpr. so depth from deep. Much as width from wide.: OE dēor. (theos) the animator. depth. deer): and ON is akin to the source of E deer. tiuf.Origins . cf Lith dubùs. n (the adv comes from OE dēope. para 2. deemster. all ‘(wild) beast’: perh cf. See FACE. length from long. See DO. . a god. being possibly related to deer in its orig sense ‘(wild) animal’: the breather. from the OE adj). breadth from broad. akin to OFris diāp.) Cf also DIP and DIVE. viz. has derivatives deep. and deepen (-en. 1. later der. OE dēor (dīor) is akin to OFris diār. derives from OE dēop. reindeer. Go dius. earlier deop. deface . ON diōpr. ME dep. ME deor.

L dēfalcāre. late derivative dēfalcātiō. yields defalcation. from VL *disfacer (dis-. . apart+facere. and ‘to defeat’ derives from ME defet. See FAECAL. pp of desfaire. defecate . dejected. depressed. o/s dēfalcātiōn-. See FAME. defalcator is an E formation in agential -or. defame. to cut ofl (dē-) with a sickle (falx.A-Z 747 defalcate. See FAULT. defalcation. defeat . defalcator. hence to deduct. has pp dēfalcātus. from OF-MF desfait. default . o/s yalc-). Perh cf FALCON. defamation . n (whence defeatism: -ism) and v. undone. ‘A defeat’—influenced by MF-F défaite—derives from ‘to defeat’. whence ‘to defalcate’. to do or make: cf FACT). defecation.

defendant. deferential. See FEND. are all built upon dēfect-. whence defection. to refer (vt) to.Origins 748 defect.e. c/f of facere.. defensible.a.(whence E deferent. whence E defective. adj hence n). Dēferre becomes MF-F déférer. REFER: f. from L dēferent. to bring (ferre) down (dē): cf INFER. o/s dēfectiōn-. deference. to make or do: f. ML -īvus. See PENATES. and L defect iō. defensive. to fail or be wanting: dē-. defection. whence ‘to defer’.a. Deferential is the adj (t for c+ suffix -ial) of deference. from+-ficere. ‘to BEAR’. itself from MF-F déférence. defective. PROFFER. from MF-F déférent. . defend. para 4. para 1.e. FACT. LL dēfectīuus. See DIFFER. defer (2).. defenestration . to postpone. defer (1). PREFER. and L dēfectus (gen -ūs). whence defect. pp of dēficere. defence . presp of dēferre. deferent. to yield (vi). the s of dēfectus. AE defense. o/s of dēferens.

a. L dēficere. akin to L fullō. Hence. defiant. defilement . to be wanting (see DEFECT). deficient. the pp défilé. . FILE..f. has presp dēficiens. defile (2). blends the obs file. to befoul. comes from EF-F défiler. a rank or row.e. with the true origin: ME defoulen (contaminated var. the n defilement. becomes EE defilee. whence E deficient. see ‘to FULL’). used as n (EF-F). f. a cloth fuller. defoilen): OF defouler (de-. deficiency . defile (1). s. o/s dēficient-. to march in a file. See the 1st DEFILE. whence E defile.A-Z 749 defiance . derivative LL dēficientia yields deficiency. to trample. by suffix -ment. down+fouler. to foul. to sully or pollute. See DEFY.

Definitive comes. ‘to BLOW’. deflect . definition. acc dēfinitiōnem. whence ‘to define’: f.a. ‘To deflate’ comes from L dēflātus. . See FORM. FINAL. var defenir. definitive. dēfinīre becomes OF-MF definir (EF-F dé-). deflection (-flexion).e. deflation (whence deflationary).Origins 750 define. definite.. deflorescence. deflector. from L dēfinitīuus. s of dēfinītus (whence E definite).e. pp of dēfinīre.. via OF-F. Deflation is an E formation on anl of inflation. deform . deflower. deformity. pp of dēflāre. from L dēfinitiō. deflate . lit to let the breath out of: cf INFLATE and. See FLORA. definition. hence an end). f. defloration . ML -īvus.a. to limit (dē-. See FLEX. a boundary. deformation. both the L words being formed upon dēfinīt-. via OF-F. from+finis.

G Friede. fridus. to entrust. to remove one’s confidence from. war indemnity. influenced by—ML fredus. for L dis-. See FUNCTION. from VL *fidāre. See DAFT. hence. at the least. presp of desfier. itself from *frait. from fractus. OFris fretho). to break: the earliest sense was ‘damage caused by breaking something’ (B & W). deduced from the C13 fres. var *fret. *frait. to provoke or defy: des. defray (whence defrayal) comes from F défrayer (C14). OS frithu. from L . fredum. derives from L fractum. deft . from Frankish *frīdu (OHG fridu. peace. defunct . frais. an int (de-) of frayer (C13). See FRAUD. defiance. app from desfiant. *fret. Dauzat holds that fractum was blended with—or. a fine for breakages. orig to renounce a sworn faith. defiant Defiance derives from OF-MF desfiance. defy. pp of frangere.A-Z 751 defraud . to entrust to. apart+ OF-F fier. a thing broken or infringed. MHG fride. to trust in.

See GLUE. whence E defiant. See GRADE.Origins 752 fidēs.. degeneration. degenerative. degradation . deglutinate . OF-MF desfiant becomes F défiant. degree . degeneracy . para 8. See GRADE.a. faith: cf FIDELITY and. degrade. para 8. See GENERAL.e. FAITH. degust . f. degression . para 8. v). and OF-MF desfier yields ‘to defy’. See GRADE. deglutination. para 9. degenerate (adj.

whence E deity (cf the EF-F déité). subsidiary LL deificāre (pp deificātus) becomes MF-F déifier becomes ‘to deify’. also sky): f. para 3. L deus. déiste. deity. 753 dehisce .A-Z . deism. a man-slayer. akin also to L diēs.e. para 23. god-making (facere. degustation. suggested by L homicīda. akin to L diuus (ML divus: cf DIVINE) and Gr dios. LL God: and deus. becomes E deific. has LLi derivative deitās. See HYDRO and cf the element hydro-. Skt dyaús. adopted by ME. dehydrated . deist. The LL cpd adj deificus. from LL deificātiō come late MF-F deification and E deification. deific. DIANA. the EF derivatives déisme. acc deitātem. deify . See DICT. See YAWN. deicide comes from LL deicīda. to make). deist. a god. deification. dehiscent. deicide. become E deism. para 2. a god. whence OF dete. godlike.a. See GUST. dehydration.. day (Skt. the base is L deus. deign . God-slayer. deictic . Of all.

deject. to throw (-iicere.a. pp of L dēiicere. arises dēiectiō. OBJECT. dejection. JET. 754 deism . elation. delay .. CONJECT. whence. c/f of iacere) down (dē-): cf ABJECT. the E dejection. via ML. dejectory. See DEIFY. para 6. but dejectory (cf TRAJECTORY) is an E formation. See LANGUID. whence pa dejected. See DELICACY. para 6. delectable . delated . REJECT. INJECT. deity. . para 10.e. f. PROJECT. ‘To deject’ comes from ML dējectus (L dēiectus). delator.Origins . s of dēiectus. para 7. On dēiect-. deist. n v. See DECENCY. and. delectation. See the 1st TOLL. SUBJECT. o/s dēiectiōn-.

delegate. Deletory. from dēleisthai. IE r. hence to harm by cutting. to efface: cf ABOLISH. from the L pp dēlētus+adj suffix -ory). its neg indēlēbilis yielding indelible. v). See DELVE. deliberative.A-Z 755 delegacy . akin to Lett delit. to torture. deliberation. See LEVEL. whence deletion. o/s deletion-. para 2. deleterious . delible. deletion. to destroy. deliberate (adj. however. dēlētiō. to cut. whence delible. delegation. n. a poison): Gr dēlētērios. app (E & M) confuses dēlināre (s dēlin-). deletory. to efface. delf or delft . adj. delete . para 4. indelible (whence indelibility) L dēlēre (s dēl-). . to harm. and *dēolēre. Dēlēre has the foll derivatives relevant to E: dēlēbilis. ML dēlētērius. is an E formation (delet-. syn of abolēre. Delft. to destroy. noxious (cf LL dēlētērion. para 6. See LEGAL. to smear or anoint (cf the 1st LIME). v.

string. Lacere has int-freq lactāre. extant in dial (‘latch milk in a pail’). whence ME deliten. ‘to latch’ a door obviously derives from the n. itself an -et dim of OF laz (as in para 2). lace—whether of a shoe or of an openwork fabric. with cpd dēlectāre. o/s dēlectātiōn-. from OE laeccan. 4. whence E lace. to receive. Latchet. 3. snare. a lace.o. yields OF and (? hence) E delectation. whence ‘to lash’ or bind with cord or rope. which is prob the same word but might owe something to ME lacchen.—elicit. to seduce. to entice—cf lax in para 1. MF deliter. whence. to noose. to draw out by trickery. whence the E formations elicitation (by anl with other -ation nn) and elicitory (-ory.—lace (n.Origins 756 delible . L laqueus becomes Sp lazo. 5.o. to wheedle from (ē. hence to charm or delight. delightful (-ful) is an E formation from n . 8. the E delectable. whence E lasso. derives from ME lachet. delicate. seduction: o. and subsidiary dēlectātiō. adopted from MF lachet. elicitory. latchet. net. (obs) noose. anything that fastens. to draw out from. 1. a cpd of lacier. trickery. E latch. Lacere has cpd ēlicere. out of) someone. delicacy . delectation. adopted from OF-MF. via ME lacche. OF-MF lacier has dial var lachier. Intimately akin to laqueus is lacere (s lac-). v). whence certainly ‘to latch’. from L laqueāre. Lachier has derivative n lache. 6. a cord. perh via OF. lash (to bind). adj). a tie or fastening. latch. ‘to lace’ comes from OF-MF lacier (F lacer). illumination—‘to delight’. whence ME las. the n delight derives from ME delit. ‘To enlace’ (whence. v) and enlace. to take in a laqueus or snare. delectable. in). loop or thong. a dial var of MF-F lacet. lassoo. 2. (extant) cord. delight (n. delicatessen. whence— perh influenced by LIGHT. a snare. See DELETE. from the OF v. the pp ēlicitus yields ‘to elicit’. a cord. the latch of a door (whence latch-key) or in a knitting machine derives from ME lacche. elicitation. dilettante. to seize. whence ‘to lasso’. to draw clear of. ex. deceit. perh adopted from OF-F) derives from OF-MF enlacier (en L in. dēlectābilis yields. 7. delicious. Laqueus becomes OF-MF laz (F lacs). the n enlacement. a noose or snare. akin to lax (o/s lac-). pp dēlectātus yields ‘to delectate’. L dēlectāre becomes OF-MF deleitier. by suffix -ment. to seize. delightful. The clue to this app tangle is very simple: L laqueus. to catch.

para 3. to snare. delineator. Moreover. para 6. See LEND.A-Z 757 delight. to eat—G delicatessen. delimitation. whence—perh influenced by G essen. has. (means of) enticement. See LINE. delinquency . hence n). deliquescent. which. deliration . via OF-MF delicieus. to turn aside by trickery or seduction. See LIQUEFY. delineate . delicacy. para 6. is adopted by E. Late MF-F délicat has EF-F derivative délicatesse. whence. L lacere. whence delicacy (delicate+-cy: cf accuracy from accurate). 10. voluptuous. 9. with derivative pl n dēliciae. delimit . delinquent. the cpd dēlicere. para 4. enticing. See LIMIT. grateful to the senses. with adj dēliciōsus. deliquescence . pp of dēlicere). the ME-E delicious. whence—cf the F délicat—the E delicate (adj. dēlectāre becomes It dilettare. in addition to ēlicere (para 6). Akin to dēliciae is dēlicātus (unless for dēlicitus. (sources of) delight. delineation. adopted by E. with presp dilettante. used as n.

delivery. ∆. The third (adj. deltoid. delude .(gen delphinos). The third. whence E dolphin. 758 deliver . the title of the eldest son of the successive Kings of France: F dauphin. dell . deliverer. the fish dolphin: OProv dalfin: VL dalfinus (early C8). orig bestowed in C12 on the Count of Vienne. delphinium . See DALE. 1. delta . became. para 4. o/s delphin. var dalphinus: L delphinus: Gr delphis. from delphus. 2. uterus. whence n) represents Gr deltoeidēs.Origins . para 3. See LIBERAL. See LEARN. is the name of the capital letter ∆. The flower delphinium (Sci L) is ‘so named from the shape of the nectary’ (Webster). adopted from Gr. delirious. Dauphin. prob as a nickname. whence the adj deltaic. The form ∆ gives its name to the marshy tract at Nile’s mouth. OF daufin has var daulphin. delirium. deliverance. whence ME dolphyn. womb. a small valley. comes from Phoenician. in C14. earlier daufin. hence to any other such tract. Gr δ. the E D. delta-shaped (cf IDOL and the suffix -oid): and delta. dolphin.

adj. a digging. See LUDICROUS. See LUDICROUS. OE delfan has derivative n delf.) 2. delusion. to bury. (Walshe. guidance. to dig. to dig—to OS bidelban. . delusive. adj of dēmagōgos. delusory. demagogic. para 5. 1. deluge . demagogy. delusion . para 5. demagogue . from Delf(t) ware. delve . leadership of the people: dēmo-+a derivative. a leader (agōgos. delusive. Demagogy=Gr dēmagōgia. *dhelbh-. hence delft or delf. Delve. from agein.A-Z 759 . delf. to dig. Delft. earlier Delf. a canal. to bury—to MD delven. to lead: cf AGENT) of the dēmos or people (cf DEMOCRACY and the element demo-). See LAVA. in -ia. preserved in rural E for ‘pond’ or ‘ditch’: cf the D town of Delft. to dig—esp to OFris delva. to bury. para 9. D delven. named from MD delf. to dig—and perh to several words in Sl. from agōgē. etc. IE r. derives from OE delfan (s delf-): akin to OHG pi-tëlpan. leading. and MHG tëlben. The adj demagogic comes from Gr dēmagōgikos.

down from. para 23. See MIND. and mean in sense ‘common. para 2. q. para 6. carry oneself well or ill. at MINATORY.v. demarcate. used int. to lower oneself. to behave. base’. para 9. demerse . dementia. demarcation . demented . rather than from ‘demean oneself’. perh comes from de-. demean oneself. See MANUAL.Origins 760 demand . demerit . para 11. See MARK. See MERIT.

A-Z . in F. demilune . his is the most ingenious. para 11. itself perh from Prov demeg. . para 2. See MATER. reshaped by f/e. or. para 5. See MILITANT. perh the best. a jocular comparison of fat. overdressed lady (EW). See DOMESTIC. wicker-dressed bottle to fat.f. Lady Jane: either a witticism in the same order as F dial Christine and Jacqueline (B & W) and perh as E jeroboam and rehoboam. demersion. Dauzat derives F damejeanne from Prov damajano. a half. para 3. s.f. explanation. dame Jeanne. s. See the 3rd LIGHT. demilitarize . para 2. 761 demesne . Demeter . See MERGE. demijohn : f/e for late EF-F dame-jeanne.

epidemic (adj hence n). See MODE. démodé . Gr pandāmos. para 9. adj of dēmokratia. Democrat derives from EF-F démocrate. itself from LL dēmocratia. Gr epidēmios. from Gr dēmokratia: dēmo-. power. 1. -dēmios. Gr dēmos perh derives from daiomai. to distribute. See MOVE. company. para 2. and Skt dati. throughout.) 2. c/f of dēmos. all-. troop. with pan-. -dēmios. I divide. See DAMSEL. akin to OIr dām. democrat. demission. demobilize . pandemic. (Cf DEMON. democratic. -ization. hence among. democracy . Gr endēmos. with epi-. para 6. Dēmos appears in three relevant prefix-cpds: endemic. b/f from MF-F démocratie (whence E democracy). demoiselle . n hence v. with en-. upon. See MISSION. Democratic: MF-F démocratique: ML dēmocraticus: Gr dēmokratikos. from kratos. in. the people+-kratia. .Origins 762 demise .

adj of daimōn. demonstrable . a protective spirit. demonetize . See MIND.A-Z 763 demolish . a divinity. from Grdaimōn . demonstrate. demoralization. from Gr daimonion. I distribute. See MORAL. demonology. demoniac. perh from daiomai. The adjj demoniac and demonic represent LL daemoniācus (from daemon) and LL daemonicus (from Gr daimonikos). but see MONSTER. demonstrative. seems to have come from LL daemonium. demolition. demonic. a divinity being a distributor of fate: cf DEAL. now usu daimon. para 4. Demonism and demonology are E formations: element demon(o)-+suffix -ism and element -logy. para 1. an evil spirit. demon (daemon. comes. Cf remonstrate. via LL daemon. esp ‘one’s good angel’. daimon). etc. para 3. neu of daimonios. See the 3rd MOLE. a spirit. . demoralize . para 21. But demon. E demon. demonstration. para 4.

Demur. demur (n. derives from L dēmorāri. See MOVE. whence ‘to demur’: and OF-MF demorer. OF-MF demorer has derivative OF-MF demorage. whence E moratory.o. 1. 2. demure . derives from OF-MF demor or demore. as n.o. The adj is demotic (Gr dēmōtikos). vi). See DEMOCRACY. var demurer. n. para 5. . itself from OF-MF demorer. dempster . The legal demurrer comes from the AF v demurer used as n. although not in L. whence E demurrage. demurrage.Origins 764 demos . See DOOM. etc. para 11.. L morāri. demote . v). to delay (vt. has derivative adj moratōrius. para 2. from mora. int (dē-) of morāri. a delay or pause or postponement: o. to delay. moratorium is the L neu of that adj used. See MATURE.

and to MLG denne. var dean. denature . valley. a beast’s den. See DEMUR. demurrer. A beast’s den comes from OE denn. para 1. dene. denegate . a valley.A-Z 765 demurrage . a hollow. down (adv). See NATIVE. denationalize . See NATIVE. See the element demi-. para 10. den . demy . whence E dene. para 9. dene. intimately akin to OE denu. and OFris dene.

denim is elliptical for F serge de Nîmes. with intus deriving from L in. connotes ‘of’. denigrate .Origins . var of deinzein. prudery) of Swahili kidinga popo. See NEGRO. adj hence n. from within. denial . para 3. Opp FOREIGN. para 8. dengue fever. See NEGATE. denizen : easement of OF-MF denzein. E -an. denegation. F -ain. in. (one) living deinz or within (city or state): deinz represents L dē intus. See NEGATE. denigration. -ein. . Nîmes serge. para 3. 766 dengue fever: a WI Sp reshaping (after Sp dengue. first made in that city.

See NOTABLE. via MF-F.f. density. denounce . para 4. See NAME. s. denominate . para on nodus. from L densus. denote. dénouement (AE de-).A-Z 767 Denmark . dense . condense (whence condensed. crowded. denomination. para 9. denominator. See NUNCIO. denotation . See NET. closeset. condenser) and condensation. Dense comes. See DANE. densen. a nasal cognate of Gr . para 9.

subsidiary LL condensātiō. dent (2). a blow. dentin(e). para 3. dentary. denudation. whence MF-F condenser. dent (1). See NUMBER.Origins 768 dasus. dentelure. from L densitās (o/s densitāt-). accounts for MF-F and E condensation. (of hair) thick. etc. dental . para 3. whence ‘to condense’. dentrifrice. dentition. dentate. densen=dense+v-suffix -en. See DINT. a toothlike notch. denticle. denture. See TOOTH. dentellate. The derivative L v densāre has cpd condensāre. denudant. denude . from densus. See NAKED. o/s condensātiōn-. See TOOTH. denumerate . . density= F densité. a small depression. dentelle. denticulate. paras 4–6. dentist (whence dentistry).

dependable. denunciative. depart . deodar : Hind deodar: Skt devadāru. para 4. a bad smell (ODOR). See NUNCIO. deny . para 3. department (with adj in -al). dependent (cf dependence. etc. para 19. para 16. See PEND.) deodorant . See NEGATE. to remove (connoted by de-). ‘gods’ timber’—an IE cedar. denial. .A-Z 769 denunciation . deodorize: that which removes. See PART. (Cf DIVINE. dependant. depend . dependency). departure.

to wail in or to. built upon dēplorāt-. app orig echoic. . para 12. depletion. 2. para 3. hair. deploy . 1. hence to appeal. o/s dēplorātiōn-. depiction. derivative implorātiō. deplore . deploration.Origins 770 depict . depletory. s of dēplorātus. deployment. The 3rd comes. depilatory . depletive. yields imploration. See PAINT. to bewail or lament. See PLY. from L dēplorātiō. prompted by late MF-F déplorable. para 11. to. in piteous manner. deplete . whence deplorable. See PILE. o/s implorātiōn-. pp of dēplorāre. Plorāre has also the cpd implorāre. whence ‘to implore’. s plor-. See PLENARY. to wail. a cpd of plorāre. prob via F déploration.

L prāuitās. deponent See POSE. para 4. depravity. para 8. para 5. deposit. See POSE. deportation. AE depot. depositor. from prāuus). depository. depravation. The last. depôt . influenced by obs pravity (ML prāvitās. para 8. s. deprave . depopulate . See the 3rd PORT.f. para 8. depopulation. comes . whence pa depraved. deposition. deport . See PEOPLE.A-Z 771 depone . See POSE. deportment. depose .

See PREY.) and see PRAY.o. deprecative. para 5. para 4. depressor. para 2. from L dēprāuātiō. See PRIVATE. depressive. Cf imprecation (etc. depravation. para 6. L -prāuāre: dē-. deprecate . para 6. crooked. from prāuus. See the 2nd PRESS. deprave. deprive. from ML dēprāvāre.o. deprecative. itself o. depreciate . See PRICE. o/s -prāvātiōn-. depressant. deprivation . depreciatory. depreciator.Origins 772 from ‘to deprave’. deprecatory. depredation . used int+prāuus (ML prāvus). depth . depress . perverse. from MF-F dépraver. depression. ML -prdvdtio. deprecation. depreciation.

