Water, Energy and Environment Nexus: The California Experience

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, United States
International Journal of Water Resources Development (Impact Factor: 1.09). 03/2002; 18(1):73-85. DOI: 10.1080/07900620220121666

ABSTRACT The paper addresses the local and inter-state connections between water, energy and the environment. Using California and the western USA as a case study, the paper highlights the difficulties of balancing the needs of diverse stakeholders and protecting valuable resources while providing reliable and safe supplies of both water and energy to agricultural, industrial and residential customers. The investigation of these complex relationships is necessary to inform local and national policy decisions regarding the management of water, energy and the environment.

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Available from: Matt Petersen, Jul 28, 2015
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    • "California, Nevada, Texas and Florida that are at a high or extreme risk of not being able to meet potable water demand by 2050. However, despite this risk, the relative ease of access to potable water in the United States and other developed countries has resulted in misperceptions of potable water availability and its general overuse at the end-user level [3]. To curb these alarming trends in the developed world, targeted measures need to be taken to conserve water. "
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    ABSTRACT: Demand for water is increasing with buildings accounting for the large majority of increased water consumption. As such, the development of methods to effectively promote water conservation in buildings has become an important focal area for research. Specifically, providing feedback of resource consumption to residential building occupants has been demonstrated to be effective in promoting conservation. Although water and energy are inextricably connected, there is a lack of research that investigates the bridge between water and energy in the representation of feedback to promote water conservation. In this paper, we investigate the impact of two different representations of water consumption eco-feedback on water conservation (i.e., gallons and associated estimated embodied energy). We collected consumption data in 18 residential dormitories, involving nearly 4700 occupants over a period of approximately six weeks. We found that representing water consumption simultaneously in terms of gallons and associated embodied energy led to a statistically significant reduction in water consumption, while representing water consumption only in terms of gallons did not. This has significant implications for the growing body of research at the nexus between water and energy consumption and can inform future eco-feedback system designs.
    Energy and Buildings 09/2014; 80:114–119. DOI:10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.05.013 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, the management of both water and energy plays a major role in the development of cities, as well as in the protection of the environment and people's well-being [1]. In this context, the water-energy nexus has been increasingly studied [2–33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rainwater Harvesting Systems (RHS) are increasingly used in buildings to mitigate water shortage and rising prices of centralised water supply. Notwithstanding the benefits of RHS, they may also promote adverse impacts mainly related to the high consumption of energy. In this context, energy intensity (i.e. unit of energy per unit of water) is a crucial parameter for assessing the environmental feasibility of different RHS. However, only recently has attention been drawn to the connection between water and energy consumption, which has been prompted by the increasing importance of water security, energy efficiency and economic feasibility. This connection, known as the water-energy nexus, has been increasingly acknowledged as a key principal for water planning. The objective of this study is twofold: (i) to review the energy intensity data reported for RHS; and (ii) to outline strategies to enhance the energy performance of RHS in buildings. For the reviewed literature, the median energy intensity of theoretical studies (0.20 kWh/m).
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 06/2014; 34:225–242. DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2014.03.012 · 5.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Arizona water-energy nexus: Electricity for water and wastewater services
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