Some best news from 2014 Mexican leader of macroeconomists at world bank, Giugale, celebrated at tedx for mexico's conditional cash transfer method- also now scaling fast in Tanzania

Mexico city citizens creative space celebrated at annual iadbcontinent wide celebration of entrepreneurs


breaking news summer 2014 - while september sees mexico host the next microcreditsummit and november the next global social business summit they will have to go some to  have the impact of borlaug whose centenary was celebrated early this year

Celebrating 100 years of Dr. Norman Borlaug - Nobel Speech

By Caroline Schneider

This article appears in the March-April issue of CSA News.

Mar. 17, 2014 -- By all accounts, Norman Borlaug was a hardworking and humble man. When the phone call came to tell him that he had won the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize, he was out working in the wheat fields. His wife, Margaret, had to deliver the news to him. As he received other awards throughout his life, colleagues say he remained focused on the work.

portrait of Borlaug
Dr. Norman Borlaug. Photo courtesy of Flickr/Texas A&M AgriLife.

“He had all these awards—the Congressional Gold Medal, the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the National Medal of Science—and yet in all my time visiting with him, he never mentioned one. He kept at it, and even up to his death he was still promoting agricultural science,” says ASA and CSSA Fellow Ronald Phillips, Regents Professor at the University of Minnesota.

Through dedication and lifelong effort, Borlaug was credited with saving a billion lives and earned the nickname “Father of the Green Revolution.” But while his accomplishments are oft-reported, the research that led to them is less well known. So on the occasion of his 100th birthday, we look back on his tireless efforts, the research that led to a revolution, and the circumstances in which he was able to change the course of agriculture.

Early Life and Moving to Mexico

Borlaug was born in 1914 in Saude, near Cresco, IA. He grew up working on the family farm and left Iowa after high school to pursue a degree at the University of Minnesota. To finance his studies, he worked several jobs, one of which was with the Civilian Conservation Corps starting in 1935. The Corps helped the unemployed, many of whom were starving as they faced harsh living conditions during the Depression. Borlaug’s experience in that job gave him a firsthand glimpse at how access to food could change lives.

Late in his undergraduate studies, Borlaug attended a talk by plant pathologist E.C. Stakman. He was inspired by what he heard and decided to continue his studies with Stakman in both a master’s and a Ph.D. program. When Borlaug completed his degrees in 1942, World War II was under way. He took a job with DuPont where he conducted research for the United States armed forces.

Meanwhile, a new venture had started in Mexico. At the prompting of U.S. Vice President Henry Wallace, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Mexican government teamed up to form the Cooperative Mexican Agricultural Program (OEE), an effort focused on revitalizing agriculture in Mexico. Stakman was involved in the establishment of the OEE, and through his efforts and those of J. George Harrar, the project leader, Borlaug joined the program in 1944 after turning down an offer to stay at DuPont.

When Borlaug began his work in Mexico, there were no Mexican agricultural scientists with an advanced degree in the country. There were also no graduate schools with agricultural programs in Latin America. One mission of the OEE was to train Mexican scientists to address the challenges of food production in Mexico. In the absence of an extension program, the scientists would take the new technologies to farmers so that they could be tested, modified, and distributed.

Stem Rust and Shuttle Breeding

One of the first problems Borlaug addressed in Mexico was that of stem rust. Stem rust is caused by a fungus, Puccinia graminis. Spores of the fungus travel through the air and land on wheat plants where they cause brown lesions. Nutrients that the grain would use are instead taken up by the fungus, and the fungus can weaken the plant leading to breakage, desiccation, and shriveling.

Borlaug in field with trainees
Norman Borlaug in the field teaching a group of young trainees. Photo courtesy of CIMMYT.

Three epidemics of stem rust from 1939-1941 wiped out wheat in the Yaqui valley of Mexico. An experiment station had previously been constructed in the valley, but when Borlaug arrived in 1945 as part of OEE, it was in shambles. Despite the poor state of the station, he slept and worked there depending on the support of the local farmers who would loan equipment and help as needed.