773 depurant . See the 2nd COUNT. See PURE. para 7. See REASON.A-Z . deputation . See RANGE. deraign . déraciné. para 7. para 3. derange . derby . derangement. deputy. deputize. See RADICAL. depurate. deracinate . para 2. para 5. para 9. See DEEP. depurative. depute.

whence derivable. para 5. derrick . or homestead. See RISIBLE. derelict . See RIVER. See ROGATION. para 10. derogatory. dereliction. dermatitis is an -itis or disease of the dermis or skin: cf suffix -itis and the element -derm. derivative (adj hence n). derisory. a by. the Earls of Derby. OScan diurby. derisive. derivation. derogation. para 6. derive . derivate.Origins 774 (hat): Derby hat: perh because worn by those famous sportsmen. See LEND. para 3. with deer or a deer-park (Ekwall). deride . derogate . derision.

contr of Diederik. Sem cf FAKIR. n. ‘To discant’ derives prob from the E n. description. See SCRIBE.e. var -doricus. akin to LL Theodericus. comes from the early C17 E hangman.a. from ML discantus (gen -ūs): dis-+cantus. app from D Dierryk. See ASCEND. descant . See DARE. from canere.A-Z 775 . poor. describe . hoisting device. a melody. prob of Go origin (cf DUTCH): thiuda-reiks. Thomas Derrick. para 7. para 12. to sing: f. (hence n) a beggar. descriptive. people’s king. is ONF descant (cf MF-EF deschant). . dervish : Tu dervish: Per darvish.. esp a begging religious. HEN. a singing. descend . etc. para 2. derring-do . descent.

desecrate . derives. descry . para 9. desert (1). desertion. see CRY. deserve . See SCRIBE. arid wasteland. para 16. desecration. f.. was orig applied to shouting one’s discovery of an enemy. merit. to distinguish. The ME word.a. catch sight of. para 12.e. often in pi deserts. deserter. desert (2).Origins 776 descrive . influenced by late ME discerne. merits. See SACRAMENT. also v. See SERIES. in ME. and (cf EXPLORE) of land. para 6. from MF deserter.f. to cry down. proclaim: cf DECRY and. of game. s. See SERVE.

designate. Cf assign. dried up. 777 desiccate . See SERVE. (away) from+sidus. hence to seek. adopted by E. s of dēsiccātus. the simple L adj siccātīuus. desiccant. desiderate. resign: see SIGN. ML -īvus. whence E desiccatory. dēsiderāre was prob suggested by considerāre. to dry. adopted by E. regret the absence of. desiccation. desiderata . dry. and LL adj dēsiccātōrius. a star. ML -īvus. Desire. is an int (dē) of siccāre. L dēsiccāre. Its presp dēsiccans. o/s sider-+ inf suffix -āre. dry. desiccatory. are built: LL dēsiccātiō. from siccus (s sic-). desideratum. desire . and perh to Skt hikus. desiderative. adj hence n. consign. whence E desirous. desirable. yields the E adj hence n desiccant. On dēsiccāt-. desirous. (orig in augury) to cease to see. itself from OF-MF desirer. .A-Z . to desire: dē-. akin to Gr iskhnos (s iskhn-. of which *sikh. o/s dēsiccant-. design . dry. designation. LL dēsiderōsus becomes OF-MF desiros. n. Derivative dēsiderābilis becomes OF-MF desirable. para 6. n and v. n and v. LL dēsiccātīuus. LL dēsiccātor. desiccator.is a metathesis). whence ‘to desire’: and desirer comes from L dēsiderāre. to dry up. yielding E siccative. desiccative. r iskh-. and cf DESIRE. comes from OF-MF desir. pp dēsiccātus yields both the adj and the v desiccate. o/s dēsiccātiōn-. para 14. E desiccation. E adj hence n desiccative. See CONSIDERATE. para 3.

despair . adj and v. with cognates in Sl. The basic word is L spēs. desperation. desperado. whence ‘to . para 4.. 2. whence ME despeiren. he loses hope). desolation. which becomes OF-MF desperer (note il despeire. despayren. desk . See SIST. para 2. whence the n esperance (F espérance). Esperanto (‘the hopeful artificial language’) adds an It-Sp ending to esper-. 3. (a) hope: o.o. becomes OF esperer. desperate. desolate . Baltic. to hope. para 4. See SOLE. 1.Origins 778 desist . prosperous. to lose (dē-. v hence n. prob IE r. L spērāre has cpd dēspērāre. See DISH. See the element desmidio-. Derivative L spērāre. *spe-. prosperity. whence desistance. esperance. perh prosper.o. adopted by E. Gmc. presp esperant. Primitive o/s: app *sper-. Esperanto. down from) hope. desmoid .

. See DESPAIR. abundant. subsidiary L dēspērātiō. para 3. whence the Sp n desperado. 4. conforming to. The ancient derivation of the L adj prosper. at least plausible. In Sp. para 3. para 5. the E desperation. rich. its derivative var prosperus accounts for E prosperous—derivative prosperitās (o/s prosperitat-). perh via OF-F prospérer. whence the n despair. answering. L dēspērāre has pp dēspērātus. See SPECTACLE. para 10. is possible (E & M)—but why then pro-? The L adj prosper accounts for the PN Prosper. one’s hope. prompted by OF-MF despoir (from desperer). accounts for ‘to prosper’. with pp desperado. despatch . whence the E adj desperate. L desperare becomes OSp desperar. arriving opportunely. desperation. from *prō spēre. its derivative prosperāre. o/s desperation-. is. desperate . desperado . yields. despicable . prob via OF-MF. See PACT. hence a desperate criminal.A-Z 779 despair’. via OF-F prosperité accounts for E prosperity. the kinship with Skt sphirás. despite much opposition. faring well. a desperate man. See DESPAIR.

despoil . with) becomes MF-F correspondre and. to solemnly undertake or engage to. to make a drink-offering. ‘to respond’. Spondēre has two notable cpds: dēspondēre and respondēre. var -cy. dēspondēre. explains E adj. has s spond-. to lose. presp dēspondens. 2. respondent. See SPOIL. despiteful. para 9. despisable. to undertake in return (re-). used int): spondēre. and its v spendein (s spend-). yields ‘to despond’. The L presp respondens. o/s respondent. 3. despondency. whence (cf the MF-F correspondant) correspondent (adj hence n)—whence. prob independently. 1. down or away from. para 9. hence to promise. despoliation. o/s dēspondent-. to perform one’s part in a solemn engagement. The ML subsidiary correspondēre (cor-. despite . libations being made on the occasion. yields E despondent. correspondence Corresponsion and corresponsive answer to . E correspond. yields. for con-. See SPECTACLE. despondent. hence to abandon. prob via OF-MF respondre. The former. akin to Gr spondē. hence. despond . Respondēre. MF respondance (formed from the F presp) explains respondence. a solemn truce. var špand-. para 3. to separate oneself formally from (dē-). See SPECTACLE. in turn (cf MF-F correspondance). and to Hit šipand-. a drink-offering. whence n. to pour a libation. hence to make a treaty. whence despondency. v hence the obs n. to promise (spondēre) away (dē-.Origins 780 despise .

the Gr adj despotikos becomes MF-F despotique. The Gr spondē.has a further derivative. used as nn (‘the promised’). and. o/s responsiōn-. for *demspota. MF espouser. var espous. hence a responsible person. 5. f sponsa. the derivative Gr prosodic adj spondeiakos. the E response. var of respons. 4. becomes MF-F despote. the agent sponsor. by anl. with new suffix. answering. from ML responsīvus. the pp responsus (s respons-). destine. despot . and potis. house. for its solemnity. spondaicus. despotic. f épouse. The simple spondēre has. to betroth. whence the elliptical n spondeios (pous). and the common-gendered E spouse. has adj spondeios. able). one perceives. See SERVE. pp sponsus. whence OF-MF espos. a betrothal—or a wedding— ceremony. predestinarian. a guarantor. adopted from MF (cf the F responsable). akin to Skt dámpatis. (EF-F spondaīque and) E spondaic. . para 7. whence E spondee. destiny. dessert . predestine. LL responsīuus. EF-F despotisme. destinate . and responsive. perh altered from ML responsabilis. despotism. with neu responsum used as n. at libations: hence L spondeus. Cf DOMESTIC. whence OF espousailles. whence E despot’. whence MF-F spondée. para 1. whence E despotism. lord of the house (cf L domus. whence the aphetic spousal(s). predestination. from responsible. yields ‘to espouse’. derivative OF-MF esposer. whence E espousal. Respondēre has. The pps spons. from L responsiō. whence E despotic. L spondiacus. a drink-offering (as in para 1).A-Z 781 responsion. Responsibility derives. The L terms have derivative v sponsāre. destination. adopted by E. anl with other -arian adjj (hence nn). of course. f espouse. prob via OF-MF response. whence E (and F) responsion. Gr despoteia becomes. predestinate. husband or wife. whence. 6. Gr despotēs. a metre (– –) favoured. whence both the F époux.

yields—perh via OF-F—predestination. arrange definitely. result. from the adj suus. destructive. para 23. to grow accustomed. therefore. pp of praedēstināre. o/s -dēstinātiōn. to fall out of use: dē-. detach . destruction. but see SALLY. Cf exult. 2. subsidiary dēstinātiō (dēstināt-+-iō). to determine. para 11. the pp dēstinātus yields the obs adj and the v destinate. para 4. o/s dēstinātiōn-. destitute (adj hence v). is a cpd (int dē) of *stanāre (s stan-). comes from L praedēstinātus. insult. from dēsuēscere. in advance (prae-). See STRUCTURE. becomes ME destine. comes. CUSTOM. however.Origins 782 1. a nasal mdfn of stāre. subsidiary LL praedēstinātiō. like OF-F prédestiner. See STAND. to fix. the OF-F derivative n destinée (f of pp destiné). to determine. to stand (cf STATE). away from+ suēscere. destructor. OF-F destiner (L dēstināre) accounts for ‘to destine’. desuetude : EF-F désuétude: L dēsuētūdō. ‘to predestine’. or to doom. destroyer. desultor . desteny. destroy . Dēstināre. Predestinate. yields—perh via OF-F—the E destination. desultory. one’s own: cf. adj and v. straight from praedēstināre. destitution. whence destiny.

detector. detail . detective (adj hence n). TENANT— becomes OF detenir. whence. detentive. para 9. by anl. détente. The L pp dētentus. . whence E detention. L dētinēre. detention. has LL derivative dēlentiō.A-Z 783 . detection. o/s dētentiōn-. to hold (tenēre) from (dē-) one’s wish or business—f. See TECH NIC. para 4.a. para 5. detect . para 9. detent . whence the pa detached. detain . the adj detentive (cf retentive at RETAIN). whence the legal detainer. whence ‘to detain’ and AF detener. detachment See TACH. s dētent-.. detention . See the 2nd TAIL. See DETAIN. detainer.e. detentive. See TEND.

detersion . See TERM. determine. worse. deterioration. determined. deterrent . para 5. the 2nd derives from dēteriorātiōn-. down from. The 3rd is an E anl formation (-ive. whence deterrence. a comp of *dēter. degeneration. See TERROR. etc. o/s of LL dēteriorātiō. from L dēterior.Origins 784 deter . adj). bad. See TERROR. detergent . deteriorative. See TERSE. para 1. from dē. the 1st. para 2. pp of LL dēteriorāre. deteriorate . para 1. determinable . from dēteriorātus. determination.

para 8. dethrone . See TOUR. 785 detest . para 5. detonation. See TESTAMENT. detorsion . detract . detersive. para 6. See TORT. detour . See THUNDER. See THRONE. detestation. para 9. See TERSE. detonator.A-Z . detonate . para 2. etc. detestable.

Deuteronomy . See THROW. detrimental. detractory. detractor. deuce . para 3. See the element deutero-. detriment . devaluate . See DUO. para 4. para 8. detritus. See THROW.Origins 786 . detrude . detrusion. para 13. See THRUST. See TRACT. detraction. para 8. deuced. detrition .

whence E envelopment (suffix ment). para 17. chaff. developmentary (adj suffixes -al. para 15. 787 devastate . o. from ML faluppa. See VIA. See VEST. para 3. to turn. a bale of corn. deviate . and prompted by that word. devious. See VACANT. is OFMF developer. Also from OF-F envelop(p)er derives MF-F enveloppement. 2. extn (Malvezin) of PC *vol-.—envelop. influenced by volvere. mostly in pl faluppae. itself from envelopper. L uolūtus. deviator. F développer. as in L uoluere. whence developmental. envelopment. whence (suggested by late MF-F développement) development. esp into a spiral or a ball. neu of volūtus. to wrap up. OF-MF enveloper.o. devastation. either from ML volvere. more prob. envelope. from Celtic *volup-. para 15. whence developable. devest . L uol-. L voluere. deviation. -ary). to envelop. . developer. Envelope derives from MF-F enveloppe. See VALUE. devastavit. ML volvere: OF-MF voloper is a var of OF voluper and there is even the MF var veloper: with OF voluper. devastator. develop or develope.o. or. pp of uoluere.A-Z . whence ‘to develop’.. to roll. Deriving from the same ras OF-MF enveloper. whence ‘to envelop’: and OF-MF enveloper is an alteration of OF envoloper: en-. development. devaluation. 1. from ML volūtum. cf the OF volu. akin to ML vol-. or (B & W). in+ OF-MF voloper.

1. for E. devirginate . hence. intention. devil (LL diabolus). from OF-F deviser. devil (n hence v).Origins 788 device . cf metabolism): LL diabolicus: MFF diabolique: E diabolic. devious . plan. adj).e. On s diabol. to distribute: VL *divīsāre. it trickles. a var of bal-. DIVIDE. divide.in galati. whence deviceful (-ful for full). hence. hence to invent. ballistic. comes from ME devis.arise the E formations diabolism (-ism) and diabolist (-ist). see VIA. comes from LL diabolus.a. from ML divīsus. wish. 3. etc. one who. diabolism. pp of diuīdere: f. the slanderer. Cf deviate.) and one less obvious (devil’s advocate) and with derivatives devilish (-ish. cf Skt gal. one who quibbles for the sake of truth. OF-F deviser yields ‘to devise’. the game diabolo represents It diabolo. to give by will. L diuīsus. The Gr adj is diabolikos (for bol-. hence. A devil’s advocate—trans of ML odvocātus diaboli—is a Catholic official charged with pointing out flaws in the character of a person to be either beatified or canonized. devil’s bit. invention: OF-F devis. from diaballein. and. in Law. adj) and devilry (-ry for ery). loosely. Satan). champions the worse or weaker cause. diabolist. for argument’s sake.. with obvious animal and plant cpds (devil fish. intention. with the Gr r bal-. lit to throw (ballein) across (dia). to distribute. Devil. to slander. OE dēofol (var -ful). diabolic (whence diabolical: -al. (obs) to divide or distribute. trln of Gr diabolos (LGr Diabolos. to plan. to direct or regulate. 2.

See DEBT. para 3. See VOLUBLE. para 8. devolution. devoir . See VACANT. para 4. legal n from legal v. devolute . 789 devise . See DEVICE. para 4. para 5. Devonian . See VIRGIN.f. devolve . See VOLUBLE.A-Z . s. devoid .

G Tau. dexterity. para 2. dexter . dewlap. and dhāutis. Dumnū’. para 5. it runs or flows. dextral. dextrin. spring (of water). para 2. and Devon is short for Devonshire. ME dewlappe. devotee. is a LAP. cf the 1st LAP. devour . and dew itself. dexterous (now usu contr to dextrous). dew . whence ‘to dew’. See VOTAL. devonite an -ite derivative of Mt Devon in Missouri. is akin to the syn OFris dāw. devout . dewlap. OHG-MHG tou. I run—and to Skt dhávati. See VOTAL.Origins 790 is the adj (-ian) of Devon. n. . dewberry. an OE re-shaping cf C Dumnonii (cf C Dumnonia. Defnascīr. OE dēaw. dextrose. that tends to moistness. or goddess. ON dögg—to Gr theō. dewy. dewberry is an obvious cpd. The last=dew+ adj -y. or fold. the SHIRE of the Defenas or Defnas. OE Defenscīr. devotion. devote (pa devoted). the territory). See VORACIOUS. perk ‘sons of the god. para 5.

from dextr-. OIr dess. para 3. in -in and -ose. lit ‘a passer through’. left (of a pair). The IE r is therefore *deks-. the right hand (cf sinistra. hence right hand. the ending -ter connotes situation or direction: cf the Gr adjj dexiteros. diabolic(al) . and is prob a reduction of IE *dekos (cf L decus). right hand. cf the syn Gr dexios. from L dexteritās. of or situated on the right. diabetic. diaconate. that which is fitting. cf also OSl desnica and OHG zesara or zeswa. See DEACON. of or situated on the left. right. Goddess of Fortune. to walk or go (bainein) through (dia): the disease is characterized by a constant and excessive passage of urine. gain the further and now predominant sense of manual skill: cf ADROIT. s of LL diabētes. to the right. esp. hence in ethics and in matters rather more trivial. diabolism. OHG zeso. dextral= dextr-+ adj -al. E & M. para 2. See DEVIL. perh via EF-F dextérité. The latter—cf the EF-F diabétique—attaches adj suffix -ic to diabet-. the left hand). As in L sinister. right (adj). Go taishwa. is the complement of L sinister. diabolo. for the r dex-. and Gaul Dexiva or Dexsiva. diabolist. good: the right hand and the right side are those which are fitting on solemn occasions (esp in augury). (Boisacq. to the left. c/f of the first. diadem .A-Z 791 The last two are Chem derivatives. Lith dēšinas. dexterous=dexter+-ous. E dexterity and dexterous. with derivative dextra or dextera. aristeros. hence favourable. Skt (Av dašina-). OSl desnŭ. Gr diabētēs.) diabetes . the right hand being normally the stronger and defter. diaconal . from diabainein. dexterity comes. an -itās derivative of the L adj dexter: and L dexter. L dexteritās and dexter.

e.Origins 792 : OF-MF diademe (EF-F diadème): L diadēma: Gr diadēma. dial of a clock. diagrammatic—comes from L. diagonal .a. day: f. diagram —whence. adj hence n. IE r. . from diadein. by anl (cf anagram—anagrammatic). para 5. to bind about or around: dia. to bind. diagnosis . para 4. to write (graphein) across (dia). a sandal). akin to Gr gonu. See the 2nd GNOME.. diagnostician. prop the neu of ML diālis (s diāl-). knee. diagnostic. akin to Skt dyáti. adj of L diēs. itself from diagraphein. diagramma. passing through or across (dia) something from angle (gōnia) to angle. diaeresis . L diagōnālis: Gr diagōnios. showing the time of day: late ML diāle. DIANA. . hence to mark out with lines: cf GRAPH. dial . across+dein. See SERUM. from Gr. he binds. *dei-. to bind (cf Gr hupodēma. through.

para 27. dialectical. See MEASURE. (later) diamond. See LEGEND.A-Z 793 dialect . dialectal. diamantiferous . the hardest metal. earlier diamaunt. diameter . o/s of diamas: an aphetic corruption (? suggested or aided by Gr diaphanēs. See LEGEND. Diana . para 26. OF-F diamant: ML diamant-. diamond (n hence v): ME diamaund. transparent) of L adamas (gen adamantis). See DIAMOND. (later) diamond: cf ADAMANT. dialogue . the hardest iron. from Gr adamas. para 7. dialectician. dialectic.

from the ‘god-inspired’ sense of dīuīnus. . a Chinese domestic divinity. cf also Hit sius (contr of siunas). ON . ML Jup(p)iter. 1. the gen of Zeus (for *Diwos ?). Derivative LL adj Iouiālis. quotidian. luck. used also as nom: ML Jovis. from OF-F deviner. in Boeotian and Laconian Gr. dies—diary—dismal—diurnal (adj hence n) and journal (adj hence n). sep dial. day. as of the sep treated DEIFY (where also deity). is the L deus: and L deus stems from an IE *deiwo. sep deify. on the one hand. whence MF-F divin. Heaven. too. day. ME-F divinité. of the gods. whence E divinity. journalist—journey (n hence v). L dīus imitates the Gr adj dios. whence ME devinite. L deus has a very close cognate: diēs. with obvious cpds. ON . whence sl joss. day’ and ‘the sky’. divine. extant in E. Cor deu. var (cf Homeric Gr Zēn). itself app modelled upon Ve . Zeus. sojournment. an -īnus derivative of dīuus. diva. yields F. whence E Jove. and the syn OP deywis or deiwas. L deus becomes Port deos. OE Tīw. be . and the syn OHG Zīo. W duw. also elliptical for . which prob suggested the L Iupiter. ML div-. and L deus. diviyas. whence the Pidgin joss. The base of those words. deus. ML dīvīnitās. bright day). and Iuppiter stem from IE *dieu. of the sky. becomes ML dīvīnus. whence. OIr and Ga dia. Tuesday. from the L var dīuus. OW duu. journalism. whence E Jupiter. whence Dyāús. whose ‘of or for a god’ sense yields dīuīnitās. divine. a god. divine: and dios (for *diuios or *diwos ?) is akin to Skt divyas. 5. etc. ML dīvus. OHG Zīestac. Gr Zeus pater. the v appearing to derive from ME divinen. hodiernal. of a god. OC *dewos or *divos. itself a shadowy derivative of dius. ON tīvar (pl). the sky. In part. deism.—Cf the 2nd DIET. divination. whence OF-MF devinité. Iupiter has gen Iovis (PL Diouis). The Gr adj dios may have derived almost imperceptibly from Gr Dios. also inspired by them. As we have seen. whence E. ML Joviālis. adjournment and sojourn (n and v). dew. note. duration of a day. is a double link: sem in the fact that the luminous sky (the source of daylight) and daylight were apprehended as divine forces and manifestations. on the other. day. 4. 2. L dīuīnāre.or *dei-: cf Skt devas. deity. divination. the quality or power of a god. the n. The derivative L adj dīus means three different but very closely related things: divine. sep deodar. is the f of It divo. journeyman. jovial.—adjourn. cf Skt dyāús. the War-God’s day. whereas the very closely linked L diēs. acc dīuīnātiōnem. whence EF-F. var devinen. luminous: ‘The luminous day and the sky are confused with the god’ (E & M). whence E. phon in the IE r *dei-. a day. celestial. 3. Jove. both adopted by ME with later form divine. a god. Father of Heaven. joss. Iuppiter. With Gr Zeus. Deus. In L. or a contraction of L diuiāna. Zeus is Deus . daylight. The link between ‘light (of day). from ML dīvīnāre. Diēs was refashioned from the acc diem. OE Tīw has cpd Tīwesdaeg (whence E Tuesday). OF-MF devin. var divinite. akin to OFris Tīesdei. Dyaus. jovial. journeywork. and ‘god’. Jupiter. the oldest adjective of deus. a god. the form of the syn L Diespiter. 6. divinity. the gods. also a god is ‘the shining one’. L Diāna is either an -āna (m -ānus) derivative of L dīus. voc Zeu pater.Origins 794 (whence Dian). a prima donna. heaven (IE diēus. diva. sky. L dīuīnus. prob. journalese. deist. the God of War. meridian. L dīuīnāre has derivative dīuīnātio. of or by or for a god. to shine.

