Maxine Waters

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Maxine Waters
Congresswoman Waters official photo.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 43rd district
Assumed office
January 3, 2013
Preceded by Joe Baca
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 35th district
In office
January 3, 1993 – January 3, 2013
Preceded by Jerry Lewis
Succeeded by Gloria Negrete McLeod
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 29th district
In office
January 3, 1991 – January 3, 1993
Preceded by Augustus Hawkins
Succeeded by Henry Waxman
Member of the California State Assembly
from the 48th district
In office
Preceded by Leon Ralph
Succeeded by Marguerite Archie-Hudson
Personal details
Born Maxine Moore Carr
(1938-08-15) August 15, 1938 (age 79)
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Sid Williams (m. 1977)
Edward Waters (m. 1956; div. 1972)
Children 2
Education California State University, Los Angeles (BA)

Maxine Moore Waters (born August 15, 1938) is an American politician, serving as the U.S. Representative for California's 43rd congressional district, and previously the 35th and 29th districts, serving since 1991. A member of the Democratic Party, she is the most senior of the 12 black women currently serving in the United States Congress, and is a member and former chair of the Congressional Black Caucus. Before becoming a member of Congress she served in the California Assembly, to which she was first elected in 1976. As an Assembly member, Waters advocated for divestment from South Africa's apartheid regime. In Congress, she is an outspoken opponent of the Iraq War and Donald Trump.

Early life and education[edit]

Waters was born in 1938 in Kinloch, Missouri, the daughter of Velma Lee (née Moore) and Remus Carr.[1][2] Fifth out of thirteen children, Waters was raised by her single mother once her father left the family when Maxine was two.[3] She graduated from Vashon High School in St. Louis, and moved with her family to Los Angeles, California, in 1961. She worked in a garment factory and as a telephone operator before being hired as an assistant teacher with the Head Start program at Watts in 1966.[3] She later enrolled at Los Angeles State College (now California State University, Los Angeles) and graduated with a sociology degree in 1970.

Early political career[edit]

In 1973, she went to work as chief deputy to City Councilman David S. Cunningham, Jr.. Waters entered the California State Assembly in 1976. While in the assembly she worked for the divestment of state pension funds from any businesses active in South Africa, a country then operating under the policy of apartheid, and helped pass legislation within the guidelines of the divestment campaign's Sullivan Principles.[4] She ascended to the position of Democratic Caucus Chair for the Assembly.[5]

U.S. House of Representatives[edit]


Upon the retirement of Augustus F. Hawkins in 1990, Waters was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives for California's 29th congressional district with over 79% of the popular vote. She has been re-elected consistently with at least 70% of the popular vote in the California's 35th congressional district after significant parts of the pre-1990 29th California Congressional District were folded into the newly defined 35th California Congressional District when California gained seven additional seats in the House following the 1990 United States Census. Waters has represented large parts of south-central Los Angeles and the Los Angeles coastal communities of Westchester and Playa Del Rey, as well as the cities of Torrance, Gardena, Hawthorne, Inglewood and Lawndale.


On July 29, 1994, Waters came to public attention when she repeatedly interrupted a speech by Peter King (R-NY). The presiding officer, Carrie Meek (D-FL), classed her behaviour as "unruly and turbulent", and threatened to have the Sergeant at Arms present her with the Mace of the House of Representatives (the equivalent of a formal warning to desist). As of 2017, this is the most recent instance of the mace being employed in a disciplinary sense. Waters was eventually suspended from the house for the rest of the day. The conflict with King stemmed from the previous day, when they had both been present at a House Banking Committee hearing on the Whitewater controversy. Waters felt King's questioning of Maggie Williams (Hillary Clinton's chief of staff) was too harsh, and they subsequently exchanged hostile words.[6] [7]