Breeding rust-resistant varieties of wheat was a slow process taking up to 10 or 12 years. To speed up the process and take advantage of both of Mexico’s growing seasons, Borlaug suggested a new technique called shuttle breeding. He wanted to grow wheat in the cooler central highlands near Mexico City in the summer and then shuttle selected plants to the warmer northwestern Yaqui valley during the winter for a second round of breeding and selection. The different latitudes, elevations, and climates of these two locations allowed Borlaug and his colleagues to breed and select plants twice in one year.

Borlaug faced criticism for his idea of shuttle breeding, even from others at OEE. A widely held belief at the time was that seeds needed to rest after harvesting in order to store energy before being planted again. Also, shuttle breeding would mean double the work each year—and double the costs.

Despite the resistance, Borlaug forged ahead with his breeding plans. Not only did the wheat grow in both locations allowing the breeding to progress more quickly, but there was an unexpected side effect. Wheat that was grown during shorter days in the north was then taken south when the days were longer. Not only were the selected plants adapted to different climates, but they were adapted to a wide range of day lengths. This achievement meant that wheat grown in Mexico would tolerate day lengths at different latitudes and could be cultivated in various regions of the world.

The success of shuttle breeding, a technique still practiced today, allowed Borlaug and his colleagues to make great progress in his first 10 years in Mexico. They made thousands of wheat crosses in that time, and through those efforts, they discovered a gene called Stem Rust 31, or Sr31. The gene provided protection against stem rust when present in wheat, and by another stroke of luck, it also increased yields. Farmers learned of the success of the Sr31 seeds and enthusiastically adopted them, drastically reducing the threat of stem rust.

Lodging and Semi-Dwarf Wheat Varieties

In addition to stem rust, Borlaug and his colleagues found themselves facing another problem at the time. During World War II, nitrate was produced in large volumes for use in explosives. With the war over, the factories switched to making nitrogen fertilizer for agricultural use. Increases in fertilizer use led to better crop growth and higher grain yields. But along with increased yields came heavier heads of grain and a problem for wheat—lodging.

Borlaug with trainees and field equipment
Norman Borlaug with Mexican field technicians who contributed to early seed production of improved wheat varieties. Photo courtesy of CIMMYT.

Lodging occurs when stalks collapse under the weight of the grain and fall over. This can ruin the crop and lead to large reductions in yield. To prevent lodging, Borlaug wanted to breed the tall, thin stalks common in Mexico with shorter wheat stalks. In the early 1950s, he received a dwarf variety called Norin 10 from Orville Vogel, a researcher with the USDA-ARS at Washington State University. It was with that genetic material that Borlaug began to produce stronger, higher-yielding Mexican varieties.

The new Mexican semi-dwarf varieties had multiple benefits. The shorter wheat produced stronger stalks and two to three times more grain than standard varieties. Also, Borlaug bred the shorter varieties with the stem rust-resistant wheat he had produced earlier, creating semi-dwarf wheat that was resistant to the disease and could be grown in a range of climates.

These new varieties greatly changed the picture of wheat production in Mexico. By 1963, 95% of the wheat grown in the country came from Borlaug’s breeding programs. Around 75 varieties had been created. The wheat harvest that year was six times larger than the harvest just 19 years earlier when Borlaug had arrived in Mexico.

Also in 1963, CIMMYT (The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) was established. CIMMYT remained under the jurisdiction of the Mexican government at that time, but as recognition of the organization grew, it became clear that additional funding and reorganization was necessary. In 1966, CIMMYT became a non-profit institution and was formally launched.

A few years later, the CGIAR Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers was founded to further support and disseminate agricultural research around the world. CIMMYT was one of the first research centers to be supported through CGIAR and is one of 15 such centers today.

Taking Borlaug’s Work beyond Mexico

As international concerns about food production rose, so did interest in Borlaug’s work and his successes in Mexico. India and Pakistan were facing dire food shortages and hunger in the mid-1960s. Massive imports of grain were required to keep the countries from famine. Facing this, agricultural officials, while initially reluctant, turned to Borlaug and his colleagues for help.

Borlaug and wheat seed in India
Norman Borlaug examines a shipment of wheat seed to India from Mexico. Photo courtesy of CIMMYT.

In 1965, seeds of two of the best semi-dwarf wheat varieties were shipped from Mexico to Asia—250 tons to Pakistan and 200 tons to India. The trip was not an easy one. The shipment was held up in Mexican customs and was delayed crossing the Mexico–United States border. Soon after the wheat was loaded onto a freighter and had started its voyage, war broke out between India and Pakistan.