OIr in-diu. noon (from adv meridiē. OF-MF sejorner (whence F séjourner). of this day. 8. used by EF-F as n. Three L cpds of diēs remain: hodiernus. at noon. on this day: cf Skt adya. whence E meridian (adj. Also deriving from dies is the adj diurnus. under. LL adiurnāre. in what number. disguised. later cottidiānus. daily. Hodiernus. whence n). This *dei. The L adj diurnus has neu diurnum. in L diēs. whence ME dismale. OF sojorner. Now. sojournen. 14. 12. Journalese is an E formation (orig coll) in -ese. whence ‘to sojourn’. from adj medius (s medi-. newspaper. hence a little after+ diurnus+-āre. cotidien (later quo-). whence the E n sojourn. of the nox or night. a day. turned by LL into a n meaning a day’. ration for a day. later a newspaper. complementary to and prompted by nocturnus. whence OF-MF. var ajurner. to+diurnus +inf -āre. bad or unlucky days. as in OIr dië and Br deiz. the through-all- . a day’s work or travel. a dissimilation of *mediei diē). (Cf QUOTA. which. derives from the adv quotidiē. Diēs occurs. day. with OF-MF journee (OF jornee). 11. s hodiern-. whence E journalist. sejor). whence the n diurnal. how many +diēs. cf that of L diālis. whence OF-MF journee (F journée). however. 10. Quotidiānus.A-Z 795 luminous. middle. Meridiānus. whence ‘to adjourn’. whence OF-MF cotidian. things done daily—and recorded). with the form diārium. formed of the 2nd and 3rd elements of . whence E journalism. middle day. meridien. Clearer is the origin of diary: L diārium (esp in pl diāria). adopted from L. a daily record. 9. usu shortened to di-. that these three words more prob derive from the contemporaneous words for ‘day’—OF-MF and OProv jorn (later F jour) and It giorno. derives from meridiēs. derives from ML adjurnāre.) diapason . its extn diurnālis. OF sojorner has derivatives sojorn (and sojor. whence E journey. whence ME sojornen. whence VL *diurnāta. comes from Gr d apasōn. whence ME ajornen. 7. after Johnsonese. daily (see DIAL). and. whence ME. and sojornement. daily. 13. a daybook or diary. L diurnālis becomes the OF-EF adj journal. and journaliste. has derivative journalisme. r med-).appears in C. adj from adv quot. yields E hodiernal (-al substituted for -ous). in the adj dismal. this adj derives from the n dismal. comes the E adj diurnal. OF-MF jorn has two cpds relevant to E: ajorner and sojorner. a journal (from acta diurna. day (cf the OW diu. MF ajorner. is adopted by E for a newspaper—a modern diurnal. but then. and it represents an ernus adj derivative from hodiē (adv). of course. a period of (L) dies mali. OF dis mal. quotidiānus. for OL medidiēs. meridiānus. whence E quotidian (adj hence n). a god). daily: quotus. F journal. both adopted by ME. esp in ref to diurnum. today: (in) hoc diē. The MF derivative adjournment becomes E adjournment. today. hē dia pasōn khordōn sumphonia. themselves all from LL diurnum. whence sojournment. it appears also in Arm tiv. both deriving from diēs. derives from VL *subdiurnāre: sub. cf OProv jornada and It giornata—note. ad.

rough (cf the LGr aspron. akin to L asper (cf ASPERITY).. diaphanous . from ML diasprum.a. diarrhoea . trln of LGr-MGr diaspros. textile fabric. at DIANA. o/s of diaphragma. hence a table napkin. hence the pa diapered.v.e. to fence) thoroughly (dia-): f. orig a rich. from F diaphragmatique. para 8. the concord of all notes—in short. from diaphragnunai. var of diasprus. i. OF-MF diasprer. from MF. through. diapre. Adj: diaphragmatic. now—esp in AE— a baby’s napkin (breech-cloth). q. an -ique (L -icus. OF-MF diaspre. diaphragm : MF-F diaphragme: LL. hence thoroughly +LGr-MGr aspros. FARCE.Origins 796 chords symphony.e. pure white (cf Gr dialeukos): dia. Gr -ikos) learned adj from Gr diaphragmat-. diaphragma. later a cloth or linen. Cf the prefix diaand PAN. diaper . the octave. derives from ME. the muscle separating thorax from abdomen. See the element -phone. From diaper in the sense ‘figured design’ (orig on the textile) comes ‘to diaper’ perh from EF-F diaprer. from Gr. diarist is an E -ist derivative from diary. (lit) a barrier or partition. from OF-MF diaspre. white of egg). from G aspros. white. to fence (phragnunai.

stretched. para 8. para 6. See THESIS. from Gr diatonikos. para 3. See RHEUM. diatribe . adj of to diatonon. 2nd para. prop the neu of diatonos. from diateinein. via F and LL. 797 Diaspora . diastole . diatonic comes. prefix dia-. to stretch out. diatom . diatomous. See STALL. diathesis . See TOME. See the element -spora.A-Z (AE -rrhea). through+ teinein (s tein-) to stretch: cf TONE. the diatonic scale. extended. para 13.

What the devil!: Dickens. dickens! . itself adopted from F.Origins . whence. The former derives from Gr dikhotomia. para 3. the E dichotomous. See DAB. for *Diccons for Diccon’s or Dickon’s (son). para 3. game. See DAB. See 1st DIE. . 798 dibble . what the. via LL dichotomos. an -ia derivative of dikhotomos. pet-form of Richard. adj dichotomous. dibbler. (sl) money. dibs . para 11. cut (-tomos: cf TOME) in two (dikho-: cf the element dicho-). of Gmc origin—cf OHG Richhart (cf RICH and HARD). See THROW. dichotomy . dice (n hence v). Diccon being an extn of Dick.

judicial. predicatory—cf preach. a covering: f. abdication. vindictive). judicature. interdict (n. condition (n. DECK. dictate. benedictory. a saying. vengeance. judicious—cf adjudge. interdictory. addiction. contradict. predicate (adj. inditement. Latin prefix-cpds: abdicate. fatidic(al). remotely cf TEACH. maledictory. veridical. judge (n. benedict. preacher. indiction. conditionate. n). digit. cf dicta. to . indictment—cf indite. interdictor.. adjudicator—cf also juridic(al). contradictory. vindicatory. jurisdictive. v). contradiction. dictation. paradigmatic. predicable. vindicable. vengeful—avenge. Obs dict. dictatorial. comes from L dictum (pl dicta). epideictic. v).—Greek cognates: deictic. predict. inferior. dickey . diction and dictionary. vengeable. ditty. shown: cf dictus). predicament (whence adj predicamental). vindicate. paradigm. See DECEMBER. revengeful. prop the neu of dictus (s dict-). interdiction. v). pp of dīcere (s dīc-). benedictive. var of dicky. dict . shaky. indict (whence indictable). apodeictic. jurisdiction. to say: OL deicere (s deic-) is akin to Gr deiknunai. vindicative (and. predictive. adjudicative. judicator. to show (r deik). cf malison. judex.A-Z 799 dicker . cf benison—and malediction. preachment. misjudgement judicable. judgement—cf misjudge. verdict. dedication. v).e. v). dictator (whence dictatorship: suffix -ship). any of several—either inside or inferior—articles of clothing: perh from D dek. indication. judicatory (adj.vindication. predicant. indicator. v). dight. prediction. n. judiciary. causi dical. of course. avenger—revenge (n. Hence the coll adj dick(e)y. adjudicate. 1. cf the element dicto-. dedicate. dictum.a. index (pl indices). addict (adj. conditional (whence unconditional). predicative. to Skt diśati. predicator. indictive. predication. edict (whence adj edictal). vindicator. ditto. vindex. weak. benediction. vendetta. adjudication. n. . indicative. dedicatory. interdictive. indicate. para 4. revengeable. he points out or shows (pp . to Go ga-teihan. judicative.

blest. to speak contra. which. clad. the E contradiction. 7. the agent dictātor. whence the legal conduction—cf condition in para 10. yields OE dihtan. whence E dictionary. the former adopted from F. index. to say solemnly. a word or a formula of command. whence via OF-F. finger. int of OHG zīhan (r zīh-). and the office dictātūra. *dīg-. 5. resp). occur. var dité. E ditty. 6. adj whence n. Not from pp dictus but prob from the IE var r *dig. to adjudge or accord. var *deig-. o/s dictiōn-. whence ME dihten. only in cpds: e. r teih-). whence E contradictory. hence showing. to say often. condīciō (para 10). adopted by E: lit. whence the obs adj. whence ‘to contradict’. i. the said. to show or prove. or against.e. used as n. now usu a manner of speaking. nimble.arise LL dictātiō. whence (with -al for -ous) dictatorial. Of dīcere. whence OF-F and E diction. whence E benedicite. the v addict. the n. and with pp benedictus. the sem relation between pointing to. to point to. whence ‘to dictate’. yields the E adj digitate. the latter adapted from F prestidigitateur. to say. The neu pp dictum used as n becomes It ditto (var detto). whence. orig a composition. learned cpds with 1st element the F preste. usu. as to E. 19. to accuse. cf maledīcere below. the ME dite. causidīcus…uendīcus (para 11). via OF beneiçun. dispose. o/s addiction-. 4. both connoting an agent. int prefix.comes L digitus. and ME beneysun. a blessing. a word. becomes both the E n dictate and. the ML dictiōnārius. resp) and their derivatives indīcāre. Bless ye!. uindīcāre (paras 14. with shorter forms *dīk-. to conclude (an arrangement). and telling. to proclaim. whence the obs ‘to dight’. has derivative condictiō. extant in its pp dight. 15–18. 2. to say loudly. derivative LL benedictiō. to show. as dīcāre (durative and int). beneīson. via OF-MF ditié. with imp benedīcite. whence E digit: ? orig ‘the pointer’. . contradīcere. 3. whence the PN Benedict (anglicized as Benedick) and the adj. a saying. with pp dictātus. hence a toe or. whence dictature. G zeihen. o/s contradictiōn-. later dictiōnārium. whence E dictation. Such derivatives of L dīcere. proclaim (ga-. ML *benedictōrius accounts for E benedictory. to say ‘well’ (bene) to. saying. a book of words. iudex. and OHG zeigon (G zeigen: s zeig-) to show. to say often (so as to be easily reported). hence n. becomes directly the E benediction and indirectly. and LL contradictōrius. hence merely saying.g. derivative digitāre has pp digitātus. later to compose. Dictāre. with pp contradictus. the neu dictātum. u index (paras 13. The IE r is *deik-. derivative addictiō. iudīcāre. hardly needs to be laboured. benesoun. On o/s dictiōn. L dīcere has int and freq dictāre. hence to order. thing. and dīciō. hence the aforesaid.Origins 800 show. and the elements -dex and -dīcus. with pp addictus. from It presto (as in hey presto!) from late VL praestus. On L dict-. used as adj (having fingers).. ready at hand. adopted by E. order. with adj dictātōrius. becomes addiction. 20–21.is formed the -ārius (E -ary) adj dictiōnārius. cf prestidigitation and prestidigitator. benedict. to bless. to dictate. Derivative adj digitālis yields digital. liber. is formed L dictiō. benedīcere. condīcere (int con-). for d. a married man. abdīcāre (see para 8). furnished. o/s benedictiōn-. s digit-. with changed senses. the L prefix-cpds affecting E are these: addīcere. o/s dictātiōn-. and. 15. s of pp dictus. tell. and prob to Hit tek-kusmu. the E benison. On the pps dictāt. derivative contradictiō.

used int). preachment.g. as derivative praedictīuus. has pp indictus. and se abdīcāre. deriving from the OF v but suggested by L praedīcātor. but that pp merely form-influences ‘to indict’. however. in(to). 9. para 21. yields predicament. o/s praedictiōn-. en. to write. whence the E adj. with pp abdīcātus. o/s indictiōn-. and derivative ME enditement becomes. see para 14. esp if unpleasant. to speak ill of. the E malison—cf benison at benedīcere above. from L in. from the v. s indict-. whence the obsol adj and the v dedicate. derivative LL interdictiō o/s interdictiōn-. to proclaim. yields abdication. ML -īvus. ML -īvus. to foretell. has pp praedictus. ME enditen comes from OF enditer. to legally interpose. mostly displaced by dedicatory (-ory. something predicated. preacher comes from MF preecheor. o/s abdīcātiōn-. to say out. from LL interdictus. to accuse. proclamation.A-Z 801 ēdīcere (ē. o/s maledictiōn-. indictment (pron inditement)—inditement being now rare. o/s praedīcātiōn-. to proclaim (a war) or impose (a tribute). maledictory is an anl E formation. whence ‘to predict’. prob via OF. praedīcabilis yields predicable. to proclaim. becomes OF. the E dedication. dēdīcātīuus. ML -īvus. For indīcāre. to prohibit. from).. to accuse. L dīcāre. gen -ūs). which (pron indite) derives from ME enditen. becomes OF-MF preechier or prechier (the F prêcher): ME prechen: ‘to preach’. praedīcātor becomes predicator. a law). s maledict-. maledīcere. edict. valedictory. to consecrate to the gods. LL praedīcātōrius becomes predicatory. to refuse to recognize. 8. LL to preach. see VALUE. o/s dēdīcātiōn-. derivative abdīcātiō. has presp praedīcans. to dictate. to declare solemnly. whence both indictiō. has pp dēdīcātus. . whence E indictive. o/s praedīcant-. praedīcere. under the same influence. whence ‘to abdicate’. adj). interdīcere. LL interdictōrius adapted. to proclaim (e. hence n. before). LL abdīcātīuus. to proclaim. ML abdīcātor is adopted. both v and n experiencing OF intermediation in entre-. becomes dedicative. used as n. to proclaim. praedīcāre (prae. whence E edict. has three prefix-cpds: abdīcāre (ab. whence the E n interdict (perh. Moreover. ML -īvus. to preach. dēdīcāre (dē. becomes interdiction. derivative dēdīcātiō. with pp maledictus. becomes prediction. by E. itself suggesting interdictive. against+dictāre. and its neu praedīcātum. indīcere. predicant. praedīcātīuus. whence E. to curse. via OF maleīçon. has pp interdictus—whence ‘to interdict’—with neu interdictum used as n. ML -īvus. yields abdicative. whence E indiction. with pp ēdictus. hence a condition or a circumstance. whence maledictiō. to write down. LL interdictor is adopted. L praedīcare. to (compose and) write. predication. the n predicate. and LL praedīcāmentum. derivative praedīcātiō. ualedīcere (ML vale-): for valediction. becomes predictive. with neu ēdictum used as n. becomes. pp praedicātus yields adj and v predicate. hence a quality. whence clearly ‘to indite’.out). becomes predicative. derivative praedictiō. and indictīuus. to indicate. itself suggested by dedicator (adopted from L). whence directly the E malediction and indirectly. from MF preechement. to renounce.

together). L iūdīcāre (s iūdic-). iūdex has s iūdic-. Its pp indīcātus yields ‘to indicate’. a word or formula of command. L iūdīcāre has several derivatives affecting E: LL iūdīcābilis. prob for *indix. ML jūdex. ML īvus. judicious (neg injudicious). in. on the pps indīcāt. the E conditional (with neg unconditional). fātidīcus (adj). LL condīciōnālis becomes OF condicionel. Derivative ML condītiōnāre (perh influencing F conditionner) has pp condītiōnātus. adopted by late ME. derives from F judicieux. however. at+dicāre.Origins 802 10. from ML jūdīcāre. ML jūdīcamentum (L suffix -mentum. o/s indīcātiōn-. with. (hence) in a manner of speaking).. o/s indic-. telling of FATE: E fatidic. iuridīcus. whence the adj judicatory. Thus we reach the cpds in -dex (akin to OL dix. from ML jūdīcium . etc. perh via MF-EF. L index. f judicieuse. a formula of agreement between two persons (con. 14. influenced by artifex. iurisdictiō. whence esp ‘forefinger’. LL iūdīcātōrius. whence the senses ‘table of contents’ (now ‘alphabetical list of contents’) and ‘catalogue of books’. whence. Lremade from ME verdit (OF veirdit. the neu iūdīcātorium. via ML. into. whence. a pleader in a law court. via ML. The c/f e -dīcus. into. 11. whence judicable. perh via F. ‘To misjudge’ and misjudgement are E mis. because of the formula. uindex. L iūdex. ML judic-. occurs in the foll words relevant to E: causidīcus. is ‘he who points to or shows the law’ (L ius. LL iūdīcātōr. connoting an agent or. the E judicial and judiciary. o/s condīciōn-: OF condicion. whence the pa conditioned.cpds of the simple words. has the derivative iūdīcium. is lit a ‘pointer at or to’ (in. whence. the rare E ‘to judicate’. the E jurisdiction. telling the truth (L uērum. office or profession of judge. ‘to judge’ derives from ME jugen. 17. as adj. whence E judge. as in dicis causa. the E indication—LL indīcātīuus. now usu fatidical (-al). cf the ML vēredictum or vēridictum. whence. used as n. judicative is an E formation in -ive. whence E condition. yields judicature. whence indicative—and LL indīcātor. whence. cf E -ment) yields OF jugement. ML juris-. with adjj iūdīciālis and iūdīciārius. 12. L iūdex. from vērdictum). against). . often contr to vērdictum. ML jūdīcātūra. now usu veridical. whence the E verdict. whence E judgement. adopted by ME. via ML. 16. itself from iūdex. now usu juridical. o/s iurisdictiōn-. adopted by ME. Serving as the v answering to L index is L indīcāre. whence ‘to condition’. adj whence n. F condition has derivative conditionner. etc. Retained in certain legal terms.arise indīcātiō. whence. whence judicatorial (suffix -ial). whence E juridic. ML juridīcus. ML jūdex. of or by or for (legal) justice. becomes the n judicatory. has a notable prefix-cpd: condīciō. which perh rather=in. 13. r iu-). iudex. influenced by ML condītiōnālis. adopted by E. connoting an agent or an instrument: index. ML vērum): E veridic. uēridīcus (adj). to proclaim. 15. and becomes OF(-F) juge. an agential quality. whence E causidical. as in the Catholic Index Expurgatorius (of books with suspect passages) and Index Librorum Prohibitorum (of books entirely forbidden to the laity). pp iūdicātus. with adj causīdīcālis. L dīciō. the E judicator. whence the adj and v conditionate. from OF jugier.

derivative F préjugement becomes E prejudgement. adopted by E. MF-F revancher has derivative EF n revanche. revindication answer to ML revindīcātus. on the pps uindīcāt. adopted by E.) 19. from uindīcāre) vindictive. derivative LL praeiūdīcātiō. adjudicator. yields prejudication. anl E formations on the simple words. itself. from the pps. avenger. ML vindīcātes. Uindīcāre. o/s of adjūdīcātiō. pp of revindīcāre. LL adiūdīcātiō. via ML praejūdīcāre. one who ‘belongs’ to the family. I think) prefer the 1st element to be a lost L cognate of OHG wini. esp in Tertullian’s use of praeiūdīcāre for ‘to do harm to’. the sense ‘hurtful’ app derives from OF prejudicial and is influenced by the non-legal senses of the F and E n prejudice. whence ‘to avenge’. to judge prae or beforehand. OF-MF avengier (a-. restitution of or to liberty. Completing the L words in -dex is uindex (o/s uindic-). whence avengeful and avenger. Derivative LL praeiūdīciālis. becomes legal prejudicial. yields ‘to vindicate’. ML vindex. The L cpd adiūdīcāre. Revindicate. from ML adjūdīcātus. whence vindictiveness (-ness). yields the adj and obsol v prejudicate. again) has varr revenchier and esp revencher. or aiming at. from ML adjūdīcātiōn-. he who shows the uis (ML vis) or violence done to his client. ML vindīcātor. o/s -ātiōn. vindicatory as if from ML *vindīcātorius. whence obs ‘to venge’. hence OF avengement. A more important prefix-cpd of iūdīcāre is praeiūdīcāre. leads to the foll E words: adjudge. OC venjá (cf the Cor vensy. to take or exact retribution for (someone). and OF-MF vengeresse. o/s uindīcātiōn-. the pp (s adjūdīcāt-). back. int (ad-) of iūdīcāre. Moreover. by contr. ML adjūdīcāre. The OF-F w have derivatives MF-EF vengcable. whence OF prejudice. adopted by E. 18a. whence E vindication—ML vindīcātīvus. friend. OF ajugier (ML adjūdīcāre). avenges. 21. ML vindīcāre. tending or designed to vindicate. tribe. whence vindicative. It has obscure 1st element: he who points to—what? Perhaps for *uimdex. clan. Its pp uindīcātus. OF-MF revengier (re-. adjudicate. lit a legal judgement made beforehand. tribe. whence (influenced by L uindīcāta. disposed to. with complete sem naturalness. which. now obs—OF-MF vengeor (F vengeur). relationship. adopted by E—OF-MF vengement. (later) punishment. EF-F to revenge—hence the E ‘to revenge’ whence revengeable and revenger. The L pp praeiūdīcātus. adopted by E—OF-F vengeance. whence obs E vengeress. he who guarantees. to vindicate). adjudicative. Ga fine. cf OIr fine.A-Z 803 18. of a previous judgement. from the L ‘pre-judge’ sense. passes through F with these results for E: OF venchier and vengier.arise uindīcātio. o/s * revindīcātōn-. revenge. adjudication. L re-. Vindicable is as if from ML *vindīcābilis. whence the E . adjudicature. (hence) proves the innocence of. L uindex has derivative v uindīcāre. iūdīcium (para 17) has LL cpd praeiūdīcium. adopted by E. ME ajugen. whence E venger. soon usu revancher. F venger. 20. ML -jūd-. on anl of the simple words. app used int). becomes F préjuger. OF to avenge. and * revindīcātio. but vengeful is an E formation. with senses answering exactly to those of the n. (Souter. whence ‘to prejudge’. to. E & M (rightly. LL uindīcātor. But already in LL does ‘hurtful’ appear. avengeress. derivative F préjudider (? influenced by Tertullian’s LL) accounts for ‘to prejudice’. L ad-. stands surety for. which follows. decided prior to a hearing before a judge.

to cheat or hoax. Gr deiknunai (r deik-). 1803: and Diddler prob derives from E dial diddle. in sense ‘blood feud’. from didaskein. has derivative epideiktikos. whence revengeful. 22. whence epideictic. and the cpd paradeiknunai. away from. a patterned or diagrammatic table of examples. dictum . of). whence LL paradīgma. becomes It vendetta.. prob akin to the app echoic E dial diddle. diddle . from. The cpd apodeiknunai (apo-. demonstrative. 23. whence E apodeictic. to show para or by the side of. L uindicta. ML vindicta. dictionary. serving to point out or show. See prec. whence the erudite E deictic. esp as an example. an example (in grammar or in rhetoric). whence EF-F paradigme. para 1. didactic (whence didactician and didacticism): Gr didaktikos. in sense ‘revenge’.a. with adj paradigmatic (Gr paradeigmatikos). to teach: f. whence E paradigm. to show—see para 1—has derivative deiktikos. ‘to busy oneself with trifles’ (EDD). to point out. DOCILE.e. a resourceful sponger in James Kenney’s Raising the Wind. aas derivative paradeigma. the cpd epideiknunai. has derivative apodeiktikos. the derivative L apodicticus accounting for the var apodictic. diction . para 4. . to jog up and down. to show forth (cf the prefix epi-).Origins 804 n revenge. adopted by E. See DICT. is prob a b/f from Jeremy Diddler.

and diet from Gr diaita. as cubes employed in gambling. adj hence n. q. die (2). invented in 1900 by Rudolf Diesel (1858–1913) of Munich.v. derives from ME dee: OF de (F dé) a gambling die: L datum. The last=diet. Gr diaita is app a di. a god’s dispensation. n. the 2nd from LL diaetārius (adj used as n). etc. manner of living.e. prop the neu of datus. die (1). A die or gambling cube. diet (1). luck: cf the Av aēta-.a. through) prefix-cpd from aisa (ulσa). a share (Boisucq). Diesel is elliptical for Diesel engine. a housesteward. later a shaping tool. at DAWDLE. through L diaeta. dietetic. dietary. a perforated block. v. ME diete. adj of diaita.. n whence v. dietician (loosely dietetian). a piece or ‘man’ in games. trln of Gr diaitētikos. aisa is akin to Gr oitos lot. n+physician. to cast or throw: f. the lot that befalls: IE *oitos. diet . adj whence n dietectics. para 3. a thinned form of daddle (to totter. DATA. to give.(for dia. the mould used. pp of dare. See DEAD.. pl dies—but. MF diete (F diète). the 3rd comes from LL diaetēticus. dice. a share—esp at a meal.A-Z 805 to dance about. to toddle).

differentiation.. whence. differential. whence E difficulty: and difficulté comes from L difficultās. assembly: ML diēta. app a b/f of difficulty. (Sc) a sessions day. a day: f. to delay. the n of difficilis (di-. to disperse. to carry (ferre) from one side or another. 2. 1. apart. See FAITH.Origins 806 (2). from MF differer. differentiation recalls It differenziazione (from the v). prob suggested by It differenziale (cf Sp diferencial). a day’s journey: an -eta derivative of diēs. difference.e. was pern suggested by EF-F difficultueux.a. deferment.a. to carry oneself from one side or another. whence both ‘to difference’ and the adj (hence n) differential. whence E different (and MF-F différent). differentiate (whence differentiator). adopted by E. hence to be different: f.—defer. the opp of facilis: f. postpone. esp governing. by suffix -ment. whence OF-MF difference.a. for dis-. (by a time extension) to put aside (di. The last derives from ME differen. not).e. para 6. difficult . indifferent.for dis-) for later. o/s difficultāt-. FACILE. ‘to differentiate’ recalls It differenziato. on that o/s different. diffraction . diffident. diffidence . (obs) a day’s journey. this being also the imm origin of ‘to differ’: L differre. the adj of MF-F difficulté. pp of differenziare. as se differre. differ . DIANA.e. The presp differens has o/s different-. to postpone. see FERTILE. different. with negg indifference.. and. to delay. ferre. (general and extant) a formal.was coined differentia.

