Abel Tasman's Journal of his voyage of discovery 1642-1643
Journal or description drawn up by me, Abel Janszoon Tasman, of a voyage made from the town of Batavia in the East Indies, relating to the discovery of the unknown southland in the year of our Lord 1642, the 14th of August. May it please God almighty to give hereto His Blessing on this work. Amen.
Sailed from the roadstead at Batavia with two ships, to wit: the yacht Heemskerck, and the flute Zeehaen. In the evening the Zeehaen grounded on the island of Rotterdam but got afloat again without notable damage. Then we continued on the voyage heading for Sunda Strait
Towards evening I met Mr Sweers of the yacht Bredam and learned from him that a quelpuert, which came from the Netherlands, lay at anchor at the point of Bantam. In the evening we anchored in twenty-two fathoms off Anjer Lor. Since the Heemskerck was not fit to proceed further in her unseaworthy condition we set about carrying out repairs.
At our anchorage the wind was northeast and we noticed a strong current flowing through Sunda Strait. In the evening, with the land breeze we raised our anchors and shaped our course so as to pass between the Prince Islands and Krakatau.
In the morning we had the Prince Islands southwest of us and Krakatau northwest by north. Our course was southwest by west with the wind southeast. At noon we had the southernmost of the Prince Islands east-southeast from us five miles. We calculated our position as 6O 20' S, 124O E. In the afternoon we drifted in a calm. This day we resolved that from Sunda Strait we shall sail 200 miles south-west by west as far as the fourteenth parallel and from there, west-southwest as far as the twentieth parallel; then we shall sail directly west to the island of Mauritius.
At noon we estimated our position as 6O 48' S, 123O 20' E. As resolved with the council on the 17th we sailed thirteen miles, the course kept southwest by west. At night it rained hard with thunder and lightning.
At noon we calculated our position as 8o 38' S, 120o 35' E. We kept our course by estimation southwest by west but after sailing thirty-six miles found ourselves more to the south. A topsails breeze southeast by east.
Variation 3 degrees northwesterly.
At noon we calculated our position as 10o S, 118o 30' E. A southeast by east topsails breeze. We kept our course southwest by west and sailed thirty-six miles. Good weather with smooth water.
At noon we calculated our position as 11o 12', 116o 42' E. A moderate topsails breeze southeast by east. After sailing thirty-two miles we estimate the longitude of the Cocos [Keeling] Islands has been reached. We saw many birds.
Variation 5 degrees northwesterly.
At noon we calculated our position as 13o 31' S, 114o 40' E. A topsails breeze. We steered a southwest by west course and sailed thirty-six miles.
At noon we calculated our position as 13o 57', 112o 23' E. The wind southeast with a steady breeze. We kept our course southwest by south and sailed forty miles. The sea still ran high from the southwest and south-southwest.
At noon we calculated our position as 14o 29' S, 109o 41' E. The wind southeast with a steady breeze. We kept our course west by south and sailed forty miles.
At noon we calculated our position as 15o 13' S, 107o 20' E. We estimated our latitude as 15o 28' S. The wind southeast with a steady breeze. We kept our course a little to the west of west-southwest and sailed thirty-eight miles.
Variation northwesterly 8 degrees 20 minutes.
At noon we calculated our position as 16o S, 105o 12' E. We estimated the latitude as 16o 7' S. A moderate south-southeast topsails breeze. We kept our course a little to the west of west-southwest and sailed thirty-six miles.
Variation 11 degrees
At noon we calculated our position as 16o 40' S, 103o 32' E. The wind from the southeast but in the evening it turned east with a light topsails breeze. We steered west-southwest and sailed twenty-six miles.
Variation 12 degrees 30 minutes.
At noon we estimated our position as 17o 7' S, 102o 22' E. The wind variable with a dark sky. We kept our course west-southwest and sailed eighteen miles.
At noon we estimated our position as 17o 50' S, 100o 34' E. In the afternoon variable winds. Before midnight the wind dropped then later we got a topsails breeze again from the south-southeast. We kept our course west-southwest and sailed twenty-eight miles.
At noon we estimated our position as 18o 51' S, 97o 58' E. The wind southeast with light rain showers. We kept our course west-southwest and sailed forty miles. About noon the Zeehaen broke her spritsail yard in pieces.
At noon we estimated our position as 19o 55', 95o 14' E. The wind south-southeast, unsteady with drizzle. We kept our course west-southwest and sailed forty-two miles. Early in the afternoon I consulted with the skippers and mates and together we estimated our position as 19o 48' S, 95o 44' E. The latitude and longitude figures are averaged calculations.
We continued our course west-southwest till the evening and then steered west, believing we were in the same latitude as the island of Mauritius.
1 Sept. 1642
At noon we estimated our position as 20o 28' S, 92o 19' E. The wind southeast; a steady breeze with a drizzle. We kept our course west by south and sailed forty-two miles.
At noon we estimated our position as 20o 28' S, 89o 29' E. The wind east-southeast with a steady breeze and drizzling rain with high seas. We kept our course west and sailed forty miles.
Variation 20 degrees northwesterly according to the compass readings.
At noon we calculated our position as 20o 36' S, 86o 56' E. A moderate breeze from the east-southeast and good weather. We kept our course west and sailed thirty-six miles.
At noon we estimated our position as 19o 55' S, 85o 13' E. The wind a moderate to soft breeze. We kept our course west-northwest and sailed twenty-six miles.
About midnight we saw land and thereafter lay to for the rest of the night with reduced sails.
Variation 22 degrees 30 minutes.
In the morning seeing that the land was the island of Mauritius we made for it and came to anchor there about 9 o’clock. We calculated our position as 20o S, 83o 48' E. We were by our earlier estimate fifty miles east of Mauritius when we saw it.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal three coastal profiles of Mauritius with legends in Dutch are present.]
I sent six sailors, three from the Zeehaen and three from our ship the Heemskerck, with one of our under-mates to the wood to assist the hunters in catching and bringing off wild game.
At noon we saw a ship outside the bay and about four hours afterwards she came to anchor near us. We learned that this ship, the Arent sailed from Texel in the Netherlands, on 23 April last in a fleet comprising the ships Salamander and Zutphen, the yacht Leeuwerick and the galiot Visscher. At the Cape Verde Islands the Arent separated from the rest of the fleet which continued the voyage to Batavia. The Arent brought supplies such as victuals and ammunition, and also soldiers and seamen for Mauritius, according to a report given to the commander at the island, Van der Stel.
In the report it was explained that on 27th last they arrived at Rodrigues which they mistakenly believed was Mauritius because it lies in approximately the same latitude. At Rodrigues they found a French ship in the roadstead but because of language difficulties and evasive explanations they were confused as to whether she had come from Dieppe or from the Red Sea. It was gathered their intention was to run for the island of Réunion or perhaps Madagascar. They sailed in company with the French ship from Rodrigues but on the 5th instant at noon separated from her, although in the evening they had her still in sight. When they reported to the commander that she set her course west-southwest, he sent forthwith some men to the northwest side of Mauritius to investigate whether the Frenchmen had landed. He presumed that they might well have sought to deceive the Dutch garrison, and attempt to cut some ebony-wood, in which case they were bound to prevent them doing this.
Almost the whole day was occupied attending to ropes and tackle. Since our rigging is old, weak, and not much to be depended on, we added three more large ropes to the rigging on both sides of the main- and foremast, in order to steady the same.
Towards evening we got eight head of he-goats and a pig from the land.
In the morning I sent four of the he-goats of the eight received yesterday to the Zeehaen. I sent for one more sailor from the Zeehaen to join one of ours to land and help the hunters and others who were sent on the land on the 6th instant.
I sent one of our carpenters with seven to eight sailors from both the Heemskerck and the Zeehaen to the wood to cut timber.
In the afternoon I wrote an order to the officers of the Zeehaen instructing them to give not more than half a mutchkin of arack a day to their ship’s company as a ration. The local commander Van der Stel reminded me that the Hon. Govr. General and Councillors of India gave positive instructions to give only one small glass of arack to his people and that only to those who are cold, wet, and dirty. In order to maintain peace among the men, and prevent discontent, ill-will and envy as far as it is in my power, I have therefore deemed it best to serve out only half a mutchkin of arack to our men, while we are lying in this roadstead.
I asked that the Hon. Van der Stel be brought to the Heemskerck by our skipper Jde T'Jercksen. We conferred as to whether it would not be necessary for our ships and helpful for the Company, before departing from here to continue our voyage, to fix a meeting place. This is important since the Hon. G. General and Councillors of India in our instructions, quite expressly and solemnly require this. After further consideration I had all the skippers and upper- and under-mates assembled on the ship and proposed to them that they should give their views in writing. I needed their opinion on a rendezvous in case we separated through rough weather, storms, or other mishaps, which we do not hope for and may the Good God prevent. When having heard all opinions we shall resolve what may be needed for the greatest advantage of the Company and the furtherance of our voyage.
In the evening we received eight he-goats and two pigs from the shore. Our carpenter, Jan Joppen also came on board and reported that the shore-party had cut some beams but at that place no more suitable timber is to be had.
In the morning our skipper together with the aforementioned carpenter, went in the boat to the wood to bring thence timber. Then they brought the timber to the fortress Fredrick Hendrick to be sawn into planks of the most suitable sizes.
In the afternoon I sent four he-goats and one pig to the people on the Zeehaen.
In the morning our boat went for the second time to the wood and brought again some logs to the aforementioned fortress. Towards evening we received again twelve head of he-goats of which we sent half the number to the Zeehaen.
Our skipper reported that one of our sailors, a man named Joris Claesen van Bahuys, in working with a log which was to be sawn on land has hurt himself severely, whereupon I immediately sent our chief and assistant barbers to attend to the patient and give urgently needed help.
Today nothing worth mentioning occurred except we have sent a bag of rice for our people working in the wood and put a cheek on our mainyard.
We have again received from the land four head of he-goats and two pigs and we delivered half the number to the flute Zeehaen.
In the evening the people sent on the 6th instant by Hon. Van der Stel returned reporting that there was no trace in any bays of the Frenchmen suspected of landing.
In the morning I sent our boatswain and boatswain’s mate with a number of sailors and a quantity of cordage to land to make rope.
The yacht Cleyn Mauritius sailed from here ten miles round the coast to bring back a cargo of ebony-wood. The yacht sailed in place of the Arent which being anchored near the entrance could not get out because of the strong wind.
Towards noon, the councils of the ships Heemskerck, Zeehaen, and the yacht Arent, were summoned on board the Admiral by the Hon. Commander Van der Stel, and at this meeting Tasman made submissions which were resolved and may be be seen in the resolution issued today.
Towards evening our under-mate Chryn Heydricx, whom on the 6th instant we had sent to assist the hunters in the wood, returned to the ship bringing with him ten head of he-goats.
Today I have ordered one of the under-mates on the Zeehaen to go to the wood in our second-mate’s place.
In the morning I sent our other under-mate Carsten Jurriaerszoon with six sailors to the wood to cut firewood.
Towards evening we gave the people of the Zeehaen four head of he-goats of the ten received yesterday.
Today, we have by order of Commander Van der Stel, following the resolution of yesterday, uplifted the following from the yacht Arent on behalf of our ship and the Zeehaen, namely:
6 cables both small and large.
1 roll of canvas.
20 pulleys both large and small.
½ hide pump-leather.
6 small clewlines.
a quantity of flat-head nails.
4 pieces of horn with which to mend the lanterns.
Nothing happened today worth mentioning except we have applied a cheek to our foremast at the back. Also, from the land, we received six head of pigs, from which we gave three to the quartermaster of the Zeehaen, in the evening after dark.
The carpenters have calked the ship on the outside, stopped all the leaks they could find, pitched properly the seams, and further overhauled everything.
I went out shooting with Mr Van der Maerzen, undermerchant and second-in-command at the fortress Fredrick Hendrick. We set off early in the morning round the west of Mauritius and returned to the ship towards noon with thirteen wild birds,
This day we have had brought from the land a number of sawn planks and also had some rope made ashore.
In the morning the yacht Cleyn Mauritius cleared the bay, and set sail for her destination, which was to fetch ebony-wood for the cargo of the Arent. From the 16th instant when she left this roadstead she had been unable to beat out owing to the strong east-southeast trade-wind.
This day we made a new maintop and also a cheek on the foremast together with the foremast’s topyard.
In the evening we received from the land seven he-goats and three pigs.
In the morning with Gerrit Janszoon skipper of the Zeehaen, and a number of sailors, we went with axes to the wood to provide ourselves with good timber for top-yards, anchor-stocks, and mizzen-yards etc., for the forthcoming voyage. We returned in the evening brining a round piece of timber suitable to use for a cheek on a top-yard, and also with an anchor-stock for the Heemskerck and two of the same for the Zeehaen.
We brought three anchor-stocks and a round piece of timber for a topyard and a quantity of firewood from the wood, and a boatload of water from a running spring east of Fort Frederik Hendrik.
Today we got a sloopload of firewood and three boatloads of water from the land. Towards the evening we received from the hunter’s sloop, five he-goats and three pigs, from which we have sent three head of goats and a pig in a boat to the Zeehaen.
At night in the second watch we received on board one more boatload of water stored in seven casks.
In the morning at daybreak we had a soft breeze from the land, first from the north-northeast but later it developed somewhat fresher from the northwest by west and west-northwest. This is still the first land breeze, which we have had as long as we have lain anchored here.
Today two sloops of firewood and two boatloads of water were fetched from the land. Also today, our pilot-major Francoys Jacobszoon with Mr Gilsemans made a survey of the coastal area.
I have summoned the council of the Heemskerck and the flute Zeehaen and we resolved to set out from here on approximately the 4th October as is to be seen more fully by the resolution of today.
I sent our under-mate Chryn Heyndrickse to the wood to cut firewood.
I have sent our sloop and boat to the wood to bring firewood thence.
Continued to send for firewood with the sloop and the boat. The yacht Cleyn Mauritius returned today bringing one of the runaway Madagascar slaves.
We have still been busy fetching firewood. Towards the evening we received from the land ten head of he-goats.
1 Oct. 1642
Still continuously busy in bringing firewood with the sloop and the boat. Towards the evening we received nine head of cattle; both he-goats and she-goats from the land.
Still engaged in bringing firewood and barrels filled with water which are emptied daily.
Continued still to bring water and firewood with the boat and the sloop. In the dark, we received seven head of cattle, to wit two pigs, four he-goats, and one she-goat.
This being the prearranged day to set sail we could not because of the contrary wind so we were forced to remain at anchor. I therefore sent the pilot-major Francoys Jacobszoon with the second mate of the Zeehaen Heyndrick Pietersen to take soundings at the eastern entrance where we intended to sail. They found in the highest water and that in spring tide, no more than scarcely thirteen feet.
The contrary wind still continuing, we could not beat out of the bay, so I sent our sloop and the under-mate Carsten Jurriaenszoon out to fish with the dragnets. On returning they brought back a capital lot of fish for the whole crew.
We warped the kedge-anchor to get out at the south-east entrance, and kedged a second time, but were compelled to give up owing to the strong contrary wind. Towards the evening we learnt that the men dispatched to find the runaway Madagascar slaves had returned without having seen any of them. Today we again got a capital lot of fish for the whole crew.
The wind from the more easterly hand. Still busy with the kedge-anchor. In the evening we came to anchor under the islands in front of the bay in seventeen fathoms. A foul bottom. This bay is very hard to come out of because the southeast wind here blows continually. Captains who have no need to visit ought not to come here.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal three sketches relating to Mauritius with legends in Dutch are present.]
In the morning the weather rainy with a light land-breeze and whirlwinds; we raised our anchors but through contrary winds had to let them drop again.
About 8 o’clock we got a northeast by east wind, raised our anchors and ran out south-eastward to the open sea for which God be praised and thanked. The southern extremity of this island of Mauritius lies in the southern latitude of 20o 12' S; longitude 78o 47' E. We shaped our course to the south-southeast since we had the wind north-east with a soft and moderate breeze. At noon we turned our course to south by east.
At noon we calculated our position as 21o 5' S, 78o 47' E. We kept a southerly course and sailed thirteen miles with good weather and a light breeze from the south-east.
This day we drew up a resolution respecting the crew’s meals, as may be further seen from the same resolution. In the evening we had the island of Mauritius still in sight.
At noon we estimated our position as 21o 54' S, 78o 11' E. We kept our course southwest by south and sailed fifteen miles. A soft and moderate breeze.
Towards daybreak the sea began to run high from the more southerly hand and we found that our mizzenmast was quite broken at the partner so that we had to put two cheeks on it.
At noon we estimated our position as 23o 28' S, 77o 51' E. The wind easterly with a soft topsails breeze. We kept our course south by west and sailed twenty-four miles
At noon we calculated our position as 25o 18' S, 77o 51' E. The wind a soft topsails breeze from the north with good weather, a clear sky, and smooth water.
We kept our course south and sailed twenty-eight miles. We have also put a cheek on our mizzenmast.
Variation 23 degrees 30 minutes northwesterly.
At noon we estimated our position as 27o 26' S, 77o 51' E. We kept our course south and sailed thirty-two miles. The wind from the northwest in the morning with rain and a topsails breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 29o 20' S, 78o 45' E. We kept a south-southeast course and sailed twenty-nine miles. The wind west and west-southwest with a topsails breeze. At night at the end of the first watch the wind changed to the south-southeast and we turned to the west.
Variation 23 degrees 30 minutes.
The wind southeast and east-southeast with a dark sky and a stiff breeze. At noon we estimated our position as 29o 45', 78o 57' E. We kept a south-southeast course and sailed seven miles. Towards the evening we got the wind east by south with a drizzling rain.
The wind south and south-southeast and also a top-gallant breeze south-east and east-southeast. At noon we had the position of 31o 17' S, 78o 13' E. We kept a south-southwest course and sailed twenty-five miles.
Variation 25 degrees 15 minutes.
Calm and then a westerly wind. We kept a course south-southeast and sailed nine miles. At noon we calculated our position as 31o 51' S, 78o 26' E. Towards noon we got a soft topsails breeze; the wind as before.
Variation 25 degrees 30 minutes northwesterly.
Good weather and the wind westerly with a topsails breeze. At noon we calculated our position as 33o 56' S, 78o 56' E. We kept a course south by east and sailed thirty-two miles. Towards the evening the Zeehaen hove to leeward whereupon we forthwith made towards her. She called out to us that the wales, in which her shroud-bolts stand, gave way so that they had to put clamps on them.
Variation 24 degrees.
About 9 o’clock we got the wind from the south-southwest with drizzly rain and it also became dead calm. At noon we estimated our position as 36o 2' S, 80o E. We kept a south-south-east course and sailed thirty-four miles with a topsails breeze. In the afternoon we got the wind from the southeast and we tacked to the west.
Foggy weather with drizzly rain. At noon we estimated our position as 36o 29' S, 79o 25' E. We kept a southwest course with variable winds and improving weather. Sailed ten miles. Towards evening the south-south-east wind fell almost to a calm.
Variable winds alternating with calm periods. At noon in calculating our position as 36o 22' S, 79o 25' E, we found that we had drifted two miles to the north. Towards the evening we got a breeze from the northeast.
In the morning the wind began to blow hard from the west-southwest so that we took in our topsails. At noon we estimated our position as 40o 18' S, 80o 46' E. We kept our course to the southeast by south. At times we got heavy rain showers.
In the morning we took in our bonnets, lowered our foresail to the stern, and scudded with the mainsail only. We dared not put her on the wind because of the strong gusts which we had; this wind was mixed with hail and rain to such an extent that we feared the ship would not survive through it, but at noon the storm abated somewhat, so that we hauled to the wind. We could not see the Zeehaen, for which reason we hauled to the wind to stay for her.
At noon we estimated our position as 40o 42' S, 83o 11' E. We kept a course east by south and sailed thirty miles. We had the wind southwest and south with a violent storm; we looked out carefully for the Zeehaen but could not see her.
In the morning I sent a man to the masthead to look out for our consort which he saw astern; we were very glad to see her. With the weather somewhat better we again set our bonnets and drew the foresail up the mast. Towards noon the flute ship Zeehaen came up again to join us.
At noon we estimated our position as 39o 58' S, 84o 11' E. We kept a course north-northeast and sailed or drifted twelve miles. At noon we shaped our course to the southeast with a steady breeze from the southwest.
Good weather, the wind from the southwest by west, a topsails breeze. At noon we calculated our position as 41o 34' S, 86o 10' E. We kept our course southeast and sailed thirty-two miles. The sea still ran high from the south-southeast so we changed our course to southeast by south and south-southeast.
We hailed the Zeehaen and learned that this day a man died on their ship. As we were speaking to them her topyard broke and they immediately put on one carried as a spare.
Today we calculated our averaged longitude as 86o 14' E., and our latitude as 41o 40' S.
In the morning before the serving of breakfast we saw a good deal of rockweed and manna-grass drifting by. Therefore I had the flag flown whereupon the officers of the Zeehaen came aboard our ship. I convened the council and at the meeting we considered the instructions from the Governor-General and Councillors of India concerning sightings and being aware of land, shoals, blind rocks, etc. Members of the council were questioned on the merits of observing such signs of land by keeping a man constantly at the masthead to keep a lookout for land, shoals, blind rocks, and other dangers and we also discussed what should be fixed as a reward for sightings. So the council approved the plan to have a man constantly on the look-out and the man who first sights land, shoals, blind rocks, etc., shall be rewarded with three reals of eight and a canne of arrack; this is more fully explained in the resolution of today’s date.
At noon we estimated our position as 43o S, 88o 6' E. We kept a southeast course and sailed thirty miles. The wind westerly with a topsails breeze and drizzle. At night we lay to under reduced sail.
Variation 26 degrees 45 minutes.
At daybreak we set our course again to the south-southeast in dark and foggy weather. Still saw weed drifting about. At noon we estimated our position as 44o 47' S, 89o 7' E. We kept our course south-southeast and sailed twenty-nine miles; the wind northwest and west with a topsails breeze.
We saw also fragments of trees drifting by as if they were leaves of wild banana trees. At night we lay-to with reduced sail since we dared not sail on because it was so foggy. However, the sea soon began to get smooth. At times we fired a musket shot and at other times also a great gun.
In the morning we proceeded again and set our course south-southeast. We hailed the officers of the Zeehaen because we thought that it would be best, so long as the fog continues, to set our course to the east. Having hailed our friends of the flute ship Zeehaen we called out to them whether it would not be best and wisest since during this fog and darkness it is very dangerous and hardly possible to recognise known land, let alone to be able to discover strange lands, to set the course to the east. They thought this idea not ill-advised especially if the prospect was for clearer weather and a brighter outlook. Therefore I have convened the ship’s council and the under-mates and informed them what we have made known to the officers of the Zeehaen during our hailing. Also we have made known the advise and good thinking of the Zeehaen people. I then asked what they would judge as best whereupon their unanimous opinion was in accordance with that of the Zeehaen people. Details appear more fully in the resolution of today’s date.
At noon we set our course to the east with a north-north-west wind with a topsails breeze. We estimate our position as 45o 47' S, 89o 44' E. We kept our course south-southeast and sailed seventeen miles.
At daylight we sailed again and shaped our course to the east with a clear sky and a topsails breeze from the west. At noon we calculated our position as 45o 43' S, 91o 51' E. We kept our course east and sailed twenty-two miles.
Variation 26 degrees 45 minutes.
Towards noon a drizzling rain started with fog while the wind stiffened and grew stronger and stronger so that we took in our topsails. At noon we also took in our mainsail and scudded with the foresail. The wind and sea were running very angrily.
At noon we estimated our position as 47o 4' S, 95o 19' E. We kept our course east-southeast and sailed fifty miles. We held our course to the east after we had a storm from the west.