Waters was chair of the Congressional Black Caucus from 1997 to 1998. During 2005, Waters testified at the U.S. House Committee on Education and the Workforce hearings on "Enforcement of Federal Anti-Fraud Laws in For-Profit Education", highlighting the American College of Medical Technology as a "problem school" in her district.[8] In 2006 she was involved in the debate over King Drew Medical Center. She criticized media coverage of the hospital and in 2006 Waters asked the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to deny a waiver of the cross ownership ban, and hence license renewal for KTLA-TV, a station the Los Angeles Times owned. She said that "The Los Angeles Times has had an inordinate effect on public opinion and has used it to harm the local community in specific instances." She requested that the FCC force the paper to either sell its station or risk losing that station's broadcast rights.[9] According to Broadcasting & Cable, the challenges raised "the specter of costly legal battles to defend station holdings.... At a minimum, defending against one would cost tens of thousands of dollars in lawyers' fees and probably delay license renewal about three months."[10] Waters' petition was ultimately unsuccessful.[11] As a Democratic representative in Congress, Waters was a superdelegate to the 2008 Democratic National Convention. She endorsed Democratic Senator Hillary Clinton for the party's nomination in late January 2008, granting the New York Senator nationally recognized support that some suggested would "make big waves."[12][13][14] Waters later switched her endorsement to Sen. Barack Obama when his lead in the pledged delegate count became insurmountable on the final day of primary voting.[15] Waters had a confrontation over an earmark in the United States House Committee on Appropriations with fellow Democratic congressman Dave Obey in 2009. The funding request was for a public school employment training center in Los Angeles that was named after her.[16] In 2011, Waters voted against the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 as part of a controversial provision that allows the government and the military to indefinitely detain American citizens and others without trial.[17]

With the retirement of Barney Frank (D-Massachusetts) in 2012, Waters became the ranking member of the House Financial Services Committee.[18][19] On July 24, 2013, Waters voted in favor of Amendment 100 included in H.R. 2397 Department of Defense Appropriations Act of 2014.[20] The amendment targeted domestic surveillance activities, specifically that of the National Security Agency, and if ultimately passed would have limited the flexibility of the NSA's interpretation of the law to collect sweeping data on U.S. citizens.[21] Amendment 100 was rejected 217–205. On March 27, 2014, Waters introduced a discussion draft of the Housing Opportunities Move the Economy Forward Act of 2014 known as the HOME Forward Act of 2014.[22] A key provision of the bill includes the collection of 10 basis points for “every dollar outstanding mortgages collateralizing covered securities” estimated to be approximately $5 billion a year. These funds would be directed to three funds that support affordable housing initiatives, with 75% going to the National Housing trust fund. The National Housing Trust Fund will then provide block grants to states to be used primarily to build, preserve, rehabilitate, and operate rental housing that is affordable to the lowest income households, and groups including seniors, disabled persons and low income workers. The National Housing Trust was enacted in 2008, but has yet to be funded.[23] In 2009, Waters co-sponsored Rep. John Conyers' bill calling for reparations for slavery to be paid to black Americans.[24]

Rodney King verdict and Los Angeles riots[edit]

When south-central Los Angeles erupted in riots—in which 58 were killed—after the Rodney King verdict in 1992, Waters gained national attention "when she helped deliver relief supplies in Watts and demanded the resumption of vital services."[25][26] Waters described the riots as a rebellion, saying "If you call it a riot it sounds like it was just a bunch of crazy people who went out and did bad things for no reason. I maintain it was somewhat understandable, if not acceptable."[27] In her view, the violence was “a spontaneous reaction to a lot of injustice.” In regards to the looting of Korean-owned stores by local black residents, she said: “There were mothers who took this as an opportunity to take some milk, to take some bread, to take some shoes ... They are not crooks.”[28]

Castro and Cuba[edit]

Waters has visited Cuba a number of times, praised Fidel Castro, and demanded an end to the U.S. trade embargo.[29] In 1998 Waters wrote a letter to Castro citing the 1960s and 1970s as “a sad and shameful chapter of our history,” and thanked Castro for providing help to those who needed to “flee political persecution.”[30] In 1998, Waters wrote an open letter to Fidel Castro asking him not to extradite African-American activist and convicted murderer Assata Shakur.[31][32] After a woman drowned during an attempted escape from Cuba to the U.S. in 1999, leaving a six-year-old son, Elian Gonzales, who survived and requested asylum in the U.S., Waters called on President Bill Clinton to return him at once to Cuba.[30]

Government spending[edit]

In September 2011, Waters called for the implementation of a federal "jobs program of a trillion dollars or more."[citation needed] "We’ve got to put Americans to work," she said. "That's the only way to revitalize this economy. When people work they earn money, they spend that money, and that's what gets the economy up and going."[33]


Waters opposed the 2004 coup d'état in Haiti and criticized U.S. involvement.[34] Following the coup, Waters led a delegation along with TransAfrica Forum founder Randall Robinson and Jamaican member of parliament Sharon Hay-Webster to meet with Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and bring him to Jamaica, where he would remain until May.[35][36][37]