The Australian voc digger and the PN Digger come from the gold-diggers of the 1850’s–60’s. a dike. earlier dike.A-Z . from MF digue. para 10. all these E words have cognates in OLG. See FUSE. var dike. diffusion. See GERUND. and dīk. n and v. digestible. See FRACTION. a mercenary female. Digger . digest . the California gold-diggers have originated golddigger.f. stagnant water. ditch. dike or dyke. dig (pt and pp dug or digged). with var dyke. akin to OFris dīka. MLG. n and v (whence ditcher). to dig. through ME diggen. adopted by E. from MF diguer. characteristic of men painted by Vandyke. ME has the further var dich. digestion. to excavate. very trim) is elliptical for Vandyke beard. itself akin to the syn ON dīki and esp OE dīc. 807 diffuse (adj and v). digestive. whence n dig and agent digger and vn digging(s). diggen See DIG. better Van Dyck. to melt. . ‘To dig’ comes. whence E ditch. Vandyke (beard). s. ‘(He) of the dyke’. from MD dijc (D dijk). ME dīc. A vandyke (pointed. MHG—perh (Walshe) cf also the Gr tiphos.

is lit ‘two (di-) seated’ (Gr hedra. See GRADE. dignitary. digitate. a seat)—cf cathedral at CHAIR. See DICT. See DICT. with one sound. dignity. digital. s. digression. See DECENCY. digress . The drug digitalis derives from Digitales. dihedral . dignified . .f. digressive. a genus of herbs with flowers having a finger-shaped (L digitālis) corolla. para 4. para 3. digraph is a double (di-) writing (graph): two letters. adj hence n. para 5. para 10.Origins 808 dight . digit . usu vowels.

(lit) anything received. dilapidation. Gr lēmma. a double (di-) lēmma or assumption. dilemma . See the 1st TOLL. derives from the r . dilatation. dilatant . See LATERAL. dilate.A-Z 809 dike . hence. an ambiguous proposition. dilation. See LAPIDARY. para 3. dilaceration . dilapidate . comes from Gr dilemma. dilatory . dilator. in logic. adopted from LL. See LACERATE. See DIG. para 4. para 6.

dilute . to take. dilly . s. The adj dilemmatic is formed anl dilettante . See DALLIANCE. s. para 8. dilly(-)bag . akin to Skt (-atic.f. -ic) from the Gr gen dilēmmatos. diligent. 810 . See DELICACY. a tree. dilly-dally . para 7. See SAPODILLA.Origins of lambanein. para 2. See LEGEND. See DITTY BAG. diligence .f. he takes.

pp of diminuere. very small. adj hence v (whence the n dimmer).A-Z 811 . L diminuere remains unchanged. dark.of L tenebrae. para 9. with -ment derivative diminishment. august. orig the pp of minuere: cf MINUTE. whence—prob via MF-F diminutif. via MF-EF. small. darkness). dim. from MF-F diminuer. diminution. whence. dimness. itself from OE dim. down from+minuere. and the dam. diminish (whence pa diminished). 3. See MEASURE. MINOR. darkness. OHG timber. See LAVA. minish has passed through OF and ML from L minūtus.of G dämmerung. diminutive (adj hence n). earlier and better dēminuere (dē. twilight (cf OHG demar. In It. diluvial. The latter derives from OE dimnes (with -nes cf -ness). its gerund diminuendo.a. diminuendo. dimension . and for diminūtīuus (earlier dē-). from L diminuere. whence E dim: akin to OFris dimm.of Gr themems. 1. o/s diminution-. f -ive—the E adj diminutive. dime . diluvium. sombre—perh also the ten. var dimme. with diminishing . dilution. ‘To diminish’ blends the now obsol minish and the obs diminue. and. dim. para 3. the them. f. See DECEMBER. also diluent. ON dimmr.. s of diminūtus (earlier dēminūtus). diminution. to lessen). Diminūt-.e. 2. dim . ML -īvus. sombre. accounts both for L diminūtiō (earlier dē-). para 7.

thread. dimmer . 812 dimity . cf the syn ON dynja. OHG tumphilo. var of dynian. derives from OE dynnan.Origins volume. has been adopted by music. double-threaded. discordant noise: with the OE v. dimple . hence. OS dunian. v. hence v (whence pa dimpled): ME dympull. as n. it roars): ult echoic. perh also to E DIP. whirlpool. s mit-. twice+mitos. pi of dimito: Gr dimitos. dimorphic . prob akin to MHG tumpfel. a warp-thread. dimorphous. para 3. n (whence dimply: -y. adj). dyne. (as still) a loud. roaring (cf dhunáyati. poo!. prob akin to Hit mitis. itself prob from—certainly very intimately related to—OE dyn. G Tümpel. a corded cotton fabric: It dimiti. din . confused. See MORPHEUS. n. if that be so. also Skt dhuni. . dimity: di-. MHG tiinen. dimples being likened to ripples. string (Hofmann). See DIM. dimorphism. and.

dîner or rather OF-MF disner (whence both ‘to dine’ and dinner) may rather come from the C r *dei. connoting cessation+L iēiūnāre. now lunch (breakfast being le petit déjeuner).o. to breakfast. F déjeuner and dîner are doublets. whence the E jejune. to dine. hence hungry. of midday. for the old disner. given by Darmesteter. See DINT. whatever the origin of déjeuner. ‘By a shortening to dis. a bell. fasting. déjeuner. whence F déjeuner. used also as n. to take the meal of the day. apart. . (He does not deny the disjējūnāre-déjeuner etymology. contr to *dies. whence ‘to dine’—orig means ‘to breakfast’. orig breakfast. 2. to make one’s first meal of the day: ML jē-.) ding . day. hence dry. Dinner. According to the *disjējūnāre theory. ME diner. whence *diies. merely constitutes an int-by-redup: ientremains o.’ Malvezin’s theory is not to be lightly dismissed. From VL *disiēiūnāre. ‘To dun’ a debtor may be a ‘thickened’ var of ‘to din’: to din it into his ears that he owes this money. But. lēiūnus is prob akin to L ientāre (s ient-). comes OF-F desjeuner. we have dîner. ML jējūnus. hence the speculative derivation from VL *disiēiūnāre. perh even the L diēs (cf DIANA. 1. to strike or hurl. represents the OF-MF dinner (F dîner).o. jejune. to be luminous. dine (whence diner and dining) and dinner. itself from the adj iēiūnus.A-Z 813 2. to break one’s fast: dis-. disjējūnāre. to fast. weak. used as n: and disner—whence ME dinen. with redup var ieientāre (s ieient-). therefore. whence Br deiz. disner coming from an earlier derivative *disnos or *disna. later *disjūnāre. para 6). *disjējūnāre. but not from the VL *disjūnāre for L disjējūnāre. ding-dong : no less imitative than (say) the L tintinnabulum. thin.

. with var dent. dingy . See the element dino.Origins 814 dinghy : Bengalese dingi. Dinornis and dinosaur. dinner . para 2. dint . See DINE. dingo (Aus) is an aboriginal word. n hence v. wood (cf the Gr drus. s dru-. a boat: ? from Skt dru. for the latter.and cf DIRE. ding. See DUNG. the oak). cf also SAURIA. dim of dinga. to strike or hurl.

whence the E dope. through ME dippen. ‘To ding’ comes. akin to syn ON dyntr. to treat with dope (in any of its senses). diphtheria . whence dipper. var of dengen. Sci L: F diphthérie: Gr diphthera (var dipsara). (Kluge. through. to keep house: dia. v (hence n). diorama . var of duppen. a dipping. to beat or hammer. from OE dyppan. a hammer. to beat: ult echoic. 2. ‘To dip’ comes. hence administration. derives from ME dint. dip . . OS dōpian. whence ‘to dope’.e. See the element -orama. 1. The last two are akin to MD dopen. to knock. diocese. Go daupjan. from ON dengja. hence a province. to beat or hammer.A-Z 815 Dint. to keep house: from oikos. a prepared hide or a piece of leather. derives from OF diocise: L dioecēsis: Gr dioikēsis. a house: f. akin to OHG tangol. var dyttr. to strike. Cf also DEEP and DIVE. housekeeping. Diocesan represents MF-F diocésain. any viscous liquid.a. akin to syn ON deypa and to OFris dēpa. from OE dynt. from dioikein. 3. n. ECONOMY. a sauce. adj of OF-F diocèse. D doopen. OHG *tingan. thoroughly+oikein. to Lith dundëti. to dip. which.—The IE r is *dheub-. and to Alb gdhende.. whence the n doop. G dengeln.) diocesan . to baptize. like E diocese (ME diocise). var of dunt (retained in Sc). through ME dingen. LGr a diocese.

para 4. a diplomat. whence E diplomacy (-cy). whence E diplomatic. L diploma has (modern) adj diplomaticus. to soften by kneading. diplomatique yields diplomate.of Gr deinos.a. diplomate has derivatives diplomatic. of bad augury. DOUBLE. from diploos. para 5. diploma is simply the Gr diploma. as also the basic var dephein. to tan. diplomat. whence E diplomat’. orig. diplomatic. s dir-. hateful. dipsomania . Adopted from L. diplomacy. itself o.o. dire : L dīrus. var diplasios: f.o. dipsomaniac. diphthong . a paper folded double.Origins 816 used by F for a membrane: akin to Gr depsein. perh akin to the s dein. diplomatist. twofold. by b/f.. diploma .e. a student of diplomatics. from diploun. See MIND. dipper . sinister. See DIP. See PHONE. and diplomatiste. to double. whence the needless E diplomatist. . whence F diplomatique.

directorship). directorial. I fear. See REX. v. para 11. to MD drite. para 28. excrement. and to Skt 817 . OE drītan.A-Z terrible. n. akin to OFris drīta. and driten. from ON drit. (Holthausen). para 28. direction (whence directional). and to several Sl vv. n. r dei-). he hates—cf also Gr deidō (s deid-. and D dryten. See REX. cf OHG trizan. dirigent . whence dirty. dirge . direction . from the v drīta. v. dirigible. directive. para 29. director (whence directorate. to MLG dret. direct . dirt . directory. See RAPT. . See REX. adj (whence the v): by metathesis from ME drit.

disability. disadvantageous.(L dis-) derivatives from agréer. disadvantage . EF-F désagrément: des.anl formations from AFFECT. agréable. disabuse . -ed. to . etc. para 9.Origins 818 disable (whence the pa disabled). disallow —whence (after allow-allowance) disallowance—comes from MF-EF desalouer. disagreement: resp OF-F désagréer. See ADVANTAGE. -ion: dis. disaffect . disagree . MF-F désagréable. para 5. See USE. para 2. disagreeable. See HABIT. agrément: cf AGREE.

See PROVE. disarmament. disarray . whence disappearance (-ance). para 3. derives from APPEAR. Cf ALLOW. para 22. disappoint . See ARMS. See ARRAY.A-Z disapprove. disaster . whence. para 2. para 7. See PUNGENT. after armament. disarm . disapprove (whence disapproval). disapprobation . disappointment. 819 disappear (prefix dis-).

Origins . apart+OF-F barre. para 2. disastrous. disbursement. at BAR. to expel from the Bar. n): MF-F désavouer: cf AVOW. 820 disavow (whence disavowal: -al. disband (whence disbandment: suffix -ment): EF (se) desbander: des. L dis-.(not) ‘answers’ to belief. See STAR. q. disbelieve. disc . as with a bar: OF-MF desbarer.for L dis-. to prevent. disbar . para 8. are merely the dis. apart+bande (see BAND). a company +inf -er. debar. See PURSE. believe. disburse . its derivative débarrer: des-.v. disbelief .

military education and training. q. ..e. discharge . directly (cf the F disciplinaire).a. whence. See DISH. the E discipline.v. See the 2nd CARD. para 4. disciple . if not from EF-F discernement. adopted by ME from OF-F. whence.A-Z . disciplinary. 821 discard . discipline. to make out with the eye. disciplinary. education. via OF-F. to distinguish (cernere) apart (dis-). f. discernible. cf DISCREET. para 9. The 3rd. with derivative disciplīnābilis. L discernere. whence the n. comes straight from the 1st. the adj disciplinarian. derives—like OE discipul. ML disciplīnārius. at DOCILE. which represents MF-F discerner. discern . to learn. to teach or train. whence disciplinable. Discernible comes perh via F discernable from LL discernibilis. See CAR. disciplinarian. with -an substituted for -ous. discipline. to teach.from L discipulus. Disciplīna has derivatives LL disciplīnāre. itself from discere (s disc-). CERTAIN . akin to docēre (s doc-). whence ‘to discipline’. Disciple. and. discernment. Discipulus has derivative disciplīna.

See CONFECTION. discomfit . disclamation. discolo(u)r. discomfiture. para 3. disclose . discomfort . See COMFORT. See DISH. disclosure. disclaimer. para 2. See CLAIM. para 1. See CLOSE. para 6. discoloration . n and v. See COLOR.Origins 822 disclaim . discoid . para 10. .

disconnection: anl ‘answers’ to connect (connection). . para 6. See COMPOSE. See COMMODIOUS. discomposure. para 3. disconsolate . disconcert . para 7. discontent .A-Z 823 discommode . See CONTAIN. para 3. discompose . See SOLACE. disconcertion. disconnect . See CONCERT.

. o/s of cor. the OF-MF descorder has the derivative OF-MF n descort. in its var desconter. MF-EF descorde. discourage . comes ‘to discount’: cf the 2nd COUNT. the latter adapted by E.. comes from EF descompte. from L discordāre. EF-F discorde. para 1. discontinuity. para 5. n.e. from which. discountenance : EF descontenancer: des-. presp of descorder (whence obsol E ‘to discord’). heart (f. whence EF-F and E discordance). CORDIAL)+inf -are. o/s discord-: dis-.a. The 3rd comes from OF-MF descordant (whence OF-MF descordance. from the adj discors. L dis+contenance (cf countenance at CONTAIN)+inf -er.Origins 824 discontinuance . apart+cord-. discount . discontinue. itself from MF descompter. See CONTINUAL. discouragement. discord . discordance. See CORDIAL. discordant.

discretion.v. from discrēt-. See CREDENCE. adopted from OF-MF. courtesy. clearly separate. the pp of discernere. See COURSE. discreditable. indiscrétion. the s of discrētus. discredit . discover . discreet . discretion. discreet passes through OF-F discret. qq. indiscretion derive from MF-F indiscret. separation. derives straight from L discrētus. discovery. Indiscreet. discourtesy: opp courteous.v at COURT. q. . discernment. para 7. Whereas discrete. See COVER. comes from L discrētiō (o/s discrētiōn-). at DISCERN. discrete. discourteous .A-Z 825 discourse . para 2. para 3.

discriminator. whence the E adj discriminant. discriminant (adj hence n).e. not+discriminate. discrepant. discriminate (adj and v). from discrīmen. adjj) from ‘to discriminate’.(whence the E adj discrepant). comes from L discrepantia. The last two are E anl formations (-ive. to distinguish. s of discrīminātus. arose both the LL discrīminātiō. from discernere. and LL discrīminātor. perh adapted from MF-EF discrepance. . formed from discrepant. The presp discrīminans has o/s discrīminant-. -ory. o/s d iscrimination-. See DISCREET. the o/s of discrepans. a sifting-out. derives from the pp (LL adj) discrīminātus of discrīmināre. division. disculpation): ML disculpātus. to rattle (cf CREAK). CULPABLE. like the adj discriminate. distinction.v. whence E discrimination. The former. adj. to sound out of tune: dis-+crepāre (s crep-). at DISCERN. presp of discrepāre. pp of disculpāre. On L discrīmināt-. which.Origins 826 discrepancy . to excuse (connoted by dis-) from culpa or blame: f. Indiscriminate=in-. adopted by E. discriminative and discriminatory.. disculpate (whence. discretion. discrimination.a. discrete . by anl. q.

see QUASH. whence E discussion. disdain . pp of discutere. para 7. Derivative discussiō. disease . in LL to discuss: for quatere. See DISH. discursus. discussive. o/s discussion-. The 3rd is an E -ive formation from ‘to discuss’. also to shake) apart (dis-). para 10 (at discurrere). discussion. discus . See DECENCY. See COURSE. itself from L discussus. becomes OF-F. to strike (quatere. See EASE. disdainful. n and v (whence pa diseased). disembark . discuss .A-Z 827 discursive .

apart+enchant. disfavo(u)r .f. disert . in+BOWEL). apart+embowel (em. See DEBOUCH.for en-.v. para 11. disengage . See the 3rd BARK. para 3. q. at CHANT. s.Origins . See SERIES. See ENGAGE. disenchant =dis-. 828 disembogue . disembowel : dis-.

A-Z . disfigurement. apart+(now only dial) gruntle. See GRACE. para 3. disgrace . 829 disfigure . to grunt often. Cf franchise at FRANK. a freq of GRUNT. See FIGURE. See GORGE. disfranchise . to complain. untie. See FAVOR. disguise . para 2. disgorge . disgruntle (esp in pa disgruntled)—whence disgruntlement (-ment)—combines dis-.

3. dish. whence both disc and disk: and L discus represents Gr diskos (s disk-). board. table. table. whence ME deis. (later) dais. with LL sense ‘table’. disc. disharmony. whence ME deske. from dikein (s dik-). See GUST. desk. L discus. E desk. discoid.Origins 830 . to throw. See HARMONY. whence E dais. See GUISE in ADDENDA TO DICTIONARY. whence ML desca. quoit. disherit . becomes It desco (cf OProv desc). quoit (sense adopted by E). a plate. para 3. disgust . Diskos has derivative diskoeidēs. Dish comes from OE disc. dish (n hence v). platter. disk. disharmonious . 2. whence E discoid. discus. See HEIR. disk. 1. canopy). desk. dishevelled . dais. para 3. to throw. quoit-like (or -shaped). table (EF-F dais. from L discus. L discus also becomes OF-MF deis. IE r *dik-.

disinclination .f. disinfection. See INFECT. disinherit . para 2. See HONOR. See CAPILLARY. s. disinfectant. para 3. See CLIME. -ment. disinclined. 831 dishonest . disinfect . para 2. See HONEST. disillusion . See ILLUSION. dishonesty. dishono(u)r . para 10.A-Z .

See JOIN. see TERRA.f. disjunct. s.Origins . Cf inter. disinter . disinterest . See INTEGER. -ive. -ion. 832 disintegrate . See INTEREST. resp paras 17 and 14. dislike . disjoint . disk . disintegration. See HEIR. See DISH. para 4. -ure.

833 dislocate . See MANTLE. See LEGAL. dislodge . disloyal .A-Z . dismantle . dislocation. para 7. See LODGE. para 2. para 3.f. dismay . See LIKE. See DIANA. dismal . para 4. s. See LOCAL. disloyalty.

See MISSION. disobedience . 834 dismember . See the 2nd MAY. para 2. -ment See MEMBER. See AUDIBLE. para 7. para 8. dismount . etc. disoblige. See MINATORY.Origins . disobey. disorder . para 10. See LIGAMENT. para 10. para 3. -al. disobligation . disobedient. dismiss .

disorderly. disparate : L disparātus. -ment. to separate: dis-. disorientate. See ORIENT. disorganization. apart +parāre. para 3. See ORDER. disown . -ation. pp of disparāre. 835 disorganize . disparity . para 3. Cf PREPARE. disorient . See OWN. para 7.A-Z . to make ready. para 4. disparage . See ORGAN. See PAIR.

dispend . See PACT. despatch. dispensation. dispense. dispenser. dispel . dispensary. See PEND. 836 dispassionate . dispensatory. See PATIENCE. para 17. s. para 19.Origins . para 9. Cf the L par. para 5. dispendious. dispersal . para 3.f. See the 2nd PULSE. dispensable . See PEND. equal and see PAIR. dispatch .

displace . 837 dispirited . para 8. displeasure. dispone . -ment. See SPIRIT. dispersi n. See PLANE. See PLEASE. See PLEASE. para 14. See SPARSE. para 10.A-Z . para 10. displease . displacency . disperse. display . para 4. See PLY.

disproof . dispossess. para 3. dispose. 838 disport . See PROVE. para 8. para 2. Cf sport. dispraise . disproportionate. disposition. para 9. See PRICE. disposal . para 25. See PART. See POSE. disprove . disponent. para 9.Origins . see the 3rd PORT. para 6. disproportion . See POSE. See POSSESS.

A-Z . Cf regard al WARD. para 3. para 9. disqualify. disqualification . see QUERY. disputant. 839 disputable . para 7. disquisition . See QUALE (heading). See PROVE. disregard . disrobe . disquiet . See QUIET. para 8. See the 2nd COUNT. Cf inquisition and requisition. disputation. dispute.

dissension . disruption. dissemination.Origins . para 2. s. dissatisfy (whence pa dissatisfied). See SAME. See RUPTURE. See the 2nd SAW. para 3. disseminate . dissemble . 840 disrupt . dissect .f. See the 2nd SAW. dissembler. para 5. para 12. para 10. dissection. para 6. disruptive. dissatisfaction . See ROBE. See SAD.

para 10. See SIT. disservice . See SERVE. dissimilate . dissenter. para 8. See SERIES. para 13.f. dissert . s. dissident.A-Z 841 . dissimilar . para 9. para 5. dissertate. dissidence . para 16. See SAME. dissentious. -ity. dissent (v hence n). dissentient. dissertation. See PARE. dissever . See SENSE.

dissipation. Lith supii. See SOCIABLE. whence ‘to dissipate’. dissimilation. dissipator. to disperse. dissolution. dissociation.Origins . dissolve. dissonous. dissolute. 842 dissimilitude . var *supāre. apart. See SONABLE. para 5. See SAME. consists of dis-. scatter. to throw. dissociate . he throws. o/s dissipation-. akin to OSI rasypati. dissoluble . Skt . to scatter. dissipative. to throw on this side and that. prob. dissonance . para 6. L dissipāre. and also. See SAME. etc. dissipative is an E an! formation in -ive. dissipate . Dissipāre has pp dissipātus. whence pa dissipated. to rock (a cradle). dissonant. See LOSE. yields—perh via MFF—dissipation. siipti. para 6. and LL dissipātor is adopted. derivative LL dissipātiō. para 6. and *sipāre. .

see SUAVE.f. -syllabic. dissuasion. para 24. distain . See STAIN. dissuasive. para 24. . distant. dissyllable . para 3. distaff . Cf persuade. para 1. s. distance (n hence v).A-Z 843 dissuade . See STAND. para 4. distal . See STAFF. para 2. See STAND. See SYLLABLE.

para 10. distasteful. distemper . See the 3rd STILL. see TACT. distich . distention. See the 3rd STY. See TEMPER. distinguish. distinctive. distinct . para 9. para 6. Cf tasfe. distinction. See TEND. See STICK. distiller. para 5. para 2. distillation. distil(l) . . distend .Origins 844 distaste . distiilery.

distributor. distraught. distrain . distortion. See TORT. para 9. distress . distribution. See the 2nd STRAIN.A-Z 845 distort . distract . distribute . distrait . para 8. distraint. see TRACT. para 14. distributive. para 7. See TRACT. Cf stress. para 8. para 14. see the 2nd STRAIN. See TRIBUTE. Cf distract. . distraction.

