The Internet Archive discovers and captures web pages through many different web crawls.
At any given time several distinct crawls are running, some for months, and some every day or longer.
View the web archive through the Wayback Machine.
This collection contains web crawls performed as the pre-inauguration crawl for part of the End of Term Web Archive, a collaborative project that aims to preserve the U.S. federal government web presence at each change of administration. Content includes publicly-accessible government websites hosted on .gov, .mil, and relevant non-.gov domains, as well as government social media materials. The web archiving was performed in the Fall and Winter of 2016 to capture websites prior to the January 20, 2017 inauguration. For more information, see http://eotarchive.cdlib.org/.
Christin Elliott, Clyde Roberts’ granddaughter, shared with us this story of a recent muzzleloader deer hunt with her now-103 year-old grandfather.
“We got in the stand about 3 PM; it was overcast and a good wind for the stand.
Papa can’t turn his head very far to the left after surgery years ago so he told me to watch the upper end of the food plot to his left. We watched some turkeys feed out behind us early on, which is always exciting since I love to hunt spring gobblers!
Around 4:15, I saw a doe at the far end of the field, easing through the pines with her fawn. Papa got a quick glimpse of the doe but they were feeding out of the field. Papa is one of those hunters that never moves, which is totally different from hunting with my two boys. Around 4:30, I saw the doe and fawn coming up the edge of the field into the food plot. Papa saw them and, after watching a few minutes, he said he thought the doe would be a good one to take. I whispered in his ear that we should wait since we still had time and good light left. They fed into the food plot but kept looking up the hill to the top of the field. I saw a doe slip out of the pines into the top of the food plot and held up 3 fingers so Papa would know there was another deer in the field.
I had been texting back and forth with Dad just to keep him apprised of our hunt while he was enjoying his afternoon of mule deer hunting in Montana. We had just joked about trying to keep Papa from shooting the doe! At this point, something in the woods caught my eye and I realized it was a limb moving—and then I saw his antlers. I held my hands out in front of me to describe antlers and he just smiled. I knew things were going to happen quickly, so he got the gun up and ready. Papa was so calm when the buck walked out broadside. I knew he was a great buck and time literally stood still for me. I never heard the gun go off, never saw the smoke, just watched the buck fall with one well-placed just shy of 100 yards.
Papa likes to tell everyone that I got so excited after that. Of course I did! Not only had I been able to hunt with my 103-year-old grandfather but I had witnessed him take the biggest buck of his life. Most importantly, I had the hunt of my lifetime with him! I immediately called Dad and my oldest, who is a freshman at Montana Tech. I could not contain my excitement. It was one of the most awe-inspiring moments of my hunting career. I will never forget it. Papa is still on cloud nine and I have relived the hunt every night since.
The Good Lord was definitely with us Tuesday for many reasons. We had a safe hunt, we had time together and he connected on a great big ‘ole Bedford County buck!”
A great story and inspiration for all of us who share the passion for hunting and the wonders of the great outdoors.
Clyde is a fantastic example and role model for all hunters, with his respect for the game he pursues and the many young hunters he has mentored over the years passing the treasured hunting heritage and traditions to a new generation—in Clyde’s case, several generations!
Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (DGIF) wildlife officials would like to ask for your continued support in the surveillance and management of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD). Chronic wasting disease has been detected in twelve deer in Frederick County and one deer in Shenandoah County, Virginia.
The continued existence of the disease in nearby states is also a concern; CWD has been detected in Hampshire and Hardy counties, West Virginia, and Allegany and Washington counties, Maryland.