Following a 1996 San Jose Mercury News article alleging the complicity of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the Los Angeles crack epidemic of the 1980s, Waters called for an investigation. Waters questioned whether "U.S.-government paid or organized operatives smuggled, transported and sold it to American citizens."[38] The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) announced it had failed to find any evidence to support the original story.[39] The Los Angeles Times also concluded after its own extensive investigation that the allegations were not supported by evidence.[40] The author of the original story, Gary Webb, was eventually transferred to a different beat and removed from investigative reporting, before his death in 2004.[41] Webb was found in his apartment with two bullet holes in his head. His death was declared a suicide. Following these post-publication investigations, Waters read into the Congressional Record a memorandum of understanding in which former President Ronald Reagan's CIA director rejected any duty by the CIA to report illegal narcotics trafficking to the Department of Justice.[42][43] Undeterred, Waters told the Los Angeles Times in 1997: "It doesn't matter whether the CIA delivered the kilo of cocaine themselves or turned their back on it to let somebody else do it. They're guilty just the same."[citation needed]

Iraq War[edit]

Waters voted against the Iraq War Resolution, the 2002 resolution that funded and granted Congressional approval to possible military action against the regime of Saddam Hussein.[44] She has remained a consistent critic of the subsequent war and has supported an immediate troop withdrawal from Iraq. Waters asserted in 2007 that President George W. Bush was trying to "set [Congress] up" by continually requesting funds for an "occupation" that is "draining" the country of capital, soldier's lives, and other resources. In particular, she argued that the very economic resources being "wasted" in Iraq were those that might provide universal health care or fully fund President Bush's own "No Child Left Behind" education bill. Additionally, Waters, representing a congressional district whose median income falls far below the national average, argued that patriotism alone had not been the sole driving force for those U.S. service personnel serving in Iraq. Rather, "many of them needed jobs, they needed resources, they needed money, so they're there."[45] In a subsequent floor speech, Waters told her colleagues that Congress, lacking the votes to override the "inevitable Bush veto on any Iraq-related legislation," needed to "better [challenge] the administration's false rhetoric about the Iraq war" and "educate our constituents [about] the connection between the problems in Pakistan, Turkey, and Iran with the problems we have created in Iraq."[46] A few months prior to these speeches Waters became a cosponsor of the House resolution to impeach Vice President Dick Cheney for making allegedly "false statements" about the war.[47]

International lending[edit]

In August 2008, Waters introduced HR 6796, or the "Stop Very Unscrupulous Loan Transfers from Underprivileged countries from Rich Exploitive Funds Act," also known as the Stop VULTURE Funds Act. This would limit the ability of investors in sovereign debt to use U.S. courts to enforce those instruments against a defaulting country. The bill died in committee.[48]

Mandatory minimum sentences[edit]

Waters opposes mandatory minimum sentences.[49]

Criticism of the Tea Party Movement[edit]

Waters has been very critical of the Tea Party movement. On August 20, 2011, while at a town hall discussing some of the displeasure that supporters of President Obama have had with the Congressional Black Caucus not supporting the president, Waters stated, "This is a tough game. You can’t be intimidated. You can’t be frightened. And as far as I’m concerned, the ‘tea party’ can go straight to Hell ... and I intend to help them get there."[50][51]

Criticism of George H. W. Bush[edit]

In July 1992, Waters labeled President George H. W. Bush "a racist" who has "polarized the races in this country." Previously, Waters had suggested that Bush has used race to advance his policies.[52]

Criticism of Barack Obama[edit]

In August 2011, Waters criticized President Barack Obama, saying that he was insufficiently supportive of the black community. Waters referred to the high unemployment rate for African-Americans (which was hovering around 15.9 percent at the time).[53] At a Congressional Black Caucus town-hall meeting on jobs in Detroit, Waters said that African American members of Congress were reluctant to criticize or place public pressure on Obama because "y'all love the president."[54]

Criticism of Donald Trump[edit]

In a 2017 appearance on MSNBC's All In with Chris Hayes, Waters said President Donald Trump's advisors who have ties to Russia or have oil and gas interests there are "a bunch of scumbags."[55] In February 2017, Waters said that Trump was "leading himself" to possible impeachment because of his conflicts and because many have suspicions, and that he was creating "chaos and division".[56]

Waters supports the impeachment of Trump, referring to him as a "disgusting, poor excuse of a man"[57] and "the most deplorable person I've ever met in my life."[58]

Waters texted an allegation on Twitter regarding the Trump White House, "Trump has made it clear - it is now the White Supremacists' House",[59] linking President Trump to the violence that erupted at a white nationalist protest rally in Charlottesville, Virginia on August 12, 2017.