1 Nov. 1642
In the morning with the weather somewhat improved we made more sail. At noon we calculated our position as 46o 9' S, 99o 9' E. We were very surprised to find ourselves so far north because our estimation was that we were in latitude 47o S and now find our latitude to be 46o 9' S. We kept our course easterly and sailed forty miles, but if we make allowance for the error in our estimation, our course is east by north half a point more northerly.
In the afternoon the weather became foggy, the wind turning to the northwest with a light breeze. We saw a great quantity of rockweed floating by and shaped our course to the southeast seeing that we were so far northward. At night we lay-to under reduced sail.
This day our master-gunner Eldert Luytiens departed this life in the Lord.
In the morning we sailed again and shaped our course to the southeast. The wind northwest with a steady breeze. We proceeded with our mainsail set and under very foggy conditions. We kept our course east-southeast and sailed twenty-five miles.
At noon we estimated our position as 46o 47', 101o 23' E. We still saw much rockweed drifting about. At night we lay-to with reduced sail because we dared not sail on in the fog.
The wind southwest with a strong breeze. We sailed again and set our course to the southeast; got at times heavy squalls with hail and snow and great cold.
At noon we calculated our position as 46o 47' S, 103o 58' E. We kept our course east by south and sailed twenty-seven miles. Between the squalls we had reasonable visibility so that at night we proceeded. Still at times we saw some rockweed drifting about. I observed that we were drifting to the north.
Wind and weather as before and our course still southeast. At noon we set our course to the east. We estimated our position as as 48o 25' S, 107o 56' E. We kept our course south-east by east and sailed forty miles.
In the afternoon I asked our skipper and mates their longitudes and southern pole latitude which we averaged with mine to give our position as latitude 48o 28' S; longitude 107o 25' E. After making comparisons and averaging the figures I summoned the ship’s council and the under-mates and proposed a plan which is set out at length in the resolution of today but is mentioned here briefly also.
Towards the evening we saw again various lots of rockweed drifting and also a great many tuna near and around the ship. Our boatswain’s mate and one of the sailors have also seen a seal from which we surmise that some islands might be about here because these beasts will not swim deep in the sea. We therefore dared not venture to run on full sail but after Cook’s serving have stood to the north with reduced sail.
In the morning still rather foggy, gloomy, and dirty weather with a dark gray sky. We again set sail and at first ran east by south because the previous night we had drifted to the north. At noon we estimated our position as 48o 25' S, 110o 55' E. We kept an easterly course and sailed thirty miles.
Got a storm from the west with hail and snow. We scudded with a foresail, which was scarcely at half-mast. The sea was very violent and our people began to be afflicted by severe cold.
At noon we estimated our position as 49o 4' S, 114o 56' E. We kept a course east by south and sailed forty-nine miles.
Variation 26 degrees.
Today the following note was delivered to me from the pilot-major:
Notes drawn both from the terrestrial globe and from the large chart of the South Sea and on 7th November anno 1642 handed to the Hon. Commander Abel Janszoon Tasman with my advise,
So the terrestrial globe shows the easternmost of the Solomon Islands to lie in the longitude of fully 220 degrees reckoning the said longitude from the meridian of the islands of Corvo and Flores.13
But according to the longitude reckoned from Tenerife in the Canary Islands and which is at present generally in use, in the longitude of 205 degrees barely, and lie in the globe in the latitudes of 7 degrees up to 14 to 15 degrees south of the equator.
This being so we shall follow the great chart of the South Sea using the longitude starting from the Peak of Tenerife, which is generally used in our day.
First we have Batavia situated in longitude .127O 5' E; and the south-west point of Celebes 11O 20'; more to eastward, so that we get for the longitude of the south-west point of Celebes ................ ......138o 25' E;
now from the south-west point of Celebes to the easternmost islands of the Solomons, where the chart reads “Hoorentse eylanden islands” [i.e. Île de Horne] we reckon 47o 20'; so that we get for the longitude of the Horne Islands:185o 45' E;
Now from the Horne Islands to the Cocos [Tafahi] or Verraders island [Niuatobutabu] discovered by Willem Schouten, I reckon still more to eastward 8o 15', so that for the longitude of Cocos and Verraders island I get 194o E.
Should one wish to consider the Horne Islands, situated in longitude 185o 45' E, to be the easternmost of the Solomons, then the charts and the globe would show a difference of about 19o; but if one should look upon the Cocos and Verraders Island, situated in 194o E longitude and 17½ degrees south latitude, as the easternmost of the Solomon Islands,14 then the difference between the chart and the globe would amount to no more than 11 degrees, the globe placing the islands 11 degrees more eastward than the chart. Now to avoid all mistakes, I think it is best to disregard the indications to eastward, both of the globe and of the chart.
Hence my advise is, that we should keep to the 44th degree south latitude until we shall have passed the 150th degree East of longitude, and then run north as far as the 40th degree south latitude, remaining there with an easterly course, until we shall have reached the 220th degree of longitude, after which we should take a northerly course, so as to avail ourselves of the trade-wind to reach the Solomon Islands and New Guinea by running from east to west. I cannot but think that, if we find no land up to 150o E longitude, we shall then be in an open sea again, unless we should meet with islands; all which time and experience, being the best of our teachers, will no doubt bring to light.
In the morning the wind still westerly, with hail and snow, so that we had to run on with a furled foresail as before. We considered it best to head north again whereupon we made the following decision with the ship’s council together with our under-mates since we could not hail our friends on the Zeehaen much less bring them to the Heemskerck.
First we should shape our course to the northeast and run as far as latitude 45o to 44o south; then, having reached 45o south or indeed 44O, to set our course to the east as far as longitude 150o E, as the resolution states fully to which I here refer.
At noon we estimated our position as 47o 56' S, 119o 6' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed forty-five miles.
In the morning with the weather was somewhat better so that we set our topsails. We kept our course northeast and sailed thirty-two miles with drizzly, rainy, misty weather and variable winds but mostly a westerly.
At noon we estimated our position as 46o 26' S, 121o 19' E. We ran on at night with reduced sail.
Variation 25 degrees 30 minutes.
The wind southerly with a gray sky and a topsails breeze. At noon we estimated our position as 44o 19' S, 124o 20' E. A calculation of our latitude does not square with our estimate. We kept a northeast course and sailed forty-five miles. We saw still daily rockweed drifting about.
At noon we shaped our course to the east in accordance with the resolution of the 7th instant. Towards the evening we let drift from the back of the poop the following letter with a copy of the notes [see entry for 7 November] of the pilot-major Francoys Jacobszoon to the officers of the Zeehaen, in a wooden canister-shot case duly waxed and closely wrapped with a tarred canvas. The letter duly reached its destination and ran as follows:
To the officers of the flute ship Zeehaen. I should on the 7th instant gladly have heard the advise of our friends on the Zeehaen, but the time and occasion has not permitted that. Anyhow, with my council’s members and the under-mates I have decided to set the course to the north-east to latitude 44o south, and then keep that course direct to the east to longitude 150o east. If you agree with the resolution, then please hoist a flag at your stern as a sign of this so that I may thereupon confirm the resolution. Also, do your best to sail on at night until further orders. When you feel it is possible to come alongside of us in the boat, please fly a flag from the foretop by way of a signal, in which case we shall stay for you, seeing that I are very desirous of communicating with you by word of mouth.
Actum Heemskerck sailing in about 44O south latitude, this day November 9, 1642,
Abel. Jansz. Tasman.
After receiving and reading my letter the people of the Zeehaen have, as a sign that they approved our resolution, flown the Prince-flag.
Good weather with a southerly wind and a topsails breeze. At noon we estimated our position as 44o S, 126o 45' E. We kept an easterly course and sailed twenty-six miles. At noon we found ourselves in latitude 43o 20' S. The sea ran very high from the southwest and also at times from the southeast with heavy swells,
Variation 21 degrees 30 minutes.
Good weather and a westerly wind with a soft breeze. At noon we estimated our position as 43o 20', 127o 45' E. We kept an easterly course and sailed eleven miles. We ran up the white flag whereupon the officers of the Zeehaen came on board our ship and then at a meeting of the full council we resolved that from our present position of about latitude 44o S; longitude 123o 29' E (this longitude figure is reckoned from averaging), we shall sail east as far as 195o E, which is in line with the eastern side of New Guinea as it is delineated in the chart. The resolution of today’s date explains more fully the details to which I refer.
Good weather and smooth water with a westerly wind and a soft topsails breeze. At noon we calculated our position as 43o 5' S, 129o 17' E. We kept our course east-southeast and sailed eighteen miles.
Variation 21 degrees.
Dark, hazy, foggy weather with a steady breeze. We still see daily rockweed drifting by. At noon we estimated our position as 44o 16' S, 132o 17' E, and kept our course east by south and sailed thirty-three miles. The wind northwest. At noon we shaped our course to the east.
Still dark, gloomy, drizzly weather and the wind west-northwest, with a steady breeze. At noon we estimated our position as 44o 16' S, 136o 22' E. We kept our course east and sailed forty-four miles. The sea still runs high from the southwest so that no mainland is yet to be surmised south of us.
Good weather and a steady breeze from the west-northwest. At noon we calculated our position as 44o 3' S, 140o 32' E. We kept our course a little more north from east and sailed forty-five miles. We still saw much rockweed drifting every day.
Variation decreasing 18 degrees 50 minutes northwesterly.
In the morning it was very foggy but towards noon it cleared up again. We calculated our position as 44o 10' S, 144o 42' E. We kept our course east and sailed forty-five miles with a steady breeze from the west. In the evening we took the sun’s azimuth.
Variation 16 degrees.
Good weather and a clear sky. We still saw daily much rockweed drifting by. And the sea still comes from the south-west and although we daily see rockweed drifting it is nevertheless presumed, that to the south there is no large land because of the rough sea, which still comes high from the south.
At noon we calculated our position as 44o 15' S, 147o 3' E. We kept our course east and sailed twenty-eight miles with a soft topsails breeze from the west. We estimate we have already passed the present known southland or as far as Pieter Nuyts sailed to the east.
The wind northwesterly and then northerly with mist and drizzle and a topsails breeze. At noon we calculated our position as 44o 16' S, 150o 6' E.
We kept an easterly course and sailed thirty-three miles. This day we saw some whales. At night during the dogwatch we lay to under reduced sail.
Variation 12 degrees.
Good weather and a northerly wind, then a northwesterly with a topsails breeze. At noon we estimated our position as 44o 45' S, 153o 34' E.
We kept our course east by south and sailed thirty-eight miles. At noon we observed our latitude as 45o 5', so that we are farther to the south than I earlier estimated
. Towards the evening a storm arose from the north and then from the northwest accompanied by hail and snow and very cold weather so we had to tack to leeward with our mainsail.
In the morning the variation decreasing 8 degrees north-westerly
The wind west-northwest with hail and snow and a storm in the morning. We scudded on before the wind with our foresail at half-mast. At noon we estimated our position as 44o 43' S, 155o 58' E.
We kept an easterly course and sailed twenty-six miles. We later observed our latitude as 44o 32' S. At night we lay-to with our mainsail set.
In the morning with the weather somewhat better; we again set our topsails, slid out the foresail bonnet, and made our course east-northeast. The wind westerly and then northwesterly with a topsails breeze.
At noon we estimated our position as 43o 53' S, 158o 12' E, but then we calculated our latitude as 43o 40' S. We kept our course east-northeast and sailed twenty-six miles. The sea runs very hollow both from the northwest and the southwest. We lay-to at night under reduced sail.
Variation 4 degrees northwesterly.
At daybreak we set sail again with a westerly topsails breeze; there was a huge swell from the southwest so that to the south no land is to be surmised.
At noon we estimated our position as 42o 58' S, 160o 34' E, but then we calculated our latitude as 42o 49' S. We kept our course east-northeast and sailed twenty-eight miles.
Our compasses did not stay stable as they ought to or there might be some loadstone deposits near here. It is indeed possible since our compasses sometimes vary eight points from one moment to another so that there always seems to be some cause that keeps the needle in motion.
Good weather and a southwesterly wind with a steady breeze. In the morning we found that our rudder was broken above the opening of the spindle. So we have fixed a brace to each side and hauled to windward under reduced sail.
At noon we calculated our position as 42o 50' S, 162o 51' E. We kept an easterly course and sailed twenty-five miles.
We found the variation of the compass to be one degree northwest so that the decrease is very abrupt here.
By our estimate we have the west side of New Guinea north of us.
Good weather and a clear sky. At noon we calculated our position as 42o 25' S, 163o 31' E. We kept our course east by north and sailed thirty miles; the wind from the southwest and then the south with a light topsails breeze.
In the afternoon, about 4 o’clock, we saw land, which we had east by north from us by our estimate ten miles distant. It was very high land. Towards the evening we saw in the east-south-east, three high mountains and in the northeast two more mountains; but these were not so high as those to the east-southeast.
We found here that our compass pointed due north.
In the evening in the first glass after the watch was set, I convened the ship’s council with the undermates and asked them whether it would not be best to run farther out to sea. I requested their opinion as to the time when it would be best to do so; upon which it was unanimously resolved to run out to sea at the expiration of three glasses, and to keep doing so for the space of ten glasses. After this to make for the land again. All of this may be seen more fully in today’s resolution to which I beg leave to refer.
During the night, when three glasses had run out, the wind turned to the southeast. We held off from the shore, sounded in 100 fathoms, and found a white sandy bottom with small shells. We sounded once again and found black, coarse sand with pebbles.
During the night we had a southeast wind with a light breeze.
In the morning we had a calm. I ordered the white flag and upper standard flown from the stern whereupon the officers of the Zeehaen with their steersmen came to our ship where I convened the council. At our meeting we resolved together upon what is more fully set out in a resolution of this day, to which I beg leave to refer to here.
Towards noon the wind turned to the southeast and then to the south-southeast and the south, upon which we made for the coast. In the evening about 5 o’clock we came close to the coast; three miles off the coast we had sixty fathoms with a coral bottom. One mile off the coast we had clean, fine, white sand. We observed this coast to be a level land and bear south by east and north by west.
We calculated our position from observed latitude and averaged longitudes as 42o 30' S, 163o 50' E. We then steered again away from the coast with the wind turning to the south-southeast with a topsails breeze.
When one comes from the west and one finds that the variation of the compass is four degrees northwesterly then one may indeed look out for land because the variation here decreases very abruptly. Here at the coast one has a right pointing compass.
If it happened that one got some rough weather from the more westerly hand then one may well heave to and not sail on.
As mentioned earlier in this entry we have arrived at an averaged longitude of 163o 50' E.
This land is the first land in the South Sea that is met by us and is still unknown to European peoples, so I have given this land the name of Anthoonij van Diemenslandt in honour of the Hon. Govr General our illustrious master who sent us out to make this discovering.
The islets, which are lying around the mainland, so many as are known to us, I have named after the Hon. Councillors of India, as may be seen from the chart which has been made of them.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal a number of sketches relating to Tasmania with legends in Dutch are present.]
We had an easterly wind, a light breeze and hazy weather, so that we could see no land. We estimated we were about ninety-one miles off the coast.
Towards noon I had the upper standard flown, whereupon the Zeehaen came at once astern of us and we called out to her men that Mr Gilsemans should come on board. Mr Gilsemans without delay came across to our ship and I declared to him the reasons which are mentioned in the following subjoined note. Mr Gilsemans was asked to take these instructions to the Zeehaen and show the same to the skipper Gerrit Janszoon, and also direct the attention of their steersmen in accordance with its purport:
The officers of the flute ship the Zeehaen shall in their daily registers describe this land which yesterday we have seen and been near in the longitude of 163O 50' E., as we calculated on the average. We shall take this figure as firm and therefore reckon further longitudes from the above mentioned figure. He who before this had reckoned the longitude of 160o or more, will henceforth have to take this land for his starting point. In order to prevent all faults, as far as possible, all officers and mates shall now make reckonings from this land discovered. I find this to be proper and any charts which should be made by anybody shall lay down that land in the averaged longitude which is the aforementioned figure of 163o 50' E.
Actum Heemskerck datum ut supra
[signed] Abel Jansz. Tasman.
At noon we estimated our position as 43o 36' S, 163o 2' E. We kept our course south-southwest and sailed eighteen miles.
In the evening the wind went round to the northeast and we changed our course to east-southeast.
Variation ½ degree northwesterly.
In the morning proceeding on our east-south-east course we saw the coast again. At noon we estimated our position as 44o 4' S, 164o 2' E. We kept our course south-east by east and sailed thirteen miles.
It was drizzly, foggy, rainy weather, with the wind northeast and north-northeast with a light breeze. At night after seven glasses in the first watch had run out we lay-to with reduced sail because it was so dark we dared not sail on.
In the morning it was still dark, foggy, rainy weather but we sailed again, setting our course to the east and then northeast by north. We saw land northeast and north-northeast from us and ran direct thereto. The coast here bears south-east by east and north-west by west and the land falls away here to the east as far as I can perceive.
At noon we estimated our position as 44o 12' S, 165 o 2' E. We kept our course east by south, and sailed eleven miles. The wind came from the northwest with a light breeze.
In the evening we came close to the coast; here by the coast are some small islets, one of which lies about three miles off the mainland and looks like a lion. In the evening the wind turned to the east; at night we lay-to under reduced sail.
In the morning while we were still by the rock which looks like a lion’s head we had a westerly wind with a topsails breeze. We then sailed along the coast, which here stretches east, and west and towards noon we passed two rocks, the westerly one we thought looked like Pedra Branca which lies off the coast of China. The eastern rock, which looks like a high, blunt, square tower, lies about four miles off the mainland. We passed between the rocks and the mainland.
At noon we estimated our position as 43o 53' S, 166o 3' E. We kept our course east-northeast and sailed twelve miles. We are still running along the coast.
In the evening about 5 o’clock we came before a bay and it seemed that one should indeed find a good anchorage there. Therefore, we have resolved with our ship’s council, to run into it, but in fact we were almost into the bay by the time of our resolution. Then there arose suddenly a gale so strong that we were obliged to take in our sails and with reduced sail we ran again out to sea, as it was impossible to come to anchor in such a storm. We resolved to remain at sea in the night with reduced sail so as not to fall on a lee shore through the violence of the wind. More details may be seen in the aforementioned resolution to which for the sake of briefness here I beg leave to refer.
In the morning at daybreak, we again made for the coast but were driven by the wind and current so far out to sea that we could barely see the land. We did our utmost to get back near it again and at noon had land northwest from us. We turned the ship to the west the wind being northerly and unfavourable for us to approach the land.
At noon we calculated our position as 43o 41' S, 168o 3' E. We kept our course east by north and sailed twenty miles in stormy and unstable weather.
A little after noon we turned to the west with a strong, variable gale, then we steered to the north under reduced sail.
The needle points due north here.
In the morning the weather having become somewhat better, we set our topsails ; the wind is west-southwest with a topsails breeze. We now made our course for the coast.
At noon we calculated our position as 43o 10' S, 167o 55' E. We kept our course north-north-west and sailed eight miles it having become quite calm. At noon I had the white flag flown whereupon the friends on the Zeehaen came to the Heemskerck. At our meeting we resolved between us that it would be best and most advantageous to get to land as soon as possible, if the wind and weather allowed the same, both for closer knowledge of the land and also to obtain some refreshments. All this is more amply explained in the resolution of today’s date.
We then got the breeze from the more easterly hand and ran to the coast to investigate whether or not there is a good anchorage here.
About one hour after sunset we have let the anchor drop in a good haven in twenty-two fathoms, with white and grey fine sand, and a natural shallowing bottom. For our anchorage in this safe haven it behoves us to thank Almighty God with grateful hearts.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal a number of sketches relating to Tasmania are present. The original sketches are accompanied by legends in Dutch.]
Early in the morning I sent the pilot-major Francoys Jacobszoon, in command of our pinnace manned with four musketeers and six rowers, each provided with pikes and sidearms, together with the cock-boat of the Zeehaen, and one of the under-mates and six musketeers on an investigative mission. They went to an inlet which was situated a full mile north-west from us to find out what commodities, such as fresh water supplies, timber, and other items, might be available there. About three hours before nightfall the boats came back bringing various samples of greens, which they had seen growing in plenty. One was not unlike certain greenstuff which grows at the Cabo de bona Esperance and is suitable to use as pot-herbs, another with leaves long and with a salty taste which is not unlike sea-parsley or samphire.
The pilot-major and the under-mate of the Zeehaen reported as follows, namely:
That they had rowed fully a mile round said point where they found high, yet level land, with greenstuff (unplanted but growing naturally by the will of God), fruit-bearing timber in abundance, and a running-water place in a barren valley. The water was indeed good but rather difficult to get and also it was flowing so gradually that no more than a bowlful at a time could be scooped.
That they heard some sound of people playing an instrument sounding almost like a horn or small gong which was not far from them. However, they had nevertheless not managed to see anyone.
That they have seen two trees about two to two-and-a-half fathoms thick and sixty to sixty-five feet to the lowest branches. These trees appeared gashed with flints and the bark was peeled off (allowing a person thereby to climb up and gather the bird nests). They measured the shape of the steps and found each were fully five feet from one another so that they presumed here were very tall people or these people by some means must know how to climb up trees. In one tree these carved steps appeared so fresh and new as if they were cut less than four days previously.
That they had noted in the earth the tracks or furrows of some animals not unlike the claws of a tiger. They also brought back to the ships some excrement of (as far as they presumed and could observe) four-footed animals. Also a little fine gum which is dripping from trees and has an odour of gommalacca.
That round the east point of this bay they sounded and found at high water thirteen to fourteen feet; but with the ebb and flow there is about three feet at low tide.
That round this east point they found numbers of gulls, and wild ducks or geese, but inland they had seen none; however, indeed they heard the cries therefrom. They found no fish but various mussels (in various places lying stuck together in clusters).
That the land is widely covered with trees that stand so thinly that one may pass through everywhere and see into the distance. So that on landing, always one could get sight of the people or wild animals, being unimpeded by thick, dense forest or thicket which should give freedom for exploring.
That in various places to landward they had seen many trees which were deeply burnt a little above the ground. The earth here and there had been worked by hand and baked as hard as flint by fires.
A little time before we sighted our boats (which returned to the ships), we occasionally saw thick smoke rising from the land which lay about west by north from us). We presumed that our people gave this as a signal because they were so long in returning, for we had instructed them that precious time should not be wasted unprofitably, and to return with speed partly in order to report their findings. But also (if they saw there no advantage) to be able to go and investigate other places.
Our people having come on board, I asked them whether they had also been thereabouts and had made fires, whereupon they replied: “no.” But at various times and places in the wood they also had seen some smoke ascending. So that here without doubt there are people who must be of extraordinary stature.
On this day we had many variable winds from the easterly hand but most of the day a strong but steady breeze from the southeast.
Today I went with the merchant Gilsemans and the same boats, which went yesterday with musketeers and rowers, armed with pikes and sidearms. We went to the south-east side of this bay where we have found water but the land is so low that the fresh water is made salty and brackish by the surf. For the digging of wells this land is too rocky. We therefore returned back on board the Heemskerck and I summoned the council of our two ships. At our meeting we resolved and determined as the resolution of today’s date sets out and makes known. The details can be seen separately in order to keep this entry short.
In the afternoon I went with the said boats, together with the pilot-major Francoys Jacobszoon, the skipper Gerrit Janszoon, Isaac Gilsemans, merchant of the Zeehaen, the under-merchant Abraham Coomans, and our master carpenter Pieter Jacobszoon to the south-east side of this bay. We took with us a pole with the company’s emblem cut in it and the Prince-flag, to set up this pole there. This was done so that later people may perceive we have been here and taken possession and lawful occupation of the said land.
Having rowed with our boats about half way, it began to blow very hard and the sea ran so high, that the cock-boat of the Zeehaen in which were seated the pilot-major and Mr Gilsemans, had to return to the ships. However, we proceeded with our pinnace coming close under the coast in a small bay, which bore west-southwest from the ships. The surf ran so high that we could not approach the land without fear that our pinnace would be dashed to pieces.
