How does VoIP work?


If you have been using the wonderful system to date or if you have been using the landline system to date then you have been using a much more expensive technology needed with others than the alternative and not only that the alternative which is also known as the VoIP which stands for voice over Internet protocol is easily accessible as well and in some cases it is completely free as well. Wouldn’t it be nice if we used VoIP for our day-to-day communication so that we are able to drastically reduce on our phone bills. In this article, we would be going into further details about VoIP to explain how VoIP works and why it is so much more efficient and so much more affordable as compared to the traditional phone system whether it is mobile or landline.

What is VoIP?

what is voip

VoIP, as we explained of above stands for voice over Internet protocol. If you understand the way in which the information flows on the Internet then you would be knowing something about packet switching. Packet switching is widely used on the Internet whether you’re speaking about radio streaming or whether you’re speaking about email or whether you’re speaking about some other type of communication on the Internet. The main advantage of packet switching is that when you’re sending a bulk amount of data are receiving a bulk amount of data it is divided into small packets and therefore can travel through different ways in the network and therefore the bandwidth of the individual link which is required is very less but you can easily send or receive bulk of the data using these links which have a individual capacity which is very less in terms of the bandwidth. This helps in keeping the cost down because not a lot of infrastructure are not a lot of bandwidth is required. At the reception point all the packets are pieced together to present the final information for the user.

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All the machines which are connected to the Internet know the system for assembling the packets which have been received since they are working on the same protocol.

How does VoIP work?

voip working

You might be thinking that if Internet works on the basis of sending and receiving packets then how does VoIP work because it is almost in real time and you need to ensure that all the packages are reaching almost instantly to the destination. To better understand the procedure of UI preview would be dividing them into three parts.

Call signalling:

This is the first part of VoIP process which we would be explaining. When you’re using a traditional landline you would be picking up the receiver and first hearing that I don’t which is due to an electrical circuit and when you’re dialling the number the next electrical circuit open up and you are able to pass on the signal to the receiver, the receiver’s phone starts ringing. When the receiver is picking up the phone the circuit is completed and the exchange of the information begins.

This procedure is not followed in VoIP because it works on a different protocol. It follows the Internet telephony which is same in principle like the cell phone telephony. In this, the telephone number is not associated with the physical location but rather the account of the user. Wherever the user’s and when he or she logs into the account, the number would be present on that device. Due to the change of location being possible in VoIP, the computer which is dialling first looks for the location of the destination. Once the computer is able to look at the receiver of the call, the handshaking process takes place which is nothing but confirming the technical information by the VoIP client. The protocols which are used for VoIP are H.323 and SIP. These protocols are able to identify the IP addresses of the originator of the call as well as the receiver of the call so that they are able to communicate.

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Call transmission:

During the call transmission the first change which takes place as compared to the landline telephone is that the voice is converted into the digital format and this technology is readily available with the help of the analog to digital conversion. The software which is needed for this is known as the CODEC which stands for quarter and the quarter. This software can easily convert the frequencies which are in the audio frequency range.

Once the audio has been converted into the digital form it is nothing but a series of binary numbers which can be easily divided into packets and can be transmitted over the network. The protocol which is used for sending and receiving the data is known as the real-time protocol also known as RTP. This is the same protocol which is used for streaming other type of data onto the computer from the Internet as well.

Connection with the telephone:

voip & pstn

The VoIP system is not just limited to calling from one device to another device which is containing the messenger but also you can get with the normal telephone network as well.

The traditional telephone network is known as the PSTN or the public switched telephone network. So essentially when you’re calling from the VoIP client to the traditional telephone you would be interfacing with the public switched telephone network as well.

Whenever you’re calling the VoIP messenger is to 1st determine whether it is a normal traditional telephone or whether it is a VoIP client and depending on this the call signalling would take place. If you are planning to call a normal traditional telephone then in the network itself that it would be converted into analog form again so that the receiver is able to hear the data on the traditional telephone. In such a case, I extra gateways used to ensure that the data is converted before it reaches the public switched telephone network and also a link can be established from the VoIP service to the PSTN. This gateway enables the call signalling as well as the call transmission.

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Types of VoIP:

There are up to 3 types of VoIP services which you can use and one of the most basic one is the normal telephone handset that look the same as the traditional handsets but instead of using the PSTN network they are connected through the Internet to a computer or some other gadget which enables it to use the VoIP services. The second type of VoIP service which you would be getting would be on your smart phone with the help of the VoIP messenger’s. The third type of VoIP service which you would be getting would be on your computer like the Skype messenger which is free for other people who are having the same messenger.

Advantages and disadvantages of VoIP:

The main advantage of VoIP is that the cost of calling is almost nil and if you are having the same messenger then a lot of VoIP messenger’s would enable you to call for free of cost as compared to the traditional PSTN which is very costly especially when you’re making the international call. You just need to be remained connected to the Internet so that the packets can be sent and received.

The only disadvantage of VoIP is the call quality which is not very good as compared to the PSTN network but due to the superior encoding and decoding techniques which are being used these days it is improving continuously. The only problem arises when you’re not properly connected to the Internet because then some of the packets might go missing and instead of a proper audio conversation you would get a jitter due to the missing packets.

VoIP is the future of calling and communicating and a threat to traditional PSTN networks.