-ance. Cf pertwb(-ation). See TRUE. disuse . para 9. disunite. para 9. See USE. s. para 9. para 3.f. para 5. distrust . para 4. see TURBID. disutility . Cf strict and see the 2nd STRAIN. disturb . See ONE.Origins 846 district . disunion . See USE. .

n and v: of E dial origin. an epithet of. Bacchus. hence lyric poetry honouring. a Bacchic hymn.A-Z 847 ditch .o. para 2. hence intensely +thriambos. itself perh for *triambos. adj of dithurambos. a choral dance in triple (tri-) time.f. trln of Gr dithurambikos. the E dithyramb. with an *-ambos identical with that of IAMBIC: Boisacq thinks dithurambos to be a loan-word. para 5. dithurambos is perh for *dithriambos: di-. doubly. ditto . dither . app echoic: cf the dial diddle at DIDDLE. but whence? Perh cf the Hit dingirmes. via L. The o. a god. See DICT. whence. ditty . See DIG. dithyrambic : L dithyrambicus.o. See DICT. s. . gods.

divagation. itself taut from Queensland aborigines’ dilli. improb from Aus dilly bag. para 7.Origins 848 ditty (bag or box): prob from obs dutty. para 8. a bag made of rushes. diuretic . s. diva . a coarse brown calico. para 4. divan . itself prob from Hi dhot. a loincloth. diurnal . divagate . See VAGABOND.f. para 1. See DIANA.) See also MODAL. See URINE. See DIANA. para 12. (EW.

divergent. See VACILLATE. the sense ‘large. diversity. cushions serve as seats. para 15. through EF-F. hence an account.A-Z 849 . unbacked couch’ has app come to E. Ar dīwan has the further sense ‘customs office or house’. to sink: akin to ON dūfa. diversify. douanier. MLG düven—and to E DIP. var duven: OE dūfan (vi). diversion. v (hence n)—whence diver—comes from ME diven. para 8. whence the EF-F agent douanier. divers (adj). divergence. from Eg Ar. diwan. See VERSE. low. para 3. whence MF-F douane. to dive or dip. the 2nd the earlier Ar from Per diwan. book. a many-leaved. where earliest recorded: among Persians and Arabs. See the 3rd VERGE. divert . diverge . divarication. diverse. The 1st=Tu divān. whence OIt doana (It dogana). . douane. divaricate . dive . derivatively a governing deliberative body. (vt).

yields MF-F. 850 divest . to separate. division. whence divider. o/s division-.: WIDOW). 2. ML divīsus. The ML dividere becomes ME dividen (var de-). the E dividend. uiduits. yields. itself app di. something to be divided. an -ālis (E -al) mdfn of L indiuiduus (ML -viduus). perh via EF-F dividende. 3. On diuīs-. Derivative dividendum (L diui-). from diuidere. See VEST. divertisement. whence. a widow (f. See VERSE. deprived.Origins . LL diuīsibilis. n. divisible . para 1.e. the E division. ML divīsor. s of pp diuīsus. division. via OF-F. individualist. individuality. not+ diuiduus. para 3. divisible. a widower. para 3. See DIVIDE. The last four terms derive from the adj individual. ML divī-. divide (v hence n). 1. . individualize. whence ‘to divide’. divinity. divine (adj. arise diuīsiō. hence as n. apart+*uidere. para 15. dividend. whence E. to deprive. individualism. divisor. divisible (indivisible). See DIANA. ML division-.a. divination . v). and uidua. indivisible: in-. divisor.— individual (adj hence n). ML -videre. disjoin. divisible. perh akin to uiduits (ML viduus). is adopted by E. to divide. yet owe something to the corresp F terms. ML divīs-. the neg indivisible deriving from the ML form of LL indiuīsibilis. L diuīsor. Individual (cf the EF-F individuel) comes from ML individuals.for dis-.

dixy: Hind degcī (var degcā). L diuortium. is the f of the F pp divorcé. See VELLICATE. to divert. divulgation. See VULGAR. divulgence.e. ‘To divorce’ comes from MF divorcer. diwan . with IE r *dek-. divulgate . Att dekhomai (s dekh-). MF-F divorcer derives from MF-F divorce. divorcee.for dis-). a pot or kettle. . to divorce: f. dixey . to turn (uertere) apart (di. I receive. from diuortere. divulsion. adopted by E: ML divortium. para 6.A-Z 851 divorce . divulse . See DIVAN. prob lit ‘receptacle’—cf Gr dekomai (s dek-). var of diuertere. divulge. dixie. divorcee. adj used as n. VERSATILE.a..

to make. and to G Tor. Cf the sep epithet and theme. less closely. put). OS duan.e. ‘(something) to be done’.. to do. sem. the E ‘to do’: cf to-do. and. MHG dusec. Gmc r *dus-. lay. to open. doon. ON dāth). to put or place. pp done. put up (the latch). Tokh A tā-. dēde. dizziness . and the now dial dup=do up. Skt dádhāmi. don. OHG dusīg. G tun. ‘To undo’ comes from OE undon (un+dōn. foolish. to do. OS dād.(cf OFris dēd. Lith dēt. dup. to perform. do—put—off. set. pt did. foolish. dizzy. akin also to OE . duen. place. from ‘something to do’. to lay eggs. OHG-MHG tuon. The adv indeed=in deed. don. MD duiselen. OHG tat. Doff=do off. giddy: akin to OFris dusia. to place or put. LG duselig. 1. complementary to doff. MD doen (extant). itself from OE dysig. affair (F à faire). OE dōn is akin to OFris dūa. disi. I place. IE r *dhē-. to be or become dizzy. fool. (often narrowed to) to place or put. set. through ME don. a fool. later do. See STAFF. deaf person. var *dauz. and ado. Dobbin . intimately akin to OE dōn. whence dizzy. to be or feel dizzy. doff. 3. folly. to do. para 3. D duizelen. to put. OSI dēti. presp doing used also as vn. I have made. whence ME dusi. 2. in (proved) fact: and deed comes from OE dēd . tuslg. to lay. establish. foolish. L fēci (fē.) do . i. to do.Origins 852 dizen . Skt daior te-. undo.for *dhē-). and. foolish. fuss. to be done. The former derives from OE dysigness (suffix -ness). deed—indeed. do—put—on. don=do on. whence. MHG tore. Gr tithēmi. (Walshe. contr of ME (N form) at do. duselen. donne. silly.

akin to OFris dōk. to warn. derivative F documentaire becomes E documentary. documentary (adj hence n). via late MF-F docilité. tr mat ion-. with s doct-.and esp *dok-. with varr *dak. a weed: OE docce. a teacher. whence. the derivative LL adj doctrīnālis yields OF-F. I believe. used in modern sense only since ca 1800 and duly adopted by E. whence E. 853 docile . acc docilitātem. 1. to teach. a leaf). esp in medicine—adopted by E. akin to G Dockenblatter (G Blatt. doctrinal. hence a learned person. para 4. o/s doctrīnātiōn-. with derivative adj doctoral (-at). doctoral. from docilis. in the modern sense. discipline. documentation. to learn. *dek-. derivative LL documentāre. akin to L discere (s disc-). and Gr didaskein (s didask-. Docility has come. and . the E doctrine’. See ROBERT. derivative ML doctorātus (gen -us) yields E doctorate and EF-F doctoral. doctrine. OF-F doctrine has MF-F adj doctrinaire. from L docilitās. via late MF-F. and pern Gr dokeō (s dok-). OL documen. reasonably derivable from E and F document. OHG blat. dock (1). adopted by E as adj (merely theoretical. the E docile—itself from docēre (s doc-). yet dogmatic) and n. doctrinaire— indoctrinate. has subsidiary ML documentātiō (o/s documentātiōn-). whence OF-F document. a teaching or lesson. used int+ML doctrīnāre. upon which arise: doctor. red up of r *dask-). ‘to indoctrinate’ and indoctrination derive resp from in-. teachable. a warning. IE r. and from int in-+ derivative doctrīnātiō. doctrīna (pern imm from doctor). doctorate. disciple. to teach or instruct (itself from doctrīna). docility.A-Z . doctor (n hence v). Docēre has pp doctus (used also as adj for ‘erudite’). form-adopted in E and F documentation but. a bundle. whence L documentum. document (n hence v). doctrinal. 2. the stump or solid part of an animal’s tail: ME dok. sep didactic. to teach. and prob to: dock (2). via OF-F. the former perh suggested by OF-F endoctriner. indoctrination. willing to be taught—whence.

n hence v.o. a cask-stave (o. doctorate. . a dim of doga. an abridgement. para 2 at doctrina. derives it. vi and vt ‘to dock’. doctor . Hence.o. doctrine.o. hutch: ? akin to prec.). then an artificial. EW. Hence ‘to dock’. (Her) bendlet. a summary. as Kluge proposes. inlet or hollow for receiving vessels under repair: MD (and MLG) docke. doctrinaire . via the earlier doggette. para 2.. of a ship. a natural. cage. dock (4). doctrinal. See DOCILE. in law-court: Flem dok or docke. See DOCILE. to lead. whence docker. is often declared to be o. from dūcere. 854 dock (3). however. an enclosure. docket . Sw docka (1698): ? from a late VL *ductia.Origins MLG docke. to curtail. from EIt doghetta.o.

to dodge. heifer. doe : ME dou. to bow. dodge . to dive: cf therefore DUCK. MHG toter (OHG totoro). -ary. the C r being *dom-. flightless. perh of C origin: cf OIr dam. See DOCILE. Cor da. orig a freq of tauchen. yolk of egg: perh akin to E dot (1). dodo : Port dodó. young steer. do: OE dā. hence a person blissfully and entirely unaware of change in the world about him. . v (whence dodger) hence n (whence dodgy. whence si ‘dangerous’): perh (EW) akin to MHG tucken. G Dotter. and damalis. now extinct bird. cf also Gr damalēs. Gr damaō. tricky. perh ult akin to L domō. yellow-stemmed.A-Z 855 document . ox. parasitic plant): ME doder: akin to MLG doder or dodder. fallow deer. E TAME. para 2 at documen. I subdue. doudo. G ducken (obs docken). dodder (leafless. -ation. damalē. to duck (down). evasive. to tame. cf the Sp dido: a heavy. (a) silly (bird).

o. See DUKE. See DOG. doggerel : ME dogerel: prob. with familiar suffix -o. doge .Origins 856 doff . dog (n hence v and the adj doggy): late OE docga: o. . para 1. See DO. E itself.o. para 3. doggo . but prob echoic: cf the cant bufe and buffer (Sc cant bugher) and the mastiff’s woof! woof! ‘To lie doggo’: from a dog pretending to be asleep. a cask-stave.. D. The adj dogged refers to bulldogs and mastiffs. Prov. as EW suggests with several convincing parallels in G. from L doga.

esp in religion. whence E doxology. IE r *dek-. Dogma. whence MFF dogmatiser and E dogmatize. as in L decet. 2. whence E orthodox. dogmatist. doily . adopted from L. motherless calf in a range herd. pet-form of DOG. whence LL orthodoxus. becomes E dogmatism. 3. whence the n doxologia.: perh a blend of dobie (later-recorded in this sense)+doggie. of another (heteros) opinion. orthodoxy. opinion. heterodoxy.A-Z 857 doggone (it)!: AE euphem for God damn (it)! dogie (AE). it seems). whence E dogmatic. it seems good or is fitting. is the Gr dogma (o/s dogmat-). becomes dogmatist. becoming. Gr dogmatistēs. contrary-thinking. (esp of cattle) an inferior animal: o. derivative Gr dogmatismos. LL dogmatismus. 1. glory. dogma . hence prob) E paradox. orthodox and heterodox. From doxa derive the cpd adjj heterodoxos. God). whence—after orthodoxy—heterodoxy. with neu paradoxon used as n. and paradoxos. with s dok-. to believe (dokei. in L Gr. LL dogmatistes. from dokein.o.o. paradox. whence (late MF-F paradoxe. praise. of right (orthos) or true opinion. doxology. dogmatize. Gr dokein has the further derivative n doxa (for *doksa). adopted by ML. praising (esp. The Gr adj dogmatikos becomes LL dogmaticus. with adjj paradoxal (L paradox us: -al substituted for -ous) and paradoxical (-ical). whence E heterodox. and orthodoxos. dogmatic (whence the n dogmatics—cf apologetics from apologetic). Gr derivative orthodoxia yielding orthodoxy. Gr dogmatizein becomes LL dogmatizāre. dogmatism. with cpd adj doxologos (cf LOGIC).

prop a dim. para 2. whence doleful. doldrums . Dolly is a further familiarization. . para 3.) doit . dole . London. grief (obs). See BULL. See WHITTLE. the E shape of Dorothea. See 1st DEAL. whence doll. its adj is dolly. Doll is a pet-form of Dorothy.Origins 858 : Doily. gift (dōron) of God (Theos: cf THEISM). see DOLOR. from L Gr Dōrothea. whence dolly. Cf condole. dole (2). a C17 draper in the Strand. Doll . a share. (Prob anglicized from F surname Doillet. Dolly. of Doll.

long. var of taol. whence doleful. condolence. menhir. to suffer. varr dolour. dolmen . via VL dolus. from L dolor. dolphin . dolor (AE) or dolour. from dolēre. a table-fme/i. Dolores. var of mean or maen. Mary of the Sorrows. Dolores derives from Sp Maria de los Dolores (as in L. itself. the pi of dolor). whence ‘to condole’. para 2. Dolmen. Dolo(u)r derives from OF-MF dolor. Dolēre has the LL cpd condolēre. consists of Br men+hir. consists of Br tol. a stone. See DELPHINIUM. dolur.A-Z 859 dollar . from L dolēre. menhir. grief. dolt . grief. condole. 1. and these etymologies truly describe. adopted from F. See DALE. para 2.—dole. with (con). dolorous. pain. 2. now dial. likewise adopted from F. to suffer. the n dole comes from MF-F dol. hence to grieve. Dolēre becomes E ‘to dole’. the derivative LL adj dolorōsus yields dolorous. whence—cf the late MF-F condoléance—condolence.

the E domestic. sep danger (endanger). Dan. Madonna. house. domesticity. to reside in.and *dom-: cf Gr domos and Skt dámas. the IE r is app *dem-. and perh Gr demein (s dem-). dangerous. the domesticus-derivative ML domesticāre.Origins 860 . to DULL. q. dome . para 6. Dom (title: cf Dan and Don). damozel. Dona. domain. dome. domination—whence predominant. dauntless. predomination. whence domestication. Donna. domino. cf also Gr despotēs (for demspotēs). madam. para 1. domestic . pp of dullen. domesticate. sep demoiselle (and mademoiselle). damsel—madame. See DOOM. dame. to build. Domesday Book.v. L domus has adj domesticus (cf rusticus from rus). derivative LL domesticitās yields domesticity (cf the late EFF domesticité). 3. has pp domesticātus. See DOMESTIC. predominate. whence doltish (-ish. Don. dominion (and condominium). Domus has mdfn domicilium (‘more abstract than domus’: E & M)—whence MF-F. with varr *dam. domicile. dominant. sep dam.f. 1. dominical. perh via F. dominate. a house. . perh derives from ME dold. 2. sep daunt. whence ‘to domesticate’. perh cf indomitable. whence MF-F domestique and. var dult. adj). Dome comes from L domus (s dom-). demesne. Dominus. certainly cf DESPOT. Dominican. dominie. domiciliary. s. See para 1 of DOMESTIC. at TAME. Dom. Domina. domineer.

A-Z 861 hence E. o/s dominātiōn-. the derivative dominātiō. para 5. 4. s domināt-. ult. LL Dominus is the Lord God: the lord. perh prompted by EF-F domicilier. hence dominance. In OFMF. its pp dominātus. whence. whence— perh via OF-F—the E dominant. adopted from AF (s silent) demesne. yields ‘to dominate’. domina becomes It donna. joint rights over a territory. The voc domine becomes Sc and E dominie. -domination. becomes MF-F domaine. dominium becomes dominiō. See prec. n. supreme power. On the s domin. with presp dominans. ‘to domicile’. from Dominicus the founder. domicile. prob via F. to dominate. domicile . o/s dominant-. and Sp doña and dueña (whence E duenna. (the ML cpd praedominium. the derivative ML adj domiciliārius yields both domiciliar and domiciliary. -dominate. The master of the domus or house is naturally dominus. yields—perh via OF—the E domination. to be master of. hence a hooded masquerade costume with a small mask. hence a small mask.) domināri becomes OF-F dominer becomes D domineren. 5. domina. See DOMESTIC. and the dat or abl domino becomes the F. o/s dominiōn-. the E dominion. domino. from L dominicus (as in para 4). however. Madonna. pern ref the black spots. may have suggested the E formations predominant. L dominium. whence E domain—contrast demesne. the coll academic sense) and Port dom. the latter form surviving in archaic Dan (Chaucer). schoolmaster. in ML. whence. The adj dominicus leads to the PN Dominic. my lady. as if from *dominantia. orig the Queen of Spain’s chief lady-in-waiting). the mistress. its LL extn dominicālis produces dominical. for OF-MF demeine. hence E. adopted by ME.arise also: domināri. Our Lady. dominus takes the form danz (nom) or dan (acc). para 3. explains the adj hence n Dominican. dominium. domination.—but both of these F words were influenced by ML domānium. L dominus becomes Sp don (whence. whence ‘to domineer’. . a kind of monastic hood. cf its modern cpd condominium. hence a piece in the game of dominoes. the further extn ML Dominicānus. dominate . survives in Law. right of property (orig the master’s). 6. adj hence. etc. whence madonna. esp in Mus.

para 4. donator. pardon (n and v). don . condone. para 6. para 4. donatory. para 1. donation. cf ON. v. n. donative. don . See DOMESTIC. See DO. See DOMESTIC. pardonable. domino . donate .Origins 862 dominie . . condonation. para 2. See DOMESTIC. pardoner. dominion . para 5. See DOMESTIC.

adopted by E. do. 4th edition.g. LL perdonāre (int per-. to forgive. becomes also the MF doneor. dicky. On the pps donāt. whence donāre (s don-). Don Quixote. a giving. See JOHN. 2. Cervantes’s book having appeared in Shelton’s translation in 1612–20. 1742. has derivative donum (s don-). The cpd condonāre (int con-. (EW. 8th edition. para 1. Don Quixote was. lit ‘together'). hence the LL n donātīuum. donkey : ? dun (-coloured)+ dim -key (cf monkey). whence the E adj donative. to make a gift of. ML -īvus. in short. I give (cf DATA). neddy. adj. and in Smollett’s in 1755. in Jarvis’s. adj. the E donation’. 1749. in Motteux’s (1710–12). MF pardonier (from pardoner) yields the medieval pardoner. with pp donātus. revised by John Stevens in 1700. ML īvum. ? a nickname (Dominic or Duncan) like the syn cuddy. a sin). whence. donātor (-or). and revised by Ozell. whence E donor. donjon . to give. . o/s donātiōn-. See DUNG. 1782. ML donātōrius. prob via MF-F. a gift.arise: donātiō. pardonable derives either from ‘to pardon’ or from OF-F pardonnable. familiar to the C18. o/s condonātiōn-. 3. yields ‘to condone’. 1785. whence the E legal n donatory. whence ‘to donate’. donātīuus. whence the E n donative. the OF-F n pardon (from pardoner) is adopted by E. 1766. whence ‘to pardon’. Don Juan .) Unrecorded before Grose. L dare. yields condonation.A-Z 863 1. 5th edition. it might possibly derive from that egregious ass.. 1766. to give up or remit (e. lit ‘through’) becomes OF-MF pardoner. derivative condonātiō.

ME demen. donor . See DOMESTIC. whence deemster. Go dōms. n hence v.Origins 864 donna (whence the Aus si donah). whence ‘to deem’. whence ME demen. para 1. to do. to stand. to judge. in the same senses (now obs). The OE dōmes daeg. the var dempster deriving from the ME var demster (later dempster): cf the now rare EE var doomster. door . others. a verdict. 1. with var Domesday Book. to histēmi. has a -ster derivative demester. I set upright. to believe or to suppose. See DONATE. s dem-. L stare. The ancestral OE dōm. however. para 6. doomsday—Doomsday. relate OE dōm to OE dōn. ON dōmr. and perh to Gr themis. s them-. 2. hence justice. deemster and dempster. itself perh akin. with IE r *sta-. hence to have an opinion about. law. Book. ult. day of judgement. OHG tuom. to stand. yields doomsday. or Domesday. var of the n dun: see TOWN. doom . as in Doomsday Book. hence often to condemn. a judge. a law or decree. doon . is akin to OFris (and OS) dōm. Intimately akin to OE dōm is OE dēmon. deem.

dormant . to sleep. then elliptically a dormer (window). 3. whence E dormer. IE r. could=F dormir+E mouse or. akin also to OSI dvǐri. whence the E adj dormant-. gate. *dhur-. OF-F dormir has agent dormeur (C14). more prob. Cf FOREIGN (where also forensic and forum). the -m of dormīre represents -em. indoors. Lith dùrys—to OIr dorus. OS dora. var duru. a fundamental suffix connoting present time: akin to OSI dremati. adj of Dōrios. which. the E formation dormitive (perh via F dormitif). pi dvāres. whence perh. outdoors=out (in archaic sense of out of) doors. dormitive. E dial dorm (from F dormir). orig a bedroom or a dormitory. soporific. the syn MD slaepmuus or -mays. from OE dor (var duru): akin to OFris dore. See DIP. dope . with var *dhwer-. The L dormīre (s dorm-). lethargic. Cf. MHG tur. dormitōrium becomes OF dormeor. and Skt (Ve drāti). OHG turi. C r *dor—to L for is (f from dh). para 2. Homeric edrathon). inside the house. has r *dor-. then a bedroom window. outdoors. Gr darthanein (formed upon the aorist edarthen. whence the E dormitory. by anl. On dormit-. through ME dore (var dure). Door itself comes. whence the adj dopey or dopy. a Doric Greek. to sleep. var dure. dormer. to sleep or doze+mouse. dormitory (whence the coll dorm). with neu dormitōrium used (LL-ML) as n. dormouse. and. the s of the pp dormitus. Dormīre becomes OF dormir. by f/e. he sleeps. 1. Doric : L Doricus: Gr Dōrikos.A-Z 865 . of or for sleeping. cf the syn Go daúr). Br and W dor (from *dora). outside the house. 2. pl fores—to Gr thura -to Skt dvār. arise both the L dormitōrius. sem. a var of IE r *der-. however. 4. . ON dyrr. with derivative adjj in -door. G Tür or Türe (intimately akin to G Tor. Indoors=in (sense of within) doors. with presp dormant. MHG-OHG tor. f dormeuse. the E dormouse.

