SemRep is a program that extracts semantic predications (subject-relation-object triples) from biomedical free text. For example, from the sentence in (1), SemRep extracts the predications in (2).

  1. We used hemofiltration to treat a patient with digoxin overdose that was complicated by refractory hyperkalemia.
  2. Hemofiltration-TREATS-Patients
    Digoxin overdose-PROCESS_OF-Patients
    hyperkalemia-COMPLICATES-Digoxin overdose
    Hemofiltration-TREATS(INFER)-Digoxin overdose
Subject and object arguments of each predication are concepts from the UMLS Metathesaurus and the relation (in uppercase) is a relation from the UMLS Semantic Network. For a detailed description of SemRep, see (1).

SemRep can be run interactively or in batch mode using the SKR Scheduler. SemRep program is also available as a stand-alone program on Linux platform.


  1. Rindflesch, T.C. and Fiszman, M. (2003). The interaction of domain knowledge and linguistic structure in natural language processing: interpreting hypernymic propositions in biomedical text. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 36(6):462-477.