Similarly to 2015, any deer killed in the CWD Containment Area (comprised of Frederick, Clarke, Shenandoah, and Warren counties) on November 19th or 26th, 2016, must be brought to a CWD check station to be sampled for CWD. Any deer (or at minimum the head and at least 4 inches of neck) killed in the Containment Area on these two days must be brought to one of the designated sampling stations listed below:
Crossroads Grocery, 119 Cedar Grove Road, Winchester
Gore Grocery, 305 Gore Road, Gore
Graden’s Supermarket, 6836 John Marshall Highway, Lebanon Church
Clarke County Fairgrounds, 890 W. Main St., Berryville
Town & Country Superette, 876 Conicville Rd, Mt. Jackson
Fort Valley Country Store, 7091 Fort Valley rd., Fort Valley
Rivermont Shell Gas, 10178 Winchester Rd, Front Royal
Foodway Supermarket, 2868 Stonewall Jackson Highway, Bentonville
T & R Processing, 691 Carpers Valley Road, Winchester
We strongly encourage hunters who are successful on days other than those listed above to volunteer the head and neck from their deer for sampling by bringing it to one of our self-service refrigerated drop stations:
Frederick-Winchester Conservation Club, 527 Siler Road, Winchester (north of Gainesboro)
Department of Forestry, 265 Lakeview Dr., Woodstock
North Mountain Fire and Rescue, 186 Rosenberger Lane, Winchester (off Rt. 600, behind Tom’s Market)
Enders Fire Department, 9 South Buckmarsh St., Berryville
Elk Lodge, 4088 Guard Hill Rd, Front Royal
In addition to mandatory checking, DGIF is continuing several management actions in the Containment Area in response to the continued presence of CWD in Frederick and Shenandoah counties. Within the Containment Area, these measures include: prohibiting the movement of deer carcasses and parts out of the Containment Area (with exceptions), restricting the disposal of deer wastes from the Containment Area, and prohibiting the rehabilitation of deer. In the counties of Clarke, Frederick, Shenandoah, and Warren, and in the City of Winchester, feeding of deer is prohibited year round and seasons and bag limits on private lands have been liberalized in an attempt to reduce the deer population.
CWD has been detected in 24 states and two Canadian provinces. The disease is a slow, progressive neurological (brain and nervous system) disease found in deer, elk, and moose in North America. The disease ultimately results in death of the animal. Symptoms exhibited by CWD-infected deer include, staggering, abnormal posture, lowered head, drooling, confusion, and marked weight loss. There is no evidence that CWD can be naturally transmitted to humans, livestock, or pets; however, the DGIF strongly advises against consuming meat from any game animal that appears ill prior to death. Anyone who sees a sick deer that displays any of the signs described above should contact the nearest DGIF office immediately with accurate location information. Please do not attempt to disturb or kill the deer before contacting DGIF. More information on CWD can be found on the DGIF website.
The Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (DGIF) announced today that it has purchased 1,965 acres in Sussex County, Virginia, adjoining the existing Big Woods Wildlife Management Area and Big Woods State Forest. This acquisition, approved by the DGIF Board for the price of $3.8 million, supports the DGIF’s efforts to restore pine-savannah habitat and provide additional public land in an underserved area of Virginia.
“Our goal here is to provide a diversity of opportunities, as expressly requested by hunters surveyed last fall at the Big Woods WMA,” said Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries Executive Director Bob Duncan.
Funding for the acquisition came from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the form of a Wildlife Restoration Grant, administered through its Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program, and from the Virginia Land Conservation Foundation. The sale was facilitated by The Nature Conservancy through its purchase and temporary holding of the property.
The area is predominantly upland loblolly pine forests and mature forest swamps. The habitat supports a wide range of wildlife species including white-tailed deer, eastern wild turkey, bobwhite quail, brown-headed nuthatch, red-headed and pileated woodpeckers, summer tanager, and a variety of warblers. The Parker’s Branch Tract provides additional opportunity to restore longleaf pine and to develop habitat that will benefit the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, currently found on nearby property. These woodpeckers are the northernmost population of this species in the U.S. Excellent opportunities also exist to recover local populations of northern bobwhites.
Details on usage, public access, permit requirements, and land management strategies are currently being developed by the DGIF as part of its detailed management plan. Hunting will be permitted during the 2016-2017 hunting season. The property is established for still-hunting only for deer and bear, with the nearby original Big Woods WMA remaining open to hunting with hounds A few interior roads on Parker’s Branch provide opportunities for hunters to retrieve hounds from the area; firearms must be unloaded and cased when retrieving hounds. An antler point restriction is in place on this tract that requires that any antlered deer harvested have four (4) or more 1” or greater points on one side. Youth or apprentice hunters may harvest one (1) buck per license year that does not meet the APR. The use of slugs is prohibited during the general firearms season. Muzzleloaders are allowed during the special muzzleloader season.
