Portal:Coffee

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Introduction

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A cup of black coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds found inside "berries" of the Coffea plant. Coffee plants are cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia, India and Africa. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded arabica, and the less sophisticated but more hardy robusta. The latter is resistant to the coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Once ripe, coffee beans are picked, processed, and dried. Green (unroasted) coffee beans are one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world. Once traded, the beans are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor, before being ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. Coffee is slightly acidic (pH 5.0–5.1) and can have a stimulating effect on humans because of its caffeine content. It is one of the most consumed drinks in the world.

The energizing effect of coffee was likely first discovered in the northeast region of Yemen. Coffee cultivation first took place in southern Arabia; the earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century in the Sufi shrines of Yemen. In East Africa and Yemen, coffee was used in native religious ceremonies that were in competition with the Christian Church. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. The beverage was also banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. An important export commodity, coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004, and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Consequently, organic coffee is an expanding market.

Many studies have examined the health effects of coffee, and whether the overall effects of coffee consumption are positive or negative has been widely disputed. The majority of recent research suggests that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults. However, coffee can worsen the symptoms of some conditions, largely due to the caffeine and diterpenes it contains.

 

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UTZ Certified is a label and program for sustainable farming of agricultural products launched in 2002, which claims to be the largest program for coffee in the world. It was formerly known as "Utz Kapeh", meaning 'Good Coffee' in the Mayan language Quiché, hence the current 'UTZ certified good inside' logo. On 7 March 2007, the Utz Kapeh Foundation officially changed its name and logo to UTZ Certified. UTZ Certified is a foundation for the worldwide implementation of a standard for responsible coffee, cocoa, tea and rooibos farming and sourcing. UTZ certified cooperatives, estate farms and producer groups comply with the code of Conduct for the respective products. This code is a set of criteria for sustainable and professional coffee growing, which includes socially and environmentally appropriate coffee growing practices, and efficient farm management.

UTZ Certified products are traceable from grower to end product manufacturers (e.g. in coffee this is the roaster); the foundation operates a web-based track-and-trace system, showing the buyers of UTZ certified products links to the certified source(s). Some coffee brands and retailers also provide their customers with this transparency through online coffee tracers. UTZ certified coffee is sold in almost 50 consuming countries, including the Netherlands, Belgium, France, UK, Scandinavia, Switzerland, Japan, USA and Canada. UTZ Certified coffee producers are located in Latin America, Asia and Africa. With an expanding range of programs for agricultural products, like cocoa, tea, rooibos tea and the traceability services for palm oil and cotton UTZ Certified has a presence in a growing number of producing and consuming countries.

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Galão
Credit: Ondřej Žváček

Galão is a hot drink from Portugal made of espresso and foamed milk. In all similar to café latte or café au lait, it comes in a tall glass with about one quarter coffee, three quarters foamed milk, as opposed to the smaller Garoto (coffee) that is served in a demitasse/espresso smaller china cup.

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Fazenda Piedade farm. The master house of a coffee plantation farm founded in the 18th century in Paty do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro.
...that Fazendas, meaning "farms", were coffee plantations that spread into the interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1896? They created major export commodities for Brazilian trade, but also led to intensification of slavery in Brazil.
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James Athearn ("J.A.") Folger (June 17, 1835 – June 26, 1889) was the founder of the Folgers Coffee Company. After the discovery of gold in California, James (14), along with his brothers Henry (16) and Edward (20) set out in the autumn of 1849 on a ship bound for the Isthmus of Panama. After a raft and hiking journey across the Isthmus, the brothers waited at Panama City for quite a while before catching the Pacific mail steamer Isthmus on April 10, 1850. They entered the Golden Gate on May 5, 1850. In 1860 he founded the San Francisco coffee firm, known as the J. A. Folger Coffee Company, known today simply as Folgers Coffee.
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