Allegations of corruption[edit]

According to Chuck Neubauer and Ted Rohrlich writing in the Los Angeles Times in 2004, Maxine Waters' relatives had made more than $1 million during the preceding eight years by doing business with companies, candidates and causes that Waters had helped. They claimed she and her husband helped a company get government bond business, and her daughter Karen Waters and son Edward Waters have profited from her connections. Waters replied that "They do their business and I do mine."[60] Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW) named Waters to its list of corrupt members of Congress in its 2005, 2006, 2009 and 2011 reports. She was accused of using her position to prevail upon officials to meet with OneUnited Bank without disclosing that she and her husband had significant stock holdings in the company.[61] Since she was on the Financial Services Committee she largely had the role of determining where TARP funds would go. $12 Million in TARP funds went to OneUnited without her ever disclosing that she had a financial stake at the company.[62][63][64] Citizens Against Government Waste named her the June 2009 Porker of the Month due to her intention to obtain an earmark for the Maxine Waters Employment Preparation Center.[65]

Committee assignments[edit]

Previously, she had served on the Committee on the Judiciary.

Caucus memberships[edit]

Personal life[edit]

Waters resides in the Hancock Park area of Los Angeles, which is approximately six miles west of downtown. Her second husband, Sid Williams, played professional football in the NFL[66] and is a former U.S. Ambassador to the Bahamas under the Clinton Administration.[67]

