List of Marine Mammal Species & Subspecies

The Committee on Taxonomy, chaired by Bill Perrin, produced the first official Society for Marine Mammalogy list of marine mammal species and subspecies in 2010 and updates it regularly. Consensus on some issues was not possible; this is reflected in the footnotes. The list is revisited and possibly revised every few months reflecting the continuing flux in marine mammal taxonomy.

This version was updated in October 2014. This list can be cited as follows: “Committee on Taxonomy. 2014. List of marine mammal species and subspecies. Society for Marine Mammalogy,, consulted on [date].”

This list includes living and recently extinct (within historical times) species and subspecies, named and unnamed.  It is meant to reflect prevailing usage and recent revisions published in the peer-reviewed literature.  The Committee omits some described species and subspecies because of concern about their biological distinctness; reservations are given below. Author(s) and year of description of the species follow the Latin species name; when these are enclosed in parentheses, the species was originally described in a different genus. Classification and scientific names follow Rice (1998), with adjustments reflecting more recent literature. Common names are arbitrary and change with time and place; one or two currently frequently used names in English and/or a range language are given here.  Additional English common names and common names in French, Spanish, Russian and other languages are available at Species and subspecies are listed in alphabetical order within families.

Three recent papers suggest that new species- or subspecies-level taxonomic actions may be proposed shortly, for the fin whale (Archer et al. 2013), Bryde’s whale (Rosel and Wilcox 2014) and the South Asian river dolphin (Braulik et al. 2014). These will be addressed in future updates of the list.

Based on molecular and morphological data, the cetaceans fall firmly within the artiodactyl clade (Geisler and Uhen, 2005), and therefore we include them in the order Cetartiodactyla, with Cetacea, Mysticeti and Odontoceti provisionally as unranked taxa (recognizing that the classification within Cetartiodactyla remains partially unresolved — e.g., see Spaulding et al., 2009, Price et al., 2005; Agnarsson and May-Collado, 2008). Below the rank of order, we list only families, species and subspecies, omitting superfamilies, subfamilies and taxa of other ranks.

For pinnipeds we previously followed Berta and Churchill (2012). To avoid issues of paraphyly, these authors proposed that based on molecular and morphological data the genus Arctocephalus be limited to Arctocephalus pusillus, the type species of the genus Arctocephalus, and transferred the remaining ‘Arctocephalus‘ species (i.e. A. australis, A. galapagoensis, A. gazelle, A. philippii and A. tropicalis) to Arctophoca Peters, 1866.  However, Nyakatura and Bininda-Emonds (2012) compiled a new supertree of the Carnivora and concluded that this usage of Arctophoca may be premature because of remaining uncertainty about phylogenetic relationships, and we return provisionally to use of Arctocephalus for all the southern fur seals.

Four subspecies of A. australis were formerly listed here: A. a. australis, A. a. forsteri, A. a. gracilis and A. a un-named. However, Oliveira and Brownell (2014) synonymized A. a. gracilis with A. a. australis.The super-tree analysis by Nyakatura and Bininda-Emonds (2012) accords with the phylogenetic analysis of Higdon (2007), suggesting that the New Zealand fur seal  should be recongnized as a full species, A. forsteri. Two subspecies of A. philippii are thought to be biologically distinct: A. p. philippii and A. p. townsendi, although small sample sizes and a small number of genes sampled are concerns. Two subspecies of Eumetopias are supported largely on genetic data, which is also the case for recognition of California, Japanese and Galapagos sea lions as separate species. Brunner (2004) advised use of Otaria byronia (Blainville, 1820) over O. flavescens (Shaw, 1800).

Lindqvist et al. (2009) concluded that a purported third subspecies of the walrus Odobenus rosmarus laptevi is not warranted.

Recent genetic analyses indicate that Phoca vitulina concolor is paraphyletic and this along with lack of morphological differentiation suggests that the western Atlantic subspecies is not supportable; P. v. vitulina is considered here to apply to all Atlantic harbor seals. Within the North Pacific, until the subspecies limits of various populations are assessed only a single subspecies is recognized, Phoca vitulina richardii. Placement of the ringed seal, Caspian seal and Baikal seal has alternated between the genera Phoca and Pusa. We accept Rice’s (1998) use of Pusa as the correct classification.” Scheel et al. (2014) found the Caribbean and Hawaiian monks to be more closely related molecularly and morphologically to each other than either is to the Mediterranean monk seal and created the new genus Neomonachus for the two species.

Derocher and Stirling (1998) argued convincingly that patterns of variation in the polar bear do not support recognition of subspecies, and they have been deleted here.

The use of Lontra rather than Lutra for the marine otter follows Larivière (1998) in recognizing the otters of North and South America as a monophyletic taxon distinct from the otters of Eurasia.

In the mysticete cetaceans, molecular evidence strongly supports the recognition of three separate phylogenetic species of right whales (Rosenbaum et al., 2000; Gaines et al., 2005). In addition, the genus Eubalaena (rather than Balaena as in Rice, 1998) is retained for the right whales as recommended by the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission (IWC, 2002).

Caperea marginata may be a member of the family Cetotheriidae (Fordyce and Marx 2012). Neobalaenidae is retained here provisionally.

Jackson et al. (2014) have recognized three subspecies of the humpback whale based on mtDNA and DNA relationships and distribution: Megaptera novaeangliae kuzira (North Pacific), M. n. novaeangliae (North Atlantic) and M. n. australis (Southern Hemisphere).

All Bryde’s whales are provisionally considered to comprise a single species, Balaenoptera edeni, following the usage of the IWC (IWC 2002, 2008) and Kato and Perrin (2009). Some workers recognize B. edeni as including only the small-form coastal Bryde’s whales of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, using B. brydei for the globally distributed larger more oceanic form (Sasaki et al., 2006). Kato and Perrin (2009) and Kershaw et al. (2013) considered these more likely to be distinct at the subspecific level (although arguably at the species level), and they are included here provisionally as such.

Balaenoptera omurai was described by Wada et al. (2003). It was previously confounded with the Bryde’s whale and has been confirmed as having a separate and ancient lineage (Sasaki et al. 2006).

