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Byzantine Empire

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Byzantine Empire, Mary: “The Virgin Mary holding the Christ Child” [Credit: Dumbarton Oaks/Trustees for Harvard University, Washington, D.C.]Byzantine Empire: Byzantine Empire, ad 527 to ad 1360 [Credit: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.]the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived for a thousand years after the western half had crumbled into various feudal kingdoms and which finally fell to Ottoman Turkish onslaughts in 1453.

Byzantine emperors*
Zeno 474–491
Anastasius I 491–518
Justin I 518–527
Justinian I 527–565
Justin II 565–578
Tiberius II Constantine 578–582
Maurice 582–602
Phokas 602–610
Heraclius 610–641
Constantine III 641
Heraclonas 641
Constans II 641–668
Constantine IV 668–685
Justinian II 685–695
Leontius 695–698
Tiberius III 698–705
Justinian II (restored) 705–711
Philippikos Vardan 711–713
Anastasios II 713–715
Theodosios III 715–717
Leo III 717–741
Constantine V Copronymus 741–775
Leo IV 775–780
Constantine VI 780–797
Irene 797–802
Nikephoros I 802–811
Stauracius 811
Michael I Rhangabe 811–813
Leo V 813–820
Michael II 820–829
Theophilus 829–842
Michael III 842–867
Basil I 867–886
Leo VI 886–912
Alexander 912–913
Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus 913–959
Romanus I Lecapenus 920–944
Romanus II 959–963
Nicephorus II Phocas 963–969
John I Tzimisces 969–976
Basil II 976–1025
Constantine VIII 1025–28
Romanos III Argyros 1028–34
Michael IV 1034–41
Michael V 1041–42
Zoe and Theodora 1042
Constantine IX Monomachos 1042–55
Theodora 1055–56
Michael VI 1056–57
Isaac I Komnenos 1057–59
Constantine X Doukas 1059–67
Romanos IV Diogenes 1067–71
Michael VII Doukas 1071–78
Nikephoros III Botaneiates 1078–81
Alexios I Komnenos 1081–1118
John II Komnenos 1118–43
Manuel I Komnenos 1143–80
Alexios II Komnenos 1180–83
Andronikos I Komnenos 1183–85
Isaac II Angelos 1185–95
Alexios III Angelos 1195–1203
Isaac II Angelos (restored) and Alexios IV Angelos (joint ruler) 1203–04
Alexios V Murtzouphlos 1204
Latin emperors of Constantinople
Baldwin I 1204–06
Henry 1206–16
Peter 1217
Yolande (empress) 1217–19
Robert 1221–28
Baldwin II 1228–61
John 1231–37
Nicaean emperors
Constantine (XI) Lascaris 1204–05?
Theodore I Lascaris 1205?–22
John III Ducas Vatatzes 1222–54
Theodore II Lascaris 1254–58
John IV Lascaris 1258–61
Greek emperors restored
Michael VIII Palaeologus 1261–82
Andronicus II Palaeologus and Michael IX Palaeologus (joint ruler 1295–1320) 1282–1328
Andronicus III Palaeologus 1328–41
John V Palaeologus 1341–76
John VI Cantacuzenus 1347–54
Andronicus IV Palaeologus 1376–79
John V Palaeologus (restored) 1379–90
John VII Palaeologus 1390
John V Palaeologus (restored) 1390–91
Manuel II Palaeologus and John VIII Palaeologus (joint ruler 1421–25) 1391–1425
John VIII Palaeologus 1425–48
Constantine XI Palaeologus 1449–53
*For emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire (at Constantinople) before the fall of Rome, see Roman Republic and Empire.

The very name Byzantine illustrates the misconceptions to which the empire’s history has often been subject, for its inhabitants would hardly have considered the term appropriate to themselves or to their state. Theirs was, in their view, none other than the Roman Empire, founded shortly before the beginning of the Christian Era by God’s grace to unify his people in preparation for the coming of his Son. Proud of that Christian and Roman heritage, convinced that their earthly empire so nearly resembled the heavenly pattern that it could never change, they called themselves Romaioi, or Romans. Modern historians agree with them only in part. The term East Rome accurately described the political unit embracing the Eastern provinces of the old Roman Empire until 476, while there were yet two emperors. The same term may even be used until the last half of the 6th century, as long as men continued to act and think according to patterns not unlike ... (200 of 32,247 words)

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