I then ordered Pieter Jacobszoon, the carpenter, to swim alone with the pole and the Prince-flag to the land, and erect the pole in the ground with the flag above. The rest of us remained in the pinnace lying in the wind. The pole was placed in about the middle of this bay, beside four high, prominent trees standing in a crescent and easily recognizable. Of these four trees one is a shorter tree which is burnt just above the foot. This tree is in fact quite higher than the other three but appears lower because it stands on the slope of the land. It has at the top above its crown, two high projecting dry branches with little dry sprouts and twigs so evenly arranged that it looks just like the large antlers of a stag. Together with them on the lowest side stands another very green and round, well-crowned branch whose shoots, through their regular proportions make the said stem look very elegant, and like the upper part of a larding tool.
After the master carpenter in the sight of myself Abel Janszoon Tasman, the skipper Gerrit Janszoon, and the under-merchant Abraham Coomans, had performed the aforementioned work, we rowed with the pinnace as near to the coast as we dared venture. Then the carpenter swam back through the surf to the pinnace. The execution of this duty being completed we rowed back to the ships leaving for posterity and for those who came after us and the inhabitants of this land the memorial mentioned above. The inhabitants did not show themselves although we surmise some were not far from there and kept a close watch on the proceedings.
We made no search for greens because the high seas prevented our men from getting ashore except by swimming, so that it was impossible to get anything into the pinnace. This whole day the wind was almost continuously from the north.
At sunset we got a strong northerly wind which progressively rose to such a violent storm from the north-north-west that we were compelled to get both of our yards in and drop our small bower anchor.
In the evening we took the sun’s azimuth and found the compass variation 3 degrees.
At dawn the storm abated and the weather became more favourable. The wind being off the land from the west by north we had the bower anchor raised again; the said anchor having been raised and having it above water, we saw that both flukes were broken off to such an extent, that we hauled home nothing but the bare shank. We have also raised the other anchor and proceeded under sail in order to pass to landwards of the northernmost islands to seek a more suitable water place.
Here we have lain at anchor in this position estimated as 43o S, 167o 30' E, but at noon we calculated our position as 42o 40' S, 168o E. Before noon the wind was westerly; we kept our course northeast and sailed eight miles.
In the afternoon the wind turned to the northwest; we had very variable winds all day. In the evening the wind went round to the west-northwest again with a strong gale, then it turned to west by north and west-northwest once more. We then tacked to northward and in the evening saw a round mountain north-northwest from us about eight miles distance. We kept our course northward and as close as possible to the wind. While sailing out of this bay and all through the day we saw much smoke arising from fires.
The trend of the coast and these adjacent islands I should indeed describe here but I request to be excused this omission so that this entry can be brief. I draw attention to the chart, which is made of the area and is appended hereto.
In the morning with the wind blowing from the northwest by west we are still keeping our course as before. The high round mountain which we had seen the day before now bore due west from us six miles distance at this point. The land fell off to the northwest so that here we could not keep the land alongside any longer because the wind was against us. Therefore I summoned the council and undermates to assemble and at our meeting it was resolved, after calling out to the officers of the Zeehaen, to set the course according to the resolution of 11th November. This was to head due east and run on this course to the full longitude of 195o E, or the longitude of the Solomon Islands - all of this is to be seen in the more fully explained resolution of today’s date.
At noon we estimated our position as 41o 34' S, 169o E. We kept our course north-east by north and sailed twenty miles, and then we shaped our course due east. We sailed this course to make further discoveries and also to avoid the changeable winds between the trade wind and the counter trade wind. The wind was from the northwest with a steady breeze.
During the night a steady but stiff breeze from the west and good clear weather.
In the morning the wind came from the southwest with a light breeze. At noon we calculated our position as 41o 15'S, 172o 35' E. We kept our course east and sailed forty miles. The whole afternoon was quite calm and quiet, with the sea running hard from all quarters, but especially from the southwest.
In the evening with the setting of the watch we got a steady breeze from the east-northeast and northeast.
The northeast wind still continued with the breeze quite as fresh as that of last night. At noon we estimated our position as 42o 13' S, 174o 31' E. We kept our course southeast by east and sailed twenty-six miles.
Variation increasing northeasterly 5 degrees 45 minutes.
At night we had a calm and the wind ran to the west and northwest. At noon we estimated our position as latitude 42o 29' S, 176o 17' E. We kept our course east by south and sailed twenty miles.
We drifted in a calm so that by estimation our ships were taken three miles southeastward. At noon we calculated our position as 42o 37' S, 176o 29' E. Towards the evening, rain with a light breeze from the west-northwest.
Variation 5 degrees.
Today we experienced sometimes squalls of rain mixed with hail. We had a westerly wind, a topsails breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 42o 45' S, 178o 40' E. We kept our course east and sailed twenty-four miles.
Good weather with a clear sky and the wind westerly, a topsails breeze. At noon we calculated our position as 42o 48' S, 181o 51' E. We kept an easterly course and sailed thirty-eight miles.
Variation 7 degrees increasing northeasterly.
Good weather and the wind blowing from the south-southwest and southwest with a steady breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 42o 8' S, 185o 17' E. We kept our course east and sailed thirty-eight miles. The heavy swells continued still from the southwest so that here to the south no large land is to be expected.
Variation 7 degrees northeasterly.
At noon we calculated our position as 42o 10' S, 188o 28' E. We kept our course east by north and sailed thirty-six miles. The wind south-southwesterly with a topsails breeze.
Towards noon we saw a large, high, elevated land bearing southeast from us about fifteen miles distance. We made our course to the southeast direct for the land. I had a shot fired and in the afternoon had the white flag flown, whereupon the officers of the Zeehaen came on board our ship. I called a meeting of the council and we resolved to touch at the said land as soon as at all possible. The reasons for this decision are set out more fully in the resolution of today’s date.
In the evening I deemed it advisable, and instructed our steersmen accordingly, that as long as it remains calm, they should keep to a southeast course. But if the breeze freshens, then to prevent all mischances as far as practicable, they shall go direct to the east so that we might not be driven on the shore. According to my opinion the land should not be made from this side, unless some safe, sheltered bays were on this side, because of the great open sea which comes shooting thereon with great hollow waves and swells.
In the first watch four glasses being out, we shaped our course due east.
Variation 7 degrees 30 minutes northeasterly.
At noon we calculated our position as 42o 10' S, 189o 3' E. We kept our easterly course, proceeded about two miles off the land, and sailed twelve miles.
This land showed as a very high double land but we could not get in sight of the tops of the mountains because of the thick clouds.
We shaped our course beside the land and headed north; we were so close that one could see the surf steadily breaking against the shore.
In the afternoon about two miles from the land, in a calm, we sounded and in fifty-five fathoms found a sticky, sandy bottom. Towards the evening a low-lying point was seen northeast by north from us, about three miles distance. We drifted mostly in a calm towards this point. In the mid-afternoon we sounded and struck a sticky, sandy bottom in forty-five fathoms. We drifted the whole night in a calm the sea shooting from the west-northwest so that we approached the land with up to twenty-eight fathoms in good anchoring ground. Because of the calm, in order not to drift nearer the land in the day watch, we anchored with a kedge-anchor and are now waiting for the land-wind.
In the morning during a small land-breeze we weighed anchor and did our best to get out to sea a little from the land. Our course was kept northwest by north. We then had the northernmost low point of the previous day north-northeast and northeast by north from us. This land consists of a high double mountain range not lower than the island of Formosa.
At noon we calculated our position as 41o 40' S, 189o 49' E. We kept our course north-north-east and sailed eight miles; then the point of the previous day lay south-east from us twenty-one miles. From this point there extends out north, a great rocky reef and here above the water on the reef, stand some high, steep rocks, as if they were steeples or sails.
One mile west from this point we found no bottom. From here because we saw still the stretching of high land to the north-northeast from us we have set our course direct to the north, in good, dry weather and smooth water. From this low point aforesaid with the rocks, to the northeast, the land forms a great bight. The land stretches first due east, thence again due north. This aforesaid point lies in the latitude of 41o 50' S.
The wind was blowing from the west and here on the water it is good for viewing but in this region it is a barren land to behold. Besides, we saw neither people nor the least sign of any smoke. They must have no vessels there because we have seen no sign of them.
In the evening the compass variation 8 degrees northeasterly.
Six glasses before the day broke we took soundings and found a good firm bottom in sixty fathoms. The northernmost point, which we had in view, then bore north-east by east from us three miles and the nearest land lay south-east a mile and a half from us. We drifted in a calm with good weather and smooth water.
At noon we calculated our position after observations and averaging longitudes as 40o 58' S, 189o 54' E. We kept our course north-northeast and sailed eleven miles. The whole afternoon we drifted in a calm.
In the evening at sunset we had a compass variation of 9 degrees 23 minutes increasing northeasterly. We got the wind with a freshening breeze from the southwest.
We took a bearing on the farthest point that we could see of the land east by north of us which also fell off so abruptly that we did not doubt that this was the farthest extremity.
I summoned our council with the undermates with whom we have made a resolution that we should run to the north-east and east-northeast, till the end of the first watch, and then to sail near the wind provided the weather and wind do not change. Details are to be seen more fully in the resolution of today’s date.
At night in the sixth glass it again became calm so that we remained on the east-northeast course although in the fifth glass of the dogwatch we had the point of the evening southeast from us. We could not because of the sharpness of the wind sail higher than a little more easterly than east-northeast.
In the first watch we took soundings again and a second time in the dog-watch when we struck bottom in sixty fathoms and found clean grey sand. In the second glass of the day watch we got a breeze from the southeast and tacked then to the shore again.
In the morning at sunrise we were about one mile off the land and saw in various places smoke ascending from fires made by the inhabitants. The wind then being from the south and blowing from the land we tacked again to eastward.
At noon we estimated our position as 40o 32' S, 190o 47' E. We kept our course northeast by east and sailed twelve miles.
In the afternoon the wind being westerly we held our course east by south along a low-lying sandy land in good dry weather.
We sounded in thirty fathoms and found black sand so that one is best to approach this land sounding on the bottom by night. We kept running for this sandy point until we sounded and found seventeen fathoms when with the sunset we cast anchor. Because of the calm we then had the northernmost part of the dry, sandy point, west by north from us and also high land extending to the east by south. The point of the reef was now south-east from us; here within this point or narrow sandspit, we saw a great open bay fully three to four miles wide; to the east of of this narrow sandspit there is a sandbank upwards of a mile in length, with six, seven, eight and nine feet of water above it, and projecting east-south-east from the said point. This is in fact a sand reef that lies under water and sticks out from the aforementioned point.
In the evening we had 9 degrees variation northeasterly.
In the morning we weighed anchor in calm weather, headed east-southeast and sailed 11 miles.
At noon we estimated our position as 40o 49' S, 191o 41' E.
In the morning, before we had our anchor home we had resolved that we shall try to get ashore here and endeavour to find a convenient harbour. And as we approach we should send forward the pinnace to reconnoitre. The details of our proposal are set out more fully in the resolution of today’s date.
In the afternoon our skipper, Ide T'Jerckszoon and the pilot-major, Franchoys Jacobszoon with the pinnace and the cock-boat of the Zeehaen, with the merchant Gilsemans and one of their undermates went ahead. The idea was to seek an anchorage and also a watering place.
At sunset, we have since it became calm, dropped our anchor in fifteen fathoms and found a good firm bottom.
In the evening about one hour after sunset we saw many lights on land and four vessels near the shore, two of which betook themselves towards us. When our two boats returned to the ships reporting that they had found not less than thirteen fathoms of water, and with the sinking of the sun (which sank behind the high land) they had been still about half a mile from the shore. After our people had been on board about one glass, people in the two canoes began to call out to us in gruff, hollow voices. We could not in the least understand any of it; however, when they called out again several times we called back to them as a token answer. But they did not come nearer than a stone’s shot. They also blew many times on an instrument, which produced a sound like the moors’ trumpets. We had one of our sailors (who could play somewhat on the trumpet) play some tunes to them in answer.
The people of the Zeehaen had their undermate (who came to the East Indies as a trumpeter and at Mauritius was made under-mate by the councils of the fortress and our ships), do likewise. After this, several repeat signals were done by both sides and as evening fell, more and more of those in the canoes have finally stopped and paddled away. For security and to be duly on guard, I made our people (as is the custom at sea) keep double watches. We also took care that we lay weapons of war such as muskets, pikes and cutlasses and ammunition sufficiently ready.
We have cleaned and prepared the guns on the upper deck and got them ready again in order that we might prevent all mischances and defend ourselves if it happened that these people wished to try something evil.
Compass variation 9 degrees northeasterly.
Early in the morning, a vessel of these people having in it thirteen men, approached our ships to about a stone’s cast away. They called out several times but we could not understand the speech which had no likeness to the vocabulary given by the Hon. Govr General and Councillors of India. But this is not to be wondered at since this contains the language of the Solomon Islands. These people were (as far as we could observe) of ordinary height but rough in voice and strong boned; their colour was between brown and yellow. They had black hair right up on top of the crown of the head, fastened together in style and form like the Japanese at the back of the head, but a bit longer and thicker of hair. Upon their hair stood a large, thick, white feather.
Their watercraft consist of two long, narrow canoes side by side over which some planks or other seating is laid. The design was such that above water one can see through under the vessel their paddles, which are about a large fathom long, narrow and pointed at the end.
They could proceed speedily with these vessels. Their clothing was (so it appeared) such that some of them wore mats, others cotton stuff. In almost all of them the upper part of the body was naked.
We waved to them many times indicating that they should come to the ships. We displayed white cloth and some knives from what were given to us as cargo but they did not come nearer. Finally they paddled back to the shore again. Meanwhile, the officers of the Zeehaen (following the summons of the previous evening) appeared on our ship. I then summoned the council and we have resolved at the meeting to run with the ships as near the shore as we can come because there is a good anchoring ground, and the people (as it seems) are seeking friendship.
Just after drawing up the resolution we saw seven more boats come from the land, one of which (projecting in the front, high and sharp and manned by seventeen men), paddled round behind the Zeehaen while a second (in it thirteen sturdy men), came before the ship not a half stone's cast from our ship. The people in the two vessels now and then called out to each other, while we waved and displayed to them (as previously) white cloth etc., but they continued nevertheless to remain where they were. The skipper of the Zeehaen now sent his quartermaster with six rowers in a small boat to the ship to tell the under-mates if these people wanted to come alongside the Zeehaen they should not let too many on board but be cautious and fully on guard.
When the Zeehaen’s cock-boat rowed to the ship, those of the canoe which was nearest us, called and waved with their paddles to the others who lay behind the Zeehaen, but what their meaning was we did not know.
When the Zeehaen’s cock-boat set out back from the ship, they who lay behind us between the two ships, began to paddle so vigorously to it, that about a little more than halfway to the Heeskerck they struck the Zeehaen's cockboat with the stem of the canoe so that it lurched violently on the side. Whereupon the foremost in this canoe of rogues, struck the quartermaster, Cornelis Joppen in the neck several times with a long, blunt pike, so fiercely that he fell overboard. Whereupon the rest of them set to with short, thick pieces of wood (which at first we thought to be heavy blunt parangs) and their paddles, overpowereing the people in the cockboat and in their violence killed three men from the Zeehaen. The fourth man, through the heavy blows was mortally injured. The quartermaster and two other sailors swam towards the Heemskerck and we sent our pinnace for them into which they got alive. After this monstrous deed and detestable thing, the murderers let the cockboat drift; they have dragged one of the dead into their canoe and thrown another into the sea. From both the Heemskerck and the Zeehaen, seeing this, we shot hard with muskets and cannon but although we did not indeed hit them, they nevertheless hastened back, and paddled for the land out of shooting range.
We fired many shots with our forward, upper, and bow guns near and about their vessels but struck none. Our skipper Jde T’Jerccksen Holman rowed with our sloop, well manned and armed towards the small boat of the Zeehaen (which these accursed men luckily for us let drift), and returned with same quickly to the ship. Finding in the boat one of the dead and the mortally wounded man, we raised our anchors and set sail. We sailed because we could not hope to enter into any friendly relations with these people; nor would water or refreshments be obtained here.
Once under sail we saw by the shore twenty-two canoes of which eleven swarming with people came off towards us. We kept quiet until we could shoot some of the foremost. We fired one or two shots with our guns from the gunner’s room but without however doing them any harm.
The people of the Zeehaen shot also and hit in the largest canoe a man who stood with a small white flag in his hand so that he fell down. We heard the shot also strike in, and against the canoe, but what additional effect it had remained unknown to us. As soon as they had received this shot, they turned with speed for the land, two of them setting a type of tingangh sail. They then remained on the shore without visiting us again.
About noon, skipper Gerrit Janszoon and Mr Gilsemans, again came to the Heemskerck and when I also had their upper-mate brought over I convened the council. We made a resolution the main points of which follow; namely, that the detestable deed of these inhabitants shown to four of the Zeehaen’s crew this morning, is a lesson to us to hold this land’s inhabitants as enemies. Therefore we shall run east along the shore, following the trend of the land, to see whether somewhere we may find convenient places where there should be some supplies and water to obtain, as is more fully explained in the resolution.
In this murderers’ spot (which we have also given the name of Murderers Bay), we lay anchored in the position we estimated as 40o 50' S, 191o 30' E.
From here we shaped our course east-northeast and at noon we estimated our position as 40o 57' S, 191o 41' E. We kept a southerly course and sailed two miles.
In the afternoon the wind came from the west-northwest. We have then on the recommendation of our mates and my approval turned our course northeast by north. During the night we sailed on because it was favourable weather but about one hour after midnight we sounded and found a hard sandy bottom in twenty-five to twenty-six fathoms.
Shortly after the time of taking the sounding mentioned the wind turned round to the northwest and we sounded in fifteen fathoms. We forthwith tacked to wait for daylight. We made our course to the west directly opposite to that in which we had come.
This is the second land, which we have sailed along and discovered. This land we have given the name of “Staten Landt" in honour of the High and Mighty States-General [of the United Provinces of the Netherlands] since we deemed it quite possible that this land is joined to the great Staten Landt but this is not certain. This same land appears to be a very fine country and we trust that this is the main coast of the unknown southland. This course we have given the name “Abel Tasman passage" because he is the first who has navigated it.
Compass variation 9 degrees 30 minutes northeasterly.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal a number of sketches relating to New Zealand with legends in Dutch are present.]
In the morning we saw here land lying on all sides of us so that we had sailed fully thirty miles into a bight.
We had previously thought the land where we had been at anchor to be an island, not doubting we shall find from there a passage into the open South Sea, but this turned out to our grievous disappointment very much otherwise.
The wind then turned westerly. We did our best by tacking to come again out of the same passage, which we previously had sailed into.
At noon we calculated our position as 40o 51' S, 192o 55' E. We kept our course a half point more northerly than east and sailed fourteen miles.
In the afternoon it fell calm but with the sea shooting hard into this bight we could make no headway so that we drifted back with the tide into the bight.
At noon we tacked northwards and saw then a round, high islet west by south from us about eight miles which the day before we had sailed past. This said islet is located about six miles east of the place where we anchored and is in the same latitude. In this bight into which we had sailed so far mistakenly, it was a fine, good land to behold; on the seaside, mostly low, barren land, the inward land being moderately high.
As you approach the land you have everywhere an anchoring-ground gradually rising from fifty or sixty fathoms to fifteen fathoms when you are fully one-and-a-half or two miles from the shore.
At three o’clock in the afternoon we got a light breeze from the southeast, but as the sea was very rough, we made little or no progress. During the night we drifted in a calm; in the second watch, the wind being westerly, we tacked to northward.
During the night in the dogwatch we got a westerly wind with a strong breeze. We steered to the north in the hope that the land which we had the previous day northwest from us, would fall off there to the north. But after the cook had dished, we again ran towards it, and found it stretched still to the northwest.
We now tacked again from the coast and it began to blow hard; then we ran southwest for the south shore.
At noon we calculated our position as 40o 31' S, 192o 55' E. We kept our course north and sailed five miles. It was gloomy so that we could see no land. Half afternoon we again saw the south coast and had the island which the day before was about six miles west from us, now southwest by south from us, about four miles distance. We sailed for it running so that the island was north-northwest from us. We let our anchor fall there behind some rocks in thirty-three fathoms and found a sandy bottom mixed with shells.
Here it is full of islands and cliffs all round here. We struck our sail-yards because it blew a storm from the northwest and west-northwest.
The wind northwest by north and it still blew hard so that there was no prospect of going under sail to make any progress. Since we had difficulty enough in keeping at anchor here we therefore set to refitting our ship somewhat.
We lie here in the position calculated as 40o 50' S, 192o 37' E. We later sailed and kept our course southwest by south and proceeded six miles. During the night we got the wind so strong from the northwest that we had to strike the topmasts and let go another anchor. The Zeehaen began to move but hove out another anchor likewise.
Still dark, gloomy, drizzly weather with a storm, the wind north-west and west-north-west, so that we could not make any headway to our great regret.
Still a storm with rough, unsettled weather, the wind north-west. In the morning during a calm interval I had the white flag flown and received the officers of the Zeehaen on our ship and I proposed to them, since the tide comes from the southwest, that there might indeed be a passage through. I asked whether it would not be best, as soon as weather and wind will permit, to investigate the same and see whether one cannot get water there. Details concerning these matters are more fully explained and can be seen in the resolution drawn up.
In the morning we put up our topmasts and yards again. It still looked dark out at sea so that we dared not raise our anchors. Then it became calm towards the evening so that we took in part of our cable.
In the morning two hours before daybreak we got a weak east-northeast breeze. So we weighed anchor and set sail steering a course to the north with the intention of sailing round north of this land. At daybreak it started to drizzle and the wind went round to the southeast and after that, south as far as southwest, with a stiff breeze.
We struck bottom in sixty fathoms and set our course by the wind to the west.
At noon we estimated our position as 40o 13' S, 192o 7' E. We kept our course north-northwest and sailed ten miles. At night we lay-to with reduced sail.
Compass variation 8 degrees 40 minutes.
In the morning at daybreak we sailed again and set our course to the east in order to investigate whether the land we saw earlier at 40o south, extended still further to the north, or whether it falls away to the east.
At noon we saw east by north from us, a high mountain which at first we took to be an island but then we saw that it forms part of the mainland. We were then about five miles off the shore and cast the lead in fifty fathoms and found fine sand mixed with clay.
This high mountain lies in the latitude of 38o S. This coast stretches as far as I could observe south and north.
It fell a calm but then we got the breeze from the north-northeast and we tacked to the northwest.
At noon we estimated our position as 38o 2' S, 192o 23' E. We kept our course northeast by east and sailed sixteen miles.
Towards the evening we got the wind northwest and northeast by east and the wind began to increase stronger and stronger. The first watch completed we had to take in our topsails.
Compass variation 8 degrees.
In the morning at daybreak we took in our bonnets so that we had to lower our foresail down to the stem. Towards noon we set our foresail again and then tacked to the west keeping our course northwest and sailed sixteen miles.
At noon we estimated our position as 37o 17' S, 191o 26' E.
In the morning the weather improved somewhat so we set our topsails and slid out our bonnets. Having the Zeehaen to lee of us we tacked and made towards her. We had the wind west-northwest with a topsails breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 37o S, 191o 55' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed seven miles.
Towards the evening we again saw the land bearing from us northeast and north-northeast; we steered thus to the north and northeast.
Compass variation 8 degrees 40 minutes northeasterly.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal two coastal surveying sketches of parts of the the west coast of New Zealand with legends in Dutch are present.]
At noon we tacked about to the north the wind being west-northwest with a soft breeze. We kept our course northwest and sailed seven miles.
In the evening we were about three miles off the shore. In the first watch, four glasses out, we again tacked to the north. During the night we threw the lead in eighty fathoms.
We calculated our position at noon as 36o 45' S, 191o 46' E.