Over 200,000 hunters will take to the woods this fall in search of deer, turkey, and bear as well as a host of smaller game species. One thing all of these hunters need to know is the importance of acorns in the diets of the game they hunt. Acorns are a nutritious food providing protein, fat, and energy in the diets of 90 species of game and non-game animals in Virginia. As such, they are a staple food for Virginia’s wildlife, providing important resources to meet the physical challenges of winter weather and reproduction in the following spring. Wild turkeys will concentrate in areas where acorns are available, making them hard to find and leaving some hunters to wonder if turkey populations are low. Under these conditions hunter success rates decline. Conversely, when acorn crops fail, turkeys search forests and fields for other food sources which makes them easier for hunters to find thereby increasing hunter odds of success.
Given the importance of acorns to wildlife and relevance to hunter success and satisfactions, the Department annually monitors acorn crops across the state. In addition to Department staff, personnel from the Department of Forestry, Department of Conservation and Recreation-State Parks, Smithsonian Conservation Center, Natural Resources Conservation Service, several military bases, and US Army Corps of Engineers participate in the surveys. In comparison to last year’s statewide mast failures, the 2016 acorn crop was generally improved with statewide red oak ratings significantly exceeding their long-term averages while white oak ratings were lower, but near their long-term average. On a statewide basis red oak acorns were commonly rated average or bumper crops; however, the white oak acorn yield was more commonly rated as a failure.
Acorn production varied by region and by oak species within regions. The Coastal Region stood out as having better combined white and red oak production than other Regions. Red oak acorns crops were generally plentiful and in good numbers while white oaks were scattered, but heavy when found in the Coastal Region.
In the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Regions, white oak ratings generally exceeded red oak. Bumper yields of white oak were found at Ft. Belvoir and Quantico Marine Corps Base and good numbers were seen at the White Oak Mountain Wildlife Management Area. A wide range of red oak crops were seen in this region. The single best (bumper) red oak rating was reported on the Fairystone Wildlife Management Area.
In contrast to other Regions, white oak production In the Alleghany Mountain and Ridge and Valley Region was much lower than the red oaks. White oak acorn production was commonly rated low or a failure throughout the Region while red oak production was commonly rated moderate to high. Good to bumper yields of red oak acorns were found from the southern reaches (Clinch Mountain Wildlife Management Area) of the region to the northern (Lee Ranger District of George Washington –Jefferson National Forest).
Readers should know that mast abundance ratings are intended to reflect the region averages, however, mast crops are not uniform across a Region; acorn abundance can vary among local areas that are 10-15 miles apart. Scouting is necessary for hunters to find local areas with good acorn production. White oak acorns are the first acorns to be selected and therefore the first to disappear. So it is not only important to know where acorns are abundant in September and October, but also what species of acorns are prevalent. Scouting will be particularly important in the 2016-17 hunting seasons as many game species are enjoying some sort of acorns and their movements and home ranges are dictated by the abundance of these important foods.
While Department of Game and Inland Fisheries’ biologists believe that Virginia’s wild turkey population is at record high levels, wild turkey populations can fluctuate considerably from year-to-year. As such, every August, many Department of Game and Inland Fisheries employees record observations of wild turkeys during their routine work travels. Known as the annual “Brood Survey”, Department employees record the number of turkeys they see, paying attention to accurately count the number of young birds within broods. By August, young, recently hatched turkeys, called poults, are likely to survive until the fall and their presence or absence in the turkey population at this time of year provides biologists with important insight into future population trends.