Other achievements[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Next up for House Ethics trial: St. Louis native Maxine Waters". stltoday. November 19, 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  2. ^ "Waters, Maxine". Contemporary Black Biography. 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b Brownstein, Ronald (March 5, 1989). "The Two Worlds of Maxine Waters". Los Angeles Times Magazine. Retrieved December 18, 2014. 
  4. ^ French, Howard W. (February 9, 1987). "Slash Ties, Apartheid Foes Urge". New York Times. p. D1. Retrieved March 13, 2009. Maxine Waters, a member of the California Assembly who helped frame her state's pension fund divestment bill, has promised to work overtime to insure that our legislation reflects these guidelines and continues to target any and all U.S. companies that are doing business in or with South Africa. 
  5. ^ "About Congresswoman Maxine Waters: Representing the 35th District of California". Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved March 13, 2009. During 14 years in the California State Assembly, she rose to the powerful position of Democratic Caucus Chair. She was responsible for some of the boldest legislation California has ever seen: the largest divestment of state pension funds from South Africa; landmark affirmative action legislation; the nation's first statewide Child Abuse Prevention Training Program; the prohibition of police strip searches for nonviolent misdemeanors; and the introduction of the nation's first plant closure law.  (Congresswoman's official web site)
  6. ^ Manegold, Catherine S. (July 30, 1994). "Sometimes the Order of the Day Is Just Maintaining Order". The New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2017. 
  7. ^ Hawthorne, California; C-SPAN [1] What is the staff with an eagle on top they keep moving around in the House? What is it used for? 5/3/00 Archived May 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ "Testimony of the Honorable Maxine Waters". Retrieved March 1, 2017. 
  9. ^ Waters, Maxine (November 1, 2006). "Petition to Deny Request for Renewal of Broadcast License". Retrieved March 13, 2009. Tribune influenced public opinion in the Los Angeles DMA to harm its residents and one of its most critical public health facilities – the Martin Luther King/Drew Medical Center (King/Drew). 
  10. ^ McConnell, Bill (September 19, 2004). "Your Money or Your License". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved March 13, 2009. 
  11. ^ "Station Search Details". Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved March 13, 2009. Call Sign: KTLA ... Channel: 5 ... Lic Expir: 12/01/2014 [dead link]
  12. ^ "The endorsements that would make huge waves". The Hill (newspaper). December 6, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2009. Rep. Maxine Waters (D-Calif.). The outspoken anti-war liberal, who campaigned for Ned Lamont (D) over Sen. Joe Lieberman (I-Conn.) last year, has not picked a favorite. 
  13. ^ Bombardieri, Marcella (January 29, 2008). "Maxine Waters for Clinton – 2008 Presidential Campaign Blog – Political Intelligence". Boston Globe. Retrieved March 14, 2009. 
  14. ^ Bombardieri, Marcella (January 29, 2008). "Maxine Waters for Clinton". The Boston Globe. 
  15. ^ Bosman, Julie (June 3, 2008). "The Superdelegate Tally". The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010. 
  16. ^ Allen, Jared; Mike Soraghan (June 25, 2009). "Obey, Waters in noisy floor fight". The Hill. Retrieved June 26, 2009. 
  17. ^ Sheets, Connor. "NDAA Bill: How Did Your Congress Member Vote?". International Business Times. 
  18. ^ Bernie Becker; Peter Schroeder (November 28, 2011). "Maxine Waters in line to take over from Frank on Financial Services Committee". The Hill. Retrieved December 7, 2011. 
  19. ^ Michael R. Crittenden (December 4, 2012). "Maxine Waters to Succeed Barney Frank on Banking Panel". WSJ Blog Washington Wire. Retrieved May 23, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Final Vote Results For Roll Call 412". US House of Representatives. 
  21. ^ "Why The NSA And President Bush Got The FISA Court To Reinterpret The Law In Order To Collect Tons Of Data". Tech Dirt. 
  22. ^ Siegel, Robert M.; Jeremy C. Sahn; Bilzin Sumberg Baena Price & Axelrod LLP (9 April 2014). "Recently Unveiled "HOME Forward" Housing Act May Signal the End of Fannie and Freddie". The National Law Review. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  23. ^ "H.R Bill ___ 113th Congress 2D Session [Discussion Draft] "Housing Opportunities Move the Economy Forward Act 5 of 2014’’ or the ‘‘HOME Forward Act of 2014"" (PDF). Government Printing Office. 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  24. ^ "H.R. 40 (111th): Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African-Americans Act". GovTrack. 
  25. ^ Louise Donahue Rep. Maxine Waters to speak at annual MLK Convocation on February 20 January 15, 2007 Currents (UC Santa Cruz)
  26. ^ "Maxine Water". PBS. 
  27. ^ Pandey, Swati (April 29, 2007). "Was it a 'riot,' a 'disturbance' or a 'rebellion'?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010. 
  28. ^
  29. ^ "Waters". The Political Guide. 
  30. ^ a b "In Castro's Corner". The National Review. 24 July 2008. 
  31. ^ Jihad Hassan Muhammad (May 6, 2013). "‘A Song for Assata’ the FBI hunts hip-hop’s hero". The Dallas Weekly. Retrieved November 8, 2013. 
  32. ^ presumably Maxine Waters (September 9, 1998). "Congresswoman Waters issues statement on U.S. Freedom Fighter Assata Shakur". World History Archives. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  33. ^ Feldman, Josh (2011). "Rep. Maxine Waters: We Need To Spend A Trillion Or More On A Jobs Program". 