This coast stretches here southeast and northwest. This land is in some places high land and in other places covered with dunes.
Compass variation 8 degrees.
1 Jan. 1643
In the morning we drifted in a calm along the coast which here still stretches northwest and southeast. This is here an even coast without reefs or banks.
At noon we calculated our position as 36o 12' S, 191o 7' E. We kept our course northwest and sailed ten miles.
About noon we got the wind south-southeast and southeast. We now shaped our course to the west-northwest to be a little away from the coast since there was a heavy surf running.
Compass variation 8 degrees 30 minutes northeasterly.
Halfway the afternoon we got a breeze from the east. We directed our course to the north-northwest. The first watch finished we then made our course to the north-west, in order not to come too near the coast in case of accidents, since in the evening we had the land north-north-west from us.
At noon we calculated our position as 35o 55' S, 190o 47' E. We kept our course northwest by west and sailed seven miles.
Compass variation 9 degrees.
In the morning we saw the land east by north from us about six miles distance and were surprised that we were so far off the shore.
At noon we calculated our position as 35o 20', 190o 17' E. We kept our course north-west by north and sailed eleven miles.
At noon the wind went round to the south-southeast and we then steered our course to the east-northeast in order to run alongside the coast again. In the evening we had the land to the north and east-southeast of us.
In the morning we found ourselves near a point and had an island northwest by north from us whereupon I had the white flag hoisted so that the officers of the Zeehaen should come on board. I then convened a meeting of the council.
At our meeting it was resolved between us to touch at the island to see if one cannot get there some fresh water, greens, etc.
At noon we calculated our position as 34o 35' S, 191o 9' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed fifteen miles with a southeast wind.
Towards noon we drifted in a calm and found ourselves here in a very strong current, which drove us to the west. Also here, a great sea came shooting from the north-east which made us not a little joyful as here we thought we might get a through passage.
This point which we had east-north-east from us lies in the southern latitude of 34o S, 30' and here the land falls off in the east. In the evening I sent the pilot-major and secretary to the Zeehaen to confer with our friends there. Since we were close to this island we could observe from appearances that nothing is to be obtained from here that we have need of. Therefore I got the officers of the Zeehaen through the pilot-major and secretary to put forward their opinion whether it would not be best, provided we got a good wind at night, to continue on. Our friends from the Zeehaen also judged this to be best that if we got a good wind to continue on.
Compass variation 8 degrees 40 minutes northeasterly.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal two double-page sketches of parts of the Three Kings Islands, New Zealand, with legends in Dutch are present. Also present is a double-page chart of part of New Zealand.]
In the morning still drifting in a calm but about 9 o'clock we got a little breeze from the southeast. I decided with our friends of the Zeehaen to steer our course to the island before mentioned. About noon we sent our pinnace with the pilot-major together with the cockboat of the Zeehaen with the merchant Gilsemans to same island to investigate whether water is not to be got there. Towards the evening they came back to the ship and reported as follows: that having come close to the land they had taken good note of everything and taken good care in order not to be overcome or surprised by the inhabitants. They had entered a safe but small bay where they found good fresh water, which fell from a steep mountain in great abundance. But, that owing to the heavy surf on the shore it was dangerous; nay, well-nigh impossible to fetch the water therefrom.
They rowed further round the island seeking whether somewhere they could find some other appropriate places. On the island there appeared in various places on the highest mountains, about thirty to thirty-five persons. These people of tall stature as far as one could see from a distance were armed with staffs or clubs. They called out in rough, very loud voices certain words, which our men could not understand. When walking they made mighty great steps or strides.
During the rowing round the island these people showed themselves; sometimes they appeared on top of the mountains from which our men concluded and so it may be inferred that they thus commonly as is their custom duly keep ready their spears, boats and small arms. A number of people the same or a few more than those who showed themselves might inhabit the island since in rowing round our people saw nowhere any dwellings, cultivated or planted land except in the vicinity of the fresh water previously mentioned. There, above on both sides of the flowing water, following the fashion of our fatherland, are everywhere square plots, green and pleasant looking. But as for the kind of vegetables planted this remained unknown to them because of the great distance. It is quite possible they have all their dwelling places about the said fresh water in this aforementioned bay.
Our men had also seen two canoes lying and drawn up upon the shore; one was seaworthy, and the other broken. They noticed nowhere any other watercraft.
Our people and the pinnace having returned on board, we immediately did our best to come close to the shore, where in the evening we anchored a small swivelgun-shot's from the land in forty fathoms, with a good bottom. We immediately made preparations to fetch water the next day from the same island.
We calculated the position of the island as 34o 25' S, 190o 40' E.
Early in the morning I sent both boats, to wit, ours and the Zeehaen's, each provided with two stonepieces, six musketeers, and rowers armed with pikes and sidearms. Our sloop with the pilot-major Francoys Jacobszoon and the skipper Gerrit Janszoon proceeded to the water-place with casks to fetch water.
While rowing towards the shore they saw in various places and heights, a tall man standing with a long staff like a pike, as it seemed keeping watch on our men. When they went past he called out very loudly to our people.
Having reached about half-way from the water place, between a certain point and another large, high rock or small island, they found the current going so strong against the wind that with the empty boats they had enough to do to hold their own. Therefore the pilot-major and Gerrit Janszoon skipper of the Zeehaen, consulted with the others in order not to endanger thus the small craft and the men. Observing that there was still a lengthy voyage ahead and neither people nor small craft could be risked by the expedition they therefore rowed back to the ships. Caution was doubly necessary because the huge sea was beating straight at the land towards the water place. Since the breeze began to freshen and I could indeed suppose they could not have got to the island I had a signal given from our ship with the furled flag. As well we fired a cannon shot in token that they might return but they were already coming hither before we signalled.
Having come alongside our ship with the boats, the pilot-major reported that because of the dangerous wind, and because round the island it was full of hard rocks without a sand bottom, there was great danger of imperilling the men and getting the watercasks broken to pieces.
I immediately summoned the officers of the Zeehaen and the under-mates to appear on the Heemskerck where I convened the council, which has resolved to weigh anchor immediately, and to run an easterly course to the longitude of 220o E, as determined in a previous resolution.
The intention then is to head towards the north as far as the seventeenth parallel, after which we shall hold our course due west to run straight to sight Tafahi and Îles de Horne. There we shall provide ourselves with water and supplies or if earlier any other islands are encountered as we sail, we shall endeavour to investigate these in order to see what we can get there. All this is more fully explained by the resolution of this day's date to which for brevity's sake here I beg leave to refer.
About noon we set sail and had an island about three miles directly south from us. In the evening at sunset the same island was six to seven miles south-southwest from us. The rocks and the island lie southwest and northeast from one another.
During the night we had a good, quiet east-southeast wind and our course was close on the wind north-northeast while the sea was running in from the north-east.
Good weather and the wind east by south and east-southeast with a topsails breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 33o 25' S, 191o 9' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed sixteen miles. The sea is running very high from the more easterly hand so that to the east no great land from us is to be surmised.
Compass variation 8 degrees.
During the night we had good weather and before noon fog and drizzling rain. We had in this whole day's run the wind from the southeast with a topgsails breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 32o 25' S, 192o 20' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed twenty-one miles.
The great swells run at present from the southeast. This passage from Batavia to Chile is in smooth waters so that there is nothing to obstruct our traverse of this waterway.
I shall hereafter write instructional procedure concerning this passage but at present must leave doing so for valid reasons.
Compass variation 9 degrees northeasterly.
We had variable easterly winds with a light breeze.
At noon we estimated our position as latitude 34o 4' S, 192o 43' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed seven miles. At night we drifted in a calm.
In the forenoon it continued calm then a breeze from the more easterly hand. At noon we calculated our position as 31o 28' S, 192o 43' E. We kept our course north and sailed nine miles.
In the afternoon we got the wind east-northeast with a soft topsails breeze. Our course still being over to the northward close to the wind. In the evening at sunset the wind went round to north by east so that we tacked eastward.
Compass variation northeasterly 10 degrees 30 minutes.
The wind still northerly with a soft topsails breeze and the sea is running from the east-southeast and and against this from the southwest.
At noon we estimated our position as 31o 10' S, 193o 35' E. We kept our course east-northeast and sailed twelve miles.
In the afternoon we got the wind from the north-northwest and changed our course to the east-northeast. In the evening the wind went round again to the west-southwest with rainsqualls. We shaped our course to the northeast.
Compass variation 10 degrees.
The wind west-southwest with a topsails breeze and the sea still running against itself, both from the southwest and from the southeast.
At noon we calculated our position as 30o 5' S, 195o 27' E. We kept our course northeast by east and sailed twenty-nine miles. Towards the evening the wind turned to the west.
Compass variation 9 degrees 30 minutes.
Good weather with a clear sky and a westerly wind with a soft topsails breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 29o 10' S, 196o 32' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed twenty miles. The sea keeps running from the southwest and the southeast. In the evening we got the wind from the southwest with a soft breeze.
Compass variation 9 degrees northeasterly.
In the morning the wind southerly with a soft breeze; the sea still ran high from the southwest and the southeast as well.
At noon we calculated our position as 28o 40' S, 197o 5' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed ten miles.
At noon the wind went round to the southeast with a slackening breeze; so far we have had westerly winds.
Compass variation 8 degrees 30 minutes northeasterly.
Good weather and the sea from the southeast begins to level out so that the swells which came from the south-west have abated quite a bit. But the sea from the southeast still runs high.
At noon we estimated our position as 27o 43 ' S, 198o 9' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed twenty miles. The wind south-southeast with a soft topsails breeze.
I am now by my estimate 105 miles east of the Solomon Islands but by the averaged longitude sixty-two miles east of the said islands.
Compass variation 8 degrees 15 minutes.
Good weather with a clear sky and the wind from the more easterly hand. The sea still running from all sides. We had a soft topsails breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 26o 29' S, 199o 32' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed twenty-six miles. In the evening we got the wind from the southeast.
Good weather and the wind southeast; trade wind weather.
At noon we calculated our position as 25o 20' S, longitude 200o 50' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed twenty-five miles with smooth water.
Compass variation 8 degrees northeasterly.
Good weather and a grey sky. Trade wind weather and the wind from the southeast with a soft topsails breeze.
At noon we estimated our position as 24o 18' S, longitude 201o 45' E. We kept our course north-east and north-east by north and sailed twenty miles with light rain showers now and then.
Good weather and the wind southeast with a steady trade-wind and smooth water.
At noon we calculated our position as 22o 46' S, 203o 27' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed thirty-three miles.
In the afternoon about 2 o'clock we saw land and had it from us east by north at about eight miles distance. We set our course for it but could not sail to it because of the sharpness of the wind. This island appears like a woman's two breasts when it is east by north six miles from you. It lies in the southern latitude of 22o 35', and longitude 204o 15' E. It is not very large but about two to three miles in circumference; a high and apparently barren island so it seems.
We should have greatly liked to sail close alongside this island to investigate whether water or any greens are to be got there. But we could not come closer to it through sharpness of the wind. We tacked close to the wind. Since in this latitude in the large chart of the South Sea, four islands are laid down, it might indeed be one of them since they lie in the same latitude.
Compass variation 7 degrees.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal two sketches of Ata, Tonga Islands, with legends in Dutch are present.]
In the morning at sunrise, we still saw the island, which we had seen the day before, and it lay from us south-southwest about six miles distance. This island we have given the name of Hooge Pylsterten Island, because there are so many pylsteerten. *
We had the wind southeast and southeast by south; trade wind weather with a topsails breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 21o 50' S, 204o 54' E. We kept our course northeast by east and sailed twenty-four miles.
About one hour into the afternoon we saw land and having it east from us about eight miles distance we steered for it. At night we stood by with reduced sails.
Compass variation 7 degrees 15 minutes northeasterly.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal two further sketches with legends in Dutch are present .]
In the morning we had a calm. We had the southernmost island east by south from us about five miles distance and shaped our course for the northernmost island. It lies in latitude 21o 50' S, longitude 205o 29' E.
We sailed to the northwest side of the island where we dropped our anchor in twenty-five fathoms; a coral bottom. The position of our anchorage is 21o 20' S, 205o 29' E.
These two islands lie about southeast and northwest from each other so that we could see through between them; the channel seemed to be about a mile-and-a-half wide. The southernmost island is the highest while the northernmost is a low island, just as Holland is. I have given the northernmost the name of Amsterdam by reason of the abundance of refreshments, which we got there. The southernmost I have named Middelburch.
About noon there came from the shore close to the Heemskerck a small canoe with three men. These were naked men of brown colour and slightly above ordinary stature. Two had long thick hair on their heads, the third was close cut, and they had nothing on except a small quaint piece of cloth in front of their male parts.
Their canoe, which was very narrow, was covered over to a large extent forward and aft. The paddles are of ordinary length, the blade with which they paddled is broad in the middle. They called to us several times and we responded to them but we could not understand one another.
We showed them white linen, a piece of which fully one and a half fathoms long, we threw overboard. They saw it and paddled towards it but seeing it was sinking and the water was quite deep the foremost from the canoe dived after the same. He remained a very long time under the water but eventually came up again with the gift and climbed into the canoe where he put the linen several times on top of his head in a token of gratitude.
They came then with their canoe a bit nearer and we threw them a piece of wood to which we had fastened two large nails. We also proffered them a Chinese looking glass with a string of Chinese beads, which we held towards them with a long stick. To this they tied one of their fishhooks with a short fishing line which they returned to us to show their gratitude. This fishhook was of mother-of-pearl shell in a form like a small anchovy. They repeatedly placed the string of beads and the mirror on their heads, the middlemost man in the canoe tied the nails round his neck, but because the mirror was covered by the slide they could not see themselves. Therefore we proffered them another which they looked in but put it on their heads. We showed them an old coconut and a hen and referring to our vocabulary asked them about water, pigs etc but we did not understand them nor they us. They constantly directed us towards the shore.
After we had given them the above-mentioned items, shown them the coconut and the hen, they eventually paddled back to land. They made a sign as if they would go and fetch these items from the shore.
During the afternoon we saw a number of people walking along the beach. Some carried small white flags from which we presumed this to be a peace token. Therefore we also put our white flag out aft; whereupon a small canoe with four persons, all sturdy men with bodies painted black from the middle to the thighs and with large leaves hanging from their necks, came to the ship bringing with them a little white flag and cloth made from the bark of trees. They put this said flag on the stem of our boat. The outriggers of their canoe were adorned with seashells and cockles.
We concluded from the presents and the adornment of their canoe (which more so than the other canoes) that it came from the king or chief of the country. Therefore I presented these men with a small Chinese looking glass, a knife, one dungaree, and one or two nails.
I had a rummer of wine filled for them and drank first myself so that they should not think we wished to poison them or do other harm. But after taking the glass they poured out the wine and took along the rummer to the shore with them.
Shortly afterwards a great number of canoes came alongside, some of the people with five to six coconuts, others with ten to twelve coconuts all of which we exchanged for old nails; three to four for a double medium-sized nail. Some of the people came swimming all the way from the shore with coconuts all of which we accepted and bartered with them.
Afterwards an aged man whom all the others honoured came aboard our ship. It seemed he was one of their chiefs so I led him into the cabin. He did me reverence by inclining his head down toward my feet. I also did him the honour according to our custom by showing him fresh water in a beaker which he indicated was to be got on the land.
I presented him with a knife, a small looking glass, and a piece of dungaree on his departure from the cabin. One of the visitors was found to have stolen the skipper's pistol and a pair of slippers. We took these items back from him without expressing the least annoyance.
Many of these people had the lower part of the body painted black to the knees. Some had a mother-of-pearl shell hanging on the breast.
Towards the evening about twenty canoes came close by our ship after they had assembled in regular order beforehand. They made a great noise, calling a number of times woe, woe, woe, woe etc. Whereupon those who were in our ship went and sat down and the same canoes then also paddled alongside bringing presents from the king. These consisted of a fine large pig, some coconuts and yams. The bearer was the same person who previously brought the white flag and the cloth of bark. We presented him with an ordinary serving dish as we use at meals and a piece of copper wire. We exchanged still more coconuts, plantains, yams and a pig etc for nails and beads. About nightfall they all left the ship except one man who stayed on board the Heemskerck to sleep.
Early in the morning a number of canoes again came to the ship with coconuts, yams, plantains, bananas, pigs, and fowls, which we bartered with them; to wit a young pig for a small fathom of dungaree, a fowl for a nail or a string of beads, coconuts, yams, bananas etc for old nails.
Several women both old and young came to the ship; the oldest women had the little fingers cut off both hands but the young women did not. What this signified we could not find out.
About 8 o'clock the old man we entertained yesterday again came to the ship and brought us two pigs for which we gave him a knife decorated with a silver band and eight or nine nails. To honour him I took him below and showed him round the ship; I also had one of our large guns fired which frightened our visitor who ran away in astonishment. But because no one suffered injury he was quickly at ease again. I then presented this old man with a figured satin cloth, a hat and a shirt, which I put on him.
About noon, thirty-two small canoes and one large canoe, furnished with sails, and constructed just as in the journal of Jacob Le Maire in No. [ ... ] is depicted, appeared alongside the Heemskerck. Eighteen sturdy men and some womenfolk came aboard our ship and brought with them some bark-mats, and fruit such as coconuts, yams and other rootcrops, of which we had no knowledge, as gifts.
I presented the chief of these persons with a shirt, a pair of trousers, a small looking glass and a few beads. I put trousers and the shirt on his body by which he was very gallantly attired.
Among these eighteen persons was a rough, corpulent man with a St Thomas's arm and a woman who had a natural little beard on her lips.
I got the under-mate of the Zeehaen with his trumpet and one of their sailors with a violin to come to our ship. Together with our trumpeter and one of our sailors who could play the German flute they played the instruments from time to time which greatly astonished our visitors.
Meanwhile we had some water casks lowered into our own pinnace and the Zeehaen's cock-boat, in order to go with these people to see whether fresh water may be obtained anywhere here as had been determined in our earlier resolution. I had a first mate placed in command of each boat and our skipper Jde Tiercxzoon Holman and the merchant Gilsemans went also with our pinnace. Together they went with the aged person and others who had undertaken to show our men the water place. Also in our pinnace I sent some musketeers even though these people seemed well disposed. Nevertheless, we cannot know what they hide in their hearts so therefore we armed our people to be prepared for all eventualities.
After our boats had rowed a large part of the way to the north-east side of this island they were taken eventually to three small water wells where they had to dip out the water with a coconut shell. This water was not fit to drink since it was a dirty greenish colour. Also it was in such small quantity that even if it was quite good we should get here no satisfaction.
The people who had shown our folk this place then took them inland to a pleasure place and decorated baleye where our men were invited to sit on fine mats. The people brought them nothing but two coconut shells with water, one for the chief and the other for our skipper.
Towards the evening our people returned to the ship with a live pig and reported that there was no chance of getting water there.
In the course of this day we have obtained forty head of pigs having bartered each pig for a double-medium nail and a half-fathom of old sailcloth. Also about seventy head of fowls for which we gave a double-medium nail for each hen plus some other items. And we obtained some yams, coconuts, and other fruits which we exchanged for beads.
In the evening there was brought to the ship from the land, by one of the chiefs, a roasted pig, yams, and other roots.
These people have no knowledge at all of tobacco or tobacco smoking.
The women go about covered from the waist to the middle of the knees with mats of leaves of trees with the rest of the body naked. They have their hair shorter than the men folk; the men's beard is usually three to four fingers in breadth long on the chin above the mouth. It is fairly short; having the moustache not longer than about two straws broad.
We saw no weapons with these people so that all was peace and friendship.
The current is not strong here, the flood runs southwest and the ebb north-east which in our estimation makes it high water with a south-westerly moon. The rise and fall of the tide is about seven or eight feet.
In the morning I went with Skipper Gerrit Janszoon and both boats and the sloop to the land to dig wells and to see whether one cannot get some water here.
Coming to the shore we at once went to the wells and indicated to the chief that teh wells needed to be enlarged. He gave at once an order to his people to make the wells larger for us. Then he took us to the baleye, had a mat spread there, and we went up and sat down.
Being seated he at once had sweet milk and cream served up; also fresh fish, and all sorts of fruits, which may be obtained here, in great abundance. They paid us a great honour and in friendship asked us where we came from and where we wanted to go. We said to them we had been at sea over a hundred days at which they were greatly astonished. We said that we came here for water, pigs, fowls etc, to which they answered that they had plenty of these; as many as we wanted.
We then got eight casks filled with water and they presented to us four live pigs with a number of fowls, coconuts, bananas etc. We presented them in return with one fathom of linen cloth, six nails, and six strings of beads for which they thanked us very much. Then afterwards we went with the three chiefs, indicating to them that we wished to leave the white flag at the baleije as a token of peace. At this they were very glad and they took the flag first one, and then the other, and placed it on their head, wanting thereby to show that they sought nothing other than our friendship. Then they fastened the flag to the baleije as a sign that they had made a covenant with us.
Since the bottom of the sea here is steep and slopes sharply, in the afternoon our anchor shifted with the trade wind and we drifted out to sea, without being able to prevent the problem. We did our best to haul our anchor on the bow but because the few people on board lacked the strength we could not secure it before midnight.
We obtained today by barter more small pigs and fowls so that we have obtained about 100 head of pigs, 150 fowls and a fair quantity of coconuts, yams, and other fruits for both ships.
At night I had to stay on the Zeehaen because I could not get back to the Heemskerck.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal sketches relating to Tonga are present.]
In the morning we had drifted four miles to leeward of this island; the flute Zeehaen having raised her anchor we soon reached the Heemskerck before noon. Once back on board I bade the mates of the Zeehaen to come also to the Heemskerck where I summoned the council. I proposed to the council, since we have to leave this land by accident and against our wishes, and because there is little chance of coming back to the same, except with a great waste of time, and since there is hardly any water worth mentioning to be obtained here, whether it would not be best and most advisable to pursue the voyage following the foregoing resolution.
And in case we come to encounter some other islands that we should visit them. These remarks found favour with the council as can be seen by the resolution of today's date.
Here where we have lain at anchor there are two little islets, high but small, about one to one-and-a-half miles in circuit and seven to eight miles distance north by west from us.
At noon, we shaped our course to the northeast with a steady south-east trade wind. We had the two previously mentioned islets four miles from us direct east. These islets are by our estimate located in the following position: 20o 50' S, 206o 46' E.
About three hours after noon we have again seen four to five miles distance in the east, northeast from us, a low-lying island, fairly large. We made our course directly for it and then saw in the east from us three small islets. Likewise in the southeast we saw two small islets, low land all, the farthest were about three to four miles to the south-east from us.
We set our course direct east-northeast for the largest islet. We anchored on the west side of the islet, a swivel-gunshot distance from the land in twelve fathoms where we found a shelly bottom.
About one hour before sunset we had to the west end, a great high island northwest by north from us, about eight to nine miles distance. Close to the east of it, northwest from us, still another island, round and a lot higher than the previous one. In height and size it is like Krakatoa in the centre of Sunda Strait and was at the same distance.
Further from the north to the north-east-north, seven more small islets located three to four miles from us. At all these islands there is a steep, abruptly descending bottom such that one cannot sound it; therefore one must anchor by sight close to the shore.
Almost all these islands have coral reefs around them.
Compass variation 7 degrees northeasterly.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal two further sketches are present.]
Early in the morning several canoes came alongside our ship with coconuts, yams, bananas, etc to be bartered for nails for which they were very eager.
On this island few people seemed to be living but some of the most notable as it seemed came on our ship. These people were presented by us with some trifles of cloth, knives, and small looking glasses etc. Furthermore we gave them to understand, as much as we could by signs, that we needed fresh water, which they indicated was to be obtained here on the island in abundance. Therefore I found it desirable to send the pilot-major Francoys Jacobszoon and Skipper Gerrit Janszoon with our pinnace and both boats to the land taking with them one of the inhabitants who would point out to them the waterplace.