Clarke (2004) proposed recognition of a pygmy form of the fin whale as a subspecies, based on distribution, size and coloration. He resurrected the synonym patachonica Burmeister, 1865 to apply to the subspecies: B. physalus patachonica.

Branch et al. (2007) recognized the Chilean blue whale as an un-named subspecies of B. musculus.

In the odontocetes, Mesoplodon traversii (spade-toothed whale) has been recognized as the senior synonym for M. bahamondi (Bahamonde’s beaked whale) (van Helden et al., 2002). The first complete specimen was recently described from a stranding on the North Island of New Zealand (Thompson et al. 2012). Mesoplodon perrini was described by in 2002 (Dalebout et al., 2002).  Dalebout et al. (2014 resurrected Mesoplodon hotaula Deraniyagala, 1963, a species closely similar to M. ginkgodens.

The species Inia boliviensis d’Orbigny 1834 of the Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, Beni and Pando areas of the Bolivian Amazon basin overlaps with other Inia in all morphological characters (da Silva, 1994; Ruiz-García et al., 2006). It putatively has been reproductively isolated by a long series of rapids for an estimated 3.1 million years (Hollatz et al., 2011), and two independent lines of genetic evidence, from mtDNA and nuclear introns (Banguera-Hinestroza et al., 2008; Ruiz-García et al., 2008), suggest that they are on separate evolutionary trajectories and deserve recognition as phylogenetic species. However, Gravena et al. (2014), with much better sampling of the Madeira River system above and below the Teotonio Rapids (the proposed barrier to movement of individuals and gene flow) found that these rapids did not appear to obstruct movement of mtDNA. Thus, the conclusion that the Bolivian Inia above the Teotonio Rapids possessed unique mtDNA (a major line of evidence for recognizing species-level distinctness of I. boliviensis) does not appear to be supported by more extensive sampling. Another new species, Inia araguaiaensis, was described by Hrbek et al. (2014).  However, this study only examined samples from two extremes of the distribution of Inia so is it unclear if the molecular differences observed represented real species-level separation or were due to sampling from two locations separated by a large distance. Diagnostic osteological differences were also reported. However, because this was based on the examination of very few specimens (only 2 for the new species and only 9 for I. geoffrensis), the authors’ conclusions are very concerning. In light of these arguments, the two species here remain unlisted provisionally.

Robineau et al. (2007) described the subspecies Cephalorhynchus commersonii kerguelenensis, and A. Baker et al. (2002) described C. hectori maui. The tucuxi has been split into the freshwater Sotalia fluviatilis (retaining the common name tucuxi) and the marine Guiana dolphin S. guianensis (see Caballero et al. 2007).

Based on a combined analysis of genetic and morphological data, Mendez et al. (2013) propose to recognize four species of Sousa (the humpback dolphins): the previously here-listed S. teuszii and S. chinensis plus S. plumbea and a new un-named species from northern Australia that was originally proposed by Frère et al. (2008, 2011) based on molecular data. A drawback of the phylogenetic analyses by Mendez et al. (2013) is that there was only one sample from the area of supposed sympatry of S. plumbea and S. chinensis and very low coverage of the Indo-Malay region (n=5). The two species are listed here provisionally, pending the outcome of further analysis including more samples from those areas. The new species from Australia has now been given the name Sousa sahulensis (Jefferson and Rosenbaum 2014).

The Burrunan dolphin Tursiops australis, recently described by Charlton-Robb et al. (2011), is not included here; its basis is questionable because of several potential problems:  1) the specimens were compared morphologically only with bottlenose dolphins from Australia;;2) despite the small sample sizes, the series overlapped in all metric characters and separation was possible only with multivariate analysis (which commonly resolves geographical forms within a species, e.g see Perrin et al. (1999) and Perrin et al. (2011) for Stenella longirostris and Tursiops truncatus, respectively). ,3) comparisons of external morphology and non-metrical characters were made only with T. truncatus, to the exclusion of T. aduncus; and4) support for important nodes in molecular trees suggesting phylogenetic separation was low. A rigorous re-evaluation of the relevant data and arguments is needed.

Recognition of the Black Sea bottlenose dolphin is now well-supported by genetic data (Viaud-Martinez et al., 2008), as is the Black Sea common dolphin (Natoli et al., 2008). Delphinus tropicalis is considered a subspecies of D. capensis (Jefferson and Van Waerebeek, 2002).

Lagenorhynchus is widely considered a polyphyletic taxon containing morphologically convergent species (Cipriano 1997, LeDuc et al. 1999, McGowen 2011), and application of the genera Sagmatias (for L. obscurus, obliquidens, australis and cruciger) and Leucopleurus (for L. acutus) have been suggested as appropriate and used by some workers. However, there is continuing disagreement about whether australis and cruciger should be included in Cephalorhynchus (which would necessitate a new genus for obliquidens and obscurus, as australis is the type species for the genus Sagmatias) and about whether albirostris and acutus are sister species (which would obviate the need for Leucopleurus). We therefore provisionally retain all the species in Lagenorhynchus. Harlin-Cognato (2010) recognized L. o. posidonia (Peru/Chile). She also recognized L. o. superciliosis (Lesson and Garnot, 1826) for the New Zealand subspecies, but the species identity of the figure in Lesson and Garnot is in question, and we retain use of “un-named New Zealand subspecies.”

It has been noted repeatedly, most recently by Perrin et al. (2013), that the delphinine genera Stenella and Tursiops are paraphyletic and that at present there is no molecular or morphological basis for satisfactory resolution of phylogenetic relationships in the subfamily. A possible solution would be to return all the species in Tursiops, Sousa, and Stenella to Delphinus, the genus in which they were first described, and place Lagenodelphis hosei there as well. However, considering that this would obscure the proven close relationship of the present Delphinus species and of the Sousa species, the status quo is maintained here provisionally, pending the outcome of more definitive morphological and molecular studies. Eventually a more natural classification will emerge.

Perrin et al. (1999) established the subspecies Stenella longirostris roseiventris.

The Irrawaddy dolphin was split into O. brevirostris and O. heinsohni, the Australian snubfin dolphin (Beasley et al., 2005).

