Saturday, June 4, 2011

The Faith that Surpasses Every Understanding: Pagan Roots of Christianity:A Reply:Horus

The Faith that Surpasses Every Understanding

1.    The pagan roots of Christianity: A Reply
Part one: Horus

Mina Fouad

In the introduction of his book: "The Pagan Origins of Christianity ", writes Andre Knighton: "…. The Catholic Church did not recognize her pagan roots and origins up to this day…… the time has come to look today at Christianity in the light of the emerging studies on paganism"[1]

In fact, the first to put these theories is Godfrey Higgins (1772-1833), followed by Kersey Graves, who published his famous book "The World's Sixteen Crucified  Saviors", in 1875, after that, there have been writings by John G. Jackson , Tom Harpur , Acharya S , and others.

But the accuracy and validity of the information of these writings had been questioned not only by Christian scholars, but also by atheists, with the general consensus that these writings are non-scientific and non-credible, and among those who issued these books, starting from Higgins, there is no one, specialized in history or theology or religions, or even ancient civilizations.

This theory, which is called the copycat, (means: copy or imitation) is trying to put all the similarities between Jesus and Horus, Attis, Krishna, Mithra and Dionysius and others, on the basis that Christianity had adapted  the personal details and the life of Jesus from them.

In fact, we will not deal with all of these names we have mentioned, as a source of quoting the character of Jesus, but we will address only the most important of them: Horus and Mithras.

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The similarities, which are referred to between Horus and Jesus:
Horus was born  in the twenty-fifth of December, of a virgin called Isis, his star emerged in the east  he was worshipped by  Three Kings, was a teacher when he was twelve years old, , baptized at the age of thirty by Anob, was a master  for  twelve disciples, he performed miracles like walking on water, healing  the sick , he had titles such as the Lamb of God, Light, Good Shepherd, the truth  and the anointed Son of God, Horus was crucified , died and was raised from the dead after three days.

But what we do know about Horus?

Horus is the Greek  name of the Egyptian god: "Hor", one of the oldest gods in  ancient Egypt, his main shape was in the form of a falcon or a phoenix , he  was considered the embodiment of the Pharaoh in the life after death[2], he is the God of heaven and the  Royal god ,he  has two main forms, the greatest Horus, and  Horus the Child (Har Boqrat)[3], sometimes, they may be considered as separate gods belonging  to two distinct  era. In other times, they may be considered two shapes of one god.

Horus the elder is the one who started creation, and as a god of heaven, his wings are enlarged in the evening, and his eyes were the sun and the moon[4]. The falcon was the greatest symbol of Horus, and then it was related to the sun, in Egyptian inscriptions Horus was the god having a head of a falcon[5].

As for Horus the child, (or younger Horus), he is the son of Isis who grew up to take revenge for his father Osiris, to replace him as a ruler of Egypt, he is pictured in the shape of a man with a falcon head[6].

Myth of the birth of Horus

The text that contains this legend written in hieroglyphs has been found, on a tombstone, the piece is now preserved in Paris[7].

Legends agree that after the death of Osiris, Isis began to search for his body, having taken the form of a bird, flying almost non-stop, going here and there. She was crying in tears of grief, and finally found the body; the texts of the pyramids say that Nephthys (sister of Isis and the goddess of fate) was with her[8]. And by means of magic, Isis and Osiris returned to life and she conceived of Horus, whom she hid until he grew up and fought Seth murderer of his father and defeated him, but in the battle Horus lost his left eye (i.e. the moon) but cured by the god Thoth.

In  fact, it was not  a virgin pregnancy at all, one of the  Egyptian inscriptions, located in the temple of Isis at Philae  describes this pregnancy by a  drawing  of Isis in the form of a  Falcon  hovering around the penis of Osiris (see Figure 1), the myth also indicates that Seth,  after  murdering  Osiris ,  cut his body  into  fourteen  pieces  and distributed them to all parts of Egypt. Isis went to collect the parts of Osiris, and succeeded in collecting all the pieces except the penis of Osiris, where Seth threw in the river and was eaten by the fish, but Isis by magic, was able to find a substitute for the organ and had sex with Osiris and became pregnant with Horus. (Figure 2)[9]

Horus was not born of a virgin, the Egyptian texts do not also tell us that Horus had twelve disciples, or that he was born at the twenty-fifth of December, they do not tell us anything about his crucifixion or resurrection after three days.

These spurious writings indicate the presence of Egyptian inscriptions and texts supporting these claims, but at the same time do not provide us with any evidence or reference to these texts.
In fact, all the Pharaonic inscriptions have now been published and can be accessed easily.

[1] أندريه نايتون وآخرون، ترجمة سميرة عزمي الزين،الأصول الوثنية للمسيحية، منشورات المعهد الدولي للدراسات الإنسانية، ص15
[2] Margaret R. Bunson, Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Facts on File 2002, p. 172
[3] Geraldine Pinch, Handbook of Egyptian Mythology, ABC-CLIO 2002, p. 143
[4] Geraldine Pinch, Handbook of Egyptian Mythology, ABC-CLIO 2002, p. 143
[5] قاموس أديان ومعتقدات شعوب العالم، مكتبة دار الكلمة لوجوس 2004، ص241
[6] Geraldine Pinch, Handbook of Egyptian Mythology, ABC-CLIO 2002, p. 143, the English translation for the Hieroglyphic text of the Myth can be found in: E. A. Wallis Budge, Legends of the Gods: The Egyptian Texts edited with translations, Kegan Paul, Trench and Trübner & Co. Ltd. 1912
[7] E. A. Wallis Budge, Legends of the Gods, p. 47
[8] E. A. Wallis Budge, Legends of the Gods, p. 49

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