Electric motors are widely used in the industrial applications as well as the consumer applications and you would be using it on a day-to-day basis as well.
Therefore it makes perfect sense to 1st find out about the working of the electric motor so that you are able to understand what makes this gadget one of the widely used inventions of man.
We use it in the big bulk industrial applications all the way to the small remote-controlled toys which we use.
In order to understand how does an electric motor work, we would have to 1st look at the parts of the electric motor and only once you have looked at the parts of the electric motor you would be in a position to find out how does an electric motor work.
Parts of an electric motor:
The electric motor is used because it creates a circular motion. The circular motion is created by one of the parts of the electric motor known as the rotor. This is the central part of the electric motor. It looks like a cylinder.
In order to hold the different parts of the electric motor together a armature is used. The armature is also that part of the motor which actually spins.
If you have looked at the diagram of an electric motor then you might have noticed that around the armature is the stator which is responsible for holding the coil of the wires in place through which the electric current is passed.
When the electric current is passed through the coils the stator is responsible for generating the rotating moment of the armature.
These days there are many different types of electric motors which are being used and therefore you can also find something like brushes and other such things in the electric motor.
How does an electric motor work?
The electric motor is working on the basis of electromagnetism. You might be thinking that the electric motor is actually using the current to directly power the rotor but this is not true but rather the electric motor actually uses the current to produce a magnetic field which results in the rotating of the rotor.
As we mentioned above there is a range of circular wires around the state and when the current is passed through the circular wires which are around the stator a magnetic field is produced. Since this wire is wound around the stator it forms the centre of the magnetic field which is generated.
The direction of the magnetic field which is generated a circular since the wire is wound around the stator. This results in the formation of the electromagnet and since the magnetic field is circular the motion which is produced as circular as well.
Types of electric motor:
The types of the electric motor depend on the type of current which they are using and they might be using the alternating current or they might be using the direct current and therefore they are called as the AC motor or the DC motor. The electricity which we use in our homes is in the form of alternating current whereas the electricity which is produced by something like a battery is the direct current.
Direct current motor:
This type of motor is actually pretty basic but it is still widely used. As the name suggests it is powered by the direct current. The rotor which is present in this type of motor is a conducting material which is free to rotate. This motor consist of the static permanent magnets. These permanent magnets act as the state.
The permanent magnets are arranged in such a way that the opposite poles are adjacent to each other. This results in the flowing of the magnetic field. The current passes through the coil which is placed around the rotor resulting in the magnetic field which is generated. When this magnetic field interacts with the permanent magnets which are placed makes the magnets repel or attract depending on the magnet which you are speaking about and this is what produces the rotational force.
This rotational force then drives the shaft of the electric motor. When you’re speaking about the force which is generated for rotating the shaft you would realise that it is only rotating it for one half but with the help of the commutator which is placed at the end of the axle and by reversing the direction of the current head proper time the other half is completed as well. Whenever the motor is running this entire process is repeated again and again.
Alternating current motor:
this is the most dominant type of motor which is being used these days because it can be directly connected to the switch port since the electricity which we are using these days is nothing but alternating current. The alternating current is continuously changing its direction and the rate of change is 50 times per second.
In the alternating current motor the stator is surrounded by electromagnetic coils. In the direct current motor this was the rotor but in the alternating current motor this is the stator.
Whenever the magnetic field is produced by passing the current through the coil, the arrangement inside the stator allows it to rotate the shaft. Since the alternating current changes its direction quite frequently the entire circle is completed as well.
Since the direction of the alternating current is changing, an electric current is produced in the rotor which in turn produces another magnetic field which opposes the field that is initially created. This helps in completing the entire rotation.
This is how the electric motors which are in use these days are providing us with the circular motion which we need to accomplish the application for which we are using the electric motors.