Krahn et al. (2004) recognized two un-named subspecies of killer whales, the resident and transient forms. The Southern Resident Killer Whale was designated in 2005 as Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, as a distinct population segment (DPS) of the resident killer whale taxon, recognized as a subspecies distinct from the transient killer whale. Other forms of killer whales in the North Pacific, North Atlantic and Antarctic Ocean may warrant recognition as separate subspecies or even species, but the taxonomy has not yet been fully clarified or agreed (Morin et al. 2010; Foote et al. 2009, 2013). As noted by Reeves et al. (2004), one role of a subspecies can be to serve as a “species in waiting” pending availability of enough information to settle species questions.

Wang et al. (2008) and Jefferson and Wang (2011) established Neophocaena asiaeorientalis as a full species, with two subspecies.

Viaud-Martinez et al. (2007) concluded based on morphological and genetic evidence that Phocoena phocoena relicta is a distinct subspecies.

We list the baiji Lipotes vexillifer as “possibly extinct” in conformance with the IUCN Red List, although extinction seems a certainty.

In the Sirenia, subspecies of the dugong are not currently recognized (Domning, 1996). However, no in-depth study has been undertaken to address the issue of subspecies.

For review of species concepts, see Reeves et al. (2004), Orr and Coyne (2004), de Queiroz (2007) and Perrin (2009).  Perrin et al. (2009) reviewed the cetacean subspecies, but that review has not yet appeared in the peer-reviewed literature and is therefore not considered here; the subspecies (including for the Carnivora and Sirenia) are as recognized by Rice (1998), with the above-noted changes.

Corrections and comments should be directed to the Committee on Taxonomy (  Divergent opinions by members of the Committee on particular taxonomic questions are given in the footnotes.

Order Carnivora

Family Otariidae (eared seals and sea lions; 15 species, of which 1 extinct)

Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783). South American fur seal

  A. a. australis (Zimmermann, 1783). South American fur seal

  A. a. un-named subspecies. Peruvian fur seal

Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson, 1828). Long-nosed fur seal, New Zealand fur seal

Arctocephalus galapagoensis Heller, 1904. Galapagos fur seal

Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1876). Antarctic fur seal

Arctocephalus philippii (Peters, 1866). Juan Fernandez fur seal

  A. p. philippii (Peters, 1866). Juan Fernandez fur seal

  A. p. townsendi (Merriam, 1897). Guadalupe fur seal

Arctocephalus pusillus (Schreber, 1775). Cape fur seal

  A. p. pusillus (Schreber, 1775). Cape fur seal

  A. p. doriferus Wood Jones, 1925. Australian fur seal

Arctocephalus tropicalis (Gray, 1872). Subantarctic fur seal

Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus, 1758). Northern fur seal

Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776). Steller sea lion, northern sea lion

   E. j. jubatus (Schreber, 1776). Western Steller sea lion

   E. j. monteriensis (Gray, 1859). Loughlin’s Steller sea lion

Neophoca cinerea (Peron, 1816). Australian sea lion

Otaria byronia (Blainville, 1820). South American sea lion

Phocarctos hookeri (Gray, 1844). New Zealand sea lion, Hooker’s sea lion

Zalophus californianus (Lesson, 1828). California sea lion

Zalophus japonicus (Peters, 1866). Japanese sea lion (extinct)

Zalophus wollebaeki Sivertsen, 1953. Galapagos sea lion

Family Odobenidae

Odobenus rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758). Walrus

  O. r. divergens (Illiger, 1815). Pacific walrus

  O. r. rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758). Atlantic walrus

Family Phocidae (earless seals; 19 species, of which 1 extinct)

Cystophora cristata (Erxleben, 1777). Hooded seal

Erignathus barbatus (Erxleben, 1777). Bearded seal

   E. b. barbatus (Erxleben, 1777). Atlantic bearded seal

   E. b. nauticus (Pallas, 1881). Pacific bearded seal

Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius, 1791). Gray seal

  H. g. grypus (Fabricius, 1791). Western Atlantic gray seal

  H. g. macrorhynchus Hornschuh and Schilling, 1851. Eastern Atlantic gray seal

Histriophoca fasciata (Zimmerman, 1783). Ribbon seal

Hydrurga leptonyx (Blainville, 1820). Leopard seal

Leptonychotes weddellii (Lesson, 1826). Weddell seal

Lobodon carcinophaga (Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842). Crabeater seal

Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus, 1758). Southern elephant seal

Mirounga angustirostris (Gill, 1866). Northern elephant seal

Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779). Mediterranean monk seal

Neomonachus tropicalis (Gray, 1850). Caribbean monk seal (extinct)

Neomonachus schauinslandi (Matschie, 1905). Hawaiian monk seal

Ommatophoca rossii Gray, 1844. Ross seal

Pagophilus groenlandicus (Erxleben, 1777). Harp seal

Phoca vitulina (Linnaeus, 1758). Harbor seal, common seal

   P. v. vitulina (Linnaeus, 1758). Atlantic harbor seal

   P. v. mellonae (Doutt, 1942). Ungava harbor seal

   P. v. richardii (Gray, 1864). Pacific harbor seal

Phoca largha (Pallas, 1811). Spotted seal, largha seal

Pusa hispida (Schreber, 1775). Ringed seal

  P. h. hispida (Schreber, 1775). Arctic Ringed seal

  P. h. botnica (Gmelin, 1788). Baltic ringed seal

  P. h. ochotensis (Nordquist, 1889). Okhotsk ringed seal

  P. h. ladogensis (Nordquist, 1889). Lake Ladoga seal

  P. h. saimensis (Nordquist, 1889). Saima seal

Pusa caspica (Gmelin, 1788). Caspian seal

Pusa sibirica (Gmelin, 1788).  Baikal seal

Family Ursidae

Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774. Polar bear

Family Mustelidae

Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758). Sea otter

  E. l. kenyoni Wilson, 1991. Eastern sea otter

  E. l. lutris (Linnaeus, 1758). Western sea otter

  E. l. nereis (Merriam, 1904). Southern sea otter

Lontra felina (Molina, 1782). Chungungo, marine otter

Neovison macrodon (Prentis, 1903). Sea mink (extinct)