Because of the numerous delays, there was no time to determine the quality of the seeds or the proper seeding levels once the shipments arrived in Asia. Instead, the seeds were immediately planted. It quickly became obvious that the seeds were germinating at only half the rate that Borlaug had expected, so he ordered the seeding rates be doubled. Later he discovered that the cause of the poor germination had originated all the way back at the beginning of the journey. The seeds had been damaged in a Mexican warehouse where they had been improperly fumigated.

Despite the obstacles in shipping the seeds and getting them to grow, that effort produced the highest-yielding wheat fields those areas of Asia had ever seen. The next year, the Indian agricultural minister imported 18,000 tons of wheat seed from Mexico. The year after that, the Pakistani agricultural minister asked for 42,000 tons. Between 1965 and 1970, India’s wheat crop went from 12 million to 21 million tons. The Green Revolution had begun.

Many of Borlaug’s ideas and principles spread to other parts of the world as well. His work with wheat laid the foundation for the development of high-yield semi-dwarf rice varieties that brought the Green Revolution to China. In the early 1980s, Borlaug was recruited to help bring his methods to Africa, and the Sasakawa Africa Association (SAA) was founded to run the project. Between 1983 and 1985, the yields of maize and sorghum doubled in developed African countries.

Success and Criticism

The spread of practices and seeds developed by Borlaug was driven by his hard work, but also by his ability to engage and interest all of the stakeholders from farmers and students to policy-makers and administrators.

“He was good at something most scientists aren’t good at—public relations,” explains ASA and SSSA Fellow Ed Runge, professor at Texas A&M University. “We all need to make connections, and I think Borlaug was superb at that. He could talk to a farmer. He could talk to Indira Gandhi [the third Prime Minister of India]. He could talk to anybody.”

Education was very important to Borlaug. Both in Mexico and as he traveled on consulting trips, he recognized the shortage of trained people throughout the world as well as the untapped potential of people willing to learn. While scientists were doing good work, they rarely left the laboratories to interact with the farmers or teach others. One way in which Borlaug addressed the need for education was by establishing a training program in Mexico for recently graduated agricultural students.

Borlaug in Africa

He also continually pushed for better support for farmers, both through government funding and training. Later in his life when he was involved with SAA, he worked to bring simple technologies that many take for granted, such as irrigation and fertilizers, to poorer farmers in Africa.

“Dr. Borlaug was very practical. He understood what small-holder farmers needed and fought for them to be provided every tool available,” says Robert Fraley, Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer at Monsanto. “He believed in training the next generation and engaging young people.”

In the midst of great success, the Green Revolution also had its critics. By using more fertilizers and water and cultivating a single crop, some believed that Borlaug’s techniques were damaging the environment, depleting water and soil resources, and hindering biodiversity.

While he acknowledged the critiques, Borlaug maintained that they were smaller concerns than the starvation and political unrest facing many hungry nations. He would also note that thousands of acres of land had been saved from agricultural development through the increased yields of the new varieties. He continually pushed for improved practices that would maximize water use and conserve soil while maintaining the high yields necessary to feed the population.

Challenges Remain

Borlaug worked and consulted up until his death. Late in life he helped address the newly emerged stem rust that was plaguing parts of Africa. While stem rust had been largely absent from the world’s fields since Borlaug had introduced the stem-rust resistant varieties decades before, a new strain–called Ug99–appeared in the late 1990s. A super-strain that can escape the defenses of 90% of the wheat varieties grown throughout the world, Ug99 spread from Uganda, to Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Iran.

Borlaug 100 logo
Borlaug 100 logo design by Wenceslao Almazan and reprinted here courtesy of CIMMYT.

In 2005, Borlaug saw first-hand the devastation that Ug99 was causing in Kenya. Upon returning to his office at CIMMYT, he wrote to the director calling for more funding to fight the new strain of fungus. The Global Rust Initiative was established to coordinate breeding and testing activities around the world. By 2009, the year Borlaug passed away, CIMMYT had created 15 varieties of high-yielding wheat resistant to Ug99.

Beyond stem rust, agricultural researchers still face many issues today. They strive to find ways to feed the world while protecting the earth and its resources. For many in the field, Borlaug’s work and words were a challenge to continue the fight against hunger and to do so in a way that would incorporate and address as many aspects of food production as possible.