We gave the guide a knife, a small looking glass, and also a small flag as a token of peace. As well we pointed out we wanted their water not without reward or payment.
About two hours before sunset, our pinnace with the skipper and the pilot-major returned and reported that, on coming to the shore they found about sixty to seventy persons sitting on the beach. Seeing these people they thought almost all the menfolk from the island must be present. They had no weapons but seemed a good peaceful people for they also found there many women and children.
The inhabitants took our men to the interior of the island by a good path. These people proved to be exceedingly thievish, for they stole anything they could lay their hands on, the women as well as the men.
Our people followed them about two-thirds of a mile into the interior where they came to a fresh inland lake which was fully a quarter of a mile in circumference and standing fully one and a half to two fathoms above the ordinary salt water. But they did no realize that it was so near the shore as they went along by the lake; they found the lake to be on the northern side of the island about a gunshot distance from the sea. Here, there was a good sandy bay to land with the boats and it also had the advantage of being also smooth water for loading the watercasks. Outside the same sandy bay a coral reef extended on which the sea broke heavily. This coral reef had an opening at the western end so that one could row inside the reef alongside the land at low tide to the smooth water. But to get to the sandy beach the tide had to rise about one and a half to two feet. This was on the northern side of the islet and since our ships lay on the northwest side they had to row about a full mile along the shore. Over the finding of this water our people were very pleased.
About three hours after sunset our two boats came alongside the ships with the watercasks which they had not been able to bring earlier because the tide was on the ebb; the sea here rises and falls about eight feet up and down.
At the fresh water place they had seen many wild ducks swimming which were not in the least shy or afraid of people.
The inhabitants brought various coconuts and calabashes with water to the ships; also some fruits and pigs, but not many. We noticed a few of their canoes fitted with sails as well as smaller ones without sails.
Their dress, appearance, manner and customs are just like those of the other island except that these men, for the most part, do not have such long, thick hair as the others. The women are comparatively speaking quite as sturdy of body and limb as the men.
This island lies in the position of 20o 15' S, 206o 19' E; the longitude figure is averaged.
This island we gave the name of Rotterdam, because here we have got our casks filled full of water.
Compass variation 6 degrees 20 minutes northeasterly.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal two full-page sketches relating to the Tonga Islands are present.]
This day we have fetched for each ship another two boatloads of water, each boat receiving ten to eleven water casks both large and small.
We also bartered beads and old nails for many more coconuts, bananas. and other fruits.
We continued still to fetch water and barter for supplies and before sunset received on each ship again two boatloads of water.
In the morning at daybreak I went together with Skipper Gerrit Janszoon and both our boats and the pinnace again to the waterplace. Our main purpose was to shoot wild ducks but we could not get any.
While we were busy launching the laden boats one of the inhabitants came with the secret intention of stealing a long pike which he had actually snatched out of the boat and hidden under the water but one of our men, seeing this, and the inhabitant becoming aware that he was seen, ran quickly with the pike into the trees. The other inhabitants, observing this, ran after him fast, signalling to us that we should remain. They would go and fetch him back which they did, so that we got the pike back.
These people are excessively licentious, wantom, and thevish, so that Argus' eyes are scarcely enough for a person to watch out about him.
In the evening before sunset we had again got for each ship two boatloads of water on board so that now we have got twenty-six hogsheads full and still about ten hogsheads and casks not yet filled.
We also obtained by barter supplies of coconuts, bananas, plantains, and other fruits in fair abundance, so that here at these islands we were well supplied and provided with refreshments and water, for which God be thanked.
I have again sent our boats and the pinnace with the pilot-major for water. In the afternoon it began to blow so strongly from the north, that the Zeehaen's boat had to open the bungholes in five casks to let the water run out and then they threw the casks overboard. Later they had to empty four more casks so that the Zeehaen's boat came back to the ships without any water.
Our boat returned to the ship with seven more full casks and also brought back the rest of its empty casks but they also experienced enough trouble in doing so.
I have invited the friends of the Zeehaen to come over to the Heemskerck where I summoned the council. I read out to them our instructions and after the reading I requested every person of the council, if one or the other knew anything more than I did which would be to the advantage or profit to the Hon. Company or became aware of such matters, that he should please make the same known, and to assist us with all necessary zeal and diligence. I likewise earnestly and kindly entreated each of the members present to act in every respect in such fashion as he intends to answer for himself on his return to Batavia before the Hon. Governor-General and Councillors of India. We resolved if this wind should continue, to set sail from here with our ships tomorrow; but if it should go around to the eastward, we shall directly make arrangements for getting all our casks filled with water. All of this may be seen set forth in more detail in the resolution bearing today's date to which I beg leave to refer.
At the meeting of the council today we also resolved upon the articles following which shall be read to our men and posted up on the quarter-deck, so that every man may conduct himself accordingly.
Seeing that on the 27th instant at night I have found that some - yes - even officers do not properly observe their appointed watches which often could lead to the danger and harm of these, our ships, and to prevent all such inconveniences and dangers, it is today resolved and adopted by the council of the ships Heemskerck and Zeehaen; that whosoever after this, it be on watch or lookout, is found sleeping or otherwise without proper attention, that the same for the first time from his quarter shall be flogged. The second time in addition to the flogging he shall also be fined a month's wages. For the third occasion he shall be deprived of six months of his due pay; and the fourth time, of rank and wages or, if the same is a sailor to serve without pay.
In accordance with the General-article-letter with exceptions to nobody, it is also ordered that, any lighting of matches, candles, or other fires, however it may be named for use, or carried on him, unless such are necessary for his position and ship's service, with knowledge of his officers; all on pain of eight days held in irons and also in addition to that to forfeit one month's pay.
Likewise, nobody shall after setting of the watch be allowed to make any noise whatever. Everyone shall guard continuously such places as is ordered to him by the commander, skipper, mates, or quartermasters, on pain of summary penalty.
The men on watch shall also by day and night let nobody come on board except with the consent of the commander, merchant, or skipper, on pain of summary punishment.
Actum Heemskerck anchored in latitude 20o 15' S, longitude 206o 19' E (Averaged longitude to south of the Equinoctial Line), this 30th day of January Ao 1643.
Abel Jansz. Tasman
Early in the morning I again sent the boats and our pinnace for water but since the weather began to look so dark and changeable we signalled them to return and accordingly they came back at once.
At noon we, to wit, our skipper, the pilot-major, the skipper and merchant of the Zeehaen, and the secretary, with both the boats and the pinnace went to the land to take leave there as we were intending to depart. On landing, a great multitude of people assembled immediately and I asked two persons who appeared to be the most important to be taken to the chief of the island.
The two persons mentioned, led us into the trees, through confined, narrow, dirty, and muddied paths (since much rain had fallen continuously for one to two days). First we were brought to the south side of the island where a number of coconut trees stood planted in regular order next to each other.
From there they led us to the eastern side of the same island where six large canoes tied together in pairs with planks and carrying masts, lay. Here also stood one to two small houses, which were decorated a little more than ordinarily, to wit enclosed around with reed shoots.
From this place we proceeded to a basin or brackish inland water of about a mile in circumference.
After we had stayed here a little time we asked them again where the Aisy or Latouw (that is the king or chief in their tongue) was. They directed us to the farther side of this water, and since the sun came fairly low towards the water we returned by another way to our vessels.
In going there and returning we noticed numbers of plots or gardens in which the beds were made neatly in elegant squares and planted with all kinds of earth-fruits. Banana and other fruit trees in many places were almost all standing so straight in line that it was a pleasure to behold. The gardens gave all round a lovely pleasant odour and fragrance.
So that in these people (who had the form of man but inhuman morals and customs) man's ingenuity also appeared.
About two hours before sunset we came back on board the ships.
These islands lie in the averaged longitude 185 miles more easterly than the Solomon Islands and by my estimate 230 miles east of the easternmost of the Solomon Islands.
Of religion or God's service these people know nothing nor have they any idols, images, or other heathen relics, nor any priests. None the less they are superstitious since I have seen that one of these persons took up a water snake which came drifting past his canoe. He laid it reverently on his head and then put it back in the water. They also kill no flies (which are here in great plenty and trouble them enough) however many flies cover their bodies. It happened while we lay here that our mate (by chance) killed a fly and that in the sight of one of thir chiefs at which this man was greatly incensed.
The people of this island have no king or chief. They are also wholly without government but even so they know of wrong and punish the culprits. But this punishment does not happen through the arm of justice but through the innocent. Generally we have observed this when we were getting water; one of these persons stole one of our pikes and ran into the trees which we saw and over which we showed annoyance. The others, perceiving our anger, ran after him, brought us the pike a little later on the way, and punished the wrongdoer or thief. Then they took an old coconut and beat on his back with it until the nut burst. Whether this is ordinarily their custom or whether it happened only as a display for our benefit we could not know.
1 Feb. 1643
We are now well supplied and have got our watercasks almost full of water for which the all-powerful Ruler of all things is to be greatly thanked and praised.
The wind has for some days past kept itself northerly hither, which at the waterplace of this island makes a lee shore such that we cannot fill our remaining empty casks. In consequence we have considered it appropriate to continue our voyage. Therefore early this morning we weighed anchor and set sail to the northward with a fairly good breeze from the more easterly hand.
At noon we had the high islands south-southeast, the southernmost and northernmost, southeast by south, about six to seven miles distance from us.
At noon we calculated our position as 19o 20' S, 205o 55' E. We kept our course from the island north-northwest and sailed fifteen miles.
These high islands lie from that island where we have got water seven to eight miles distance a bit more westerly than north-northwest.
Half afternoon we saw another island and had it from us northeast by east about seven miles distance. It was also fairly high. The wind was easterly with a light breeze.
In the morning we still saw the island, which in the evening we had northeast by east from us and had it now east-southeast from us, about eight miles distance.
At noon we calculated our position as 18o 18' S, 205o 55' E. We kept our course north and sailed fifteen miles. The wind was blowing from the east-southeast and south-east; we are enjoying trade-wind weather with a clear sky and smooth water.
Today we have good weather and a clear sky with smooth water. In the morning we estimated we were south of the seventeenth parallel whereupon we set our course to the west according to the earlier resolution.
At noon we estimated our position as 16o 40' S, 205o 25' E. We kept our course north by west and sailed twenty-five miles. The wind was east-southeast and southeast; a topsails breeze.
Tradewind weather. Towards the evening we got some rain squalls with thunder and lightning.
Still all trade wind weather with the wind as before; a topsails breeze and smooth water. We kept our course west and sailed thirty-two miles.
At noon we calculated our position as 16o 30' S, 203o 12' E. We then set our course west by south in order to come to the seventeenth parallel and I also had a good lookout kept in order not to sail past the islands of Tafahi and Niuafo'ou.
At night, three glasses into the dog-watch, land was sighted. We immediately changed to the port tack and ran to the south until seven glasses were out in the same watch and then we tacked to the north again.
In the morning we saw land again; to wit three small islets surrounded on all sides by many shoals and reefs. We tacked to the south and saw a great reef to the west which stretched all the way to the south at which we were very concerned. This land is fully eight to nine miles long.
W saw also directly ahead breakers above which we could not sail past. We could not sail over the shoal which lay directly ahead and neither could we sail over a shoal which lay to the north but we saw to lee a small gap of about two ship's length wide on which the sea did not break. We made for it since otherwise there was no way of escape. We ran through in four fathoms between the rocks but with great anxiety.
Everywhere here is full of reefs and there are eighteen or nineteen islands but one cannot sail through these for the shoals which lie here. There are so many and they are very dangerous.
These islands lie in the southern latitude of 17o 30' or thereabouts. Since we have not got the latitude at noon we estimated our position as 17o 9' S, 201o 35' E. We kept our course southwest and sailed twenty-five miles with a steady trade-wind from the east-southeast.
We should have greatly liked to come to anchor by one of these islands but could find no roadstead because of the numberless banks and reefs which project from all these islands.
At noon we turned our course to the northward in order to get out by day from all these shoals if it is possible. We saw still to the north also everywhere many shoals through which we could pass with difficulty but eventually we found an opening and sailed through between the reefs.
We had to quit these islands to our great regret because we found no ground for anchoring.
In the evening we saw three hills and thought that it was three islands.
In the first watch, we ran again for five glasses towards the land in order to avoid the shoals which lay ahead; we had the wind east and sailed with our main-sail set. Five glasses being out in the first watch we tacked to the northward and ran northward till the day broke. We saw then the island that in the evening we had seen north by west from us.
We kept sailing to the north, close to the wind with our main-sail set and the wind northeast with a strong gale and rain showers with a hollow sea running from the more northerly hand.
The pilot-major considered that the islands at which we had been on the 6th instant are the islands in the large chart of the South Sea southwest from the Îles de Horne. Therefore he considered that one ought to run the course close by the wind to the north, in order not to fall on the east side of New Guinea, since it is a lee shore and in the bad season. And that it would be impossible to get away from the shore again.
In the morning we came close upon an island. We tacked again to the south till daybreak and then turned to the north again; we had the wind from the northeast with a storm. We therefore tacked to the northwest with reduced sail.
At noon we estimated our position as 16o S, 200o 48' E. We kept our course north-west by north and sailed twenty-one miles
[At this point in the State Archives Journal further sketches are present.]
The wind still continued from the northeast and north-northeast and blew still very strong with a great deal of rain. We still sailed close to the wind with a small sail.
I have summoned the pilot-major aft, and asked him his opinion on what he maintained; whether it still should be the islands of which he spoke the day before. He answered "yes." And that we ought to proceed at once to the north if the wind should allow it.
Because of the stormy weather we could not get the friends of the Zeehaen on board the Heemskerck nor even converse with them. Therefore, I have called together the council of the ship Heemskerck with both the undermates and put before them the opinion of the pilot-major. I enjoyned on them all together, that each should put his opinion down in writing so as to get a resolution therefrom. This was achieved in the afternoon.
At noon we estimated our position as 15o 29' S, 199o 31' E. We kept our course west-northwest and sailed twenty miles following the advice which we have today resolved.
I would have liked to have convened the council of both ships but this was prevented by the rough weather with rain and wind. Therefore I have called together only the council of the ship Heemskerck including both the under-mates. I reiterated to them that we are having continually such rough weather that at all times we could scarcely see two to three ship's length and that on the 6th instant we were so entangled between islands and shoals that we could hardly get clear of the same. These islands are about eighteen to twenty in number; that is as many as we could count but there could well be more but we could not be sure because of the darkness of the weather and the great difficulty in counting them.
These islands lie right in the passage where Jacob Le Maire sailed, since he, in this latitude, ran 430 miles direct west, and did not find there such islands. So one should conclude therefrom, that these islands do not lie in that line of the said course. But in the great chart of the South Sea certain islands are marked which agree with these as regards their latitude but this would make a difference with our reckoning of more than 200 miles, the said islands being marked in the chart so many miles more to westward. Now, during this long voyage we have almost continually been sailing eastward and westward often with storms and tempests for which reason the proverb, which says that guess-work often shoots wide of the mark may well be applicable to us, and we may be so far out in our reckoning.
So the following is my advise; that one ought so far as wind and weather permit, to sail from here due north as far as the fourth parallel and then due west as far as the coast of New Guinea, since it is at present weather in which one might easily miss a known coast let alone an unknown coast. And on it there is no anchor bottom and on a lee shore, since we would run great danger of losing ships and men, and at present it is the bad season here. Thus the south-east trade-wind and northern monsoon meet each other which must give much rain and rough weather.
Actum in the ship Heemskerck on 8th February Ao. 1643 in the southern-pole latitude of 15o 29', longitude 199o 31' E.
Abel Jansz. Tasman
[Memo from Francoys Jacobsz.]
Today the 8th February 1643, we find ourselves in the following estimated position: 15o 23' S, 198o 4' S. So, by order of the Hon. Commander Abel Janszoon Tasman the council of the ship Heemskerck has been bidden, each to set forth his opinion in writing concerning the course from here to the west-north-west or more northerly, in order to get most suitably to the coast of New Guinea, or islands located at the north-east point.
So it is that I, so much as it concerns me, shall give my opinion as follows: firstly it is at present the bad season and rainy months in the Moluccas and here every day we encounter rain and strong north-east winds which cause a lee shore on the east side of New Guinea; also throughout the whole East Indies it is a rule the nearer a lee shore the worse the weather. If one wants to make the coast of New Guinea in the latitude of the Solomon Islands, partly in accordance with the directions and instructions given, though not constituting a positive command, this could not be done without incurring the risk of being cast into a bay from which it might be difficult or impossible to beat out again. And since the east side of New Guinea is still unknown it is quite possible that there may be plenty of small islands and shoals to eastward of the said land of New Guinea such as we have already met with before. And having no secure anchorage in such rough weather, in which it is impossible to keep a proper look-out, we might happen to be cast on reefs or on the shore before we had become aware of the same.
Wherefore my reasoning is that one ought to sail from here as close on the wind to the north as is practicable, to the fourth or fifth parallel. Doing the same in order to stay out of trouble and not get on a lee shore since the coast falls away there, whence one could run to the west in the first instance and according to the weather and wind.
[Memo from Ide Tjerrxz Holman]
Since on the 8th instant here at present much bad weather occurs consisting of both of rain and strong northerly winds, so that we can scarcely carry main-sails, and cannot see to a quarter of a mile's distance ahead; so has the commander caused the council of the Heemskerck to be convened together with the under-mates and has requested that each member should deliver his opinion in writing.
So it is my opinion that we should set our course as northerly as weather and wind should allow. Nay, even due north or north by east and sail as far as the third or second parallel south, in order to avoid being cast on the lee-shore of New Guinea, since it seems that it is the bad season here and also it could well be that we were more westerly than our estimate is, in that on 6th instant we were near twenty to twenty-one islands which lie in the latitude of 17o 10' S which were not seen by Jacob Le Maire.
On 8th February 1643 on the yacht Heemskerck in the position estimated as 15o 43' S, 199o 7' E.
Ide Tjerrxz. Holman
[Memo from Carsten Jurriaensz.]
Tuesday 8th February Ao 1643, whereas I estimate our position as 15o 47' S, 198o 10' E. Now, every day we experience vile weather and the Hon. Commander desires that each council member should give his advise in writing as to what course we should sail, and up to what latitude so I shall give my opinion.
It is my advise that we ought to steer a course from here to the north-west as far as the southern parallel of three degrees and then turn westward.
[Memo from Chrijn Hendricxz. De Ratte]
To the Hon. Mr Abel Jansz. Tasman. It is my advise that we should from here, being in the position estimated as 15o 44' S, 198o 19' E, steer our course to the north, as far as it is practicable in order not to be cast on the shore of New Guinea, as far as the sixth or seventh southern parallel, since here it now enters the bad season when the winds blow north-east and north-north-east, and much rain with little visibility is to be expected here. And if we came with our ships to fall on a lee shore there would be little chance of getting off the same again, because of lack of sailing wind, but easy to fall in peril with both ships and cargoes.
So my thought is better to remain on the aforesaid course, and having come there with the aid of God, to direct our course to the west, and then look for the land of New Guinea, and then to steer our course further to the land of Halmahera.
Thus done in the yacht Heemskerck 1643 the 8th February.
(signed) by me
Chrijn Hendricxz. de Ratte
We had the wind blowing from the north with rain and a strong gale. We sailed still with the mainsail set and had the sea very rough and it ran very high from the north and northwest.
At noon we estimated our position as 15o 29' S, 198o 8' E. We kept our course west and sailed twenty miles.
In the evening we tacked about to the east, hauled up our foresail and so hugged the wind with mainsail and mizzen-sail until the first watch finished; then we loosened our foresail again and tacked about to westward.
In the day watch we set our great topsail but it was not long before it had to be taken in again.
We still had variable weather with rain and wind and the sea runs from all sides. So that the sea is very rough giving us here at present very bad weather. Thus it is impossible to discover anything because of this dark, gloomy, foggy, drizzly weather.
At noon we estimated our position as 15o 19' S, 197o 20' E. We kept our course northwest by north and sailed twelve miles.
We have now in five days' runs seen neither sun, nor moon, nor stars.
In the evening we struck the topsail to stern and lay-to with the mainsail and mizzen-sail.
The storm still continued to rage from the more northerly hand and the sea still runs very high with dark, gloomy, foggy, rainy weather; also we had much lightning.
At noon we estimated our position as 15o 5' S, 196o 5' E. We kept our course west by north and sailed or drifted eighteen miles.
After cook's serving it began to clear somewhat so that we set our great topsail and the sun came through the clouds making it look as if the weather would change. But the sea still runs very high but mostly from the west-southwest.
At noon we calculated our position as 15o 3' S, 195o 50' E. We kept our course west and sailed eighteen miles.
Half afternoon we again got the old weather of rain and wind so that we had to take in our main topsail, and sail with two mainsails without bonnets. The wind keeps about the north and north-northwest but is very variable. In the evening we steered to the east till midnight then tacked to the west. We had a night of pouring rain accompanied by thunder and lightning; yes, as if the heavens opened up for the water to pour down
In the morning the weather somewhat better and the sea also calmer so that we set our topsails but without sliding out the bonnets. We got at the same time another rain shower and the wind kept still blowing from the north.
This day's run we sailed and drifted twelve miles west-southwest.
At noon we estimated our latitude as 15o 21' S. We then calculated our position as 15o 38' S, 194o 4' E. The sea began to become quite a bit smoother. At night we lay-to with reduced sail.
The wind northwest and north-northwest with good weather but still thick, gloomy, dark weather and still difficult to keep a look-out.
At noon we calculated our position as 16o 20' S, 193o 35' E. We kept our course southwest and sailed ten miles.
I sent the pilot-major with the secretary to the Zeehaen to obtain their opinions in writing and the advise of our friends of the Zeehaen follow.
[letter of Gerrit Jansz.]
On 14th February in the year 1643.
Whereas the commander this morning has sent the pilot-major and his secretary to our ship to hear our advise. The commander also wants to know my view on the establishing of courses and also my opinion as to what latitude we should reach the land of New Guinea.
So my opinion on the said problem is to reach New Guinea in the southern latitude of about four to six degrees. The reason that my opinion is to reach the land so northerly is this: that we have had very rough weather for six to seven days and are in great danger of coming into a bay or on a lee shore, and we should, by following my plan reach the land in a known latitude and having reached the land in the aforementioned latitude apparently then we could get to the south all right if time would permit.
It is consequently my opinion that we should shape our course as far to the north as is possible, as far as the above mentioned latitude, and then steer due west till we come in sight of New Guinea in the above mentioned latitude.
At the time of writing I believe our position can be estimated as 15o 49' S, 194o 37' E.
[letter of I. Gilsemans]
Advise or reasons wherefore or from what cause I consider to be most appropriate to navigate to the north.
As your honour has been pleased to enjoin me to give my opinion on the question put to me yesterday in writing so I have become of the view since we find ourselves now in the position given as 15o 55' S, 194o 24' E, and here at the time of year which evidently makes for very unstable weather. Since also in this part of the world we seem to lie between four winds and also since we do not know how near we have sailed to New Guinea other than what the globe and the large chart of the South Sea shows us. We should consider the islands sailed to by the Hon. Commander to be the Solomon Islands since we have found the same in longitude and latitude according to the charting of the Portuguese. The said islands cannot have been seen by Schouten, and therefore they may be the land of New Guinea, which according to the charting of the Portuguese chart we might also happen to encounter.
The roughness of the weather and because apparently New Guinea could be nearer than we think my advise for reasons mentioned above is as follows: and not knowing how far New Guinea stretches to the east in this latitude, or what bays, islets, bights, shoals and so on could be; and we, with these present northerly winds might be taken to a lee shore through current or similar weather and thus be in great danger of losing ships and property.
Therefore my advise is we ought to navigate to make for New Guinea by a north-northwest track to about the southern latitude of four to five degrees in order to prevent all possible mishaps.