Order Cetartiodactyla (artiodactyls and cetaceans)

CETACEA (cetaceans; 90 species, of which 1 possibly extinct)

MYSTICETI (baleen whales, 14 species)

Family Balaenidae (right whales, 4 species)

Balaena mysticetus Linnaeus, 1758. Bowhead whale, Greenland whale

Eubalaena glacialis (Müller, 1776). North Atlantic right whale

Eubalaena japonica (Lacépède, 1818). North Pacific right whale

Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822). Southern right whale

Family Neobalaenidae

Caperea marginata (Gray, 1846). Pygmy right whale

Family Eschrichtiidae

Eschrichtius robustus (Lilljeborg, 1861). Gray whale

Family Balaenopteridae (rorquals, 8 species)

Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804. Common minke whale

  B. a. acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804. North Atlantic minke whale

  B. a. scammoni Deméré, 1986. North Pacific minke whale

  B. a. un-named subsp. Dwarf minke whale

Balaenoptera bonaerensis Burmeister, 1867. Antarctic minke whale

Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828. Sei whale

  B. b. borealis Lesson, 1828. Northern sei whale

  B. b. schlegellii (Flower, 1865). Southern sei whale

Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879. Bryde’s whale

  B. e. brydei Olsen, 1913. Offshore Bryde’s whale

  B. e. edeni Anderson, 1879. Eden’s whale

Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758). Blue whale

  B. m. musculus (Linnaeus, 1758). Northern blue whale

  B. m. intermedia Burmeister, 1871. Antarctic blue whale

  B. m. indica Blyth, 1859. Northern Indian Ocean blue whale

  B. m. brevicauda Ichihara, 1966. Pygmy blue whale

  B. m. un-named subsp. Chilean blue whale.

Balaenoptera omurai Wada, Oishi and Yamada, 2003. Omura’s whale

Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758). Fin whale

  B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. Pygmy fin whale

  B. p. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758). Northern fin whale

  B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829). Southern fin whale

Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781). Humpback whale

  M. n. australis (Lesson, 1828). Southern humpback whale

  M. n. kuzira (Gray, 1850). North Pacific Humpback whale

  M. n. novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781). North Atlantic humpback whale

ODONTOCETI (toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises: 76 species, of which one possibly extinct)

Family Physeteridae

Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758. Sperm whale, cachalot

Family Kogiidae

Kogia breviceps (Blainville, 1838). Pygmy sperm whale

Kogia sima (Owen, 1866). Dwarf sperm whale

Family Ziphiidae (beaked whales, 22 species)

Berardius arnuxii Duvernoy, 1851. Arnoux’ beaked whale

Berardius bairdii Stejneger, 1883. Baird’s beaked whale

Hyperoodon ampullatus (Forster, 1770). Northern bottlenose whale

Hyperoodon planifrons Flower, 1882. Southern bottlenose whale

Indopacetus pacificus (Longman, 1926). Longman’s beaked whale, tropical bottlenose whale,

Mesoplodon bidens (Sowerby, 1804). Sowerby’s beaked whale

Mesoplodon bowdoini Andrews, 1908. Andrews’ beaked whale

Mesoplodon carlhubbsi Moore, 1963. Hubbs’ beaked whale

Mesoplodon europaeus (Gervais, 1855). Gervais’ beaked whale

Mesoplodon ginkgodens Nishiwaki and Kamiya, 1958. Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale

Mesoplodon grayi von Haast, 876. Gray’s beaked whale

Mesoplodon hectori (Gray, 1871). Hector’s beaked whale

Mesoplodon hotaula Deraniyagala, 1963. Deraniyagala’s beaked whale.

Mesoplodon layardii (Gray, 1865). Strap-toothed beaked whale, Layard’s beaked whale

Mesoplodon mirus True, 1913. True’s beaked whale

Mesoplodon perrini Dalebout, Mead, Baker, Baker and van Helden, 2002. Perrin’s beaked whale

Mesoplodon peruvianus Reyes, Mead and Van Waerebeek, 1991. Pygmy beaked whale

Mesoplodon stejnegeri True, 1885. Stejneger’s beaked whale

Mesoplodon traversii (Gray, 1874). Spade-toothed whale

Mesoplodon densirostris (Blainville, 1817). Blainville’s beaked whale

Tasmacetus shepherdi Oliver, 1937. Shepherd’s beaked whale, Tasman beaked whale

Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier, 1823. Cuvier’s beaked whale, goose-beaked whale

Family Platanistidae

Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801). South Asian river dolphin, Indian river dolphin

  P. g. gangetica (Lebeck, 1801). Susu, Ganges river dolphin

  P. g. minor Owen, 1853. Bhulan, Indus river dolphin

Family Iniidae

Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817). Amazon river dolphin

  I. g. geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817). Common boto

  I. g. humboldtiana Pilleri and Gihr, 1977. Orinoco bufeo

Family Lipotidae

Lipotes vexillifer (Miller, 1918). Baiji, Yangtze river dolphin – possibly extinct

Family Pontoporiidae

Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d’Orbigny, 1844). Franciscana, toninha.

Family Monodontidae

Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas, 1776). Beluga, white whale

Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758. Narwhal

Family Delphinidae (38 species)

Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacépède, 1804). Commerson’s dolphin

  C. c. commersonii (Lacépède, 1804). Commerson’s dolphin

  C. c. kerguelenensis Robineau, Goodall, Pichler and C. S. Baker, 2007. Kerguelen Islands Commerson’s dolphin

Cephalorhynchus eutropia (Gray, 1846). Chilean dolphin

Cephalorhynchus heavisidii (Gray, 1828). Heaviside’s dolphin, Haviside’s dolphin

Cephalorhynchus hectori (Van Beneden, 1881). Hector’s dolphin, New Zealand dolphin

  C. h. hectori (Van Beneden, 1881). South Island Hector’s dolphin

  C. h. maui A. Baker, Smith and Pichler, 2002. Maui’s dolphin, North Island Hector’s dolphin

Delphinus capensis Gray, 1828. Long-beaked common dolphin

  D. c. capensis Gray, 1828. Long-beaked common dolphin

  D. c. tropicalis van Bree, 1971. Indo-Pacific common dolphin

Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758. Short-beaked common dolphin, saddleback dolphin