“The greatest thing he did for the field of agronomy was to begin to show people that they had to think about multiple parts of the system,” says ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Fellow Jerry Hatfield, lab director at the USDA-ARS. “If you think about what he did in the Green Revolution, it wasn’t about genetics, and it wasn’t about fertility, and it wasn’t about water. It was about all of those different things together.”

So 100 years after he was born, and with the world population continuing to grow, Borlaug’s legacy still resonates. He continues to call us all to action with words he spoke in 1970 at his Nobel Lecture: “I cannot emphasize too strongly the fact that further progress depends on intelligent, integrated, and persistent effort by government leaders, statesmen, tradesmen, scientists, educators, and communication agencies…we can and must make continuous progress.”

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carlos slim foundation partnering with Spanish translation of khan academy

Carlos Slim's Foundation Puts Its Weight Behind Khan Academy ...
Jan 14, 2013 – Mexican billionaire Carlos Slim is having his foundation bring nonprofit educational website to Mexico and Latin America -- in Spanish.
Listen to an Audio Recording of Norman Borlaug's Acceptance Speech (paragraph 3-6)*
4 min.


Your Majesty, Your Royal Highnesses, Madam Chairman, Members of the Nobel Committee, Your Excellencies, and Ladies and Gentlemen

The requirement of an acceptance speech on this occasion implies that an incipient Nobel Laureate must have some reasons for rationalizing both his election and his acceptance. To refuse the honor of election would be to question the judgment of those who elected me. And this I would not do, except perhaps in private, especially here in the Land of my Fathers and in the presence of an international group of guests who have congregated to honor a significant occasion rather than a single individual.

Accordingly, I shall not dwell upon the personal honor, for I have not done so even within myself. Instead, I want to devote my remarks to commendation of the Nobel Committee which had the perspicacity and wisdom to recognize the actual and potential contributions of agricultural production to prosperity and peace among the nations and peoples of the world.

Obviously, I am personally honored beyond all dreams by my election. But the obligations imposed by the honor are far greater than the honor itself, both as concerns me personally and also the army of hunger fighters in which I voluntarily enlisted a quarter of a century ago for a lifetime term. I am acutely conscious of the fact that I am but one member of that vast army and so I want to share not only the present honor but also the future obligations with all my companions in arms, for the Green Revolution has not yet been won.

It is true that the tide of the battle against hunger has changed for the better during the past three years. But tides have a way of flowing and then ebbing again. We may be at high tide now, but ebb tide could soon set in if we become complacent and relax our efforts. For we are dealing with two opposing forces, the scientific power of food production and the biologic power of human reproduction. Man has made amazing progress recently in his potential mastery of these two contending powers. Science, invention, and technology have given him materials and methods for increasing his food supplies substantially and sometimes spectacularly, as I hope to prove tomorrow in my first address as a newly decorated and dedicated Nobel Laureate. Man also has acquired the means to reduce the rate of human reproduction effectively and humanely. He is using his powers for increasing the rate and amount of food production. But he is not yet using adequately his potential for decreasing the rate of human reproduction. The result is that the rate of population increase exceeds the rate of increase in food production in some areas.

There can be no permanent progress in the battle against hunger until the agencies that fight for increased food production and those that fight for population control unite in a common effort. Fighting alone, they may win temporary skirmishes, but united they can win a decisive and lasting victory to provide food and other amenities of a progressive civilization for the benefit of all mankind.

Then, indeed, Alfred Nobel's efforts to promote Brotherhood between nations and their peoples will become a reality.

Let our wills say that it shall be so.