Overall, the 2016 wild turkey brood survey revealed wild turkey numbers slightly below the long-term average on a statewide basis. However, production of young turkeys varied across the Commonwealth. In the Northwest Mountain Region, observers reported very high numbers of broods and very high numbers of young birds within broods, the best of any in the state. This is encouraging news for the region because turkey densities are very low in many counties in Northwest Mountain Region. Brood numbers were also high in the Tidewater region but the number of poults seen in broods was very low. In the balance of the state (North Piedmont, South Piedmont, and South Mountain), the numbers of broods seen was below average, furthermore, the number of young birds within broods was down.
Poor weather conditions involving extended periods of cooler, wet weather were observed throughout much of the brood season in 2016. The negative impacts of these conditions on poult survival appeared throughout most of the state this year. The turkey population influences from reproduction seemed almost appropriate this year as the Region with the lowest turkey population experienced the greatest recruitment, while the Region with the highest turkey population (Tidewater) experienced the lowest recruitment. Regardless, turkey enthusiasts will continue to enjoy turkey populations that are still at or near record levels for modern times in the Commonwealth.
Figure 1. Turkey recruitment indices for Virginia, 2007-16.
Agency Director Bob Duncan announced the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (DGIF) has updated its Agency Vision, Mission and Goal Statements.
The new Vision, Mission and Goal statements were developed by an internal Strategic Thinking Team through a comprehensive process that included input from DGIF staff, external partners, focus groups, and stakeholders. The final review included public comment opportunities and approval by the DGIF Executive Board and Senior Leadership Team.
“Conserve, Connect, Protect—these are not simply words to us. We are proud of the work we have accomplished over the last 100 years but we also realize the challenges ahead are significant, and even more daunting. The new vision, mission and goal statements are the distillation of what our employees work for everyday at the Department,” said Bob Duncan, Executive Director, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries.
Leading wildlife conservation and inspiring people to value the outdoors and their role in nature.
Conserve and manage wildlife populations and habitat for the benefit of present and future generations.
Connect people to Virginia’s outdoors through boating, education, fishing, hunting, trapping, wildlife viewing, and other wildlife-related activities.
Protect people and property by promoting safe outdoor experiences and managing human-wildlife conflicts.
Conserve sustainable and diverse native wildlife populations and ecosystems.
Manage wildlife populations and habitats to meet the balanced needs among diverse human communities.
Recruit, retain, and re-engage people who enjoy wildlife and boating activities.
Promote people’s awareness and appreciation of their role in wildlife conservation.
Minimize wildlife-related conflicts while balancing conservation goals and human benefits.
Promote public safety for all people enjoying Virginia’s wildlife and waterways.
Cultivate an effective and efficient organization that supports the agency vision and mission
Create an inclusive culture that fosters collaboration, diversity, innovation and transparency.
Autumn is here, and along with colorful leaves, crisp air, and shorter days, it means Virginia’s white-tailed deer will be on the move. With daylight savings time just around the corner, many motorists will be commuting in the dark, increasing the likelihood of their vehicle colliding with a deer.
Fall is the breeding season for deer, and consequently, deer are more active now than at any other time of the year. One-half to two-thirds of all deer/vehicle collisions occur in the months of October, November and December. While less than 2 percent of vehicle fatalities and injuries involve deer collisions in Virginia, hitting a deer can cause considerable damage to both people and property.
Wildlife biologists with DGIF estimate the population of white-tailed deer in the Commonwealth at this time of year to be approximately one million animals. DGIF sets seasons and bag limits and other hunting regulations to manage the deer population. Each year, hunters in Virginia harvest approximately 220,000 deer. Without hunting, white-tailed deer could double their population within five years, due to their rate of reproduction.
As part of its outreach mission, DGIF has worked with the Virginia Department of Education to incorporate advice on avoiding collisions into the driver’s education manual used by thousands of new drivers every year. If you have questions about white-tailed deer or deer behavior, please visit the Department’s website.
The Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries recommend the following tips to drivers to avoid hitting a deer:
When driving, particularly at night (from dusk to dawn) slow down and be attentive. If you see one deer, likely there will be others. If one deer crosses the road as you approach, others may follow.
Deer habitually travel the same areas; therefore deer crossing signs have been installed by the Virginia Department of Transportation. Use caution when you see these signs.