  D. d. delphis Linnaeus, 1758. Short-beaked common dolphin

  D. d. ponticus Barabash, 1935. Black Sea common dolphin

Feresa attenuata Gray, 1874. Pygmy killer whale

Globicephala macrorhynchus Gray, 1846. Short-finned pilot whale

Globicephala melas (Traill, 1809). Long-finned pilot whale

  G. m. edwardii (A. Smith, 1834). Southern long-finned pilot whale

  G. m. melas (Traill, 1809). North Atlantic long-finned pilot whale

  G. m. un-named subsp. North Pacific long-finned pilot whale (extinct)

Grampus griseus (G. Cuvier, 1812). Risso’s dolphin, gray grampus

Lagenodelphis hosei Fraser, 1956. Fraser’s dolphin

Lagenorhynchus acutus (Gray, 1828). Atlantic white-sided dolphin

Lagenorhynchus albirostris (Gray, 1846). White-beaked dolphin

Lagenorhynchus australis (Peale, 1848). Peale’s dolphin

Lagenorhynchus cruciger (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824). Hourglass dolphin

Lagenorhynchus obliquidens Gill, 1865. Pacific white-sided dolphin

Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Gray, 1828). Dusky dolphin

  L. o. fitzroyi (Waterhouse, 1838). Fitzroy’s dolphin

  L. o. obscurus (Gray, 1828). African dusky dolphin

  L. o. posidonia (Philippi, 1893). Peruvian/Chilean dusky dolphin

  L. o. un-named subsp. New Zealand dusky dolphin

Lissodelphis borealis (Peale, 1848). Northern right-whale dolphin

Lissodelphis peronii (Lacépède, 1804). Southern right-whale dolphin

Orcaella brevirostris (Owen in Gray, 1866). Irrawaddy dolphin, pesut

Orcaella heinsohni Beasley, Robertson and Arnold, 2005. Australian snubfin dolphin

Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758). Killer whale, orca

  O. o. un-named subsp. Resident killer whale

  O. o. un-named subsp. Transient killer whale, Bigg’s killer whale

Peponocephala electra (Gray, 1846). Melon-headed whale, Electra dolphin

Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, 1846). False killer whale

Sousa teuszii (Kükenthal, 1892). Atlantic humpback dolphin

Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765). Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin

Sousa plumbea (G. Cuvier, 1829). Indian Ocean humpback dolphin

Sousa sahulensis Jefferson and Rosenbaum 2014. Australian humpback dolphin, Sahul dolphin

Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais and Deville in Gervais, 1853). Tucuxi

Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénedén, 1864). Guiana dolphin, costero

Stenella attenuata (Gray, 1846). Pantropical spotted dolphin

   S. a. attenuata (Gray, 1846). Offshore pantropical spotted dolphin

  S. a. graffmani (Lönnberg, 1934). Coastal pantropical spotted dolphin

Stenella clymene (Gray, 1850). Clymene dolphin

Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833). Striped dolphin

Stenella frontalis (G. Cuvier, 1829). Atlantic spotted dolphin

Stenella longirostris (Gray, 1828). Spinner dolphin

  S. l. centroamericana Perrin, 1990. Central American spinner dolphin

  S. l. longirostris (Gray, 1828). Gray’s spinner dolphin

  S. l. orientalis Perrin, 1990. Eastern spinner dolphin

  S. l. roseiventris (Wagner, 1846). Dwarf spinner dolphin

Steno bredanensis (G. Cuvier in Lesson, 1828). Rough-toothed dolphin

Tursiops aduncus (Ehrenberg, 1833). Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin

Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821). Common bottlenose dolphin

  T. t. ponticus Barabash-Nikiforov, 1940. Black Sea bottlenose dolphin

  T. t. truncatus (Montagu, 1821). Common bottlenose dolphin

Family Phocoenidae (porpoises, 7 species)

Neophocaena phocaenoides (G. Cuvier, 1829). Indo-Pacific finless porpoise

Neophocaena asiaeorientalis (Pilleri and Gihr, 1972). Narrow-ridged finless porpoise

  N. a. asiaeorientalis (Pilleri and Gihr, 1972). Yangtze finless porpoise

  N. a. sunameri Pilleri and Gihr, 1975. East Asian finless porpoise, sunameri

Phocoena dioptrica Lahille, 1912. Spectacled porpoise

Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758). Harbor por-poise, common porpoise

  P. p. phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758). Atlantic harbor porpoise

  P. p. vomerina (Gill, 1865). Eastern Pacific harbor porpoise

  P. p. relicta Abel, 1905. Black Sea harbor porpoise

  P. p. un-named subsp. Western Pacific harbor porpoise

Phocoena sinus Norris and McFarland, 1958. Vaquita, Gulf of California harbor porpoise

Phocoena spinipinnis Burmeister, 1865. Burmeister’s porpoise

Phocoenoides dalli (True, 1885). Dall’s porpoise, Dall porpoise

  P. d. dalli (True, 1885). Dalli-type Dall’s porpoise

  P. d. truei Andrews, 1911. Truei-type Dall’s porpoise

ORDER SIRENIA (sirenians, 5 species, of which 1 extinct)

Family Trichechidae

Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883). Amazonian manatee

Trichechus manatus Linnaeus, 1758. West Indian manatee

  T. m. latirostris (Harlan, 1824). Florida manatee

  T. m. manatus Linnaeus, 1758. Antillean manatee

Trichechus senegalensis Link, 1795. West African manatee, African manatee

Family Dugongidae

Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776). Dugong

Hydrodamalis gigas (Zimmerman, 1780). Steller’s sea cow – extinct



1 Use of Order Cetartiodactyla is favored by most evolutionary mammalogists working with molecular data. Some others, including many marine mammalogists and paleontologists, favor retention of Order Cetacea in the interest of taxonomic stability.

2 (from D. Rice) Baker et al. (2003) hold that there is no evidence that would support the classification of the right whales as more than a single biological species.  [The three species are here recognized as phylogenetic species.]