gold: f. asleep. whence ‘to doss’.or *wer. pp of OF-F dorer.e. the adj of dorsum. the back.a. var of *dēuersum. short for *dēuorsum. perh for *dēorsum. in turn. AUREATE. redup of r *don-. prob via MF-F. a bed. adopted from Gr: lit ‘action of giving (sc medicine)’. 3.. so named from being described on the back. the back: the complement to parapet. a bundle of papers concerning a certain. person. dory (fish): F doré. the latter ML indorsāre. likewise adopted from EF-F (whence so many E military terms. Dorsum becomes OFF dos. in the game. hence. to gild. s dors-. ‘To endorse or indorse’ represents. against +dos. s uert-.Origins 866 dormy or dormie (in golf): ? F dormi. from didonai. 4. in+dos. dose . 2. safely asleep: pp of dormir. as in uersus. from L dorsālis. down+uers. 1. to turn. in para 3 of prec. the breast (L pectus). to put on (in) the back (dorsum). from aurum. esp of fortification). which. to give. to . whence prob the si doss. But parados is adopted from IF: para-. gilded. dosage: suffix -age): late MF-F dose: ML dosis. itself=en. and the former a blend of the ML word-f OF-F endosser (ME endossen). Also from OF dos comes MF-F dossier.v. q. n hence v (whence. back +euphonic s-f inf -er. Hence endorsement. dorsal . with prefix dē-. itself from LL dēaurāre: int dē-+aurāre. to protect+petto. comes from It parapetto: parare. r *uer. cf the element dorsi-. usu suspect. doss. to turn. pp of uertere. Dorsal comes.

woman’s marriage-portion. o/s of dos. dot (2). r of donum. . and D tot.. and MHG tūzen.a. dotage derives. var dotien. to give: f. akin to MD doten. s. esp a dot: from do-. a gift. to be foolish. cf also OHG tutta. dossier . nipple. 867 doss . para 1.f.A-Z give (cf L donāre). a small point. knot. to stop up. a small piece. to plug. by suffix -age. to be or keep still. to doze. dottle. is adopted from MF-F: L dot-. See DORSAL. DATA. from ‘to dote’. para 2.e. residue of (tobacco and) ash in a pipe bowl: OE dott: akin to OE dyttan. as dim. itself from dare. whence ‘to dote (up)on’: ME doten. whence the v ‘to dot’ and prob. dot (1). See DORSAL. to become childish. to act foolishly.

to be in two minds. s. See the 1st DOT. from OF-F doute. 2. doubtful. para 12. whence E dubious. OF-F douter (duter) becomes ME douten (duten). 3. in doubt. double . See PLY. from L dubitāre. adj (whence n) and v. redoubtable. douane . survives in the L var dubius.f. via ME doute (var date). L dubitāre is a freq of the rare dubāre.Origins 868 dottle . the derivative LL dubietās. whence dubium. doublet. dubitable (indubitable). Derivative dubitābilis and its neg indubitābilis yield E dubitable. dubious. indubitable. dubiety. with its own adj dubiōsus. prob from an adj *dubus (duo. to doubt. para 23. whence ‘to doubt’. *Dubus. n. doubt (n and v). two+ formative-b-+nom -us). See DIVAN. of two minds. comes. See TEND. Doubtful=doubt. doubloon. 1. n+-ful: and doubt. douanier. double-entendre . o/s . itself from OF-F douter (OF var duter). doubt.

a. var of redoubter. pp of dūcere. and Skt dehmi. fit. Go daigs (cf deigan. from OE dāh. Redoubtable derives from ME redouiable. to be of use—fit. from L ductiōn-. See DULCET. The E redoubt. adopted from EF-F. akin to OHG(-G) teig. thinganein. to handle (s thingan-. a re. to dread. carlier dyhtig. and app also to Gr teukhein (s tcukh-). douce .A-Z 869 dubietāt-. from ductus. to knead. with n infix). a wall. doughty : ME douhhti. o/s of ductiō. Both dough and duff come from ME dogh. the OF word derives from OF-F redouter. Cf therefore FEIGN. ON duga. n (whence the v).. douche . strong—capable. from doccia. OHG tugan (G taugen). to fear (‘doubt back at’). The coll doughboy. 2. *dheig-. capable. to shape). to lead: f. r thing-. douceur. and L fingere (with n infix). to make ready. waterpipe.e. a leading or conducting. IE r. from ML redubitare. dohti. 1. duhti: late OE dohtig. . akin to MHG tuhtec. duff. G tüchtig. cf the Gr teikhos. adopted from OF-F. leads to dubiety. 4. OFris duga. an A infantryman. dough (whence the adj doughy). also to OE dugan. Go dugan. ON deig: IE r. from docciare. comes from syn It doccia.cpd of L dubitāre. combines dough+boy: he formerly had to eat so much doughy food. to form. dāg. as in plum duff. is obs. to pour. *dheugh-. DUKE. from doccione. conduit. I smear.

of Gmc origin: cf OS *dūba. MF-F douer has MF cpd endouer (en. endowment (suffix -ment) is adopted from AF endow(e)ment. Ir dubh. whence dowry. a much later sense following naturally from ‘to strike’: ? from LG—cf the archaic doesen. from dos. endow.for L in. dowse. from L dotāre. prob also to OIr dub. water by using the divining rod’. whence both E dower (n whence v) and obs E dowery. itself from MF-F douer. hence to find. OHG tūba. Dowager comes from late MF douagiere. whence MF douaire. o/s dot-: cf the 2nd DOT. douage. woman’s marriageportion. into). Go -dubo. endowment. Dotāre has the ML derivative dotārium.Origins 870 dour . para 2. OF doer. MHG tūbe. marriage-portion. whence ‘to endow’. duve. the latter (whence dowser and dowsing rod) for ‘to strike. dark-coloured. 2. n (anything shaped like a dove’s tail). G Taube. dowry. the former usu for ‘to strike. agent from MF doage. ON dūfa. to make a gift of. as EW suggests. MF endowment.) douse . dower. duve. (Cf douce at DULCET. extinguish’. OE dūfe. lower hastily. dove —hence dovetail. to strike. esp as a marriageportion. hence v—derives from ME dove. and pern to DEAF. . in. 1. dowager . See DURABLE. earlier douve.

an ill-dressed or slovenly woman: ME doude: o. via MF-F. adune. downright . seashore.o. Hence downy (adj -y). hence soft. representing OE of dūne.A-Z 871 dowdy : adj (-y) from EE dowd. dower . down (2). later an upland (cf South Down): and OE dūn is akin to MD and MLG dune—whence. See REX. adv (whence the adj and prep. soft. para 3. in turn. down (1). esp a hillock of sand. ME adun. fluffy feathers.o. from off the dūn or hill. See DOWAGER.—perh cf DEED. earlier doun: ON dūnn: prob cf DUSK and perh cf DUST. orig hill. dune. the E down. the E dune—and perh to Skt dhanvan. . whence. the v) and n. short hair: ME downe. through ME dun. The adv down is aphetic for adown. whence. dry land. later doun.

dowser. via ME dosein(e). whence dozenth. v hence n: of Scan origin: perh ult from ON dusa. See DOGMA. dowsing rod. dowse . See DEAN.Origins 872 dowry . para 2. doze . to doze. doyen . doxology . See DOWAGER. See DOUSE. to be or feel dizzy. itself prob akin to OFris dusia. comes. and therefore to DIZZY. from OF-MF doseine (EF-F douzaine): . dozen .

See DRIVEL. The MF-F draper has two important MF-F derivatives: the agent drapier. . to cut into pieces. a thing broken. trappings. adopted by E. Duodecim has adj duodccimus. hence a piece (esp of cloth) from *drap. lit ‘in twelfth’. See DRAM. whence ME trappen. usu pl traps. to break: cf W drab. influenced by decimal (cf DECEMBER. whence (in) duodecimo. -en: OF-F douze deriving from L duodecim. woman: OF-F drap. drachm . 2+decem. a piece cut off or torn off. Draponus. E -ain. hence the adj (‘so coloured. personal belongings.o. and the collective draperie. 12+suffix -aine. whence also duodecimal. torn. and drabio. OF-F drap has MF-F derivative draper. 12: duo. an ornamented horse-cloth. trade in) cloth or woollens in general. draff . whence the syn obsol E ‘to trap’. Drappus. o. E & M cf such PNN as Drappo. now usu pi trappings. notably for E. both meaning ‘a rag’: from a confusion of the OF. 2. the obs trap. a slatternly. an ornamented cloth-covering for a horse. whence the coll E traps. to caparison. with vn trapping. a dull brownish or yellowish woollen cloth. come ME trappe and trappure. 3. Sp words with the MF derivative drapure. or a loose. It. whence the AF draper. para 1). whence E drapery. LL drappus becomes besides OF-F drap. by b/f. from trapping influenced by obsol ‘to trap’ comes. whence ‘to drape’: and this E v and that F n confusedly combine to form ‘a drape’. esp in senses ‘gay clothes and ornaments. cloth: LL drappus. (manufacture of. an ornamental horsecloth. 10.o. monotonously dull’) and perh the n drab. divided.—but perh (Malvezin) for OC *drappos. drab . the It drappo and. the Sp trapo. mere outward signs’.A-Z 873 douze.

in late C16. terrible eyes: cf the Gr drakein (s drak-). in ML. with metathesis *drek-. a rankling’. drag . Dracō has dim dracunculus (cf homunculus from homo). whence ‘to rankle’. derkesthai (s derk-). 3. eye—cf the syn OIr derc. para 5. comes from L dracō (o/s dracōn-). and drakos. adopted in the derivative OF-MF draoncle. itself from Gr drakōn (gen drakontos. cannon. rankle. to glance or look. *derk-. whence ‘a rankle. whence. para 4. See DRAW. 2. whence rancler (OF-MF draoncler). dragon. whence. IE r. See DRAW. which. See DRAW. . however. hence to fester in the mind. s drak-). The L acc dracōnem yields OF-F dragon.Origins 874 draft . para 5. ‘cavalryman’— whence the E dragoon—from fighting under the dragon (C13 onwards) or battle standard. with many cpds. by aphesis. adopted from OF-F. derives from OE draco. var drak-. MF raoncle. an abscess. dragon . draggle . dragoon (n hence v). dragon. based upon similarities real or fancied. to fester. Dragon. from L dracò. battle standard. contr to rancle. to look or glance. so named because of its quickglancing. a little dragon or serpent. from L dracō's LL sense ‘military standard like a serpent’ (Souter): cf the syn E drake. 1. which takes. a fiery sore. drake. huge serpent. the derivative senses. an ulcer.

to grasp. lit a grasping. to drain: akin to DRY. The former derives from OF drame: L drachma. act. drain (v hence n). to grasp. with derivative sense ‘adderwort. to do. drachm. male duck. drastic. para 2. metathetic var of IE r *dergh-. drake (1). is of Gmc origin: pern by aphesis from MLG andrake. dramatize. OHG antrahho ‘for *ant-trahho “duckdrake”’ (Walshe). The latter is lit ‘variegated drake’: E dial sheld. Drama. sheldrake. r dra-). from dran. akin to--? from—MD schillede. is the Gr drama (s dram-.? for *drak(h)sesthai: Gr *drakh-. to do or make.A-Z 875 4. whence E dramatic. whence MF-F drachme and E drachm: Gr drakhmē. Gr drakōn. whence LL dramaticus. whence the Ar . melodramatic.f. the learned F derivatives from F drame (from LL . adopted from LL. akin to Lith daraū. variegated. drama . cf MHG antrach. snakeroof. drainage: OE drēhnian. drama-turgy—melodrama. has dim drakontion. darýti. drake (2). which becomes Sp taragona whence the E tarragon. dramatist. a dragon. antreche. var drēahnian. hence a handful: from drassesthai. s. From the sense ‘measure’ derives that of ‘liquid measure’. dram. See DRAGON. whence. Drake. ME drake. Gr drama has adj dramatikos. dramatic. make. by suffix -age. a herb allied to wormwood and used for seasoning. 1.

dramatist. See DRAW. to do. para 2. whence E drastic. drapery. dramaturgie (from the Gr dramatourgia. draughtsman. draper. para 4. from or and therefore akin to Tamil. 3. a song+drama. drastic . Dravidian and Dravidic are the adjj (hence nn) of Dravida. whence by anl the E melodramatic’. has adj drastikos. . para 2. a dramatist): whence E dramatize. Gr melos. See DRAB. a worker—cf ERG—in drama.Origins 876 drama) include dramatiser. whence E melodrama. 2. drat (it)!: euphem for God rot it! draught . itself from dramatourgos. (a native of) Southern India: Skt . drape . Another learned F formation is mélodrame. Gr dran. See DRAMA. dramatiste. dramaturgy.

A-Z 877 draw (v—with pt drew. draughts predominates. a slatternly woman. perh also to L trahere. in. For the game. TRACK. a sledge. 6. OS and (e)-. Dreadnought is a dread-nought (nothing): and ‘to dread’ comes from ME dreden.). pull. aphetic for adreden. (pp as adj) drawn. worn-down var of . whence dreadful and dreadless. TREK. ‘To drag’. take back. hence drayage (suffix -age).. drawing-room. dray (n hence v). draughty. . the freq is draggle. OE draege. to drag. to drag so as to soil with mud or moisture. OHG ant. dread . akin to OFris drega (as in para 1). usu drega. OS dragan. to draw. and OHG intrātan. and it has cpds draggletail. to run. OHG tragan. 1. hence back). akin to OS andrādan. earlier draht: from OE dragan. Go dragan. against. ‘To draw’. from the r of draw.—draft (n hence v). perh even to Gr trckhein (s trekh-). vt). Go and-. to carry. 5.or outdrawing of air. withdraw. drayage. akin to OFris and-. etc. is an in. to dread. Dray. MHGG trogen. withdrawn. to frighten. on. from OE dragan. from OE . whence drawer(s). drag. hence n). bear or carry along. bedraggled. therefore. and the int bedraggle. to pull. with adj in -y. dredge (n hence v). to draw back (vi. whence dredger and dredging. 4. n). act of withdrawing. itself from OE dragan: akin to OFris draga. pp tract us—see sep TRACE. draughts. a dragnet. and ON draga. the predominantly AE spelling of E draught. was. Drawing-room is aphetic for withdrawingroom. and prob drawl (v hence n). AE draft. earlier drahen (etc. drag (v hence n). from MD dregen. haul. draggle. is however virtually obligatory for the v: ME draught (now pron draft). of the OE is prob . 3. from OE dragan. derives from ME drawen. comes prob from the syn ON draga but perh. withdrawal. from withdraw (with. hence to change the shape of. 7. Dredge. drag. draftsman—draught. mostly in the pa bedraggled. against. by a dial deviation. in late ME-early EE. etc. the atmospheric draught. ME draggen. go back. where ondis a var of and-. v hence n (cf OFris dred). drawing. the division. pull. Draft. to carry. to draw. hence to represent in line.(var int-). draughtsman. 2. a dredge. whence withdrawal (-al. Drawl app=to draw+ (often with freq or dim force) suffix -l for -el or -le: to draw out slowly. prob derives from MD dregge.

from v. usu pl dregs: ME dreg: ON dregg: akin to OP dragios (cf DROSS). . See DRAW. para 7. See DRUDGE. gore. and OE drūsian. G trauern. Go driusan. therefore ult to E DROP. from n. G Traum. akin to OHG truren. dreamy.Origins 878 dream . dreamless. MD droem. n hence v. to fall. (orig) bloody. joy. MHG truren. drome. ME dream. earlier dreori. dredger. prob from OE drēam. the last also means ‘(shout of) joy’. is a b/f from dreary. and to OE drēosan. dreaming. to mourn. earlier dreme. OS drōm. adj. sad. dreg . dree . blood. ME dreri. drear .) dredge . A dream. deriving in -ig from OE drēor. OHG-MHG troum. music? and certainly akin to ON draumr. droom (as in D). (Walshe. all meaning ‘dream’. and esp OFris drām. dreamer. from OE drēorig. to sink.

dressage. driest. See REX. drill (1). para 1. to supply with drink. drib . See DRIP. itself from OE drencan..e. drifter. to drench. dried . drier. derives from OE drenc. DRINK. para 8. drily. para 1. OE drencan is the caus of OE drincan. a heavy linen or cotton fabric: b/f of EE drilling. with E suffix -ing for G suffix -ich: .A-Z 879 drench . See DRIVE.a. to drink: f. n. dribble. dress . para 1. drift . See DRY. dressing.

(vt and vi) to whirl. ‘To drown’ derives from ME drounen or drunen: cf OE druncnian. to pierce or bore. . drille—the n (instrument. dribble (v hence n). drink . from ML *virāre. 2. MHG-G trinken. bore. to turn (cf VEER). n. also Go drigkan and ON drekka: ‘not found outside of Gmc’ (Walshe). ‘To drink’ comes from OE drincan: cf OS drincan. from v: drinker. LL *uirāre. drib (v hence n). and ON drukna. perh also the farming implement): MD drilen.from tres. derives from ‘to drink’. to pierce. ME trillen.). with G drei for L tri-: L trilix. 1. to turn. hence also the vn dripping). to become drunk. hence to sow seeds thus.e. pt drank. drip (v hence n). to cause to trickle.. drinking. from pa drunk: drunkard (pej suffix -ard). MD-D drillen. the farming implement: perh from drill. itself perh from trill. drill (3). from L uibrāre. to roll. three-threaded (fabric): tri. to drill (soldiers): akin to MHG drillen. to turn. military exercise. drop (n and v). VIBRATE. a warp-thread. to be drowned. to turn about or around. OHG trinchan. from licium. to exercise soldiers (et al. OHG drilīh. to be drowned. OProv virar. vt to turn or twirl. app by blending the earlier veīlle with virer.Origins 880 G Drillich. of Scan origin but akin to OF-F virer. vi to trickle. hence—cf MD dril. f. OFris drinka. a gimlet. drill (2). akin to drunken: drown. 3+-lix. whence vn drowning.a. cf also the F vrille. pp drunk (OE druncen) and (now only pa) drunken (OE druncen). droop (v hence n). sep drench.

which is perh a freq. OHG triofan. drift (n hence v)— adrift. sad. 3. OE drīfan has derivative n drāf. dewdrop. Adrift=a. things but esp cattle collected for driving. through ME drevelen. lit a driving or a being driven (persons. OS drīban. Derivative is the ME n drift. OS driopan. D druipen. pt drove. also to OHG trebir. the n drop has come through ME drope from OE dropa: akin to the nn OS dropo. ME draf. as it falls. ‘to drool’. n. to drip or trickle. drivel. OFris driāpa. refuse or lees or dregs. OHG trīban. ON dropi. drive (whence the n—and the agent driver). pp and pa driven. MHG-G triefen. 2. through ME dr(o)upen. vt to cause to. esp water. influenced by OFris. whence ‘to drop’. and to vv OE drēopan. cf OE draef. G treiben. mdfn of ‘to drip’: and ‘to drip’ derives from OE . whence. 1. for the formation of drift. dull. OFris dropta. cf gift (give) -rift (rive)—shrift (shrive)— thrift (thrive). ON drjūpa is very intimately akin to the partly syn ON drūpa. fall in liquid globules. whence several of the modern senses of drop. becoming E draff. whence drover. hence to talk like a congenital idiot. Go dreifan (-ban). hence being driven: whence drove. whence the v. and MLG druppen. MHG trīben. snow). MHG-G treber—perh cf G triibe. akin to syn MD drupen. ‘To drive’ comes from the OE drīfan. whence.A-Z 881 1. droppan. cf MHG trift. ‘To drivel’ comes. to droop. drove. Orig drop was only a globule of liquid. ‘To dribble’ is the freq (suffix -le) of ‘to drib’. and Gr trephein (s treph-) to curdle. vi to fall in drops. draft. var dravelen. MD drift. hence ‘to fall’. or let. akin to OFris drīva. dew. comes ‘to droop’. to slaver. whence the AE n. hence as a fool. OHG tropfo. also app to OIr drucht (for *drupt). OE dryppan is perh a mutated form (and sense) of OE dropian. 2. which. whence ME droppen. ON.for on+the n drift. ON drjūpa. quadrupeds. is akin to ON draf and MD-D draf. drizzle . by contr (? dial). ON drīfa. from OE dreflian. n.

the male (honey-)bee. ‘To drone’. a jolly little fellow. the sense of MD dronen (D dreunen). a loud sound. cf also the syn Laconian Gr thrōnax and Gr tenthrene (redup). in part. See the element -drome. through ME drane. ’drome . para 6. droit .). from the n drôle. drone . dromedary . LG dron. to fall. cf also Skt . MLG trone (whence G Drohne). a wag. earlier drolle: MD drolle. See the element -drome. See REX. etc. akin to OS drān and OHG treno. it resounds. cf MD droelen (drulen. drol. MHG trene. and perh Gr . The latter=EF-F drôlerie. blends the form of the n drone and the form and. from OE drēsian. hum loudly and monotonously. wasp. to play. larger and fatter than the worker—hence a sluggard—derives. to roar—cf Go drunjus.Origins 882 (v hence n): app a freq of ME dresen. Cf DREAR. droll (adj and n) and drollery. from OE drān.

See DRIP.. dropsy . (Walshe. from Gr hudrōpisis.) 883 drool . Hence the adj drossy. para 3. . akin to OE drosna (pl). extn of hudrōps. lamentation. whence dropsical (-ical). dross : OE dros.a. droop . and ult to dreg. para 2. dregs. hydropsy. f. water: cf Hydra and. Dropsy. WATER.A-Z thrēnos. esp lees. See DRIVEL. ME dropsie or dropesie.e. dregs. dropsy. See DRIP. filth. from hudōr. from OF idropisie (later hydropisie). is aphetic for ME ydropesie. drop . from L hydropisis.

to sink (cf DREAR). to cudgel. v. to strike or beat. or . See DRY. become sluggish. drove . from Ar daraba. drouth. drover. hence n and adj drowsy (-y): OE drūsian.Origins 884 drought . to fall. a beating. var drūsan. drowse . darba. See DRIVE. orig to bastinado. is perh ‘to dry-rub’ but prob from Ar rather by metathesis from durb. para 2. drudge . drub . a stroke or blow. akin to OE drēosan. para 2. para 2. See DRINK. drown . (?) a mispron of Tu darbè.

to see (L uidere. by b/f from L druidae. drug . These C words are prob independent. W derwydd. is a cpd (Ga *druvides. to endure one’s ill fortune (ME wirde.A-Z 885 . See DRY. Ga druidh. See DRY. druid —whence druidess and druidic(al) and druidism—comes from MF-F druide. cf OW drut. to work (hard. W drud. draidh. Ga daragh (or -ach). druids. drum . para 3. a druid. tree. to become). akin to OE weorthan. tree. derives from ME druggen. drudgery. ML videre). it=C *dru-. esp the oak. Mx druī. a druid then being ‘a very learned man’: with *dru. v. OC *druvida or -vidos). oak. to be strong or vigorous-f C *uid or *vid. para 4. Br drouiz (pi drouized). drugget . W derwydd. by suffix -ery. strong. pi derw. W derven.(see DRYAD). perh akin to —or even derived from—OE drēogan. of C origin: cf EIr drui (gen druad). because of the traditional association of druids with oaks. OC *drúis. druggist. physically). Br dru. druides. abundant. Mx darrag(h). Ga draoi. 2. OE wyrd. oak’ cf Cor dâr or derven (pi derow). hence. Cor dru. to get to know. violent. audacious. *druidos. precious. s dru. hence to suffer. Certainly from OE drēogan comes ‘to dree’. The druids could have been ‘the tree-knowers’: cf the derivation of true (cf soothsayers) from tree (cf Skt dramas. however. tree. be akin either to Gr drus. or to the C words for ‘tree. with Gr drus. endure. Cor druw. oak). yet they could. as in dree one’s vscird. hence as n. to know. If.

with spec sense ‘cheap woollen stuff’. para 5. which. droege. See TREE. trocken. drunkard. drouth. drily. drunk . driest. and dryness (-ness). the ‘dry’ being ‘wrongly taken to be a designation of the contents’ (Webster): cf MD droge. drunken. whence drummer). whence the E drugget: casks and packing-cases were cheap as compared with the contents. dual . sep drain. 1. Derivative EF-F droguiste influences the formation of druggist. dryad . yield drought. drier. OE dryge has a cognate drūgia to dry. ME drogge. The n drug. See DRINK. E dry (adj) has derivatives dryly (-ly. adv). whence ME droughth (whence archaic drouth) and droght. via ME dry or drie. MHG trucken and. 3. druggist. The adj (whence the n) dry comes.Origins 886 (n hence v. to dry) and the syn OHG trucchan. combined.). from MLG ‘droge vate’. derives from MF-F drogue. para 1. as in G. druge (etc. with derivative n drūgath. akin to MD droge. See the 2nd TRUMP. from OE . dry . dryness. ‘To dry’ comes from OE . from the adj. obvious dryasdust. 2. and ON draugr. 4. now usu drily. dry wood. a dry log: ‘no cognates outside Gmc’ (Walshe). MF-F drogue has EF-F dim droguet. whence droughty. dry. drought. drug (n hence v). druge (cf MD drogen. dry casks or packing-cases. para 2.

