The Internet Archive discovers and captures web pages through many different web crawls.
At any given time several distinct crawls are running, some for months, and some every day or longer.
View the web archive through the Wayback Machine.
Understanding risk and benefits of Informal (Artisanal small-scale) mining of manganese by peasants in Indonesia: A study on resource management and livelihood options in Kupang and TTS, West Timor, NTT, Indonesia
Title: Understanding risk and benefits of Informal (Artisanal small-scale) mining of manganese by peasants in Indonesia: A study on resource management and livelihood options in Kupang and TTS, West Timor, NTT, Indonesia
The rapid expansion of manganese mining in West Timor has raised a debate on whether the mining is a boon or peril for the local people. Many local peasants have shifted their livelihood from agriculture subsistence to artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) of the manganese. This cash based economy has benefited the local people to some extent, including cash for foods and basic goods. However, the high demand of the ore, poor skills as well as legal uncertainty have led to massive environmental degradation, loss of human lives, illegal trading and social unrest. ASM activities are common in developing countries around the world, from Asia to Africa, which are struggling with poverty issues, lack of alternative livelihoods, poor education, and legal uncertainty. Decentralisation has created huge pressure on the local government to increase revenue to balance the growing expenditures of East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara TimurNTT). NTT is listed as one of the poorest provinces in Indonesia. The income per capita of this province is less than one fourth of the national average. This province is also prone to natural disasters such as droughts, flooding, typhoons, and fires which make this area have a long history of food insecurity. The province is well-endowed in manganese resources, and mining this mineral is considered by the local government to be one of the ways to potentially boost economic growth. The objective of the research is to explore how the manganese mining in West Timor has benefitted the local peasants and to provide recommendations for policy makers in formulating policy intervention. This research used a qualitative method in which primary data has been derived from fieldwork and secondary data was gathered from literature. The semi structured interviews with the six groups of respondents (local community, local Government, NGOs/CSOs, academia, church leaders and media) pointed out that ASM has the potential to provide economic benefits for the local people if it is managed sustainably. Therefore, immediate policy interventions to ensure fair price, legal certainty, and community empowerment are necessary to mitigate the negative environmental and socio-economic impacts