Agnarsson, I. and L. J. May-Collado. 2008. The phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla: the importance of dense taxon sampling, missing data, and the remarkable promise of cytochrome b to provide reliable species-level phylogenies. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48:964—985.

Archer, F. I., P. A. Morin, B. L. Hancock-Hanser, K. M. Robertson, M. S. Leslie, M. Berube, S. Panigada and B. L. Taylor. 2013. Mitogenomic phylogenetics of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.): genetic evidence for revision of subspecies. Plos One 8(5). Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063396.

Baker, A. N., A. N. H. Smith, and F. B. Pichler. 2002. Geographical variation in Hector’s dolphin : recognition of a new subspecies of Cephalorhynchus hectori. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 32:713—727.

Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M  D., R. S. Hoffman, C. A Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice and C. Jones. 2003. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1—24.

Banguera-Hinestroza, E., M. Cárdenas, M. Ruiz-García, M. Marmontel, E. Gaitán, R. Vázquez and F. García-Vallejo. 2008. Molecular identification of evolutionarily significant units in the Amazon river dolphin Inia sp. (Cetacea: Iniidae). Journal of Heredity 93:313—322.

Beasley, I., K. M. Robertson and P. Arnold.  2005.  Description of a new dolphin, the Australian snubfin dolphin Orcaella heinsohni sp. n. (Cetacea: Delphinidae).  Marine Mammal Science 21: 365–400.

Berta, A. and M. Churchill. 2012. Pinniped taxonomy: review of currently recognized species and subspecies, and evidence used for their description. Mammal Review 42:207—234.

Branch, T. A., E. M. N. Abubaker, S. Mkango and D. S. Butterworth. 2007. Separating southern blue whale subspecies based on length frequencies of sexually mature females. Marine Mammal Science 23:803—833.

Braulik, G. T., R. Barnett, V. Odon, V. Islas-Villanueva, A. R. Hoelzel and J. A. Graves. 2014. One species or two? Vicariance, lineage divergence and low mtDNA diversity in geographically isolated populations of South Asia river dolphin. Journal of Mammal Evolution doi 10.1007/s10914-926-6.

Brunner, S. 2004. Fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae): identification of species and taxonomic review. Systematics and Biodiversity 1:339—439.

Caballero, S., F. Trujillo, J. A. Vianna, H. Barrios-Garrido, M. G. Montiel, S. Beltrán-Pedreros, M. Marmontel, M. C. Santos, M. Rossi-Santos, F. R. Santos, and C. S. Baker.  2007.  Taxonomic status of the genus Sotalia: species-level ranking for “tucuxi” (Sotalia fluviatilis) and “costero” (Sotalia guianensis) dolphins.  Marine Mammal Science 23: 358–386.

Charlton-Robb, K., L. Gershwin, R. Thompson, J. Austin, K. Owen and S. McKechnie. 2011. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan dolphin Tursiops australis sp. Nov., endemic to southern Australian waters. PLoS ONE 6(0): e24047.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024047.

Cipriano, F. 1997. Antitropical distriubitions and speciation in dolphins of the genus Lagenorhynchus: a preliminary analysis. Pages 305—316 in A. E. Dizon, S. J. Chivers and W. F. Perrin (eds). Molecular genetics of marine mammals. Society for Marine Mammalogy Special Publication 3.

Clarke, R. 2004. Pygmy fin whales. Marine Mammal Science 20:329—334.

Dalebout, M. L., J. G. Mead, C. S. Baker, A. N. Baker, and A. L. van Helden.  2002.  A new species of beaked whale Mesoplodon perrini sp. n. (Cetacea: Ziphiidae) discovered through phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Marine Mammal Science 18:577–608.

Dalebout, M. L, S. C. Baker, D. Steel, K. Thompson, K. M. Robertson, S. J. Chivers, W. F. Perrin, M. Goonatilake, R. C. Anderson, J. G. Mead, C. W. Potter, L. Thompson, D. Jupiter and T. K. Yamada. 2014. Resurrection of Mesoplodon hotaula Deraniyagala 1963: a new species of beaked whale in the tropical Indo-Pacific.  Marine Mammal Science 30:1081—1108.

Dasmahapatra, K. K., J. I. Hoffman and W. Amos. 2009. Pinniped phylogenetic relationships inferred using AFLP markers. Heredity 103:168—177.

Derocher, A. E. and I. Stirling. 1998. Geographic variation in growth of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Zoology 245:65—72.

Domning, D. 1996. Bibliography and index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 80:1—611.

Foot, A. D., J. Newton, S. B. Piertney, E. Willersley, and M. T. P. Gilbert. 2009. Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of sympatric North Atlantic killer whale populations. Molecular Ecology 18:5207—5217.

Foote, A. D., J.  Newton, M. C. Ávila-Arcos, M.-L. Kampmann, J. A. Samaniego, K. Post, A. Rosing-Asvid, M.-H.S. Sinding and M. T. P. Gilbert. 2013. Tracking niche variation over millennial timescales in sympatric killer whale lineages. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 280:20131481.

Fordyce,  R. E. and F. G. Marx. 2012. The pygmy right whale Caperea marginata: last of the cetotheres. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280:20122645.

Frère, C. H., P. Hale, L. Porter, V. G. Cockcroft and M. L. Dalebout. 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences suggests revision of humpback dolphin (Sousa spp.) taxonomy is needed. Marine and Freshwater Research 59:259—268.

Frère, C. H., J. Seddon,  C. Palmer , L. Porter and  G. J. Parra. 2011. Multiple lines of evidence for an Australasian geographicboundary in the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis): population or species divergence? Conservation Genetics 12: 1633-1638.

Gaines, C. A., M. P. Hare, S. E. Beck and H. C. Rosenbaum. 2005. Nuclear markers confirm taxonomic status and relationships among highly endangered and closely related right whale species. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 272:533—542.

Geisler, J. H. and M. D. Uhen. 2005.Phylogenetic relationships of extinct cetartiodactyls: results of simultaneous analyses of molecular, morphological, and stratigraphic data.  Journal of Mammalian Evolution 12:145–160.