See DUO. at the least akin to and prob. ducal . duchy. Hence the vn dubbing. D duiken. the recipient has app always been tapped (esp with sword) on the shoulder: prob echoic. -ist. douken. dubitable. paras 2–3. . and OFris dūka. MHG titchen. para 1.A-Z . dubiety . at the conclusion of the ceremony. to dive—whence ‘to duck’. See DUKE. See DOUBT. dubious. to strike. duycken. G tauchen. whence dualism. Dublin (whence Dubliner): Ir dubh linne: ‘Black Pool’ (cf the E Blackpool). var doke: OE dūce. MD duken. duchess. as ‘the diver’. paras 3 and (DUCAT) 8. ducat. duck (1). 887 dub : OE dubbian. to dub a knight: a Gmc r *dub.(as in Frankish *dubban). -ity. from the r of a Gmc v for ‘to dive’: cf ME duken. orig to dive—and syn OHG -tuhhan (cpds only). the bird: ME duk.

blunt (of point). one’s clothes. canvas-like fabric: MD doec. cloth or canvas: akin to OFris and OS dok. dud (2). doeke (cf D doek). dull. app substituted for coll AE dub. v. done. G Tuch. MHG tuoch. duec. and ON dukr. a banner. adj. perh from E dial dub. See DUKE. See 1st DUCK. one who is a failure. Usu in pl duds. cloth—and perh Skt dhvajám. derives from dud. cf EFris bedudeln. duck (3). to clothe. OHG tuoh. to swathe. duction. an awkward performer. prob akin to ON dūtha. ductile. dud (1).Origins 888 duck (2). duct . para 5. n. . a linen. garment: ME dudde.

to digest. or perh by a false division (‘to digest badly’) of MF-EF enduison. digestion.o. para 2. to take in (bad) instruction. para 6. a shadowing) and cfs ‘to take umbrage’: perh rather from MF prendre en (sc tnauvaise) duison or duiçon. a rare C17 var is endugine. duenna . a fool. adj hence n. due . from enduire. in (high): C16 take in usu (great or high) dudgeon: o.o. dudgeon . See DOMESTIC.A-Z 889 dude (AE). cf LL umbratid. from L umbra. See DEBT. a dandy: perh (EW) G dial dude. duel . which certainly suggests a F origin. para 6.: EW proposes derivation from It aduggiare. from uggia. See DUO. . a shadow (? a dial var of ombra. to overshadow.

near Antwerp.. educator. conduce. eductive. circumduce. conductance. deducible. -duce. etc. ducat. deduct. induction. deductive. See DUO. circumduct. inductor. adduction. conductive (whence conductivity). eductor. conducent. introduction. educable. educative..Origins 890 duet . inductance. duffel (a D word) was orig made at Duffel. etc. duction. adductor. reductor.—via It: condottiere and dogal (dogate. -duct. traduce (whence traducer). seductress. conduct (n and v). reduce (whence reducer). duke . ducal. education (whence educational. -ducive. traduction. reduction. educationist). produce (whence producer). seduction (whence seductionist). educt. subduce. abduct. dugong : Mal (and Jav) duyun: with unjustified g for y. doge) and . -ductor in: abduce. deduction. educate. adduce. cf reproduce. productile. production. productive (whence productivity—after activity). duct (Med ductus). See DOUGH. duchy—cf archduke. para 3. circumduction. adducent. adductive. induct. educe. educand. reproduction. seduce (whence seducement and seducer and seductive). dux. conducive. ductile. reducible. productive. reductive. induce (whence inducement). abduction. conduction. introductory. abductor. conducible. duchess. -ducible. introduce (whence introducer). conductor. inducible. -ductive. duff (pudding). -duction. subductton. adduct. adducible. inductive. eduction. product. deduce. -ducent.

6. o/s condūcent-. MHG herzoge. whence E duchess. cf Go tiuhan. to bring ad or to. 3. whence ‘to adduct’. and dogato. whence ‘to circumduce’. anl conductive (cf deductive. whence ‘to circumduct’. whence E duct (whence ductless). cf G ziehen. cf the prec para. o/s conduction-. ‘to TOW’ and ‘to TUG’—TAUT—TEAM and TEEM—TOY—TIE. pp conduct us. ON hertoge. chief magistrate. The OF duc(s) has derivatives OF-F duchesse. The relevant L prefix-cpd w are these: abdūcere. redoubt (n). anl conducive. o/s ductiōn-. that which leads. sep douche (partly It). adopted by E. whence conducent. from the pp ductus. archduchess. from dūcere (s dūc-). see para 8. subdue (whence. whence E dogal. and the adj ductilis. an army leader—cf G Herzog. orig an army (Heer) leader. whence conduction. o/s addūcent-. to lead ab or away. whence. OF ducs (nom). 1. whence circumduction. L dūcere has numerous prefix-cpds. pp adductus. circumdūcere.g. s due-. the presp ducens. to lead. whence ‘to adduce’. whence ‘to conduct’ (whence conductance). whence ‘to abduce’. etc. later duché. OF duc(s) has late MF-F cpd archiduc. dēdūcere. o/s circumductiōn-. Venetian doge. akin to and syn with the OE cpd and to OFris hertoga. whence ‘to abduct’. which originate E vv in -duce and. stands for *ducs (*duks). endue. presp abdūcens. whence the adj abducent. a leading. Sp duque. s duct-. 2. with OE tēon. and the n ductiō. pp abductus. LL adductiō. deriva-tive LL abductiō. whence ‘to conduce’. and the agent ductor. draw to oneself. anl adducible. the E ductile (whence ductility). LL conductor. whence abduction. occurs in adjj in -ducible.) 4. whence conducible. OS heretogo. OHG herizogo. o/s ducent-. archiduchesse. addūcere. whence dogate (cf -ate. whence ‘to deduce’. L dūcere has pp ductus. OF due becoming ME due. pp circumductus. The Gmc var of the IE r is seen in OE tēon. n). abductor (cf F abducteur) is an anl agent-in-or formation. L dux. agent adductor. as in Il Duce. presp condūcens. IE s *duk-. o/s of dux. hence favourably. condūcibilis. (?) ducibilis. army). bring from or out. adopted by E. inductive). 5. var *deuk-. to draw (pull. drag). whence adduction. to draw dē or down. with presp addūcens. to draw to oneself. and—rather than direct from LL ducālis (due-. the office or rank of a doge. whence duction. several in -duct. anl adductive. to lead together (in a party). of a doge. to bring con. L dux becomes It duce. leads to adjj in -ducent. to lead circum or around.—prefix-cpds via F: conduit. The E derivatives and cognates of OE tēon are treated sep: sec. -ductor. to lead. derivative conductiō. whence E duchy. and derivative circumductiō. to lead away. The Leader Mussolini. a canal or channel. archiduché. on which arise the n ductus (gen -ūs). adj-suffix -alis)—OF-F ducal. with derivatives dogale. with derivatives archiducal. whence the adj adducent. o/s abdūcent-. for nn in -duction. due (acc). subdual). e.A-Z 891 ducat and Duce and ridotto. by n-suffix -al. prob via EF-F. o/s adductiōn-. hence chief. anl . adopted by E. duke. with E hybrid misconduct (n and v).or together. later duke. ML -ducīvus. able to lead—or be led. whence the E n conduct. and—rather than from LL ducātus (gen ūs)—OF duchee. adopted by E. condūcere. (For ducat. most adjj in -ducive lack forebears in -ducīuus. o/s abduction-. leader. whence F due. with derivative n conductus. draw on or along. gen -us. and OE heretega (here. conduct. adopted by E. which prompted the E archduke..

educative and educatory are anl in -ive. whence ‘to traduce’. educable is an anl formation. hence to rear. (later) to persuade. or from It ridurre—see next para. whence eduction. as if from L *ēdūcābilis. prōdūcerc. o/s traduction-. deriva-tive dēductiō. used only in cpds. from reduct-. . whence ‘to produce’. introduction. derivative LL prōductilis. derivative inductiō. whence introductory. (esp) to slander. to lead sē or aside. anl reductive. trādūcere (for *transdūcere). whence ‘to subduce’. derivative ēdūcator is adopted by E. 9. s. hence to mislead. prob via MF-F. s sēduct-. ēdūcere. para 9. s of L reductus. anl eductive. hence seduce. o/s subductiōn-. prob via F. LL sēdūcihihs. whence deductive. hence to educate. ducat. whence ‘to reduce’. introdūcere. derivative agent inductor. whence seductible. derivative subductiō.Origins 892 deducible. rediicttō (as in L r. sēdūcere. to draw from below. pp of redūcere. has durative dūcāre. produce. redūcere. as in para 3. reproductive. condyte. whence ‘to introduce’. whence inductive. whence reducent. ML -īvus (esp in Logic). 8. to disgrace. ult from L dux. but E reductor=reduction +agential -or. to lead to or (in-) into. neu ēductum. conductance). pp deduct us. reproductif (f -ive). adopted by E. ridotto (in fortification). pp in-ductus. derivative LL agent ēductor. anl introductive. whence—perh via OF-F séduction—E seduction. pp productus. 7. derivative sēductiō. sep douche. whence ‘to tduce’. o/s ēdūcātiōn-.f. production. a coin bearing the effigy of a duca or duke. likewise derivative LL dēductīuus. pp sēductus. o/s ēductiōn-. whence reduction. anl inducible. anl reducible. (later) to diminish. adopted by E in mechanical sense. perh suggested by LL sēductrix. o/s prōductiōn-. cf ‘to sitbdue’. whence LL sēductibilis. reproduction. to lead or bring re or back. fit to be reared. translate. from It ducato. whence ‘to deduct’. o/s sēductiōn-. hence to beget. whence seducible. esp ēdūcāre. ad absurdum). yields the E n educand. o/s reductiōn-. derivative LL productid. yields education. o/s prōducent-. pp ēductus. subdūcere. doge (etc. yields educt. anl seductive. used as n. whence deduction-. derivative introduced. productive. whence. reproduction. o/s redūcent-. pp ēdūcātus yields ‘to educate’. whence—perh via EF-F—the E traduction. derivative ēductiō. whence E seduce. Through It come condottiere. o/s introduction-. LL introductōrius. from L conductor. whence E productile. adopted from late OF. to lead. to lead ē or out. o/s inductiōnwhence induction. a student. hence to transfer. L dūcere. -or. whence subduction. E reproduce (whence reproducer). to rear (a child).) from OF-F conduit. to bring intro or within (house or circle). productiuus (ML -īvus). etc. to lead sub or under.. presp producers. sep DOUCHE (F from It). etc. presp reducens. neu productum. derivative ēdūcātiō. derivative traductid (from pp traductus). anl producible. whence ‘to induce’. whence ‘to induct’ (whence inductance—c. either from ML reductus (gen ūs). to lead trans or across. bring forth. were prompted by F reproduīre. to lead or bring prō or forward. ML -īvus. From F come: conduit.) and Duce. whence the E n product. anl seductress. its gerundive ēdūcandus. from L conduct us (gen -ūs)—cf para 6 at condūcere. which. whence. indūcere. derivative LL inductīuus. whence producent. taken by ME (conduyte.. o/s deduction-.

to make. from L subdūcere (para 6. dim of douz. dumb (whence dumbness). Dumbbell is orig a muted bell. as in exuere. Go dumbs.A-Z 893 endue. dull (adj whence v). v). foolish. dulcify. hence of disposition). mad. cf sep DWELL. L dulcis has LL derivative dulcor. where cf the E doublet ‘to seduce’). stupid. L in) but strictly from L induere (s indu-: in. L c/f+ element -fy. to draw or lead away. dulcet . 2. subdue. adopted from OF-F. sweet (of taste. after the L. with pej sense from dumbness apprehended as stupidity. redoubt. douce. G dumm. dolce is the It shape of dulcis. stupid. stupid. mad). to put. from dulcis+mele from Gr melos. douceur. whence dul(l)ness and dullard (pej suffix -ard). onto+r *du-. app (EW) it blends and ‘corrupts’ dull+tantrum. from L dulcis. edulcorate. pp ēdulcorātus yields ‘to edulcorate’. dulcimer. Dull. and Go dwals. derives from F doux. itself from L redūcere (as in para 6). f of doux (OF douz). to draw from below. from EF redoitte (earlier ridotte). whence A si dumb. dulcimer comes from OF doulcemer. Sc douce= F douce. whence ML ēdulcorāre. pp of ridurre. dumbbell. foolish: cf OHGMHG tol. song (cf the element we/o-). 1. from OF-MF soduire. Dulcet is a refashioning. . is akin to—perh from—OE dol. foolish (G toll. alteration of doulcemele: doulce. OFris doll. blind. which has direct derivative ‘to indue’. to sweeten. f of ridotto. Dumb is OE dumb. Doldrums is the pl of doldrum. ON dumbr. dolce (tar niente). dumb. dulcify=dulci-. to put off). OHG tumb. akin to OFris and OS dumb. of ME from OF-F doucet. and dummy is an easement of dumby. in ē-+dulcorāre. from It ridotta (now ridotto). to lead back. ME soduen. to lead into (en. dull. influenced by OF enduire. and douceur. whence n. perh akin to DEAF and to Gr tuphlos. perh akin to Gr glukus (see GLYCERIN). souduire. dumb. doldrums. dummy (adj. ME dul. sousduire.

to fall heavily. dull-sounding. . shapeless piece. Da dumpe. sawmill yard. therefore to E DAMP. low spirits: MD domp. akin to G dumpf. (sl) shabby house. See 2nd DUMP. dumping: ME dampen. (of air) close and damp. dim n suffix) and the adj dumpy. to carelessly throw down: of Scan origin. dumpling . dumper. (sl) any inhabited place’ prob belong to the same word. whence dumpage. and Dampf. orig echoic: cf Nor dumpa. to fall suddenly or heavily.Origins 894 dump (1). the senses ‘a thump. to let fall. perh derived from. esp to thump. the next. whence the n dumpling (-ling. to cause to fall (heavily). is akin to. temporary store. to strike. a haze. dump (3). unload. steam. dump (2). dumpy . (vi) to fall heavily. usu the dumps. See 2nd DUMP. but esp ON dumpa.

dark. prob of C origin. a student or disciple of the great medieval schoolman. syn Ga donn (comp duinne) and W dwn. adj. The latter. (Adj dunal. var *dunnos (? for dubnos). whence he who does this. para 2. See DOWN. cf OIr donn. dark. v. OC *donnos. for dunling. fortified place. brown. See DIN. See TOWN. dun (2). n. to importune a debtor. dunlin.A-Z 895 dun (1). dune . dun (3). consists of dun. dunce : ironically from ‘a Duns man’. brown+ n-suffix -ling: and dun=OE dunn.) . Duns Scotus.

and donjon. perh akin to Lith dengti. as with a roof (Webster). itself adopted. lit ‘master tower of a château’ or ‘the lord’s tower’. See DYE. of course. in the OHG form tune and sense ‘underground chamber covered vs’ith dung’ (cf ON dyngja). dunlin . varr *dhonghuos. predominantly an underground prison in a castle. itself from dominus. from dung and derive it from VL *dominiōnem. E dungeon) and to accept the VL origin of donjon.Origins 896 dung (n whence v). master of the house (cf DOMESTIC. to cover. . OHG tunga. could be akin to Gr . Walshe. acc of *dominiō. s taph-). See 1st DUN. on the assumption of an IE form *dhenghuos. B & W. it seems best to separate E dung from OF-F donjon (whence. para 4). Dungeon= ME dongeon. therefore E dung. with adj dungy (-y). The last is app a thinning of dungy. notes that G Dung. dunk . a grave. s. dung. in the F sense. G Dung. dungaree . however. an underground working-place covered with dung. dissociate OF-F donjon. Now. by E: perh of Gmc origin—cf ON dyngja. cf the syn OS dung.f. like Dauzat and EW. Hi dungrī (a coarse cotton fabric). dingy. (taphos. In all. var donjoun: OF-F donjon. *dhunghuos. dungeon. MHG tunge. dung -the same in OE—is akin to OFris dung.

. where also see duple (etc.) on the bottom of a hold or among goods to protect cargo’: o. however. etc. whence the adj deuced. 2. dewse). I think. yields duality. to load. or two. duodenum (see the element duodeno-). whence E dual. where also twain. twice.a. becomes It duello and EF-F duel.A-Z 897 dunnage . duet. C16 deuis. twig.. TWO. see TWO. netting. the ancients may. it may well derive from D or LG. 2. twin. sep duodecimo and dozen (where see both). between and betwixt. dualism and dualist (whence dualistic) are E formations in -ism. dewse. sep double. 3. (OED. The sense ‘personal effects’ derives from the naut sense ‘loose materials (brushwood. Since. duo (cf the element duo-). 1.g.) Hence prob the senses ‘bad luck. have been right. whence E deuce (C15–16 deux. brushwood. greyish-brown. as n. parties: although E & M and others assert the duo origin of duellum to be merest f/e. with resulting dim duetto. ropes. twine. C16–17 dense. dinnage. and. battle. donnage cause one to glance at MD denne. of course. is intimately akin to Gr duo. The L duellum. duet. and dennenhout. to dun. a 2spotted card. then.o. duel. F deux. thin. a cast of 2. a ship’s deck. it gains the sense ‘duet’. whence OF deus.o.e. dual. mats. L duo survives in It.: the -age is the semi-collective. is dun-? The ref is. For the Gmc cognates. 4. twist. twelve.). and such less obvious derivatives as tweed. the Devil’. . the LL derivative duālitās. like so many other naut terms of the period: OED neatly adduces the LG dunne twige. cf MD dunne (D dun) and MHG dünne (G dünn). the E word is unrecorded before the 1620’s. twenty. and dennen. with IE etymon *duwo: f. war. deuce. semi-agential or -instrumental -age of other nn (e. after all. -ist. The early varr dennage. L duo. the colour of the materials used for the protection of cargo. often used even in L for a fight between two persons. devilish. therefore the word prob=dun+ euphonic n+-age. THIN itself. Its adj is duālis (s duāl-). the 2-pipped side of a die. where. L duo has in acc duos. cordage) with that suffix. a ship’s hold. o/s duālitāt-. is the earliest form of bellum. What. twill. duality. Certainly L duellum. wood. war between duo. whence E duet. adopted by E. which was by the ancients declared to be etym a struggle.

1. E hoopoe derives from EE hoop. hoopoe. para 28. of—hence like—an uppe. whence the E n dupe. durability. L ulula. hoopoe. durable . duple . for both the form and the sense.Origins 898 duologue . houpe. and. the screech-owl (cf ULULATE). obs v dure—cf . hoopoe. See PLY. durance. duplex. OF-MF uppe: VL *ūpupa: L ŭpupa. to trick. F duper comes from late MF-F dupe. app from d’uppe. hence n). durative (adj. See LEGEND. F huppe. duplicity. dupe (n and v). duplicate. 2. syn and prob a derivative of Gr epops (gen epopos). duration. dup . a stupid-looking bird. Dupery comes from late EF-F duperie. Gr apaphos (? alteration of *epaphos). a gamester’s victim. duress. See DO. underworld) duppe. para 22. from its cry: cf for the form. whence E ‘to dupe’. itself from EF-F duper. para 1. dupery. F huppe (Gmc h-). F dupe derives from MF (orig.

to harden (vt). ensue very naturally from dūrāre. 5. Ga trom. endurance. whence both the adj indurate. with adj dural. severe. to last long in time’—can there be a more natural sensedevelopment? 6. formerly. L indūrāre. for a very long time. and by them related to that IE r *dū-. Lith drútas. therefore to be strong and firm. hard wheat. whence the E adj obdurate. derivative dūrābilis becomes OF-F durable. and ‘to indurate’ or harden. to harden. L dūrāre (vi). subsidiary dūrābilitās becomes EF-F durability and. 2. perdure. duramen. obs adj dure—cf dour. successfully undergo. durative (-ive. o/s dūrātiōn-. rough. Cf endure in para 9. EF-F duresse. 1. whence E duress. strong. OIr trén. Ga treun. strenuous. with subsidiary sense ‘imprisonment’ (so long in the enduring)—cf duress in para 8. with cpd indūrāre (int in-). shapes the OF presp durant. hardened. adopted by Bot for heartwood. 4. whence the obsol ‘to perdiire’. hardship. o/s indūrātiōn-. long since. OIr tromm. and prob the Sc dour. indurative. (vt) to sustain. perh a dissimilation of IE *drur-. strong. has s dūr-. becomes the obs dure. has pp obdūrātus. indurate (whence pa indurated). cf Skt . to last: hence E ‘to endure’. prob from F.—L terms: dura mater. to harden. Dūrus becomes OF-F dur. derivative LL perdūrābilis becomes MF-EF perdurable. derivative LL obdūrātiō perh suggested obduracy. adopted from MF is perdurance. strong. connoting a long time. with pp indūrātus. has cpd perdūrāre. lit and factually. whence obs E dure. is usu dissociated from dūrāre (vt. to harden. dūramen hardness. solid . Other L derivatives of dūrus concern E: dūra mater (lit ‘hard mother'). whence—unless from MF endurance—then endurance. Ir dron. 9. vt). (vt) to endure. perdurance. obdurate. which occurs in L dūdum. hard. both senses persisting in OF-F endurer. durian . Dūrāre. to become or be hard. to last. to last per or throughout. a ligneous vine-branch. whence OF durance (suffix -ce). which further contains something of durer. perdurable. adj) is an anl E formation. 3. L dūrus. adopted by E. obstinate (cf LL obdūrus). strong. adopted by E. to last or persist. to last. 7. dūritia. while: but does not dūrāre. therefore time-resisting. s of the pp dūrātus). the presp dūrans. and perh in L dum. Derivative LL obdūrāre (int ob-). yields induration. to last. whence E durance. Dūrāre (s dūr-). to last. derivative dūrātiō (from dūrāt-. used intransitively? ‘To harden. to harden (vt). 8. whence obduracy (for *obduratecy: cf accuracy from accurate). duration. to harden (cf para 3). becomes VL ‘to tolerate’ and LL (Eccl) ‘to harden one’s heart against’. dūrum being prop the neu of dūrus: cf L dūrum. elliptical for dūrum lignum. hardness. indurative is an anl E formation. dūrum (wheat) is. W tren. to last. By most modern etymologists. vi). induration. and Argive Gr droón (neu=iskhuron). passes through MFEF to become the E duration’. whence OF-MF durece. solid. o/s dūrant-. the E durability. adopted from ML physiology. derivative LL indūrātiō. durum (wheat).A-Z 899 endure (whence pa enduring). Dūrus has L derivative dūrāre (vi.

tiusch. akin to OFris thiade. dustcoloured. OIr tuath. through ME dosc. dust. a people. adj hence n. vapour: ‘primary notion “that which is blown in a cloud” ’ (Walshe). OE theod. German)—akin to G deutsch. Dutch comes from MD dutsch. dark—cf Skt dhūsara. and therefore: dust . tuz. Cf DUSK. meal dust. See DURABLE. OS thidd. Germany. Dutch . thjoth. of Holland. akin to OLG and ON dust. OHG diutisc. duutsch. . and is scattered. country people. diota. (more generally) Germanic (cf D duitsch. para 8. akin to L fuscus (s fusc-). German. a hard-rinded East Indian fruit. OC *teuts. The IE r is prob *teut-. the German language. and OHG tunist.Origins 900 . deosc. from OE dox. dunst. a people. ON thiod. the people. W tūd. dusk . dose. land. a storm. MD dust. is adopted from Mal: from Mal durt. army. a people or nation. comes. 1. also OP tauto. G Dunst. thiode. Go thiuda. cf also Skt dhūsara. smoke. duutsc. Teutonic. Ga tuath. Cor tus. perh also Hit tuzzias. dūs. and Hit tuhhwis. dūz. adj whence n (with its own adj dusky). MHG tunst. vapour. whence ‘to dust’ (whence duster and the vn dusting) and the adj dusty (cf OE OS dūst. lit the popular language as opp Latin. and Lith Tauta. and MGH tiutsch. later dusc. durum . the country. dust-coloured. and the Gmc (? rather the Celtic) tribe the Teutones. and Lith tauta. from OHG diot. a thorn. sombre. D duist.

and ON dvelja. earlier dwerf. error. dux . to wander. a phantom. also to DULL. 3. dwarf (whence dwarfish: -ish. OHG twerg (G Zwerg). from the D-E trade. doubt. to wander. whence Teutonic. earliest dwergh: OE dweorg.) result. tarry. to tarry. para 6.A-Z 901 2. OE dwala. to pine: ME dwinen. OE dwolung. to linger. duty . delay. dwell . to . to linger. be in error. See DUKE. the L adj is Teutonicus. whence dweller and dwelling. dweorh: akin to the syn OFris dwerch. app of Gmc origin (‘the people’). L Teutones. rivalry of C17–18. OFris dwalinge. The numerous pej expressions containing Dutch (Dutch courage—uncle—etc. para 1. See DEBT. dwindle (whence pa and vn dwindling): freq (-le) or dim of obs dwine. OFris dwalia. OS dwerg. ON dvergr. hence other. akin to OE dwalian. adj): ME dwarf. yields the b/f Teuton. comes from OE dwellan. perh cf Skt dhváras. orig. var Teutoni. a demon.