From Les Prix Nobel en 1970, Editor Wilhelm Odelberg, [Nobel Foundation],

Gabriella Gomez-Mont

With one of the most complex and fascinating cities in the world as her playground, Gabriella directs “Laboratorio para la Ciudad”, Mexico City’s new creative think-tank and experimental space. This project came about through a personal invitation by Dr. Miguel Angel Mancera – Mexico City`s newly elected and liberal Mayor – to incorporate “Laboratorio para la Ciudad” into the city`s official structure for the next 6 years. This novel initiative will support creativity and civic innovation through the different layers of both government and social-space, intermingled. Laboratorio brings people together from different sectors and disciplines (urbanists, artists, scientists, architects, government officials, sociologists, economists et al). It also induces conversations throughout different platforms, invents and implements pilot programs, creates editorial projects plus other initiatives and strategies: all with the aim of injecting good ideas into the city`s system. In addition to directing Laboratory for the City, Gabriella is a multilingual writer, visual artist, documentary film director, cultural advisor and arts curator. She has also founded several projects such as Toxico Cultura, Cine Abierto and Laboratorio Curatorial 060, for which she has won several international awards and recognitions such as the Prince Claus Fund (Holland), First Place of the Best Art Practice Award (Italy), IMCINE National Film Grant (Mexico), plus is also a City 2.0 TED Prize grant awardee. Gabriella is a Fabrica ex alumni and a TED Senior Fellow.
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mexico hosting of world microcredisummit

Subject: Yunus Opens Microcredit Summit in Mexico


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Yunus Opens Microcredit Summit in Mexico

Photo caption: (From left to right) Professor Muhammad Yunus, Federal Minister of Economy Ildefonso Guajardo Villarreal and Governor of the State of Yucatan Rolando Rodrigo Zapata Bello with the micro credit borrowers from a government sponsored program of Yucatan, Mexico. The ceremony was organized in honor of Yunus, father of microcredit.

Nobel Laureate Professor Muhammad Yunus addressed the opening ceremony of 17th Microcredit Summit in Merida, Mexico from September 3-5, 2014. The program focused on the theme “Generation Next: Innovations in Micro-finance.” The program was held in Merida, the capital of Yucatan state, located in the heartland of the Mayan civilization with the support of the Ministry of Economy (Mexico) and its national micro-enterprise financing program (PRONAFIM).

The Summit was opened by Nobel Laureate Professor Muhammad Yunus, Mexican Minister of Economy, Ildefonso Guajardo Villarreal and Yucatan Governor Rolando Rodrigo Zapata Bello.

The Summit participants were asked to make campaign commitments to reach those living in extreme poverty and facilitate their movement out of poverty. Those who attended engaged them in deep discussion, knowledge sharing and relationship towards poverty reduction and full financial inclusion for the billions that remain unbanked and excluded from the system. In particular the Summit discussed how to cultivate the next generation of financial leaders who can use the new tools of connectivity and measurement to reach those left out of our current financial system including what could be the role of government, commercial business, social business, civil society to address the needs of the poor and the vulnerable.

Professor Yunus addressed a plenary session at the Summit on "Reaching the Excluded" at the Summit. He also chaired two panels entitled "Microfinance as Social Business" and "Turning Unemployment into Entrepreneurship" focused on the problem of youth unemployment.

Constitutional Governor of the State of Yucatan Rolando Rodrigo Zapata Bello appointed Nobel Laureate Dr. Yunus as his honorary Economic Advisor. The Governor also extended a standing invitation to Professor Yunus to participate in the Global Mayan conference which takes place every year in October in Yucatan. 

During the Summit, Professor Yunus met with the executive director and other managers of the Arab Gulf Program for Development (AGFUND) which has created 8 microfinance banks in eight MENA countries following the methodology of Grameen Bank. Interviews and speeches of Prof. Yunus were widely covered in print and electronic media. 

The Summit was attended by 900 delegates from 75 countries including 21 participants representing Grameen organizations, BRAC, PKSF, CDF, BDI and others.


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    place-leading politicians


    breaking news 24 sept 2012 - join the yunus week-long jobs competition tour across usa

    its 40 years since dad starting to debate how to make the net generation most productive in The Economist under his signature microeconomics rubric "Entrepreneurial Revolution"- for 2012 we propose: changing the humanly most valuable purpose  sustainable of 13 markets first -

    3 for Growth: Energy, Collaboration Apps of Web-Tec, Smart Media and Edu,

    10 for preventing destrictive speculators: Healthcare including wastecare, Nutrition including access to food and water chains, banks and finacial services, entertainment and future of heroes, land and transparent politics of how its setwarded, transportion physical and virtual, other infrastructures, peace and personal security , do no harm professions, other things and services


    note on nations link may go to a city if one locality so far logged

    our most popular webs on entrepreneurial revolution



    China 11)