Gravena, W., I.P. Farias, M.N.F. da Silva,V.M.F. da Silva and T. Hrbek. 2014. Looking into the past and the future: were the Madeira River rapids a geographical barrier to the boto (Cetacea: Iniidae)? Conservation Genetics 15:619—629.

Harlin-Cognato, A. D. 2010. The dusky dolphin’s place in the delphinid family tree. Pages 1—20 in B. Würsig and M. Würsig (eds). The dusky dolphin. Master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, Amsterdam.

van Helden, A. L., A. N. Baker, M. L. Dalebout, J. C. Reyes, K. Van Waerebeek, and C. S. Baker.  2002.  Resurrection of Mesoplodon traversii (Gray, 1874), senior synonym of M. bahamondi Reyes, Van Waerebeek, Cárdenas and Yáñez, 1995 (Cetacea: Ziphiidae). Marine Mammal Science 18:609–621.

Higdon, J. W., O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds, R. M. Beck and S. H. Ferguson. 2007. Phylogeny and divergence of the pinnipeds (Carnivora, Mammalia) assessed using a multigene dataset. BMC  Evolutionary Biology 7:216.

Hollatz, C., S. Torres Vilaça, R. A. F. Redondo, M. Marmontel, C. S. Baker and F. R. Santos. 2011. The Amazon River system as an ecological barrier driving genetic differentiation of the pink dolphin (Inia geoffrensis). Biological Journal of the Linnaen Society 102:812—827.

Hrbek, T., V. M. F. da Silva, N. Dutra, W. Gravena, A. R. Martin and I. P. Farias. 2014. A new species of river dolphin from Brazil or: how little do we know our biodiversity. PLOS ONE 9(1):e83623.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083623.

International Whaling Commission.  2001. Report of the Scientific Committee. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3, Supplement:1–75.

International Whaling Commission. 2008. Report of the Scientific Committee. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 10, Supplement: 1–406.

Jackson, J. A., D. J. Steel, P. Beerli, B. C. Congdon, C. Olavarria, M. S. Leslie, C. Pomilla, H. Rosenbaum and C. S. Baker. 2014. Global diversity and oceanic divergence of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281, 20133222:1—10.

Jefferson, T.A. and Rosenbaum, H.C. 2014. Taxonomic revision of the humpback dolphins (Sousa spp.), and description of a new species from Australia. Marine Mammal Science 30: 1494-1541.

Jefferson, T. A. and K. Van Waerebeek. 2002. The taxonomic status of the nominal species Delphinus tropicalis van Bree, 1971.  Marine Mammal Science 18:787–818.

Jefferson, T. A. and J. Y. Wang. 2011. Revision of the taxonomy of finless porpoises (genus Neophocaena): the existence of two species. Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 4:3—16.

Kato, H. and W. F. Perrin. 2009. Bryde’s whales Balaenoptera edeni/brydei. Pages 158—163 in W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig and J. G. M. Thewissen, eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, Amsterdam.

Kershaw, F., M. S. Leslie, T. Collins, R. M. Mansur, B. D. Smith, G. Minton, R. Baldwin, R. G. LeDuc, R. C. Anderson, R. L. Brownell, Jr. and H. C. Rosenbaum. 2013. Population differentiation of 2 forms of Bryde’s whales in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Journal of Heredity doi:10.1093/jhered/est057.

Krahn, M., M. J. Ford, W. F. Perrin, P. R. Wade, R. P. Angliss, M. B. Hanson, B. L. Taylor, G. M. Ylitalo, M. E. Dahlheim, J. E. Stein and R. S. Waples. 2004 Status Review of Southern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) under the Endangered Species Act. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-62. 73pp.

Larivière, S. 1998. Lontra felina. Mammalian Species 575:1–5.

Lindqvist, C., L. Bachmann, L. W. Andersen, E. W. Born, U. Arnason, K. M. Kovacs, C. Lydersen, A. V. Abramov and Ø. Wiig. 2008. The Laptev Sea walrus Odobenus rosmarus laptevi: an enigma revisited. Zoologica Scripta 38:113—127.

McGowen, M. R. 2011. Toward the resolution of an explosive radiation—A multilocus phylogeny of oceanic dolphins (Delphinidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60:345—357.

Mendez, M., T. A. Jefferson, S.-O. Kolokotronis, M. Krützen, G. J. Parra, T. Collins, G. Minton, R. Baldwin, P. Berggren, A. Särnblad, O. A. Amir, V. M. Peddemors, L. Karczmarski, A. Guissamulo, B. Smith, D. Sutaria, G. Amato and H. C. Rosenbaum. 2013. Integrating multiple lines of evidence to better understand the evolutionary divergence of humpback dolphins along their entire distribution range: a new dolphin species in Australian waters. Molecular Ecology doi: 10.1111/mec.12535.

Morin, P. A., F. I. Archer, A. D. Foote, J. Vilstrup, E. A. Allen, P. Wade, J. Durban, K. Parsons, R. Pitman, L. Li, P. Bouffard, S. C. Abel Nielsen, M. Rasmussen, E. Willerslev, M. T. P. Gilbert and T. Harkins. 2010. Complete mitochondrial phylogenetic analysis of killer whales (Orcinus orca) indicates multiple species. Marine Genomic Research 20:908—916.

Natoli, A., A. Cañadas, C. Vaquero, E. Politi, P. Fernandez-Navarro and A. R. Hoelzel. 2008. Conservation genetics of the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern North Atlantic. Conservation Genetics 9:1479—1487.

Nyakatura, K. and O. R.P. Birinda-Emonds. 2013. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates. BMC Biology 10:1—31.

Oliveira, L. R. and R. L. Brownell, Jr. 2014. Taxonomic status of two subspecies of South American fur seals: Arctocephalus australis australis vs. A. a. gracilis. Marine Mammal Science 30:1258–1263.

Orr, H. A. and J. A. Coyne. 2004. Speciation. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Parra, G. J. and G. J. B. Ross. 2009. Humpback dolphins S. chinensis and S. teuszii. Pages 576—582 in W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig and J. G. M. Thewissen, eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, Amsterdam.

