YOLO, Bitcoin and the bedroom tax: Chambers Dictionary adds 1,000 new definitions

The 13th edition of the dictionary, first published in 1872, marks the first time that new words have been actively crowdsourced

A British Summer of sporting failure has been recognised, with the word "underperform" joining "BYOD", "frape" and "schemie" in the latest edition of the Chambers Dictionary.

Underperform - to do less well than expected or thought possible, traditionally used in relation to the England football team – is one of 1,000 additions and updates to the UK’s number one selling unabridged dictionary.

Chambers’ formal recognition of words and meanings which signify changes in British cultural life extends to frape (altering the personal details on a social media site without the owner’s knowledge) and schemie (a working class youth from a council estate).

Those “born in the 1980s and 90s, who look down on their native middle class culture” in pursuit of a bohemian lifestyle are officially defined as "hipsters".

The Dictionary claims to be the first to make the definition of marriage gender-neutral, with the new description reading: “the ceremony, act or contract by which two people become married to each other”.

The definitions of husband (a man to whom someone is married) and wife (a woman to whom someone is married) have also been altered, to mark the legalisation of same sex marriages this year.

The 13th edition of the dictionary, first published in 1872, marks the first time that new words have been actively crowdsourced. A word must demonstrate a “lasting influence on a language in order to avoid short-lived or faddy expressions being admitted” according to Chambers.

New entries include "totes amazeballs", which Charlatans singer Tim Burgess claims to have first popularised, and words which indicate an increasingly casual attitude towards sex – "hookup" and "f***buddy".

Social media makes its mark with the acronym "YOLO" - you only live once - making its debut. The YOLO lifestyle encourages legal highs, friends with benefits, binges and payday loans, in contrast to those who spend their days couchsurfing.

"Milf" (a sexually attractive middle-aged woman) and "cougar" (a woman who chooses a male lover significantly younger than herself) are both added to the new edition.

"Boyf", "mare", "soz", and "whatevs" have all made it through the rigorous Chambers selection process, policed by a panel of wordsmiths including Gyles Brandreth and Ben Schott.

Topical political issues the bedroom tax and zero-hour contracts are deemed significant enough for entry.

The dictionary also has found cause to update its definitions of swear words including “s***” and “f***” and “twat” which encompasses its popularity as a verb.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksAn introduction to the ground rules of British democracy
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
SPONSORED FEATURES
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Systems and Network Support Analyst

£26000 - £32000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Our client is a rapidly expandi...

Recruitment Genius: IT Systems Support Analyst

£20000 - £26000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Our client is a rapidly expandi...

Recruitment Genius: Business Travel Consultant

£20000 - £26000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: With offices in London, Manches...

Recruitment Genius: Stock Broker / Trainee Broker / Closer - OTE £250,000

£30000 - £250000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Stock Broker/ Trainee FX, Stoc...

Day In a Page

Migrant crisis: UN official Philippe Douste-Blazy reveals the harrowing sights he encountered among refugees arriving on Lampedusa

‘Can we really just turn away?’

Dead bodies, men drowning, women miscarrying – a senior UN figure on the horrors he has witnessed among migrants arriving on Lampedusa, and urges politicians not to underestimate our caring nature
Nine of Syria and Iraq's 10 world heritage sites are in danger as Isis ravages centuries of history

Nine of Syria and Iraq's 10 world heritage sites are in danger...

... and not just because of Isis vandalism
Girl on a Plane: An exclusive extract of the novelisation inspired by the 1970 Palestinian fighters hijack

Girl on a Plane

An exclusive extract of the novelisation inspired by the 1970 Palestinian fighters hijack
Why Frederick Forsyth's spying days could spell disaster for today's journalists

Why Frederick Forsyth's spying days could spell disaster for today's journalists

The author of 'The Day of the Jackal' has revealed he spied for MI6 while a foreign correspondent
Markus Persson: If being that rich is so bad, why not just give it all away?

That's a bit rich

The billionaire inventor of computer game Minecraft says he is bored, lonely and isolated by his vast wealth. If it’s that bad, says Simon Kelner, why not just give it all away?
Euro 2016: Chris Coleman on course to end half a century of hurt for Wales

Coleman on course to end half a century of hurt for Wales

Wales last qualified for major tournament in 1958 but after several near misses the current crop can book place at Euro 2016 and end all the indifference
Rugby World Cup 2015: The tournament's forgotten XV

Forgotten XV of the rugby World Cup

Now the squads are out, Chris Hewett picks a side of stars who missed the cut
A groundbreaking study of 'Britain's Atlantis' long buried at the bottom of the North Sea could revolutionise how we see our prehistoric past

Britain's Atlantis

Scientific study beneath North Sea could revolutionise how we see the past
The Queen has 'done and said nothing that anybody will remember,' says Starkey

The Queen has 'done and said nothing that anybody will remember'

David Starkey's assessment
Oliver Sacks said his life has been 'an enormous privilege and adventure'

'An enormous privilege and adventure'

Oliver Sacks writing about his life
'Gibraltar is British, and it is going to stay British forever'

'Gibraltar is British, and it is going to stay British forever'

The Rock's Chief Minister hits back at Spanish government's 'lies'
Britain is still addicted to 'dirty coal'

Britain still addicted to 'dirty' coal

Biggest energy suppliers are more dependent on fossil fuel than a decade ago
Orthorexia nervosa: How becoming obsessed with healthy eating can lead to malnutrition

Orthorexia nervosa

How becoming obsessed with healthy eating can lead to malnutrition
Lady Chatterley is not obscene, says TV director

Lady Chatterley’s Lover

Director Jed Mercurio on why DH Lawrence's novel 'is not an obscene story'
Farmers in tropical forests are training ants to kill off bigger pests

Set a pest to catch a pest

Farmers in tropical forests are training ants to kill off bigger pests