Actum the fluteship the Zeehaen this 15th February 1643. Your devoted servant.
[letter of Hendrik Pietersz.]
The advise of mine is that we ought to reach the land of New Guinea in the southern latitude of five to six degrees because for six days' runs we had such stormy, north-east wind, and not knowing if we might fall into a bay or that we might again get similar weather, to get out thence
My opinion is that we ought to shape our course as far to northward as the wind will allow us till we get to the latitude aforesaid; then to go to the west to reach New Guinea.
We are in a present position estimated as 16o 3' S, 195o 27' E.
The 14th February 1643.
[letter of Pieter Nanninghz. Duyts.]
The 14th February 1643.
Whereas for six or seven days past we have had a northerly wind with dark, rough and dirty weather, so that we may very well be nearer land than we suspect, and run the risk of being driven into a bay from which with a northerly wind and this unsettled weather it would be very difficult to get out again.
Therefore my advise is, that we should run on as far as five or six degrees south latitude so as to make the coast of New Guinea on the northern side. And I further suggest that we should shape our course as far northward as the wind will allow us until we arrive at the said latitude, and then steer to westward in order to touch at New Guinea.
This day at noon our position is estimated as 15o 57' S, 195o 49'E.
(signed by me)
Pieter Nanninghz. Duyts.
[letter of Cornelis Ysbrantsz. Roolol]
On the 14th of the month of February 1643 being in the position estimated as 15o 57', 195o 10' E, the longitude figure being averaged.
The Hon. Commander wants to know why we should run so northerly as we had already decided. So it it is my opinion since we have for six or seven days such a violent storm with rain and and dark weather, not knowing whether we are still far from land or not, and whether we should again encounter some bights, shoals or reefs, as we have done on 6th February.
So my advise is this; that we should reach New Guinea in the fifth to sixth southern parallel, so that we could by a northerly course get off from the shore. My thinking is that we should set our course so high to the north as it is possible in order to come to the aforementioned latitude then steer to the westward until we reach the land of New Guinea.
(Undersigned by me)
Cornelis Ysbrantsz. Roolol.
Still dark, foggy weather with rain and the wind from the north-west and west-north-west with a weak breeze. We tacked over and back so that we did not make progress because it was into the wind.
At noon we estimated our position as 16o 30' S, 193o 35' E. We have kept our course south and have drifted two miles.
Towards the evening we got a violent squall of rain and wind from the south-west and set our course to the north. In the first watch it then fell calm so that in the night we drifted in a calm.
In the morning we still drifted in a calm. In this day's run we have not progressed because of the dead calm.
This day the breeze is variable with a dead calm so that we again failed to make any progress. Towards the evening we got the wind from the southwest with rain. We shaped our course to the north but the wind did not last long and it became calm again so that we sailed about two miles to the north.
We estimated today our position as 16o 22' S, 193o 35' E.
It continued calm till noon when we estimated we were in the same position as yesterday. At noon we got a light breeze from the southeast and had at the same time occasional showers.
The wind still southeast with rain. At noon we calculated our position as 15o 12' S, 193o 35' E. We kept our course north and sailed eighteen miles. We still had very unhealthy, rainy weather daily and no chance of posting a lookout to discover any land.
Still thick, dark, foggy, rainy weather and the sea runs from all directions, and the wind is variable, first calm, then a breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 13o 45' S, 193o 35' E. We kept our course north and sailed twenty-one miles.
The wind still variable and from the west and northwest going to the north. We set our course close by the wind to the north. The sea is still very rough and we also have copious amounts of rain.
At noon we estimated our position as 13o 21' S, 193o 35' E. We held our course north and sailed six miles.
In the afternoon we sailed to northward and at night we drifted for twelve glasses in a calm; after that we got a breeze from the north. We then tacked to westward.
In the morning the wind was still northerly with heavy rain. Our course was again westward close by the wind and we had very heavy swells from the northwest. The weather is dark, gloomy, foggy and drizzly, then strong winds; then suddenly a calm.
At noon we estimated our position as 13o 5' S, 192o 57' E. We kept our course west-northwest and sailed ten miles.
In the afternoon the wind went round to the northeast and east. Towards evening the wind changed to the southeast and after that to the south with much rain and a strong gale.
At night when we lay-to with reduced sail we saw a number of logs of wood drifting about.
A storm with a westerly wind and thick, dark weather and much rain. We could sometimes scarcely see ahead the length of two ships. The sea runs very rough from all directions.
At noon we estimated our position as 12o 10' S, 192o 57' E. We kept our course north and sailed fourteen miles.
At night we sailed close to the wind to the northward.
In the morning we set our topsails; we had the wind west-northwest and northwest with a stiff gale and frequent showers. The sea is still very rough.
At noon we estimated our position as 11o 2' S, 192o 28' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed eighteen miles.
In the afternoon we had to take in our topsails and we ran still on the wind northward.
At night we lay-to with one sail since we dared not sail on with no visibility and we feared that we would come up against land or shoals.
In the morning we sailed again when it became daylight. When we saw that the Zeehaen's mizzen-mast was broken we brought our foresail up the mast and spoke to her asking: "how does that bear?" They answered that she could make do until the weather improved. Their mast is broken off in such a way that it can still bear a small mizzen-sail.
We had the wind still from the northwest and northwest by west with a storm and much rain and dark weather. We still ran close to the wind northward.
At noon we estimated our position as latitude 10o 31' S, 193o E. We kept our course northeast and sailed eleven miles.
At night we again lay-to with small sail.
The wind still continuously blowing strong from the north-west and still with much rain and dark weather,
I cannot understand how it is that such a steady westerly wind is blowing here so far into the South Sea, unless it should be that the western monsoon is continually blowing over New Guinea, and coming on strongly presses on a good way into the South Sea with the trade wind blowing lightly. For twenty-one days past now we have not had a single dry day.
At noon we estimated our position as 9o 48', 193o. 43' E. We kept our course north-east and sailed fifteen miles. During the night we lay-to with reduced sail.
In the morning we made sail again and set our course close to the wind northward. We had the wind blowing from the northwest and north-northwest with thick, dark, foggy, rainy weather, while the sea begins to become smoother.
At noon we estimated our position as 9o S, 194o 32' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed seventeen miles.
At night when six glasses in the first watch were out the wind went round to the north and we turned our course to the west.
The wind still blows from the north and northwest with thick, foggy, drizzly, rainy weather. Our course was still westerly.
At noon we estimated our position as 8o 48', 194o 2' E. We kept our course west-northwest and sailed eight miles.
1 March 1643
Good weather with smooth water. We had the wind northerly but variable and we turned our course westward.
At noon we calculated our position as 9o 5' S, 193o 21' E. We held our course west-south-west and sailed eleven miles,
In the evening we got rain and a whirlwind from the west. We drifted the whole night in a calm.
Towards the day we got a gentle breeze from the more northerly hand and made our course to the west.
At noon we calculated our position as 9o 11' S, 192o 46' E.
We kept our course a little to the south of west, west, and west by south, and also between both and sailed twelve miles with variable wind and weather.
Variation 10 degrees.
The wind and weather very unsettled and with much rain. While the weather was very variable with a dead calm and then strong wind we could carry hardly any sail. By our estimate on this day's run we have sailed eight miles; we kept our course westward.
We estimated our position at noon as 9o 11' S, 192o 14' E. In the evening we again had very much rain and drifted in a calm.
Still variable wind and weather with much rain the wind keeping however between the southwest and north. We are hoping that the weather will soon improve.
At noon we estimated our position as 8o 55' S, 191o 57' E. We kept our course northwest and sailed five miles.
Still variable wind and weather with much rain; the variable weather has now lasted for a whole month so that we have made little progress but we have been holding our courses between the southwest and north with the hope that things shall improve quickly.
At noon we estimated our position as 8o 32' S, 191o 42' E. We kept our course north-northwest and sailed eight miles.
Variation 10 degrees 30 minutes northeasterly.
Still variable winds with a great deal of rain; then we had violent squalls alternating with sudden calms. And if a man should have to fully describe all this wind and weather and the way it chops and changes he would have nothing else to do but write.
At noon we estimated our position as 8o 8' S, 191o 42' E. We kept our course north and sailed six miles.
Still thick, dark, foggy, drizzly weather with variable winds and weather, and the sea very rough. The wind continues keeping between the west-southwest and the northwest; we have the wind straight ahead.
At noon we estimated our position as 8o 17' S, 191o 1' E. We kept our course west by south and sailed twelve miles.
We saw a great many birds today.
Still thick, dark, foggy, rainy weather and the wind as before; we tacked therefore over and back with our starboard forward in order to get as far to the westward as possible. But we fear we shall get no suitable wind before the west monsoon is over.
We have here heavy rain daily. At noon we estimated our position as 7o 46' S, 190o 47' E. We kept our course north-northwest and sailed nine miles. Towards the evening the wind began to stiffen so that we took in our topsails and sailed with main-sails.
Sailed still with main-sails set and a storm from the north-west and the north-north-west with thick, dark, gloomy, foggy, drizzly weather and had a great deal of rain which is very unhealthy for us. The sea is very rough.
At noon we estimated our position as 8o 33' S, 190o 1' E. We kept our course southwest and sailed sixteen miles.
At night we lay-to for the space of sixteen glasses under reduced sail because we dared not proceed farther.
In the morning we set our foresail again and ran thus westward. We had the wind from the north-northwest with the weather very unsettled and heavy rain. We set our main top-sail but had to take it in again at once because of the rough weather.
At noon we estimated our position as 9o S, 189o 33' E. We kept our course southwest and sailed or drifted ten miles. At night we ran to the west under reduced sail.
Still dark, gloomy, foggy, rainy weather and we had the wind northerly but very unsteady. In the morning we got the wind from the north-northeast and set our course close to the wind.
At noon we estimated our position as 9o 12' S, 188o 29' E. We kept our course west by south and sailed seventeen miles.
In the afternoon I saw that the people of the Zeehaen had furled up their mainsail and taken in the foretop-sail. At once I had our foresail hoisted up the mast in order to wait for the Zeehaen and enquire if anything with them is broken. Then as they came nearer I noticed that their main-sail was torn to pieces and they were engaged in repairing it.
Still unstable weather with variable winds from the more southerly hand. At noon we estimated our position as 8o 48' S, 187o 29' E.
We kept our course west-northwest and sailed sixteen miles and after midnight we drifted in a calm.
Still thick, dark weather and in the afternoon we drifted in a calm. The sea still runs very high from the northwest and the north-northwest.
At noon we estimated our position as 8o 48' S, 186o 48' E. We kept our course west and sailed ten miles.
At night with a light breeze from the south we made our course to the north-west.
The wind from the south but it was almost a calm. Good dry weather but the sea still running from the northwest. We saw some branches of trees floating by but did not sight any land. During the night the wind turned round to the southeast with a light breeze.
At noon we estimated our latitude as 10o 12' S but our estimation is 1o 40' more to the northward than that now got by observation. We had not been able to observe the latitude for twelve days past owing to the thick, dark, drizzly weather which we had every day accompanied by heavy rain. According to our estimation our longitude is 186o 14' E.
We held our course northwest and sailed thirteen miles.
Variation 8o 45' northeast.
Good weather and the sea begins to become somewhat smoother but still running against itself. We had the wind from the southeast with improving weather. We kept our course northwest and sailed twelve miles.
At noon we calculated our position as 9o 33' S, 185o 40' E.
Variation 8 degrees 40 minutes northeasterly.
Good, calm weather with bright sunshine which has not happened in six weeks. At noon we calculated our position as 8o 46' S, 184o 51' E.
We kept our course northwest and sailed seventeen miles.
Variation 9 degrees.
Good weather with smooth water and an easterly wind with a soft breeze. At noon we calculated our position as 8o 7' S, 184o 11' E. We kept our course northeast and sailed fourteen miles.
Good weather and the wind from the east with a soft breeze and smooth water.
At noon we calculated our position as 7o 40' S, 183o 33' E. We held our course northwest and sailed twelve miles. In the afternoon the breeze blew somewhat stiffer.
Variation 9 degrees.
Still good weather and a clear sky with a topsails breeze with the wind from the more easterly hand while the sea begins to run from the east and northeast.
At noon we calculated our position as 6o 25' S, 182o 27' E. We kept our course northwest and sailed twenty-three miles.
Good weather and smooth water but at times rain showers from the east and east-southeast with a light topsail breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 5o 15' S, 181o 16' E. We shaped our course to the west.
Variation 9 degrees northeasterly.
Still always good weather with a light breeze from the east and northeast. At times rain showers and smooth water but the swells come running from the northeast.
At noon we calculated our position as 5o 25' S, 180o 20' E. We kept our course west by south and sailed fourteen miles.
The weather continuing good with smooth water and a soft breeze from the east and east-northeast trade wind.
At noon we estimated our position as 5o 2' S, 178o 32' E. We held our course west and sailed twenty-seven miles.
We saw land straight ahead at noon while thereabouts still four miles off. We set our course to the north in order to run first west by north and after that west-northwest. Towards the evening we sailed along close thereby northwest.
These islands are close upon thirty in number but very small, the largest of them not being more than two miles in length; the rest are all small fry but a reef surrounds all of them. To the northwest there runs from one reef another reef on which are growing three coconut trees by which it is easily recognisable. These are the islands which Le Maire has laid down in his chart; they are about ninety miles' distance from the coast of New Guinea.
In the evening, still seeing land north-northwest from us we turned our course over to north-northeast close to the wind, in order to steer north of all shoals; we then furled up our topsail and in this way drifted till daybreak.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal two sketches relating to Ontong Java Atoll with a legend in Dutch are present.]
At daybreak we sailed again and set our course to westward and then had the islets which we passed the day before, south about three miles distance from us.
We had the wind easterly and northeasterly with a dark grey sky and trade wind weather.
At noon we estimated our position as 4o 31' S, 177o 18' E.
We kept our course west-northwest and sailed twenty miles. At night, the first watch being finished we lay-to; we dared not sail on for fear that we would encounter that island which is named Marcken by Le Maire.
In the morning we made sail again and shaped our course westward.
Towards noon we saw directly ahead land, which was very low and appears as two islands southeast and northwest from each other, the northernmost appears like Marcken and bears some resemblance to the island of Marcken in the Zuyder Zee as Jacob Le Maire writes and for which reason he gave the name of Marcken. [Tauu Islands]
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 55' S, 175o 30' E.
We held our course west by estimate but we found there is a strong current setting to the south so that we sailed twenty miles with the wind east and east-south-east, and trade wind weather with a light topsails breeze. In the evening we turned our course round to the north so as to run north of the island. During the night we drifted in a calm and stood for the aforesaid island. The inhabitants made fires at night on this island.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal a coastal profile in two parts with a legend in Dutch is present; these are sketches of Le Maire's Maercken which is now known as Tauu.]
In the day-watch we heard the surf breaking on the shore and it being quite calm we at once got out our pinnace and boat in order to tow us clear of the reef or shoal. The current however carried us some distance towards the reef. We found no anchorage here which we greatly regretted.
About 9 o'clock a canoe of the said island containing seven persons and about twenty coconuts came alongside our ship. We bartered about three small chains of beads and four double-medium nails for the coconuts but they appeared to be a wild variety and were not very appealing. They seemed to have no interest in the beads and nails nor to value them at all.
The people appeared to be a rough, wild folk; blacker than at the island where we have refreshed and not so courteous. They go about quite naked except before their private parts they have a small covering scarcely sufficient to cover their testicles and their rod. This covering seemed to be of cotton cloth.
Some had their hair cut short; others had it bound up just like those criminals of Murderers Bay. One had two feathers stuck right above the crown of the head in the manner of horns, another was ringed through the nose; but from what the rings were made we could not perceive. Their canoe was old with a gull wing, converging sharp fore and aft but not elegantly made. They had two bows and arrows with them.
We then got the wind from the south with which (to our good fortune) we sailed off from the reef. The canoe paddled back to the shore. Then we saw another smaller canoe approach but because of the squall it was unable to come near us.
We set our course to the north in order to get outside the snags.
These islands are fifteen to sixteen in number and the largest is about one mile long. The others appear like houses and lie all together on a reef which stretches off north-west from the islets.
About a swivel-gun shot from the islets on the northwest side there stands a grove of trees level with the water from which, still two miles further northwest, there lies also a small islet like a toppershoetje. The reef stretches still farther to the northwest half a mile, so that this reef extends from the islets fully three miles northwest into the sea.
At noon we estimated our position as 4o 34'S, 175o 10' E.
We kept our course northwest and sailed seven miles and about noon we got the wind from the northwest and after that from the north; we then turned to the west. Afterwards the wind ran north-northeast with a soft breeze and we made our course to the northwest.
At night it was again calm and the wind blew from the north while we still ran westward.
Good weather, smooth water and a wind from the northeast with a weak breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 33' S, 174o 30' E. We kept our course west and sailed ten miles.
We found that here a strong current sets to the south whereupon we made our course still to the northwest.
Variation 9 degrees 30 minutes northeasterly.
The wind and weather as before.
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 1' S, 173o 36' E. We kept our course northwest by west and sailed sixteen miles.
At noon we shaped our course westward to run in sight of the islands which lie east of the coast of New Guinea and from thence to cross to the mainland coast which will thus become better known.
Variation 9 degrees 30 minutes northeasterly.
Still good weather and an easterly wind with a weak breeze and smooth water.
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 11' S, 1782o 32' E. We kept our course west and sailed sixteen miles.
Late morning we saw land right ahead but by noon we were still about four miles away. This island lies in the position calculated by us as 4o 30', 172o 16' E. It lies from the islands which Jacob Le Maire named Marcken, forty-six miles west and west by north.
At night we drifted in a calm.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal coastal profiles of Green Island with a legend in Dutch are present. ]
In the morning we found that the current was setting towards the islands and taking us in that direction.
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 20' S. 172o 17' E.
We have drifted this day in a calm so that in this day's run we have drifted five miles southwest.
Half afternoon two small canoes came out from the shore and alongside our ship, the canoes being with two wings or outriggers, but their paddles are narrow with thick blades; they are poorly made in my opinion.
In one canoe were six people and in the other three persons. Being still the length of two ships from the Heemskerck one of those who was with the six in the one canoe broke one of his arrows in two, stuck one half in his hair and held the other half in his hand by which (so it seemed) he wished to indicate friendship.
These people were entirely and quite naked, their bodies very black, their hair curly like the Kaffirs, but not so woolly. Nor were their noses quite as flat. Some had white bracelets of bone (so it appeared) round their arms; some were striped with lime on the face, and had before the forehead a bark of tree about three fingers broad.
They brought nothing else with them than bows, arrows and spears. We called out to them some words from the vocabulary of the language of New Guinea but they understood nothing except the word lamas, which means coconuts. They pointed continuously to land.
We presented them with two strings of beads and two large nails for which they gave us one very old coconut, which was all that they had with them. Thereupon they paddled back to the shore.
Towards the evening it was still calm but the breeze came from the northeast. We drifted very close to the islands and were engaged in towing in order to get away from the shore. In the last of the dog-watch we at length got clear of these islands which consisted of two large and three small ones but these lie on the west side. These islands Le Maire has named the Green Islands. And we saw west-north-west another high island with also two to three small ones, and to westward of us more very high land which looked as if it was a continuation of the mainland coast. But what is about there only time can reveal.
Variation 9 degrees northwesterly.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal a view of St Jans Island (in two sections) is present with an inscription in Dutch.]
Improving weather and the breeze from the northeast while we are still engaged in towing. We find that the current is setting to the south and taking us with it.
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 25' S, 172o E.
We kept our course west and sailed or drifted four miles. In the evening we had St Jan's Island northwest from us six miles distance.
Still good weather and calm and the wind easterly with smooth water.
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 28' S, 171o 42' E. We kept our course west and sailed six miles. At noon I had the white flag and the upper standard flown whereupon the friends of the Zeehaen came on board; I convened the council and we have resolved together as can be seen more fully by the resolution of the present date.
1 April 1643
We got the coast of New Guinea alongside in the southern latitude of 4o 30', which is named by the Spaniards Cabo Santa Maria.
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 30' S, 171o 2' E. We kept our course west nd sailed ten miles.
Variation 8 degrees 45 minutes.
Still good, calm weather and the breeze variable. We did our best to sail thus along the coast, which here extends northwest and southeast from St Jan's Island. Northwest there lies another high island as large as St Jan's Island, separated from each other by ten miles that I have given the name of Anthony Caen's Island. This island lies directly north from Cabo Santa Maria.
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 9' S, 170o 41' E. We kept our course northwest and sailed ten miles. Then we had Cabo Santa Maria south from us so that the aforesaid cape lies in the longitude of 170o 41' E, according to our estimation.
In the evening we ran inshore in order to make better progress with the land-wind. When four glasses in the first watch had finished we got the wind from the shore with a soft breeze and shaped our course along the land.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal four pages containing a number of sketches of parts of New Guinea or nearby islands with inscriptions in Dutch are present.]
In the morning a light breeze blew off the land. Our course was still north-west along the shore. About 9 o'clock we saw a vessel full of people come from the shore. This vessel had aft and forward curved ends like the corre-corre in Ternate; she lay awhile beyond the range of our great guns and then returned to shore again.
At noon we estimated our position as 3o 42' S, 170o 20' E.
We kept our course northwest and sailed ten miles. Towards the evening we got the wind east-southeast with a soft breeze and made our course still northwest along the coast. This land appears to be very fine land but it is unfortunate that no anchor bottom is to be obtained here.
At night we had thunder and lightning with rain and variable breezes.
We sailed still along the coast which here extends northwest by west and southeast by east. It is a beautiful coast with many inlets or bays. We passed an island situated twelve miles distance from Anthony Caen's Island, the two bearing northwest and southeast from each other. We have given this island the name of Garde Neys Island.
At noon we estimated our position as 3o 22' S, 169o 50' E. We held our course northwest by west and sailed nine miles. The wind is still variable with a soft breeze and then a calm.
In the evening we got the land-breeze with rain, thunder and lightning and did our best thus to sail along the coast.
In the morning we still had the land-wind with a soft breeze. Towards noon we came by another island that lies ten miles from Gardenys Island and they lie west- northwest and east-southeast from each other. Near this island lay some canoes. Since we supposed that they lay there for fishing we have given it the name of Visschers Island.
Towards noon we saw ahead of us six canoes three of which paddled so close to the ship that we let drift to them two or three pieces of old sailcloth, two small strings of beads and two old nails. They showed no interest in the sailcloth and also took no or little notice of the other. But they pointed to their heads from which we presumed that they wanted turbans. These people seemed to be shy, and from the appearance of their faces, to be fearful of being shot at. Also they did not come so close that we could see whether they had weapons with them or not.
These people are very black and quite naked except for some green leaves hanging before their male parts. Some had black hair while others had another colour. Their outrigger canoes had three or four person in each one. But we could not perceive the other characteristics from a distance.
After they had cruised a long while thus round and close to the ships and had at times called out to us in the same way as we did also to them but we could not understand one another. They then paddled back to the shore.
At noon we estimated our position as 3o S, 169o 17' E. We kept our course west-northwest and sailed ten miles. In the afternoon we had the wind northwest with a soft breeze.
In the morning we had a calm. Half before noon we saw for the second time coming from the same island eight or nine canoes of which three paddled to the Zeehaen, and five to our ship. In some canoes were three people in others four and some had five persons. When they were about two stone's casts away from our ship they stopped paddling and called out to us but we could not understand them. However, we waved that they should come nearer, whereupon they paddled in front of the ship, remaining ahead lying and cruising a long time without coming alongside. Eventually one of our quartermasters took off his belt, which he showed to them from afar, whereupon one of the canoes came alongside and we presented the people with a small string of beads. The quartermaster gave them also his belt for which he got nothing in return except a piece of the heart from a sago tree which was all that they had with them. The people in other canoes, seeing that their omrades came to no harm, also came paddling alongside and in none of the canoes were there any weapons or anything else with which they could commit injury.