Perrin, W. F. 2009. Species. Pages 1084—1087 in W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig and J. G. M. Thewissen, eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, Amsterdam.

Perrin, W. F., M. L. L. Dolar and D. Robineau. 1999. Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) of the western Pacific and Southeast Asia: pelagic and shallow-water forms. Marine Mammal Science 15:1029—1053.

Perrin, W. F., J. G. Mead and R. L. Brownell, Jr. 2009. Review of the evidence used in the description of currently recognized cetacean subspecies. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC. 450. 35 pp.

Perrin, W. F., J. L. Thieleking, W. A. Walker, F. I. Archer and K. M. Robertson. 2011. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in California waters: Cranial differentiation of coastal and offshore ecotypes. Marine Mammal Science 27:769—792.

Perrin, W. F., P. E. Rosel and F. Cipriano. 2013. How to contend with paraphyly in the taxonomy of the delphinine cetaceans. Marine Mammal Science 29:567—588.

Phillips, C. D., J. W. Bickham, J. C. Patton and T. S. Gelatt. 2009. Systematics of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus): subspecies recognition based on concordance of genetics and morphometrics.  Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 283:1—15.

Price, S. A., O. R. P. Bininda-Edmonds and J. L. Gittleman. 2005. A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals (Cetartiodactyla). Biological Review 80:445—473.

de Queiroz, K. 2007. Species concepts and species delineation. Systematic Biology 56:879—886.

Reeves, R. R., W. F. Perrin, B. L. Taylor, C. S. Baker and S. L. Mesnick, eds. 2004. Report of the Workshop on Shortcomings of Cetacean Taxonomy in Relation to Needs of Conservation and Management, April 30—May 2, 2004 La Jolla, California. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-363:1—94.

Rice, D. W. 1998. Marine mammals of the world. Systematics and distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy Special Publication 4:1–231.

Robineau, D. , R. N. P. Goodall, F. Pichler, and C. S. Baker. 2007. Description of a new subspecies of Commerson’s dolphin, Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacépède, 1804) inhabiting the coastal waters of the Kerguelen Islands. Mammalia 2007:172—180.

Rosel, P. E. and L. A. Wilcox. 2014. Genetic evidence reveals a unique lineage of Bryde’s whales in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Endangered Species Research 23:19—34.

Rosenbaum, H., R. L. Brownell, Jr., M. W. Brown, C. Schaeff, Y. Port¬way, B. N. White, S. Malik, L. A.  Pastene, N. J. Patenaude, C. S. Baker, M. Goto, P. B. Best, P. J. Clapham, P. Hamilton, R. Payne, V. Rowntree, C. T. Tynan, J. L. Bannister, R. and DeSalle. 2000. World-wide genetic differentiation of Eubalaena ques¬tioning the number of right whale species. Molecular Ecology 9:1793–1802.

Ruiz-García, M and J. M. Shostell (eds.). 2010. Biology, evolution and conservation of river dolphins within South America and Asia. Nova Science Publishers, New York.

Ruiz-García,, M., E. Banguera and H. Cárdenas. 2006. Morphological analysis of three Inia (Cetacea: Iniidae) populations from Colombia and Bolivia. Acta Theriologica 51:411—426.

Ruiz-García,M., S. Caballero, M. Martinez-Agüero and J. M. Shostell. 2008. Molecular differentiation among Inia geoffrensis and Inia boliviensis (Iniidae, Cetacea) by means of nuclear intron sequences. Pages 1—25 in V. T. Koven. ed., Population Genetics Research Progress Chapter 6.

Sasaki, T., M. Nikaido, S. Wada, T. K. Yamada, Y. Cao, M. Hasegawa, and N. Okada.  2006.  Balaenoptera omurai is a newly discovered baleen whale that represents an ancient evolutionary lineage.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41:40–52.

Scheel, D.-M., G. J. Slater, S.-O. Kolokontronis, C. W. Potter, D. S. Rotstein, K. Tsangaras, A. D. Greenwood and K. M. Helgen. 2014. Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology. ZooKeys 409:1-33.

da Silva, V. M. F. 1994. Aspects of the biology of the Amazonian dolphins genera Inia and Sotalia fluviatilis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K. 328 pp.

Spaulding, M., M. A. O’Leary and J. Gatesy. 2009. Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) among mammals: increased taxon sampling alters interpretations of key fossils and character evolution. PLoS ONE 4:1—14.

Thompson, K., C. S. Baker, A. van Helden, S. Paatel, C. Millar and R. Constantine. 2012. The world’s rarest whale. Current Biology 22:R905—R906.

Viaud-Martinez, M. Martinez Vergara, P. E. Gol’din, V. Ridoux, A. A.,Özturk, B. Özturk, P. E. Rosel, A. Frantzis, A. Komnenou, and A. J. Bohanak. 2007. Morphological and genetic differentiation of the Black Sea harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena. Marine Ecology Progress Series 338:281—294.

Viaud-Martinez, K. A., R. L. Brownell, Jr., A. Komnenou, and A. J. Bohanak. 2008. Genetic isolation and morphological divergence of Black Sea bottlenose dolphins. Biological Conservation 141:1600—1611.

Wada, S., M. Oishi and T. K. Yamada.  2003.  A newly discovered species of living baleen whale.  Nature 426:278–-281.

Wang, J. Y., T. R. Frasier, S. C. Yang and B. N. White. 2008. Detecting recent speciation events: the case of the finless porpoise (genus Neophocaena). Heredity 101:145—155.

Last updated October 2014 by members of the Committee on Taxonomy:

  • William F. Perrin (Chair)
    •                C. Scott Baker
    •                Annalisa Berta
    •                Daryl J. Boness
    •                Robert L. Brownell, Jr.
    •                Daryl P. Domning
    •                R. Ewan Fordyce
    •                Angie Srembaa
    •                Thomas A. Jefferson
    •                Carl Kinze
    • James G. Mead
    •                Larissa R. Oliveira
    •                Dale W. Rice
    •                Patricia E. Rosel
    •                John Y. Wang
    •                Tadasu Yamada

Leave a Reply