1. Psittacula krameri
krameri (Scopoli 1769)
Generally green, face, abdomen and under wing-coverts yellowish-green; nape and
back of head variably washed with blue; chin, broad cheek-stripe and narrow line
from cere to eye black; narrow band to nape pink; upperside of middle tail-feathers
blue with greenish-yellow tips, outer feathers green; underside of outer tail-feathers
olive-yellowish, middle feathers blackish; bill blackish-red with black tips;
iris yellowish-white; feet greenish-grey.
without black stripe to cheek and pink band to nape; nape variably washed with
blue; middle tail-feathers on average shorter.
as hen, but bill pale pink; iris grey-white; adult plumage starts to appear at
18 months, completed by 32 months.
40 cm, wing length 142 - 157 mm, tail length 177 - 278 mm.
West Africa in Guinea, Senegal and Southern Mauretania East to Western Uganda
and Southern Sudan.
2. Psittacula krameri
manillensis (Bechstein 1800)
As krameri, but generally much darker; face stronger green; blue tinge
to nape extends in many birds to back of head; breast and abdomen feathers tinged
bluish-grey; upper mandible red, lower mandible black; larger.
42 cm, wing length 153 - 180 mm, tail length 174 - 235 mm.
India South of latitude 20°N; Ceylon and island of Rameswaram; Introduced
parvirostris (Souancé 1856)
As krameri, but face pale green; breast and abdomen feathers in both sexes
with marked grey-white tinge; smaller upper mandible red with black tip.
40 cm, wing length 146 - 160 mm, tail length 184 - 246 mm.
NorthWest Somalia West across Northern Ethiopia to Sennar district, Sudan.
borealis (Neumann 1915)
As krameri, but blue restricted to narrow band to nape; breast and abdomen
feathers in both sexes tinged with pale grey; larger upper and lower mandible
red; lower mandible marked with black in many birds; larger.
43 cm, wing length 170 - 178 mm, tail length 211 - 253 mm.
West Pakistan, Northern India and Nepal to Central Burma; Introduced populations
worldwide in localities.
1.Psittacula k. krameri Cock
Photo: Z. Rana
Habitat: All types
of open country with trees, thorn bush savannah, dry forest and open secondary
forest; regularly found in cultivated areas; urban areas, parks and gardens; also
occasionally seen in public open spaces in cities; forages in fruit and coffee
Common to very common in localities; however rare or only seasonally seen in some
parts of distribution area.
Mostly observed in small groups; gathers on feeding or roosting trees in larger
flocks, occasionally more than one thousand birds; noisy and conspicuous; not
shy; prefers to stay in one area only moving around in that area when foraging;
flight swift and direct with rapid wing-beats;
Call loud screeching, particularly during flight and on roosting trees.
Seeds, fruits, berries, flowers and nectar (especially from Salmalia and
Erythrina flowers); after breeding season Ring-necked Parakeets in some
areas of India gather in huge flocks and forage in grain, millet, rice and maize
fields as well as fruit and coffee plantations often causing considerable damage.
Breeding season varies; from December to May in India, November to June on Ceylon,
August to November in Africa; during courtship soft twittering sounds heard; hen
moves head in semi-circle, dilates pupils and spreads her wings; cock lifts one
foot and feeds hen; copulation ensues; nest holes in tall trees; often in wall
crevices or under eaves in India; occasionally in dead palms and softwoods with
old woodpecker or barbet nest holes; nest lined with decayed wood; both partners
brood, however hen longer than cock; clutch 2 to 6 eggs; incubation 21 to 24 days;
fledging period 6 to 7 weeks; egg measures 30.7 x 23.8 mm.
Medioum noisy to noisy parakeet; hard chewer; provide regular supply of fresh
branches; hardy and not susceptible when acclimatised; soon becomes confiding;
enjoys bathing or being sprayed; colony in spacious aviary possible; can also
be kept at liberty.
Outside flight min. 2.5 x 1 x 2 m with adjoining shelter;
minimum temperature 5°C; at least 1.5 sq. meters floor space per pair in
communal flight; metal construction; roosting box 24 x 24 x 35 cm; line bottom
with decayed wood.
Seed mix of safflower, buckwheat, various millets, canary grass seed, oats, wheat
and hemp; millet spray (also sprouted); sunflower in small quantities and sprouted;
plenty of fruit (apple, banana, figs, grapes, rowan and elderberry); greenfood
(dandelion, flowers, chickweed) and vegetables (rose hips, half-ripened maize;
carrot, sweet pepper, cucumber); eggfood, softened bread and biscuit for rearing.
3 - 6 eggs.
Achieved regularly and not difficult; advantageous to isolate pairs as they can
be aggressive before and during breeding; breeding begins in inside aviary in
December, possible outside from February; therefore only hang nestbox outside
in April to avoid egg binding problems; average clutch 3 to 6 eggs; incubation
23 days; fledging period 7 weeks; young independent after 14 days; if first clutch
unsuccessful, usually followed by second; cock matures at 18 months, but first
breeding usually at 3 years. In Aviculture most birds have been breeding before
they moult to maturity.
Too many combinations have been achieved from about 20 primary mutations;
Lutino, Blue, Albino, Greygreen, Grey, Cinnamon, Turquoise, Dilute, some Fallow
types, Clear-tail, Violet, Darkgreen, Cobalt, Pied, and many many more; Approximately
200 to 300 different combinations can be achieved with the existing mutations;
Indian Ringnecked parakeets one of the few Cage and Avairy Birds which have such
a large number of combinations of mutations.