We had at first supposed or wondered whether these people were rogues and might suddenly change their attitude from being timid and set out to steal from us. This having been so they would have found the host at home because we had not cooked anything ready for them. Although it was indeed for the cook still too early for serving.
We called out to them the words "anieuw," "oufi," "pouacka," etc, meaning coconuts, yams, pigs etc, which they seemed to understand since they pointed to the land, as if they wished to say: "it is there." Then they paddled with speed and regularity in the direction of the land but because the breeze began to freshen we did not see them again.
These men are dark brown; nay, as black as any Kaffir with perhaps the hair of a different colour. This varies owing to the lime with which they powder it. The face is smeared with red paint except for the forehead. Some had a white bone about half the thickness of a little finger through the lower part of the nose. They had nothing else on the body than some greenery before their private parts. Their canoes were new and neatly constructed and out aft and before constructed in the form of images with one outrigger each. Their paddles were not very long nor too broad, tapering off sharply in front etc.
At noon we found our position as 2o 53' S, 168o 59' E. We kept our course west-northwest and sailed five miles and in the afternoon made good progress. At night we had the wind from the shore with a light breeze.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal three pages containing a number of views of New Guinea with inscriptions in Dutch are present.]
In the morning we still drifted in a calm. Before noon twenty canoes came cruising by and about the ships, keeping as before out of range of any possible gunshots. We beckoned to them several times before they took courage and paddled alongside but they had nothing in their canoes except that one of the same brought three coconuts, one of which we got for a small string of beads. Our thought was to get for this one item all three coconuts but no - they would not part with the other two. Another man had a shark (called in their tongue Ilacxa), which we also exchanged for three strings of beads; a third had a dolphin which one of our sailors exchanged for an old cap. Some had some small fish which they threw to our people but they proved not to be worth eating.
Eventually three or four of these people came on board the Heemskerck. They looked with great astonishment and went about the ship just as if they were intoxicated. This is surprising since in such small canoes as they have they paddle several miles out to sea without thinking anything of it but in a large ship such as ours they seem to get intoxicated through the motion of the ship caused by the swell of the sea.
They had no or few weapons with them that could do much harm. The appeared to live by fishing since some had wooden eel-spears with them. After they had been alongside for a time they paddled together back to the shore with a great commotion and shouting. We remained lying there during the afternoon or drifted in a calm.
There begins further to the west very low land but even so the coast still stretches as far as we could see west by north and west-northwest.
At noon we estimated our position as 2o 35' S, 168o 25' E. We set our course west by north and sailed nine miles. In the afternoon we saw in the west by north and in the west outside the aforesaid point, more high land which by estimate lay quite ten miles from us.
We drifted in a calm at night and then got a light breeze from the more easterly hand; we did our best to come to the high land to westward. The current setting here is steady along the coast and in our favour so that every day we evidently advance more westerly than is apparent by our progress over the water.
At night we passed a large bay or inlet.
In the morning we came to the western side of the bay by four low islets. We found again three small islets lying west of the others which we had passed at noon.
At noon we estimated our position as 2o 26' S, 167o 39' E. A variable wind came from the east-southeast but we kept our course west by north and sailed twelve miles.
We had a low point north from which lay two low islets southwest by west from us and from here the land begins at times to fall off more southerly.
About 6 o'clock in the evening we had these two islets south by west from us and the nearest land that we saw, being flat and low-lying, lay southwest by south from us, about four miles distance. We held our course alongside the land.
Variation 10 degrees northeasterly
In the morning with the sunrise we drifted in a calm. The point of the southernmost land that we saw, lay south-east by east from us two-and-a-half miles, where the same land fell off very short. We then had another, low, small islet south- southwest from us two miles distance. We did our best to sail along close by the same point but were prevented by calm weather. In the afternoon we held our course for the point as before.
At noon we calculated our position as 2o 33' S, 167o 4' E. We kept our course west-southwest and sailed seven miles.
Variation 10 degrees.
During the last twenty-four hours we made excellent progress to southward. Because of the calm and for other reasons we endeavoured to get to southward as quickly as possible, partly to explore the coasts, and partly to to find a passage southward.
At noon we found the southernmost point to bear from us east-north-east, and the northernmost the same north-northeast.
At noon we calculated our position as 3o 2' S, 167o 4' E. We kept a southerly course and sailed twelve miles. In the afternoon we still kept a southerly course.
In the evening we got the wind from the north-northwest and in order to approach the land again we steered east-southeast and southeast and also at times south with light variable winds and rain greatly troubling us. At midnight we again drifted in a calm in smooth water.
At noon we drifted in a calm without being able to take the latitude. We saw the land still stretching northeast from us - to wit - the most easterly point and the most westerly point bearing from us north-northeast and north by east.
At noon we estimated our position as 3o 28' S, 166o 51' E.
We kept our course southwest by west half a point westerly and sailed seven miles. We had in the second watch a light breeze from the east-northeast and made our course very close on the wind southeast but thereafter it was again calm.
Three glasses being finished in the day watch we were jolted by such a violent earthquake that not one of our people however deeply asleep remained in his hammock but everybody came running up on deck astonished with the thought that the ship had struck on a rock. It was just as if the keel tore over coral rock but having cast the lead we found no bottom. Afterwards we still had several times some aftershocks of an earthquake but none so powerful as the first.
The weather was calm but shortly thereafter there came heavy rain and variable wind; then all was quiet. We did our best to steer as much to the southeast as was practicable.
About three hours into the afternoon the wind turned to the west with a soft breeze.
At noon we calculated our position as 3o 45' S, 167o 1' E. We held our course south-southeast and sailed six miles. Our course was then due southeast when we saw a small, round, low islet south by west from us four and a half to five miles distance.
During the night heavy rain fell with variable weather.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal three pages contain coastal profiles and views of parts of New Guinea and Garove ("Burning Island"), the easternmost of the Vitu Islands.]
In the morning the wind came from the northeast with a light breeze. We saw from the southwest by west to the east-southeast high land with various mountains mixed with low land between them. As far as we could make out we were in a large bay but we still did our best to get to the south.
At noon we estimated our position as 4o 22' S, 167o 18' E.
We kept our course south-southeast and sailed ten miles. In the afternoon we drifted in a calm without being able to take soundings. The water here is as smooth as in a river without any movement which made us believe we are in large bight. But what the truth is we shall learn in time.
At night variable winds and a calm. In the evening we had some mountains and hills south-southwest from us. We shaped our course as much as possible towards them.
In the morning we saw land from the east-northeast to the south-southwest. We thought we would find between the two (although vainly) a passage, but coming nearer found it to be a bight and the land to the west continuous therewith.
Therefore with a north-northwest wind in the afternoon we came upon a reef which we judged to be usually level with the water and which with the present sea-wind we could hardly sail clear of; the said reef lying two miles from shore as near as we could estimate.
At noon we calculated our position as 5o 27' S, 166o 57' E. We kept our course south-southwest and sailed fifteen miles.
Towards the evening a light breeze came from the north-northeast. Throughout the whole night we again drifted in a calm.
Variation 9 degrees 15 minutes northeasterly.
We continued to have variable winds and calms so that we made little progress. At noon we estimated our position as 5o 18' S, 166o 36' E. We kept our course west-northwest and sailed six miles.
In the evening the high island was due northwest six miles distance from us.
Variation 9 degrees north-easterly.
We kept drifting in a calm. As before we had the westernmost land that we saw west by south and west-southwest from us. The land begins here to stretch from one point to another west by north; it is sometimes high mountains together with some pleasant, large, deep valleys. The high island lay in the evening northwest by north from us two-and-a-half to three miles distance.
At noon we estimated our position as 5o 5' S, 166o 27' E. We held our course northwest and sailed four miles. Throughout the night we had calm weather.
In the morning we drifted still in a calm. About three hours before noon we had the high island northeast from us three miles distance. We then got a light breeze from the southeast upon which we have set our course due west. We had the two islands then directly opposite each other.
At noon we calculated our position as 5o 8' S, 166o E. We kept our course west half a point northerly and sailed eight miles.
In the afternoon we again drifted in a calm. In the evening with the sunset the high island lay east by north from us six to seven miles distance and the west end of a high mountain range in New Guinea lay south-west by south from us six to seven miles distance.
During the night it was again calm. Variation 8 degrees 45 minutes northeasterly.
In the morning at sunrise the aforesaid high mountains lay south by west from us six to seven miles distance.
Before noon we got a light breeze from the southwest and made our course close by the wind as possible westward with smooth water. At noon we calculated our position as 5o S 165o 37' E.
We kept our course west by north and west-northwest and sailed five miles with variable winds and a calm now and then. At noon the high mountain lay south from us but by about four into the afternoon lay south by east from us so that since noon we have drifted or sailed about two miles westward. We saw then again, following the westward trend of the land, another high mountain south-west by south from us. The wind then turned to the south-southwest but it was a very light breeze. We kept our course westward very close by the wind.
At night we had a moderate breeze from the southeast but already at the end of the second watch all became calm again.
Before noon we had a light breeze from the south and held our course to the south-southwest. At noon we calculated our position as 5o 9' S, 164o 50' E. We kept our course west by south and sailed twelve miles.
We had at noon a round, high islet situated three miles off the main coast of New Guinea due south from us two and a half miles distance. We set our course west-southwest after which west by north of us we also saw land which was fairly high and which we supposed to be islands, since we found the mainland coast of New Guinea to extend due west only.
In the afternoon the wind turned to the southeast but we still followed our course of west-southwest. Two hours after noon we came upon a rocky reef which lay only one fathom under water. We saw from the masthead various other small reefs in the north from the aforesaid reef, where between the two as it seemed the sea was deep. We then ran by them round the south, then having seen to the south from us still more reefs we passed through between two and have set our course in calm weather west-southwest.
We had the round, high island that at noon lay south from us, then southeast by east from us about four miles distance so that this aforesaid reef lies northwest by west from the high, round island four miles distance.
This reef lies in the southern latitude 5o 10' to 5o 12' and the northernmost point of the mountains which we saw up till then as islands lay west-north-west from us about seven miles distance; from this description navigators in the future should be able to recognise these shoals sufficiently.
In the evening we saw the southern point of a high island west by north from us five and a half to six miles distance. We set our course with gentle, varaible winds as far as we could due west.
Variation 9 degrees northeasterly.
At noon we had the southernmost point of the island northwest by west from us two to twenty-one miles' distance. In the evening the middle of the island lay north-northeast from us 11 miles' distance and the south point of another larger and higher island west-north-west from us six to seven miles distance.
We set our course west by north.
At noon we calculated our position as 5o 4' S, 164o 27' E. We kept our course west by north and sailed six miles with variable winds and occasional calms.
In the evening we again drifted in a calm but shortly therefater the wind came from the east with a moderate breeze.
At night at the setting of the second watch we came close by the island and we saw a great flame come steadily from the top of the mountain. This is the volcano in which Willem Schouten writes in his journal so that in order to run through between the mainland of New Guinea and this island at night we let her drift without sails in order to await daylight. In the drifting we perceived a heavy rippling of current which bore us to the west and which was advantageous for us.
We saw on the same island many fires close to the water and also midway up the mountains. Therefore we judged it to be a well-populated island. It lies in the latitude of .........degrees .......minutes. [The figures are missing.]
Sailing along the coast of New Guinea we had frequent calms and saw continuously timber drifting; both large small trees and other wood from the land floated down the rivers. This made us believe there must be many rivers and a fine country.
We held our course northwest along the coast. Variation 8 degrees 30 minutes.
In the morning the middle of the island lay east three miles distance from us, the southeast point east-southeast and southeast by east from us and the northern point northeast by east from us and the nearest land of the mainland coast southwest 1½ to 1¾ miles' distance from us. We saw then still one more island northwest by west from us about eight miles distance named by Willem Schouten High Island, indeed rightly so since the same is very high.
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 30' S, 163o 13' E. We held our course west by north and sailed twenty miles with changeable winds.
In the evening at sunset the wind became easterly with a soft breeze. We had sailed five miles to the northwest since noon and now shaped our course northwest by west with a fair breeze and afterwards west-northwest so that in the evening the centre of the island was due northwest of us at four miles distance.
When the sixth glass in the first watch had finished, as we were in the narrowest part of the the passage between the mainland and the island, we found that at this point of the mainland of New Guinea there begins a low-lying coast which then trends west-northwest and northwest by west. Accordingly, at the end of the first watch we took in all sails, and let the ship drift with only the mizzen-sail set, in order to await the day and take precautions. But since the current is setting here steadily to the west we have in relation to the land advanced indeed more than visually we had progressed over the water.
This mountain erupted steadily with flames of fire directly out of the top.
In the morning in the day watch we made sail again and set our course west-northwest. We came with the sunrise to very pale-colour water and we thought at first the same to be a shoal whereupon we at once turned towards the north. We had then, east-southeast by east seven miles distance from us, the high fiery mountain which at night burned very much.
We had another high but small island north-northeast from us four to five miles distance and a large river south-southwest of us at two miles distance. The north-northwest course lies between two high islets situated close together. Westward of these we saw still more land, to wit, three more islands. The mainland coast here extends chiefly to the west-northwest.
We took soundings but found no bottom although we have sailed but one mile from the low land.
We made our course again west-northwest along the shore. We passed this day six islets which we left lying together to starboard.
At noon we calculated our position as 3o 39' S, 161o 38' E. We had an easterly wind and then east-southeasterly; also east-northeast but variable. We maintained our course west-northwest half a point northerly and sailed twenty-seven miles.
In the afternoon we got a moderate breeze from the east-northeast and held our course as before. We found here a low-lying land full of rivers and saw many trunks of trees and other wood together with a great quantity of green brushwood which came floating from the rivers with a flow of whitish sandy water. This low land forms a cape here and when you have passed this point the land trends away to westward so that a large bay is formed here. But nevertheless the trend from the one point to the other is west-northwest.
In the evening the eastern extremity of the most westerly island of the six was northeast by north of us, 11 miles' distance. We had at this time another high island alongside west by north of us at five miles' distance; we set our course west-north-west and north-west by west. At the end of the first watch we had the middle of the island southwest from us one mile distance.
We made our course onwards with an easterly wind west-northwest. At midnight a heavy shower of rain.
In the morning the wind continued easterly and we kept our course still west- northwest as before. Before noon we passed so many pieces of wood, trees, bamboos, and other brushwood, as if we had sailed in a river. We surmised there must be a large river near here and since the current from the land carried us we made our course west in order to get alongside the land again and after that, west by south.
At noon we calculated our position as 3o 1' S, 160o 3' E. The wind is blowing from the east and our course is kept to the west-northwest. We sailed twenty-six miles.
Two hours after noon we came again close to the main coast and made our course in the evening again right along the shore, west-northwest.
This afternoon a canoe came from the mainland to the Zeehaen.
In the morning our course and the wind as before with a modereate breeze.
At noon we could not obtain our latitude but with good weather we have estimated our position as 2o 22' S, 158o 36' E.
The wind easterly and we kept our course west-northwest and sailed twenty-six miles In the afternoon it rained but at night at the end of the second watch we saw right ahead, low land with fires. In the meantime we we lay-to with reduced sail and drifted to await the day.
During the night we reckoned the latitude as 2o 20' S.
Variation 8 degrees northwesterly.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal a coastal profile (in three sections) of parts of New Guinea and the island of Jamna with an inscription in Dutch is present.]
In the morning at daybreak we set sail again and with an easterly wind shaped our course westward towards the land with fires that we had seen the night before. We found the above mentioned land to be three low-lying islets which lie close to the main coast about five miles distance, east of the island of Moa which a little afterwards we got in sight. We set our course for the island of Moa and ran there on the west side the island to the roadstead and anchored in twelve fathoms. We found a good, grey sand bottom.
We had on this day much rain. The sea is running fast from the northwest.
After our anchor was lowered we got a large number of small canoes near and around our ships. They cruised and loitered a long while before they dared to come alongside. Therefore we fastened some small beads on firewood which we threw to them. Whereupon almost all the canoes came alongside bringing nothing but coconuts. We indicated to them from the vocabulary of Jacob Le Maire that they should also bring pigs, fowls, coconuts, bananas and other supplies. Whereupon they paddled to the land to fetch the same and returned towards noon some bringing with them four, some five to six coconuts with some unripe bananas all of which we exchanged five to six for an old nail or a string of beads; for a knife twelve to fourteen coconuts. They brought also some smoked and fresh fish.
At noon we calculated our position as 2o 11' S, 156o 47' E.
The wind was easterly. We kept our course west by north and sailed twenty-eight miles.
In the evening after all the canoes were away from the ship I had the friends of the Zeehaen brought on board by our sloop. With them we have resolved various matters which may be seen in more detail in the resolution of today's date.
Early in the morning a great number of canoes again came alongside with coconuts and unripe bananas. It seemed these people had not much else here at all. We obtained by barter this day so many coconuts that each man of our whole crew got five coconuts but they brought not much else than coconuts or unripe bananas. Also some fresh and smoked fish all of which we obtained by barter.
This day we have two low islets in the west from us.
About four hours after noon we sighted the island of Arymoa. It lay northwest by west from us and by estimate eight to nine miles distance. Here lying at the island we observed the wind to blow by day northeast from the sea and by night southeast from the land. We observed the current here to set steadily to westward so strongly that in a calm we would in the day's run drift fully, four, five, or six miles.
Their canoes here are very narrow, about one foot broad.
In the morning the wind was from the southwest. We found here our position as: 2o 10' S, 156o 47' E.
The same day there came again a large number of canoes alongside the ships. Some came from other nearby islands as well as from the mainland. They brought nothing else except coconuts, unripe bananas and also some smoked and fresh fish. All of this we obtained by barter.
Among the said canoes were two large canoes in each of which were fully eighteen to twenty men, each armed with a bow and arrows and also javelins and harpoons.
These people were mostly black and naked having nothing but a small covering before their private parts.
The words these people heard spoken by our people they could speak at once perfectly which is a certain indication that their language is copious and difficult to pronounce. This is to be concluded therefrom because they use the letter r in many of their words; indeed in some words as many as three together.
On this day we got so many coconuts that I have had distributed six coconuts and some bananas to each of our men.
In the evening I have had the friends of the Zeehaen brought again on board the Heemskerck and proposed to them that having been informed we are not at Moa but Jamma, whether therefore, it would not be best to weigh anchor in the morning before daybreak and run to Moa, where apparently more supplies can be obtained. This proposal was approved by the council as will be seen in today's resolution.
In the morning at four glasses in the day watch we have weighed anchor and sailed with reduced sails to the island of Moa where about noon we have let go our anchors in ten fathoms. We found a firm bottom. As soon as the anchors fell we got many canoes alongside with coconuts and bananas.
At noon we calculated our position as 2o 5' S, 156o 28' E.
We kept our course west by north and sailed five miles. In the afternoon at the end of six glasses a large canoe came from the mainland with nineteen men bringing with them some coconuts etc which those of the Zeehaen obtained by barter. We have obtained today by barter so many coconuts that six were distributed to each man.
In the morning we again got a large number of canoes alongside with coconuts, unripe banans, etc, all of which we have exchanged for old nails, beads and knives, so that today every man of our crew got four coconuts.
Towards the evening large numbers of canoes came alongside among which was was a large one with eleven persons. They brought a good number of coconuts all of which we obtained from them by barter.
Towards the evening I have had the friends of the Zeehaen come on board and at our meeting we have resolved together as soon as the wind and tide are suitable to weigh anchor and pursue our voyage.
In the morning a strong wind came from the west-northwest and the sea ran very high so that we could not in accordance with our resolution of the previous day depart from Moa and pursue our voyage.
We could not achieve anything the whole day but were obliged to stay at anchor. Today we obtained by barter some more coconuts; as many as the people brought.
1 May 1643
The west-northwest wind still continuing and we remained at anchor because the current was against us. Thus we could have got no advantage by tacking.
Today we obtained still more coconuts.
We remained still lying at anchor because the west-northwest wind was blowing with a strong, steady breeze and the current was setting steadily to eastward. We had rain at times but mostly it was dry weather.
In the forenoon we got many more coconuts but in the afternoon got no more canoes alongside because of the stiff breeze.
At night moderate weather with an all westerly wind.
In the morning several canoes again came alongside the Heemskerck while the crew were busy washing the ship. One of our sailors standing on the wales to use the bucket was shot by an arrow in the thick part of the leg above the thigh. We immediately got some of our people to shoot with muskets among their canoes and wounded one of the natives through the arm.
Shortly thereafter we weighed anchor and ran inwards to the spot where Jacob Le Maire in the ship Eendracht had formerly lain. We let the anchor drop between the two islands in smooth water in six fathoms with a firm bottom in a place where we lie protected from all winds.
The inhabitants seeing that we came sailing inside with both the ships waved on the beach with branches of trees and so it seemed were very afraid that we wished to attack them.
They immediately sent on board to our ship the same person who had previously shot at us with arrows to make peace again with us, which also was achieved with the other inhabitants. They then came back to the ship as before but dared not demand as much for their goods as before. What we gave them they were content with.
Today again got here alongside some canoes with coconuts all of which we obtained by barter so that I distributed to each man of our crew nine coconuts.
In the morning the west-northwest wind still continued so that we were obliged to remain where we were.
Today a large number of canoes again came alongside with coconuts all of which we obtained by barter so that I have distributed seven to each member of our crew.
In the morning the west-northwest wind persisting we remained lying at anchor. Today we got only a few coconuts on the ships but very young ones. It seems that most of the coconuts from this island have already been gathered.
In the morning about 8 o'clock with the breeze from the shore, we weighed anchor and proceeded under sail to pursue our voayge.
There came some more canoes with coconuts to the ship as we got under sail.
We have got at these islands both at Jamna and at Moa, 6,000 coconuts for both the ships and about 100 bunches of bananas, all of which we obtained by bartering for beads and old rusty nails, and pieces of iron hoops which we ground on one side in the fashion of knives. For the knives we made wooden handles for which they were very eager.
Being a quarter of a mile outside the bay it became calm so that we again had to drop the anchors in nine fathoms but we found a firm bottom.
[At this point in the State Archives Journal a number of sketches of parts of New Guinea and nearby islands with inscriptions in Dutch are present.]
In the morning the wind went about slightly to landward but otherwise it was calm. We continued on in order to get a little away to sea from the land. Before noon the wind became west by south, a moderate breeze.
We kept our course north-northwest. In the afternoon the wind became north-northwest and we have turned to make our course west by south.
In the evening with the setting of the first watch the island of Arymoa lay northwest from us about three miles distance. We have again turned northward and kept our course north by west with little gain since the sea ran very strong from the northwest.
During the night the wind became west-southwest.
In the morning at sunrise we had the largest island, Arymoa due southwest from us about three miles distance. The wind still west by south and west-south-west. We still kept our course north-northwest.
At noon good weather enabled us to calculate our position as 1o 30' S, 156o 22' E. We kept our course north by west and sailed 8¾ miles.
We had the north-westernmost point of the island of Arymoa southwest by south from us five to six miles distance. We have then with a west-north-west wind turned southwest with a soft breeze.
In the evening at sunset we had the island of Arymoa, the west point southwest by south from us about 31 miles distance with calm weather. The wind was west-northwest. We ran still southwest.
During the night in the first and second watch we drifted in a calm. The sea was still running from the west-northwest. At the end of the second watch we got a light breeze from the southeast and made our course due west.
Variation 8 degrees northwesterly.
In the morning the wind was south by east but calm. We had with the sunrise the island of Arymoa south by east from us about three to four miles distance. We still continued to steer west.
At noon we calculated our position as 1o 35' S, 155o 25' E. We kept our course west by south and sailed seven miles.