Drivers should apply brakes, even stop if necessary, to avoid hitting a deer, but should never swerve out of the lane to miss a deer. A collision with another vehicle, tree or other object is likely to be more serious than hitting a deer.
Rely on your caution and your own senses, not deer whistles you can buy for your car. These devices have not been shown to be effective.
Any person involved in a collision with a deer or bear while driving a motor vehicle, thereby killing the animal, should immediately report the accident to a Conservation Police Officer or other law enforcement officer in the county or city where the accident occurred.
Drivers who collide with a deer or bear, thereby killing the animal, may keep it for their own use provided that they report the accident to a law enforcement officer where the accident occurred and the officer views the animal and gives the person a possession certificate.
This HUGE carp taken by Hae Kim at Claytor Lake looks to be the largest ever shot with a bow! It weighs in at 45lbs, 7oz, with a length of 41 ¼ inches and a 30 inch girth. If certified by the State Record Fish Committee, it will become a Virginia State Record.
DGIF is now acknowledging archery taken fish for State Record recognition in a special archery fishing category. Archery fishing, commonly known as bowfishing, is becoming increasingly popular among anglers of Virginia. In 2014, bowfishing anglers requested that DGIF recognize fish taken by archery for State Records since the sport was growing in popularity, the sport was considered a recreational and not commercial activity, and a fishing license is required to take fish with archery gear.
The State Record Fish Review Committee with DGIF reviewed the request and determined, through a majority vote, that archery anglers should be recognized for their exceptional catches. Since the gear was completely different from traditional hook-and-line tackle, it was determined there should be an archery only category. Additionally, the agency now recognizes large catches with archery gear in the Trophy Fish Award Program.
Loggerhead Shrike banded in Smyth County, VA. Photo by Rich Bailey.
By Sergio Harding, DGIF Nongame Bird Biologist
On May 16 of this year, DGIF personnel, working with partners from the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, banded a loggerhead shrike in a pasture in Smyth County, VA. Shrike banding is being coordinated across multiple states in order to study the connections between breeding and wintering populations of this declining species. Although this was one of several shrikes banded in Virginia in 2016, this particular banding event was memorable because of a group of cows that had gathered nearby to watch us. A bull in the group started huffing at us just as we were getting ready to band. Bird in hand, we collected our equipment and retreated to the other side of a gate, away from any potential bovine interference. And so it was that this shrike got its leg bands, ‘Yellow over Dark Blue’ on the left, ‘Yellow over Silver’ on the right (YE/DB YE/SI, in banding notation). The bird turned out to be the female of a breeding pair with an active nest. The molt pattern in the wing feathers revealed that she was just in the second year of her life. We took some quick measurements and released her some minutes later. With evening setting in and our work completed, we moved on, with plans to revisit the site in the winter to see whether the bird would stick around.
Pasture in Smyth County, VA where the shrike was banded.
However, circumstances brought this bird back into our lives a lot sooner than expected. Last week, a biologist from Wildlife Preservation Canada was reviewing footage from a trail camera. The camera was set up to monitor a release site for captive-bred loggerhead shrike in Ontario, Canada, where the species is endangered. And there, on an image from August 29, was the Virginia bird, sporting its ‘YE/DB YE/SI’ bands. The release site is over 550 miles to the north of the site in Smyth County where we had banded the shrike. This is not the first documented case of a long-distance dispersal by a loggerhead shrike after the breeding season. However, the fact that the shrike traveled northward was completely unexpected.
This news capped an already exciting week related to loggerhead shrike: an attentive citizen scientist captured footage in Augusta County, VA of a banded, captive-reared shrike that had been released in Ontario in late August. This marked the third banded Ontario shrike documented in Virginia within the past 5 years, firmly establishing a link between the Canadian province and our state while simultaneously defying the odds of re-sighting this many banded birds. This reciprocal ‘exchange’ of shrikes further highlights these connections between populations, while also raising interesting questions. Because shrike do not spend the winter in Ontario, we expect that our Smyth County bird has already moved back south by now. Will she return to her site in Smyth County for the winter? You can be sure that we’ll be there looking for her, with high expectations and eyes wide open.