LG and MD dwinen. a couple: cf the element dy. to dwindle.of L tingd. to dip (something) in water.o. through ME dyen. adj (whence dynamics). dynamite (n whence v). dyke . MHG dunken.Origins 902 waste away: OE dwīnan. para 3. a dye. dynamism. akin to ON dvīna. See DEAD. extn of *ti-. a pair. earlier deyen. dynamo (cf the element . to vanish. whence E ‘a dye’: o. hence dye.o. dye . to dip (esp bread into milk. I steep in water. dynamic . itself from OE dēag. soup). s ting-. ‘To dye’ comes. to colour or dye: cf the syn Gr tengō ( ) and OHG thimkōn. a colour.and the suffix -ad (as in triad). dyad . n and v (whence pa and vn dyeing and the agent dyer).. dying . from OE dēagan. dunkōn. but perh akin to the ti. coffee. perh a nasal form of IE r *tig-. G ttiiiken. dēagian. var dēah. See DIG. whence AE dunk.

elliptical for dynamoelectric machine. whence late MF-F dynaste and E dynast. to be able. from en. intestines. The 1st derives. pi of enteron. dysenteric. 1866. and enteritis=entera+suffix -itis. 2. to have strength. whence F dynamique. 4. dus-. s dun-. be able (to) perh ult akin to E DO. n=enteric fever. subsidiary Gr dunastikos yields F dynastique and E dynastic. (hence) power. adj of entera. ill-. 3. hence power. from entera. within. See the element -pepsia. F dyne. MF-F dysentérique. power. is adopted by E ‘for unit of force’. dynamite. from Gr dunamis. dynastic. dyne. from Gr enterikos. derivative adj dusenterikos. ? ‘have the strength to do. with derivative adj dunamikos. has derivative dunastēs (s dunast-). enteric. to make. dynast. has derivative dunamis (? for *dunis: dun-+i+-s). E dysenteric. whence E dynamic’. dynamo. E dynasty. r either *dun. via MF-F. Gr dunasthai. dyspeptic . 1. and then perform it’: cf Hit dù. hence great power. a ruler. enteritis. L dysentericus. . in. dysacousia . from Gr tfcjmmis. from entos. badly+enteria. trln of Gr dusenteria. dysentery. dynasty. and subsidiary Gr dunasteia becomes LL dynastia) whence EF-F dynastie and (perh from the F word. from LL dynamis. Dunami. ability to do.or more prob *du-.A-Z 903 dynamo-). from L dysenteria. by Sw physicist Nobel. created. dyspepsia. to have the strength (to). I am able. dyslogistic. See LEGEND. the learned F formation dynamisme yields dynamism. E enteric. whence L dynastes. See ACOUSTIC. dyslogy . have strength. para 30. The effective r is grounded in Gr dunasthai.

through ME egle. whence ME vinegre.Origins 904 E each comes. elk. f ācris. every’. itself—pern via OProv aigla—from L aquila. hence ‘each. OF-F aigre has the MF-F cpd vinaigre (vin. through ME eche. whence E aquiline. . G jeglich: Cf also AYE. sharp. eagle derives. neu ācre. which connotes the idea of a sharp point at the top. ever like (cf LIKE): akin to OFris ellik. whence E vinegar. akin to Gr akros (r ak-). orig ‘always alike’. always. OHG eo-gilīh. Cf ACID—and also EDGE. from OE . 2. etc. para 7. adopted from OF-MF egle. F aigle has derivative MF-F aiglette. eagre . which has adj aquilīnus. s and r ac-. earlier elc and esp aelc. whence E eaglet. See AQUA. wine: cf WINE). MHG ieglīch. a tidal flood. spirited. adj: ME egre. eager . var of OF-F aigle. applied esp to a nose like an eagle’s. keenly desirous: OF-F aigre: VL *ācrus: L ācer. highest. a contr of ā-gelīc.

OS and OHG ōra (G Ohr). nobleman.(also *ous). and Av usi. ear of a cereal. the L acus. a man. Go ahs. OIr āu or ō. and ON jarl. early . the organ of hearing: OE ēare: cf OFris āre. man. MHG eher (G Ähre). earmark .—Perh it is related to CHURL. and. ON eyra. MD ore (D oor). Gr oūs. ME erl or eorl. adj. chaff. OSl ucho. IE r is therefore *au. ON ax. cf also L auris. becomes earldom. Lith ousis. var *aur-. whence the E adv early: and ME erliche derives from OE sooner +-tīce. later erli. The OE cpd eorl-dōm. Cf ERE. earl . put forth ears. and agna (for *acna. OS ahar. boy. *akna). ear. Doric ōs. earldom. uši. Lett ausu. ehir. OHG ahir. d erives from OE eorl. ME earlich. an earl’s territory or jurisdiction (cf the suffix -dom and the word DOOM). whence adv-suffix -ly. akin to OS and OHG erl.A-Z 905 ear (1). ear (2). both ears. ear. further off. varr *ou and *ō. esp a nobleman. Earl. auśu. with extn *aus. both ears. a cereal’s fruiting spike. is very closely akin to the ME adv erliche. Go ausō. OE ēar (var aehher): akin to OFris ār. Hence ‘to ear’.

Origins 906 . pl. MHG ernede. for arrha. earn . G Ernst (seriousness). earning (pa and vn. earnest (3). and to Av arenu. a pledge: ME ernes: app by a scribal error from OF-MF erres (pl)—cf the refashioned EF-F arrhes—from (Law) L arra. from OE earnian. a combat or duel. a close. whence ‘to earn’: akin to OHG arnōn. n whence v. eornoste. and pern L annus (r an-). G Ernte. earnest (2). OP assanis. as n. grave attention or purpose: OE earnest. is orig a domestic animal’s identification-mark (a slitting. a harvest). autumn. . itself from the n: cf OFris ernst. to harvest. OHG ernust. MHG ernest. to Go arniba. s. a pledge. a contest or combat. See EARNEST (3).f. with var eornest. harvestseason. eornost: akin to OHG ernust. (Walshe. and OHG aran (syn with the intimately related OHG arnōd. firmly. a notching) on the ear. The adj earnest derives from OE eorneste. prob also to ON önn.) earnest . The latter. working season. certainly of Sem origin—prob from H ‘ērābōn. short for arrhabō. adj. Go asans. derives from OE earnung. from Gr arrhabōn. a harvest. safely. year. but also to OE eornes. usu in pl).

presp cf adiacēre. easy. or the. 3. earthen. and perh Eg . But the distribution is still wider: cf Arm erkir.a. the OC prototype being prob *urā. Cor aor. from OE eorthlīc—earthy (-y). The derivative adjj are earthen (-en). 1.e. Ga ùir. in ME. f. OF-F aise. the OE varr eord(e). Akk . comfort. to earth: cf such C words as OIr -ert (in cpds). Go aírtha. n from L adiacens. earth (n hence v). akin to OFris erthe (var irthe). n (whence easeful) and v. ON jörth. -quake. the n ease. -worm. The only important prefix cpd is ‘to unearth’. earthly. whence ‘to ease’: and MF aisier. cf EAR and VETCH.. earth. 2. derives from VL adiacēs. eard. OHG erda (MHG-G erde). earwig : OE ēarwicga: OE ēar. ard. derives from OF-F aise. derives from OE eorthe. easement. See EARN. prop the pp of aisier. . -work.A-Z 907 earning (s). Easy comes from MF-F aisié.appears from OHG ero and Gr era. whence. aert. elbow-room. ME erthe and earlier eorthe. 1. beetle or worm: folklore has it that this insect creeps into the human ear. OF aaisier. EIr úr. art. For the elements. iörth. OS ertha. bound. MD aerd. the ear+wicga. and Gr eraze. earthenware. Now. var of VL adiacens. Earth. earth. with cpd earthenware (cf WARE)—earthly. a. to be situated near. ease . That the r is er. earthy: such obvious cpds as earthborn. . neighbourhood.

2. adopted from OF-F (OF-F mal. and the v disease. ME disese. L dis-). basic idea. and the syn L aurōra (for *ausōsa). 2. *aus-. n. the kinship of Easter with east is prob. ‘the shining’. also in cpds an adj—cf OE ēastan. from the OF v. ME disesen. the n disease. See ASS. adj). whence eastern. var Eostra. The chief cpds are unease. dawn. easel . Cf EASTER. in (or to) the east. Aeolic auōs. derives from OE ēastre (pl ēastron). Easter . the old Gmc goddess of Spring: after dull Winter. whence adj and adv easterly (-ly). The obsol easement (suffix -ment)=OF-MF aisement. the IE r. easiness (-ness) derives from easy. it dawns. 1. Spring comes as ‘the shining (season)’: akin to OHG ōstarūn (cf the OE var ēastrun). G Osten. ON austan).Origins 908 ADJACENT. eastward. and OHG ōstar. from the east. eastern. whence uneasy (-y. The n east derives from OE ēast. itself perh an extn of *au-. and to Skt usra. from MF desaise (des-. Attic heōs. time: cf TIDE). also from east. OE ēast has adj ēasterne. from the east. East has adj easier (now only dial). dawn: since dawn comes in the east. n. malaise. para 2. also as adj: akin to OHG ōstan. easterly. easterly . MHG ōsten. Homeric Gr ēōs. MHG ōsteren. Lith aušra. from desaise. from MF desa(a)isier. whence Eastertide (tide. ON austr. adv and adj (cf the suffix -ward). comes eastward. Skt ušás (cf ucchati. (lit) shines). earlier desese. east (n hence adj and v). and ōstana (OE ēastan. The Gmc r is *aust-. badly). from OE Eastre. G Ostern (pl).

and Hit et-. to Skt ádmi and Lith edmi. Gr edein. ebb . itself from the source of the n ebb: OE ebba. to eat—both with s ed-. See EASE. G essen. eastward. therefore. brink or brim. eating. from above. he eats. Go itan (cf OFris īta). Cf EDIBLE. I eat. n and v. at-. eaves (orig sing): ME evese (pi eveses): OE efes. OVER. ‘To ebb’ derives from OE ebbian. above: cf. to eat. eavesdrop . eastern. akin to OS etan. az-. and Mx ee (n). See OVER. to L edere. also to Ga ith. and OHG obana. OHG ezzan. eat . para 2. MHG ezzen. (Walshe). pt eat (ět) and ate. and adai. the IE r. ‘To eat’ derives. to eat. from OE etan. See EAST. I eat. through ME eten. *ed-. ez-. 909 easy . hence eaves: akin to OHG obisa. ON eta. pp eaten. para 3. The OGmc r is *et-. obasa. porch. G oben (adv). .A-Z . OIr ithim.

o/s ēbrietāt-.Origins 910 akin to OFris ebba. wine-jar. a winejar. out of+bria. whence ēbriōsitās. intoxicated. Sōbrius becomes OF-F sobre. and ēbriōsus. yields. adopted by ME. itself from L ēbullient-. whence E sober. and LL ēbriāre. the wood ebony. MF ebene (F ébène). out+bullīre (s bull-).or boil-up: ē. itself from Eg hebin (varr hebni. sem. whence MF-F ébriété. whence E ebriety. tipsy. derivative LL inēbriātiō. and therefore applied to one who has emptied the jar or cup. derives from L ēbrius. to bubble. whence ebriate. o/s inēbriātiōn-. the wood). derivative sōbrietās. o/s ēbriōsitāt-. o/s of ēbulliens. habitual intoxication. OS ebbia. 3. to boil (see BOIL). whence both the adj (hence the n) and the v inebriate. the -y adj of the n ebon. ebonite. habni)—cf the syn iban. prob via MF-F. 4. the E sobriety. s of pp ēbullitus. The adj ebrious.for privative sē-. via OF ebaine. or from ē. backward. intoxication. sobriety. . 2. rises ēbullitiō. *soebrius being eased to sōbrius. inebriety—inebriate inebriation. presp of ēbullīre. or so-+ ēbrius. whence ‘to sober’. L ēlātus. whence E ebriosity. The opp of L ēbrius is sōbrius. then adj) comes. Ebriare has int inēbriāre. MD-D ebbe (v ebben). ebony. Ebriety . ebriosity. the 2nd is prob the n use of ebony. out of+the r of ferre. whence. ebullience derives from ebullient. 1. to render drunk. and perh to the Go adj ibuks. prob coming either from ē. yields inebriation. The 3rd=ebony+chem -ite. perh via OF-F sobriété. from Gr ebenos. L ēbrius has derivatives ēbrietās. to bear. from L ebenus. the 1st (n. carry—cf. the tree (ebenum. o/s sōbrietāt-. on ēbullit-. turned backwards. to turn. with IE r *ibh-. with pp inēbriātus. E elate. o/s ēbullitiōn-. hence who does not drink wine: either so. ebrious. the E ebullition. without+an adj from bria. who has not (yet) drunk from the wine-jar. sober. ebon . apart from. with pp ēbriātus.

a preacher. call by name. has r kal-. See the 2nd CARD.. ecclesiast: perh via the OF-MF adj écclesiaste: either from LL ecclēsiastēs or from Gr ekklēsiastēs. aug of échelle.e. a summoning) from ekklētos. called out. esp of Christians. eccentric . assembly of people. the pp of ekkalein. I name by calling. kalein. para 4. the Biblical Ecclesiastes is a specialization. Gr ekklēsiastikos. (app for *ekklētia. ecclesiology: ecclesio-. ecclesiastical). Ecclesiastes. to call. a ladder: an initial -e vocalization of L scala: f. adj of ekklēsia. var kel-. out: kaleō. or summon by crier+ek-. . ecclesiast. a political assembly of citizens. but cf klēsis. echelon : OF-F échelon. ecclesia .a. The chief derivatives are: ecclesiarch: LL ecclēsia+archos.A-Z 911 écarté . for Gr arkhos a ruler. c/f of ecclēsia+-logy (element): hence ecclesiologist (cf-logist at the element -logia). derives from Gr ekklēsia. See CENTRE. adj hence n: perh via MF-F ecclésiastique. eccentricity. SCALE. (E-) the Church. to call. LL ecclēsia. para 9. ecclesiarch. ecclesiology. ecclesiastic (whence the -al extn ecclesiastical). a church. 2. ecclesiasticism. summon: cf CLAMOR and (of cattle) ‘to LOW’. 1. congregation. hence ecclesiasticism (-ism). from: LL ecclēsiasticus.

trin of Gr ekleipsis. derives from OE swōgan. ME swough or swogh. sough (n hence v). lit an . to sigh—and to Gr ekhos. itself intimately related to Gr ēkhō. are echoic. adopted from OF-F. a sound. Sough. I echo: all. to sound. akin to OS swōgan. See LEGEND. the E echo. eclipse . from the LL adj echōicus. so named because ‘eaten in a flash’. cf the Lith svagiù. eclair .Origins 912 echo (n hence v). echoic. sound.) éclat . eclecticism. whence. eclectic . a flash of lightning. éclair came. noise. to rustle. to designate a pastry. And echoic itself derives either from E echo or. is adopted from OF-F éclair: lit. via L echo. (Dauzat. more prob. prop éclair. An eclipse. See SLATE. and Go gaswōgjan (int ga-). n hence—? influenced by MF-F éclipser—v. esp an echo. in C19. ult. ecliptic. echoism. sound. With both sough and echo. adj and n. echoism=E echo+ suffix -ism. derives from L eclipsis.

esp a house. an abandonment. ekleiptikos. from ekleipein. the E economy.v. from nemein. perh via MF-F. See LEGEND.). 4. economize. LGr a diocese. E ecumenic. LL paroecia has the further varparochia. whence parochialism. whence oikoumenē (gē). ecology : element eco.. Gr oikos has derivative oikein. treated at VICINAGE (f. leads to the Astr n ecliptic. Oikos occurs in the notable cpd oikonomos. 2. household management.(connoting ‘environment’) +-logy. whence OF-F paroisse. para 29. with extn economical having special sense ‘thrifty’. whence LL paroecia (with var parrocid).e. with adj parochialis. whence paroikia. to inhabit. whence. to abandon: f. with pp oikoumenos. used as n. Oikos has the prefix-derivative adj paroikos. adj. steward. the OF-F derivative adj paroissien becomes ME parishen and then adds agential -er to form parishioner. ecumenical. The derivative Gr adj ekleiptikos becomes L eclipticus. The derivative Gr adj oikonomikos becomes L oeconomicus. whence ME-E parish. at the element -logia. app for *woikos. ML vīcus. MF-F économic has derivatives économiste and économiser: whence E economist. the E economic. a dwelling place. economize. esp concerning the Church as a whole.A-Z 913 omission. sep diocese. parishioner. economist. whence economics. having r *woik. to distribute (cf the element nomo-): whence oikonomia. and so to E village and vicinity.a. with its own adj oikoumenikos. The base of all these words is Gr oikos. parochial.and being therefore akin to L uīcus. q. usu in extn ecumenical. to leave (leipein) out (ek). eclogue .. parish. economic . For the simple word. whence ONF . to live in (a house).e. whence E ecliptic (cf F écliptique). via L oeconomia and pern MF-F économie. economy. LEND. dwelling para or beside. whence. 3. economical. with 2nd element -nomos. LL oecūmenicus. the inhabited world. world-wide. a sojourning. 1. 5. cf the element eco-.a.

ecstatic (adj hence n). See PLASM. Ecuador . extatic. ecumenical . eczema . ectoplasm . para 4.Origins 914 parochial. See ECONOMIC. para 7. adopted by E: lit ‘of a parish’. See STAND. para 2. ecstasy . para 3. See SCOT. Gallic varr extasy. hence ‘narrowminded’. hence ‘confined to a parish’. See EQUAL. écossaise .

white: cf WHITE. delight. Gr eti.A-Z 915 is Sci L. from ith-. beyond. moreover. from zein. para 7. OHG et(a)-. See EDIBLE. again. again (OE and OS ed-. it(a)-).arise the E adjj eczematoid (-oid) and eczematous (ous). edentate .a. to boil: f. back. See TOOTH.e. from Gr ekzema: ek. edelweiss : G Edelweiss. a boiling. which takes it from H ‘edēn. . edacious . para 7. On the o/s ekzemat. and. noble+weiss. garden of delight (hence the Vulgate’s paradisns uoluptātis). toothless. hence a place of delight. ‘(a flower) nobly white’: edel. edacity. and Skt ati. eddy (n hence v): ME ydy: ? ON itha. Eden (whence adj Edenic) is adopted from LL. YEAST.. ult akin to L et. out+ zema. the latter deducible from H gan ‘edēn. a fermentation. Go id-. OFris et-.

and oxus. edge. hence adj ‘emaciated. whence the adj edgy and also the v ‘to edge’. with o/s edāc-. whence E edacity. An edge. yields E obesity.a. to eat.e. edification . ME eg or egge.Origins 916 edge . gnawed (prefix ob-). Comedere has pp comēsus. eatable. edificial. whence E edacious (-ious). edging. para 7 at edicere. through ME edifien. EAT. . whence LL adj comestibilis. and ācer. whence agent comestor. whence MF-F comestible. from edere. akis. sharp (cf EAGER). ON egg. ironically. to make a house: aedēs. OHG ekka. Obedere occurs only in pp obēsus. o/s edācitāt-. ‘To edify’. derives from OE ecg. thin’ (very rare). hence to improve (character). and Skt aśri. edacity. usu in pl comestibles. whence. OS eggia. o/s obēsitāt-. s ed-: f. a point. edict . Edere has two prefix-cpds relevant to E : comedere. Edible derives from LL edibilis. suitable for eating. Edere has derivative adj edāx. whence E obese. 3. from OE-MF edifier (F é-). 2. to eat com. hence the E n ‘suitable food’. whence edger. akin to OFris egg. See DICT. fat. and obedere. sharp.. edge. 1. derives. edible (whence edibility). derivative LL obēsitās. edifice. edacious. Gr akē.or entirely. hence a sword. also to L aciēs. voracious. edificatory. orig to build. for aedem facere. edify (whence pa edifying). from L aedificāre. and with derivative edācitās. MHG-G ecke.

para 7. editor (whence editorial. s aedificāt-. see FACT. See DULCET. educate. the E edifice. prob via MF-F. temporal DATE. akin to Gr aithein. para 2. and ēditor. ‘To edit’ comes from L ēditus. the E edition. hence a publisher. educable . the E edification. adj hence n). edition.—Cf OAST. to give (dare). the adj edificial comes from the derivative L aedificiālis. via OF-F. educator. See DUKE. esp for a newspaper or a textual editor.A-Z 917 orig a hearth.a. arises aedificātiō. to burn. perh via OF-F. a building. whence.arises aedificium. Edward . for facere. para 6 at ēducere. edit .e. the adj edificatory (-ory). a pub