  34. ^ "Aristide says U.S. deposed him in 'coup d'etat'". CNN. March 2, 2004. Retrieved May 6, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Defying Washington: Haiti's Aristide Returns to the Caribbean", Pacifica Radio, March 15, 2004, archived from the original on January 19, 2011, retrieved July 1, 2011 
  36. ^ "Newsmaker profile – Sharon Hay Webster", Jamaica Gleaner, March 21, 2004, archived from the original on July 17, 2012, retrieved July 1, 2011 
  37. ^ "Aristide leaves Jamaica, heads for South Africa", CTV News Saskatoon, May 30, 2004, retrieved July 1, 2011 
  38. ^ Waters, Maxine (August 30, 1996). "Drugs". The Narco News Bulletin. Retrieved March 13, 2009. What those articles traced, among other things, is the long-term relationship between Norwin Meneses, a Nicaraguan drug trafficker, Danilo Blandon, a Nicaraguan businessperson connected to the Contra rebels as well as a drug trader, and Ricky Ross, an American who worked with Blandon distributing crack cocaine in this country. These individuals represent a much broader and more troubling relationship between U.S. intelligence and security policy, drug smuggling, and the spread of crack cocaine into the United States. Letter to U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno 
  39. ^ Cockburn, Alexander; Jeffrey St Clair (October 1, 1999). Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-258-5. 
  40. ^ "CIA-Contra-Crack Cocaine Controversy". 
  41. ^ "Are You Sure You Want to Ruin Your Career?". 1 March 1998. 
  42. ^ Waters, Maxine (7 May 1998). "Casey". Congressional Record?. California State University Northridge. pp. H2970–H2978. Archived from the original on September 10, 2004. Retrieved March 14, 2009. 
  43. ^ Casey Archived September 10, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
  44. ^ "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 455, H J RES 114 To Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. 10 Oct 2002. Retrieved March 14, 2009. 
  45. ^ "The Iraq War". October 22, 2007. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. Retrieved June 14, 2008. 
  46. ^ "War in Iraq". November 5, 2007. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. Retrieved June 14, 2008. 
  47. ^ "Cheney ouster gains backers". The Washington Times. June 13, 2007. 
  48. ^ "Stop Very Unscrupulous Loan Transfers from Underprivileged countries to Rich, Exploitive Funds Act (2008 – H.R. 6796)". 
  49. ^ Kenneth Meeks Back talk with Maxine Waters (Interview) Black Enterprise June 1, 2005
  50. ^ Jenkins, Sally (August 22, 2011). "Maxine Waters to tea party: Go to Hell". The Washington Post. 
  51. ^ Epstein, Jennifer (Aug 22, 2011). "Rep. Maxine Waters: Tea party can go to hell". Politico. 
  52. ^ Sam Fulwood II, Rep. Waters Labels Bush 'a Racist,' Endorses Clinton, Los Angeles Times (July 9, 1992).
  53. ^ Brian Montopoli, Maxine Waters: Why isn't Obama in black communities?, CBS News (August 11, 2011).
  54. ^ Catalina Camia, Waters: Black lawmakers hesitant to criticize Obama, USA Today (August 18, 2011).
  55. ^ "Rep. Maxine Waters: Trump advisors with Russia ties are ...". MSNBC. February 21, 2017. 
  56. ^ Diaz, Daniella (February 6, 2017). "Waters: Trump 'leading himself' to impeachment". CNN. 
  57. ^ Yamiche Alcindor, 'Auntie Maxine' Waters Goes After Trump and Goes Viral, New York Times (July 7, 2017).
  58. ^ Max Greenwood, Maxine Waters: Trump is the most deplorable person I’ve ever met, The Hill (August 4, 2017).
  59. ^ Brandon Carter | The Hill, Maxine Waters to Trump: Blame for Charlottesville is on your side, not 'many', , August 13, 2017
  60. ^ Chuck Neubauer and Ted Rohrlich Capitalizing on a Politician's Clout; The husband, daughter and son of Rep. Maxine Waters have business links to people the influential lawmaker has aided; The Los Angeles Times. December 19, 2004. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
  61. ^ "Maxine Waters". CREW’S Most Corrupt. 
  62. ^ "The 14 Most Corrupt Members of Congress". Business Insider. 
  63. ^ "Maxine Waters (D-CA) - CREW's Most Corrupt Members of Congress". 
  64. ^ Maxine Waters: charges highlight mixed ethics record; California Rep. Maxine Waters, a powerful 'liberal institution' in Congress, has raised ethics eyebrows in the past. August 3, 2010 Christian Science Monitor
  65. ^ "Rep. Maxine Waters is CAGW's June Porker of the Month". Citizens Against Government Waste. April 2009. Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved July 11, 2009. 
  66. ^ Murphy, Patricia. "Rep. Maxine Waters: Yank the NFL's Antitrust Exemption". Politics Daily. 
  67. ^ Hall, Carla (February 6, 1994). "Sidney Williams' Unusual Route to Ambassador Post : Appointments: His nomination has drawn some critics. But his biggest boost may come from his wife, Rep. Maxine Waters.". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  68. ^ "Camille Cosby, Kathleen Battle Win Candace Awards". Jet. 82 (13): 16–17. July 20, 1992. 

External links[edit]

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Augustus Hawkins
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 29th congressional district

Succeeded by
Henry Waxman
Preceded by
Jerry Lewis
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 35th congressional district

Succeeded by
Gloria Negrete McLeod
Preceded by
Donald Payne
Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus
Succeeded by
Jim Clyburn
Preceded by
Joe Baca
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 43rd congressional district

Current U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Collin Peterson
United States Representatives by seniority
Succeeded by
Sam Johnson