Child holding an Eastern Kingsnake. Photo by John White.
Every October 21st is National Reptile Awareness Day, a day created to promote education, conservation and appreciation for reptiles. Reptiles are a group of animals that include snakes, lizards, turtles, crocodiles, and tuataras. Reptiles are characterized by having dry scales that are shed periodically. The vast majority of reptiles are cold blooded, which means that they cannot generate their own body heat and depend on outside sources to raise their body temperature.
In honor of Reptile Awareness Day, we are celebrating Virginia’s snakes, a group of reptiles which play an important role in our environment, but are often misunderstood. There are 32 species of snakes in the Commonwealth, of which, the vast majority are considered harmless. Snake species occur across Virginia, from coastal marshes to mountain ridgetops and even in urban areas under buildings. There are only 3 species of venomous snakes occurring in the Commonwealth: Northern Copperhead, Eastern Cottonmouth, and Timber Rattlesnake.
Festival participant holding a Cornsnake at the Great Dismal Swamp Birding Festival. Photo by Jessica Ruthenberg.
Snakes differ from other reptiles by having no legs, ears, or eyelids, and by possessing only one functional lung. The most notable characteristic of a snake is its long, slender body. A snake’s muscular body and flexible spine allows it to climb effortlessly, swim, and slip into the smallest spaces. Although snakes lack ears and cannot technically hear, they do have the ability to detect low frequency vibrations from the air and ground.
Depending on the species, Virginia’s snakes may mate in the spring, summer, or fall.
Leathery shelled eggs are usually deposited in May or June, with young hatching in late summer. But not all snakes lay eggs; the young of many of Virginia’s snakes are actually born alive. With young that are born alive, the eggs are held inside the body and live young are born in late summer.
Snakes play important roles as predators and prey. All snakes are carnivorous, which means that they eat other animals and do not eat plants. Snakes possess the special ability to
Eastern Kingsnake eating a Copperhead. Kingsnakes are immune to the poison of Virginia’s venomous snakes. Photo by Tricia Pears.
swallow their prey whole because they have two independent lower jaws connected by aligament that can expand greatly. Major prey items include invertebrates (animals lacking a backbone), fish, amphibians, other reptiles, birds, bird eggs, and a variety of mammals. Snakes play an invaluable role in our environment by controlling many pests, including mice and rats. Snakes also play a key role in the web of life; they are food for a variety of predators including certain mammals, birds, and other snakes.
The greatest predators of snakes are humans. Misconceptions about snakes have made them among the most persecuted of all animals. Hundreds, if not thousands, are needlessly killed every year in the Commonwealth. A common reaction to an encounter with a snake is to kill
State Endangered Canebrake Rattlesnake. Photo by J.D. Kleopfer.
it on sight whether or not it poses a danger. However, the fact is that most snakes are harmless, and even dangerous ones would rather flee than fight. Once we begin to learn about snakes, we can replace our misconceptions with facts and our fears with curiosity, and we can begin to appreciate their important roles in our natural environment.
Fourteen of Virginia’s 32 snake species are included in Virginia’s Wildlife Action Plan as Species of Greatest Conservation Need, including the State Endangered Canebrake Rattlesnake (the southeastern Virginia population of Timber Rattlesnake) and the Northern Pinesnake. A century ago, the Northern Pinesnake was considered common in several parts of Virginia, but there have been no sightings of this species in the last 25 years, so it’s been presumed extirpated from the Commonwealth. The extirpation of this species is most likely due to fire suppression, habitat
Festival participants admiring a Cornsnake at the Eastern Shore Birding and Wildlife Festival. Photo by Jessica Ruthenberg.
loss and fragmentation, and human persecution. The Department of Game & Inland Fisheries (DGIF) recently participated in an investigative study that demonstrated Northern Pinesnake habitat (dry open slopes with vegetated cover) is still available in Virginia and that it would be feasible to reintroduce this endangered species into its historic range.
Simple ways to help conserve and protect snakes and other reptiles:
Support efforts to establish and protect natural areas.