Editoriale

Culture and Citizenship

di Daniele Pittèri

Culture and Citizenship

Most Italian cities, both big cities and small cities, are experiencing a sort of identity crisis, which is the result of different but convergent factors. The failure of the urbanistic vision as a virtuous urban development model. The unresolved relationship between historic city centre and the peripheries. The bureaucratic resistance to the implementation of mid and long-term strategic plans. The tendency in concentrating the cultural production only into the main cultural production centres. The distance between the University and the places where the urban change process take shape. The lack of intercultural and intergenerational integration processes. The underestimation of the change potential expressed by culture and cultural and creative activities. These are all issues that affect the real development of a culture-oriented society. Furthermore, there is also another point to underline: the rise of an interpretation of cultural and creative phenomenon as a specific tool of the tourism economy: during last decades, this vision shaped both public and private intervention in culture, realizing processes into a “touristic attractors” perspective. Because of the scarce resources, the touristic addressed interventions the implementation of mid and long term strategies mainly addressed to a change and to a cultural-driven urban renewal.

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Gestire cultura

Sharing Economy: All of Us in Wonderland

di Monika Rut

Obviously, innovation is seen as very fashionable these days. With no surprise, we can search for “top innovators under 30”, “top start-ups to watch” and “top-gadgets” that can improve the way we live. These characterize the private sector well as the risk-friendly, creative, and flexible incubator, where the tendency for “ready-to-play” wealthy investors and ambitious entrepreneurs to gravitate to Silicon Valley dreamland has become the driving force for the birth of innovative solutions. Since Professor Clayton Christensen began using the term “disruptive innovations”, which refers to the selling of cheaper products that can eventually disrupt an existing market, it seems that everyone is now “disrupting” and that every day is seen as an instance of innovation. Similar to Professor Christensen, the German sociologist and philosopher Jürgen Habermas pointed out that our complex societies are clearly susceptible to interferences and accidents and that these offer ideal opportunities for a creating prompt disruption of normal activities. It seems to be natural, then, that while millions of innovative applications based on principles of sharing have proven to be of high economic value the Sharing Economy platforms predict to generate revenues of 335 billion by 2025, shaking the future of many traditional economic sectors. For example, UBER, the Sharing Economy prodigy child for transportation network, possessing no cars and without officially employing has already managed to disrupt taxi industry in over three hundred cities worldwide, bringing about lawsuits and causing employee protests. Though, in this emerging scenario of disruptive innovations and the Sharing Economy, it is obvious that the effectiveness of the public sector is diminishing, leaving important services uncovered and without innovation hopelessly leaving the sector of society impaired. As described in the latest innovation report on European Public Sector Innovation, the public sector is stereotyped as an “outdated infrastructure that lags behind the needs of modern citizens and today’s businesses”.

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Reti creative

Big Exhibitions 2010-2014: Institutions, Themes, Circulation. A Global Overview and the Case of Italy

di Ilaria Taddeo

Exhibitions are a central component of the contemporary art system, as one of the favourite tools for cultural distribution, attraction of public and visibility of cultural organisations. Important instruments for the communication of scientific results and new cultural views, they have become an irreplaceable element for institutions like museums, which have strengthened the practice of exhibitions to promote and enhance their cultural offer. At the same time, in the continuous quantitative and commercial development of the art system, museums have begun to resort to exhibitions in order to attract a larger public, and exhibitions have been affected by marketing techniques. The growth of “blockbuster” exhibitions – popular and often low-quality events – is consistent with the measurement of cultural success in terms of “figures”. The most visited exhibitions, as well as the most visited museums, represent cases of brilliant success that involve in a challenge old and developing cultural contexts, giving the possibility, to institutions and entire cities, of national and international prominence. Since exhibitions have become an increasingly important element of the cultural industry, in several cases a growth in the number of these events has been observed. If the escalation of the art festivals and Biennials is a worldwide phenomenon, in Italy the amount of the exhibitions has exponentially increased in the last ten years, producing a trend –observed in France and Germany as well – that has been defined as a real “mania of exhibitions” .

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Luoghi insoliti

Architecture without Architects: How architecture can improve the development of decision-making skills in childhood

di Andrea DI Bello

Rational and irrational thought have had mixed fortunes in the formulations of the greatest thinkers, philosophers or science men, the one overriding the other scene perfectly consistent with the historical reality that was there as a background. So the exaltation of sentiment left space to positivist ideology, perfect frame of technological and scientific progress, in order to gain momentum when Freudian treatments emphasized that innovative and modern irrational which resulted irreverent even tangible world of the senses. In recent centuries it seems therefore that the Platonic allegory of the cave has created a constant tension between what can be thought and decided according to the lights of reason, and what instead expresses intention and action favoring instinct and feelings. Thus placing itself advocates rational pole it is estimated that you could make choices and act our freedom only by following the principle of a linear determinism that shapes to his will and imposes its objectives to that part of human nature more pervasive and complex, that staging emotions, instincts and needs acquires fame of a runaway horse that attempts to escape the domination of his squire, overturning the chariot. And in this fight between rationality will and irrationality without hesitation emerges a third, the body, separated from the structure of the psyche so outlined.

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