    USA (10)


    Brazil 9




    Germany (3.0-5)











    Russia (2.8-6)









    India (4.2-4)

    Sri Lanka
















    New Zealand

    Canada 10

















    SAfrica 5

    Ethiopia 4








    Burkina F

















    Tanzania 4















    SaudiArabia6   Yemen













    we welcome opportunity to publish our journal to match releated summits - click pic to download latest special issue


    2012 summits that could be most revolutionary for future of jobs and actioning millennium goals across communities


    to confirm details, you can doublecheck with me use our Washington Dc hotline 1 -301 881 1655


    February Singapore Social Business Summit


    April 19-22 Atlanta, Georgia next in world series of youth 1000 jon brainstorming summits


    May 29.30 Georgia , Europe

    EuroMicrocredit summit

    world entreprenur week -uae presidents entrepreneur summit

    July Japan 2nd annual social business dialogue Fukyou

    nov social business summit vienna



    Media published with grants from Norman Macrae family foundations and in need of entrepreneurial revolutionary correspondents include:


    May 2011 Bangladesh's Ides of March may have been one of the three most significant moments in 210 years that Entrepreneurial Revolution alumni have networked to improve the human lot.
    How can your city help assemble the world's largest youth fund around Yunus the net generations most exciting economist?

    Parallel portals to this ning are


    Vote league table

    Cities helping youth entrepreneurial revolutionaries make 2010s most exciting



    Hemel Hempstead - linking in 40 MyPlaces Youth & Olympics & Lives of Commonwealth

    Joburg-Nairobi-London & 40 other hub cities

    Princeton: SingForHopeCities and 100 youth microcredit cities


    The world's youth are Building Social Business. Colaboration Maps of 2011:

    • crowdmap
    • leaflets considering nations twinning sustainability's world trade centres

    Journal of Social Business

    Is your city joining in the invitation by Yunus to make 2010s youth's most exciting decade - rsvp ; outside of Japan where he was nicknamed son of gold raysNorman Macrae was identified by entrepreneurial revolutionaries and Smithsian economists as

    The unacknowledged giant

    The unacknowledged giantAdd to Playlist


    Macrae voted for Yunus as the most joyous economist of the net generation. 16 November 2010, Saint James London: worldwide Youth helped the launch of Consider Bangladesh at The Economist in his memory; an intercity action group of yunus good news 2010s correspondents is also emerging
    chris macrae DC & www
    isabella wm DC
    jonathan robinson London & www
    mostofa zaman Dhaka and london
    Zasheem Ahmed Dhaka & glasgow
    Cam Donaldson Glasgow
    Estelle Eonnet Paris
    Chris Temple LA
    Holly Mosher LA
    Annie Duffill Manchester
    Samantha Caccamo
    Lesley WilliamsJohannesburg

    mail info@worldcitizen.tvif you can linkin your capitals joy of netgen economics


    • Journal choosing 3000 leaders to post it

    IsabellaWM Family Foundations Producer History 2008-2010: Yunus 2000 Book Club; Yunus 10000 DVD Club ; World Citizen 5000 Club; Royal Auto Club 85th Birthday lunch & Dhaka 69th Birthday Dialogue of 3M-goals world's 2 most joyful economists
    Future 2012: Yunus Olympics & youthful celebrations of other magic moments : the joy of 2010s www decade and the united race towards M3 goals

    Legend: LEADER/collab

    Dhaka : MY PL NB KI FA / mz

    Nairobi IM/

    Madrid QS/

    Joburg /LW

    Paris FR MH /om mn vnm ee fd bf-t
    New York MY/

    Princeton SD-H/

    Boston TB-L/ vy gf

    Austin JM/

    Atlanta RA/

    Bay Area / con

    London NM/jr pr sc sb


    Glasgow / cd za

    Washington DC /cm as em iwm ad
    LA /ct ms mb hm

    Milan/ s

    know someone for this map -rsvp

    Yahoo Group : BubbleNation



    Early wave of Hub-Net cities include london joburg madrid bay area mumbai stockholm ...

    Yunus BookTour Cities.; DC, Houston, Durham, NY, Chicago, Portland, Seattle, San Francisco

    Social Business Tour:
    Vienna , Bratislavia, Prague, Belgrade, Budapest, Bucharest

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