In the evening with the sunset the north side of Arymoa lay east by south seven miles from us. We found here a depth of sixty-seven fathoms at a distance of three miles from the mainland which here is a very low land.
The wind being northwest, we made for the coast, and got into gradually shallowing water, fifty, forty, thirty, and twenty-five fathoms; with all soundings we found a good bottom. When six glasses in the first watch were out we sounded in twenty-four fathoms upon which we tacked about since the wind at times was blowing more from the shore so when about midnight the wind had gone round to the southwest, we set our course northwest along the coast.
Variation 7 degrees 30 minutes.
In the morning the wind came from the south. Our course was still as before; we sailed here all in thick water, green in colour, along a low land, which as we surmise from the flowing off of water must be full of rivers but we remained so far from land that we could not see any direct discharge of rivers.
Before noon we set our course northwest and found here that the current, because of the flow of the rivers, set us steadily off from the land.
At noon we calculated our position as 1o 17' S, 155o 12' E. We kept our course west-northwest and sailed twelve miles with variable winds. At noon the weather became calm.
In the evening in the first watch we drifted in a calm and in the second watch the wind became variable.
At noon the wind came from the southeast with a light breeze and we made our course west by south in order to get the land alongside again since we could see no land.
At noon we calculated our position as 1o 3' S, 154o 28' E. We kept our course west and sailed twelve miles.
In the evening with a south-southeast wind we set our course due west. All through the night we had a fair breeze with occasional calms. It seems however, that the wind is getting to some extent influenced by the eastern monsoon. This day we had smooth water; the clouds which for some time past had come from the north-west are at present stationary. We passed here low land.
Variation 6 degrees 50 minutes.
In the morning the wind east by north and we kept our course westerly. We saw again the land which lay west by south from us. We made our course directly for it and found the same to be Willem Schoutens Island. We had at noon the north point due west from us about six miles distance.
With good weather at noon we calculated our position as Oo 54' S, 153o 17' E. We had an east-southeast wind and held our course west and sailed eighteen miles. We continued sailing along beside the land.
About an hour before sunset six canoes put off from Schoutens Island to have a look at us, each canoe containing twenty, twenty-four or twenty-five men, but they were too shy to come alongside. These canoes were about the length of the oranbays of the Moluccas but not so broad. The men were very expert paddlers and seemed to be quick and intelligent.
This island which is about eighteen or nineteen miles in length, seems to be fairly well populated.
In the evening at sunset we had the northern point of Willem Schoutens Island west-southwest of us about 11 mile's distance, so that we constantly saw the surf break on the shore. This day in the evening a heavy slow swell rose, coming from the north; what it means we shall learn in time. The wind is still blowing from the east with a light breeze.
In the evening we set our course west towards the most westerly point so that we sailed along the coast all night.
In the morning we were about two miles from the west point of Willem Schoutens Island. It lay mostly southwest by south from us. Another islet situated northwest by north from this aforesaid point three to four miles, lay northwest from us.
Sailing still west beside the land until the same point was south from us we have then set our course west-southwest in order to get the main coast alongside again.
Before noon we got a southerly wind with a moderate breeze. At noon we estimated our position as 0o 54' S, 152o 6' E.
We kept our course west and sailed eighteen miles with an easterly wind. Rainy weather. We then sighted land again, south-southwest of us; it was a low-lying coast forming part of the mainland of New Guinea. From here we set our course due west.
During the night we had a fair breeze.
Variation 6 degrees 30 minutes northeasterly but in the afternoon southeast.
In the morning we were again close to the main coast of New Guinea where the inward land is very high like the isle of Formosa but everywhere there is mostly low or lowish foreland.
We kept sailing to westward along the coast towards the Cape the Good Hope.
At noon we calculated our position as 0o 48' S, 150o 31' E.
We kept our course west and sailed twenty-four miles. The wind was from the east in the afternoon with a light breeze. In the evening it fell a calm and we saw the Cape the Good Hope; it lay west and west by south from us about six miles distance. East of the Cape the Good Hope there is very high land which begins close up to the shore without having any low foreland, somewhat higher than the island of Formosa.
We still kept our course to the west by north to Cape the Hope while the sea is running from the northeast.
At night overcast weather with rain. The wind is very variable and we drifted thereafter in a calm.
At noon we estimated our position as 0o 42' S, 149o 53' E; at the same time we had the Cape the Good Hope south from us three miles distance. We held our course west by north and sailed twelve miles. At noon the wind turned east-northeasterly with calm weather.
We set our course to the west side of the bay into which Willem Schouten sailed but we had to come back from it again.
At night we drifted in a calm and made little progress. Variation 6 degrees northeasterly.
In the morning we were still drifting in a calm and saw land on the west side of the aforesaid bay; the west point lay west from us about seven miles distance.
At noon it was calm when we had the west point of the bay south-south-west from us and made our course west by north. We calculated our position at noon as 0o 16' S, 149o 9' E.
We kept our course west-northwest and sailed twelve miles in calm weather. Again it was calm in the afternoon but since the current bore us to the west every day we made more progress in relation to seeing the land then over the water.
On this day various small islets were seen at the point to the west; we steered our course towards them, west by south.
In the evening with the sunset the westernmost point of the mainland that we saw, lay west, a little south from us three to four miles distance and an islet opposite the same point situated west a little north from us three to four miles away.
Between the mainland of New Guinea and the same islet we saw through the gap to the open sea due west from us.
We drifted in a calm.
We have set our course west by north to run along outside the same island. At night we had variable winds and a calm. At midnight the wind came from the land.
Variation 5 degrees 50 minutes.
Early in the morning we were close under the island aforesaid when about one mile off from it we came to a reef and we found in sailing over it at the shallowest part nine fathoms with a rocky bottom.
Having passed over the above mentioned reef we got again into deeper water but shortly thereafter had the island south by east from us. We saw the bottom which was seven fathoms deep; again a rocky bottom as before. As before this shoal stretches off like the aforesaid land to the northwest.
We kept holding our course west by south and saw still more islands west of us five to six miles distance. At noon the island we had passed bore from us east at about three miles distance. During these last twenty-four hours we have advanced nine miles on a westerly slightly southerly course.
Our position we estimated at noon as 0o 20' S, 148o 34' E; we held our course west, one third of a point southerly and sailed nine miles.
In the evening at sunset there lay west-northwest and north-west by west of us seven or eight small islands in a row bearing from each other west by north and east by south. We then passed a number of rocks all overgrown with brushwood but these we left on our starboard, and then four more small islands to larboard, the latter lying very near the mainland coast. The coast of New Guinea here is full of small of small bays and projecting points; but there is almost everywhere deep water so that we ran on a mile only from shore.
About four glasses in the first watch off a fairly large bay, we were about two thirds of a mile from the shore. We took soundings here in forty fathoms and found a sandy bottom where we forthwith anchored. Here we had a large island west by south of us as about six miles distance, where in the evening we had seen a passage through between the mainland coast and the said island.
Early in the morning with the land-wind we weighed anchor and sailed towards the strait in order to run between the main coast and the islands. Shortly thereafter we drifted in a calm but about noon a light breeze came up from the west and with the current coming against us we drifted back again. We came therefore in sixteen fathoms between an island and a rock which lay level with the water. We sailed six miles then anchored and found the bottom to be small coral.
At noon we estimated our latitude as 0o 26' S.
As we lay there the current began to run much stronger in the afternoon here in this position where we reckoned the latitude as 0o 26' S.
At about 4 o'clock in the afternoon the current began to change, the ebb-tide running here to the west, and the flood to the east so that a west-south-west moon makes high water here. But since we cannot be far from the western extremity of New Guinea as the coast begins to tend southward here, it is quite possible that the two tides meet here at the extremity of New Guinea, since before we had the flood from the east everywhere along the coast of New Guinea.
As there was no moon we remained at anchor during the night for safety.
This afternoon several canoes came close to our ship and the men in them said they were Ternatans and spoke the language of Ternate. One of our men who was conversant with this language spoke with them a long time and with kind words tried to get them to come on board our ship but they pretended to be timid and afraid. From this we concluded that these men must have been Tydorese. They returned to the shore in their canoes. The wind is westerly with good weather.
During the night we experienced a violent current to the west and also many whirling currents so that with our anchor quitting its hold we had to pay out more cable. For the rest it was calm all through the night.
Variation 51 degrees northeast.
In the morning the current again began to set to the west. We weighed anchor and went under sail. Good weather and the wind south by west. We have set our course southeast by east for the land with good dry weather. We had in this passage all the time a bottom of twenty-five to forty-five and fifty fathoms.
At this point there is much broken land as may be seen in our chart of the same.
At noon we calculated our latitude as 0o 35' S. We kept our course west- southwest and sailed seven miles. The wind was south by west and variable.
We tacked about to landward since the wind became south with occasional calms. In the forenoon it fell to a dead calm. During the night we had variable currents.
In the morning the current ran a little to the southwest and was changeable. The wind was a light breeze from the southeast. We did our best to get to the south and run through between the islands but because of the contrary wind we advanced little.
We sailed here over a reef where we sounded and found five fathoms with a sandy bottom mixed with stones but later we found twenty-five to thirty fathoms and again the bottom was sand mixed with stones.
Before noon the wind turned to the south and we tacked eastward and shortly after noon, since the wind was south-southwest, we came again to the aforesaid reef. Since the current is running hard to the north-east we have anchored in five fathoms.
Here at this point the current acts very strangely so that in my opinion it cannot be described here with any certainty. He who comes here immediately sees it and must shape his course accordingly. This point aforesaid of New Guinea mainly consists of broken land which would take more time in charting than we think is necessary for it. We are satisfied with having discovered a good passage through which in future may be of great use to the company's ships coming from Peru or Chile at the time of the monsoon season. During the night the wind was southerly with a strong current setting to the southwest so we remained at anchor.
In the morning before daybreak with the current setting to the southwest and the wind blowing from the southeast, we weighed anchor and went under sail with a steady gale and our course set to the southwest. Before noon the wind turned to south by east so that we made no progress by tacking; therefore we anchored under a small islet about noon in fifteen fathoms with an adequate bottom.
At noon we estimated our latitude as 0o 38' S. We kept a southerly course and sailed one mile; it being our intention, with the first favourable wind and current that should offer itself on the coast of New Guinea or near it, to steer our course for the south, till we shall have passed the latitude of Cape Wedda on the island of Halmahera, from where we can cross as far north as possible. We sailed close to the shore here in order to get some firewood of which there was plenty available. When we arrived on the said island we have indeed seen signs of people but saw none as it seems that only fishermen come here to dry fish at certain seasons of the year and then carry the same to other places to be sold. Near this islet and round the whole point along and between the islands there are everywhere currents as (as the old saying has it) as the tide before Flushing pier-head. In these parts the flood runs northward and the ebb southward but almost everywhere here the tides follow the direction of the coast, of the islands, and passages, narrows and straits.
In the evening at the end of the first watch, the wind being south-southeast, we set sail endeavouring by tacking to run to the south with a steady breeze.
In the morning the wind was still all southerly and we did as before our best to make progress to the south. But we came again to anchor about noon near a small island in thirty-five fathoms with a sandy bottom. This was a location about two miles southeast by east from the aforementionbed island where we had previously been at anchor. So that we advanced no more than two miles southeast by east.
At noon we we observed our latitude as 0o 40' S; we held our course south-east by east and sailed twelve miles.
In the morning the wind came from the southeast it inclined towards a calm. We went under sail and did our best to get to the south. Before noon the wind became variable so that at noon we have advanced about four miles south by east.
At noon we estimated our latitude as 0o 55' S. We kept our course south by east and sailed four miles. The wind was variable.
We came here again close by a number of islands but found at first no anchoring ground. The coast of New Guinea stretches out here and with so many bights and small and large islands that they are uncountable.
During the greater part of the night we drifted mostly in calm weather and in the evening we struck bottom in fifty fathoms.
Variation 4 degrees 30 minutes.
In the morning we drifted in a calm as before. Before noon the wind became south by east and we did our best by tacking to get to the south but never-the-less we advanced little.
At noon we calculated our latitude as 1o 6' S. We kept our course southwest by west and sailed three miles. The wind was south inclining to a calm.
I have convened the council with the under-mates of the ships Heemskerck and Zeehaen so that it was resolved and approved by the same council as follows: That we shall navigate our course above the point of Wedda and to Ceram and so further to Batavia since there is no other course possible at this time of the year for the reason that the wind and the current are against us. The details can be seen more fully in the resolution which bears today's date.
At night, coming close to a small islet above which we could not readily sail, it became necessary to anchor there in eleven fathoms where we found a rough sandy bottom.
Lying at anchor we found the current was setting fairly strong to the west.
In the morning the wind was southeasterly and we have raised our anchor. Going under sail we ran through between the two islets.
We had this day many variable, soft winds with steady rain and did our best to make progress to the south.
At noon we calculated our latitude as 1o 15' S. We kept our course south-west by west and sailed four miles with variable winds.
At night we kept our course direct south by west. We have passed during the night, to port from us, a large island.
At noon we could not obtain our latitude but estimate it as 1o 38' S. We kept our course south by west and sailed eleven miles; the wind was variable.
We saw again in the southeast from us, a large island of about eight miles length which stretched mostly east-northeast and west-southwest with many small islets lying off the north-west side of it. We then set our course south-southwest to run to westward of these small islands.
In the evening before sunset we saw two high islets northwest by west of us about seven to eight miles distance, for which we headed. We then saw south-southwest of us the whole extent of the coast of Ceram which we steered straight for in good calm weather with wind from the northwest.
During the first and second quarters of the night we drifted in a calm; in the day watch we got the wind from the north with rain.
In the morning the wind came mostly from the west. The west end of the large island which we had passed in the evening lay northeast by north from us about five miles distance.
The wind remained westerly with good calm weather and we made our course southward close on the wind for the coast of Ceram. At noon we were still about five miles from the coast of Ceram and at a point off about the middle of Ceram.
At noon we calculated our latitude as 2o 40' S.
We kept our course south-southwest and sailed eleven miles with variable winds and a calm. At sunset we were still 2 to 21 miles from the land. The wind still all westerly and we did our best to run westward, north of Ceram.
During the night we advanced about five or six miles with variable winds. In the day-watch it was mostly calm.
In the morning variable winds with rain, thunder and lightning. Since the land-wind blew partly from the south we tacked about to westward. We were now right away from the small islands which lie, six together, close to the coast of Ceram and we had the middle of the said island south-southwest from us at about three miles' distance.
At noon the westernmost of the said small islands were south-southeast from us at about 21 to 3 miles' distance. Today in the forenoon we had rain.
At noon we estimated our position as 2o 48' S, 146o 15' E; the longitude figure is averaged. We held our course west by south and sailed ten miles. In the afternoon we had dry weather with a south-southeast wind, a light variable breeze.
At noon we had the island of Boano west-southwest from us five miles' distance and we made our course close along the land thinking to sail throuigh Boano Strait to the south.
At noon we estimated our position as 2o 52' S, 145o 15' E. We held our course west a quarter of a point southerly and sailed fifteen miles with a southerly wind but variable. In the afternoon it was calm and then the wind went round to westward of the south with a fair breeze so that at night we were forced to run northward of Boana.
During the night the wind blew from the south so we set our course for the island of Buru as close to the wind as possible.
In the morning we were close to the main coast of Buru by the north side of which we sailed along in good weather and a moderate breeze from the south. At noon we had the northwest point of Buru, a place named Tannewary south by east from us 11 miles' distance.
At noon we estimated our position as 3o 8' S, 143o 52' E. We kept our course west by south and sailed twenty-one miles. In the afternoon under Buru Island we drifted in a calm with the sea running from various quarters and the wind westerly. We tacked about to the south in order to be near the land in the evening as we expected the land-wind. During the night we got a light land breeze and held our course west by south alongside the land.
In the forenoon we had soft variable winds. At noon we had the west point of Buru named [Tamahu???? ]south from us three miles' distance.
About one hour after noon we got a southerly wind which was a steady breeze and kept our course westwards.
At noon we estimated our position as 3o 15' S, 143o 17' E. We kept our course west by south. Towards the evening the wind turned southeast and our course was kept southwest with a steady wind and good dry weather.
At night at the end of the first watch the wind turned east-south-east and we have set our course south-west by west for the mouth of Buton Strait since our intention is to pursue our course through the same strait further to the Booqueroenis.
1 June 1643
In the morning the wind still all east-southeast with good dry weather and a moderate breeze. We made our course west-southwest for the north point of Buton Island.
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 13' S, 141o 5' E. We kept our course southwest by west and sailed twenty-six miles with an east-southeast wind.
After noon we saw the strait Buton?? Sailing in the evening into the strait with variable soft winds, we did our best to continue our voyage through the strait to the south.
In the morning with the sunrise we were about three miles into the strait in a calm.. In the afternoon since it was calm and the current came against us we came to anchor close to the coast of Buton in twenty-six fathoms. We found a firm bottom.
At our anchorage we found two junks lying of which the commanders immediately came on board showing their passports which had been issued by the Hon. Gerrit Demmer, and by which they were going to Bima to return afterwards to Amboina or to Batavia.
The names of the commanders of the junks mouna were Jurregan Wanga, and also a free black Hendricq Jansz. of Solor, flag-bearer of the Groene Geuszen from whom we learned that the Hon. Anthoony Caen had arrived in Amboina with a number of vessels with his destination being Ternate. They also told us that their ship Hollandia was reported to have been lost in navigating from Batavia to Amboina but whether this is true we shall learn in time.
At noon we calculated our position as 4o 32' S, 141o 3' E. We kept our course west-southwest and sailed thirteen miles. At night the wind was variable.
At night four glasses in the first watch being finished and the current setting southwards we set sail. The wind at night very variable but mostly southerly we did what we could by tacking.
With a southerly wind we kept tacking as before. At noon we were full in the first narrows, with the wind northerly, but with frequent calms.
At noon we estimated our position as 4o 54' S, 140o 59' E. We kept our course south by west and sailed six miles. In the afternoon much rain.
Shortly before the evening we anchored one mile through the first narrow in thirty fathoms and found a good firm bottom with the current setting to northward.
About midnight with still water we weighed anchor and set sail but with hardly any breeze we advanced little.
In the morning we still drifted in a calm.
At noon we estimated our position as 5O 20' S, 140o 56' E. We kept our course south by west and sailed four miles. The wind was variable and four hours after noon we got the wind from the southeast. Our course was south-southwest direct for the strait which lies close to Buton. This is the narrowest part of Buton Strait where after midnight we cast anchor close to the island in twelve fathoms with a firm bottom.
Early in the morning we raised our anchor in a calm but as the ebb-tide had nearly run out two hours before noon we anchored with our kedge-anchor in the middle of the narrows in forty-five fathoms with a hard bottom.
At noon we estimated our position as 5o 5' S, 140o 52' E. We kept our course south by west and sailed 31 miles with variable winds and rain. In the afternoon at early ebb-tide and in a calm, being engaged in weighing our kedge-anchor, we found that it had got wedged under a rock and were forced to abandon it. We continued our voyage to Buton so as to come in the evening out of the strait south of Buton in a light southerly wind.
In the evening after the setting of the first watch the person Jan Pieterszoon van Meldorp, steward's mate, whom we had put on the flute-ship Zeehaen until such time as we should arrive in Batavia, on account of certain charges that had been brought against him, and of misdemeanours of which he was suspected, so has the culprit let himself down with a rope overboard and so has swum to land on Buton.
At night the wind was northerly with a soft breeze. We kept our course west-southwest.
In the morning the middle of Camboona Island lay northwest from us about two?? miles. The wind was from the east and our course west by south. At noon we had the west point of Kabuena north by west from us three miles.
At noon we estimated our position as 5o 43' S, 140o 11' E. We kept our course west-southwest and sailed eleven miles.
In the afternoon we got a steady wind from the east by south.
At night at the end of the second watch we passed the islets named Booqueroenis Liuikang, Sarontang, and Pasi Tanete, in Salayar Strait with good, clear, dry weather.
At noon we had the west point of the high land of Turatte north-north-east about three miles from us. We kept our course west-northwest along the land with dry weather and a steady easterly wind.
At noon we estimated our position as 6o S, 138o 1' E. We kept our course west 1 south, the wind was easterly with a steady breeze.
In the evening with the sunset we have set our course west by south for the middle of the great reef which we passed at midnight; we sounded in thirteen fathoms and found a stony bottom.
In the morning a steady wind from the south-east. About three hours before noon we passed another large stony reef and found the shallowest part to be six fathoms. We saw the bottom perfectly and could see it was mostly covered with large stones.
At noon we calculated our position as 6o 2' S, 135o 21' E. We kept a westerly course and sailed forty miles with a southeast wind. We maintained our course west by south with good weather.
The southeast monsoon with good, dry weather. At noon we estimated the island of Madura to be south-southwest from us eight miles distance. At noon we calculated our position as 6o 15' S, 133o 49' E; we held our course west by south and sailed twenty-six miles.
In good dry weather we took soundings in 35 fathoms. At noon we calculated our position as 6o 26' S, 132o 29' E. We kept our course west by south and sailed twenty miles.
In the evening we had the west point of Bawean island four miles north by west from us at four miles distance.
In the morning the wind still all south-east. We saw the line of the coast of Java about Lubuan.
At noon we estimated our position as 6o 26' S, 131o 23' E. We kept our course west and sailed 161 miles. We had here a light sea breeze and land wind. After noon the wind turned to the south with a good breeze and we continued on our westerly course.
In the evening the mountain of Lubuan lay due south from us. We saw then the high mountain of Japare together with the islet of Mandalika which lay due west by south from us six miles distance.
In the morning we drifted in a calm but towards noon the sea-wind came from the northeast. We kept our course west by south.
At noon we had the islet Handalika east by south from us four miles distance and the middle land of Java Island north-northwest from us six miles distance.
At noon we calculated our position as 6o 27' S, 130o 33' E. We kept our course west by south half west and sailed twelve miles with a land and sea breeze. In the afternoon the wind came from the northeast with a good breeze. We made our course west by north.
In the evening with the sunset the island of Crymon Java lay northeast by north and north-northeast from us. We then made our course still west by north as before.
In the morning the wind came from the southeast. At noon we had the mountain of Tjarene southeast by south from us and the Boomtjes Island west of us ten miles' distance by our estimation. We held our course as before in calm weather.
At noon we calculated our position as 6o S, 129o 3' E. We kept our course west by north and sailed twenty-three miles with a land and sea breeze. We then made our course west by south to run between Tanjong Sedari and the coast of Java.
In the evening with the sunset we had Tanjong Sedari west by north from us about five miles' distance. The wind came from the east-southeast with calm weather.
At noon we had the mountain of Cerabon south by west of us. At night we sailed along the shore with the land wind; we sounded and found twenty to twenty-one fathoms with a firm bottom.
In the morning we passed the point with a cluster of trees and had the wind from the land with a good breeze. We sailed thus along the shore in water of depths of fifteen to eighteen fathoms so that we came to the shoals of the dangerous point.
At noon we estimated our position as 6o 3' S, 127o 59' E. We kept our course west and sailed twenty-one miles. At noon we came to the shoals of the dangerous point round which we sounded in seven to eight fathoms.
At the end of the reef we saw an English ship lying with flags flying from her main and mizzen-tops but on our approach she weighed anchor and sailed eastwards but for what port or whither we do not know.
In the evening at sunset we had the point of Tanjong Krawang southwest from us about five miles' distance. We made our course along the coast having still the wind along the shore.
During the night we passed through between the islands of Leyden and Enckhuyzen and when we had advanced a quarter of a mile between these islands we dropped anchor in eleven fathoms and found a firm bottom.
At noon we estimated our position as 6o 12' S, 127o 18' E. We held our course west by north and west-northwest and sailed eleven miles.
In the morning at daybreak I went with the pinnace to Batavia. God be praised and thanked for a safe voyage.
Actum in the ship Heemskerck
date as above
Your Worships obedient and always obliged servant