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Annu Rev Nutr. 2011 Aug 21;31:155-76. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-072610-145149.

Potential mechanisms by which polyphenol-rich grapes prevent obesity-mediated inflammation and metabolic diseases.

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  • 1Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402, USA.


Obesity and metabolic disease-related health problems (e.g., type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and hypertension) are the most prevalent nutrition-related issues in the United States. An emerging feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes is their linkage with chronic inflammation that begins in white adipose tissue and eventually becomes systemic. One potential strategy to reduce inflammation and insulin resistance is consumption of polyphenol-rich foods like grapes or their by-products, which have anti-inflammatory properties. Polyphenols commonly found in grape products have been reported to reduce inflammation by (a) acting as an antioxidant or increasing antioxidant gene or protein expression, (b) attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, (c) blocking proinflammatory cytokines or endotoxin-mediated kinases and transcription factors involved in metabolic disease, (d) suppressing inflammatory- or inducing metabolic-gene expression via increasing histone deacetylase activity, or (e) activating transcription factors that antagonize chronic inflammation. Thus, polyphenol-rich grape products may reduce obesity-mediated chronic inflammation by multiple mechanisms, thereby preventing metabolic diseases.

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