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International Investment Agreements Navigator



UNCTAD's Work Programme on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) actively assists policymakers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders to reform IIAs with a view to making them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.

Main goals:

  • Reform the international investment agreements (IIAs) regime to enhance its sustainable development dimension,
  • Provide comprehensive analysis on key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime,
  • Develop a wide range of tools to support the formulation of more balanced international investment policies.

The three pillars of activities:

  1. Research and policy analysis - monitoring trends, identifying key emerging issues and providing cutting-edge knowledge on IIAs from a sustainable development perspective,
  2. Technical assistance - delivering trainings, seminars and workshops; conducting IIA and model BIT reviews; offering ad-hoc advice to strengthen the capacity of beneficiaries in handling the complexities of the IIA regime,
  3. Intergovernmental consensus-building - exchanging and sharing best practices and experience with the view to fostering global investment governance.

The database of international investment agreements (IIAs) - the IIA Navigator - is maintained by UNCTAD’s IIA Section. You can browse through IIAs concluded by a particular country or country grouping, view recently concluded IIAs, or use an Advanced Treaty Search for sophisticated searches tailored to your needs.

For further information, please contact us.


1) The IIA Navigator is continuously adjusted as a result of verification with, and comments from, UN Member States. It is primarily built on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A treaty is included in a country's IIA count once it is formally concluded; treaties whose negotiations have been concluded, but which have not been signed, are not counted. A treaty is excluded from the IIA count once its termination becomes effective, regardless of whether it continues to have legal effect for certain investments during its “survival” (“sunset”) period. In cases of treaty replacements, only one of the treaties between the same parties is counted. Depending on the situation, the counted treaty can be the “old” one, if this one remains in force pending the ratification of the newly concluded IIA.

While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of its content, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in these data. The information and texts included in the database serve a purely informative purpose and have no official or legal status. In the event of doubt regarding the content of the database, it is suggested that you contact the relevant government department of the State(s) concerned. Users are kindly asked to report agreements, errors or omissions by using the online contact form.

2) The IIA Mapping Project is a collaborative initiative between UNCTAD and universities worldwide to map the content of IIAs. Individual treaties are mapped by law students from participating universities, under the supervision of their professors and with the overall guidance and coordination of UNCTAD.

The mapping results included in the IIA Mapping Project database serve a purely informative purpose. The mapping of treaty provisions is not exhaustive, has no official or legal status, does not affect the rights and obligations of the contracting parties and is not intended to provide any authoritative or official legal interpretation.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, UNCTAD assumes no responsibility for eventual errors or omissions in the mapping data. In the event of doubt regarding the correctness of mapping results, users are kindly asked to contact us via the the online contact form.

3) The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.


International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types:
(1) bilateral investment treaties and (2) treaties with investment provisions.

A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and protection of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs.

The category of treaties with investment provisions (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs. Three main types of TIPs can be distinguished:

  1. broad economic treaties that include obligations commonly found in BITs (e.g. a free trade agreement with an investment chapter);
  2. treaties with limited investment-related provisions (e.g. only those concerning establishment of investments or free transfer of investment-related funds); and
  3. treaties that only contain “framework” clauses such as the ones on cooperation in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues.

In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It encompasses various binding and not-binding instruments and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations, and others.

Search tips

  • Global search. To do a global search, leave both boxes empty, or drag "World" in Party Input box 1.
  • “Details” boxes. The “Details” boxes list countries constituting the selected grouping, category or region. Unwanted countries can be removed from the list.
  • Country groupings – two options. By default, a Country grouping (e.g. ASEAN or the EU) is viewed as a single entity, and the system will search for treaties concluded by the relevant grouping or all of its members. Secondly, a Country grouping can also be viewed as a list of individual countries that are members of this grouping, and the system will search for agreements concluded by these individual countries. To switch between these two options, click on the icon to the left of the grouping’s name.
  • “Intra” and “Extra”. If you place a certain Country category, Region or Country grouping (as a list of individual countries) in Party Input box 1 (without placing anything in Party Input box 2), you can check "Intra" to search for treaties within the group (by members of the group between each other), or "Extra" to search for treaties by group members with non-members (if you don't select "Intra" or "Extra", the system will search for both).
Number of IIAs per economy
1 200


No. Partners Status Date of
Date of
entry into force
1 Austria In force 02/06/2000 18/08/2001 Full text: en
2 Azerbaijan In force 27/05/1996 02/11/1996
3 Bahrain Signed (not in force) 16/11/2009
4 Bangladesh In force 18/07/2000 24/01/2001 Full text: en
5 BLEU (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) In force 17/04/1998 06/02/2001 Full text: fr
6 Bulgaria In force 24/06/1998 31/03/1999
7 China Terminated 13/03/1992 12/04/1994
8 China In force 19/04/2011 01/09/2011 Full text: en
9 Czech Republic In force 15/01/1997 06/04/1998 Full text: cs | ru
10 Egypt In force 16/12/1992 08/02/1994 Full text: en | ar
11 Finland In force 01/10/1992 22/10/1993 Full text: en
12 France In force 27/10/1993 15/06/1996 Full text: fr
13 Georgia In force 04/09/1995 24/05/1999
14 Germany In force 28/04/1993 23/05/1998 Full text: de | ru
15 Greece In force 01/04/1997 08/05/1998 Full text: en
16 Hungary In force 28/10/2002 03/03/2003 Full text: en
17 India In force 18/05/1999 28/07/2000 Full text: en
18 Indonesia In force 27/08/1996 27/04/1997 Full text: en
19 Iran, Islamic Republic of In force 11/06/2000 11/07/2004
20 Israel In force 04/07/1994 18/02/1997 Full text: en
21 Italy In force 17/09/1997 14/10/1999 Full text: en | it
22 Japan In force 15/08/2008 24/09/2009 Full text: en
23 Kazakhstan In force 02/06/1997 08/09/1997 Full text: en | fr | kk | ru | uz
24 Korea, Republic of In force 17/06/1992 20/11/1992 Full text: en
25 Kuwait In force 19/01/2004 06/03/2006
26 Kyrgyzstan In force 24/12/1996 06/02/1997 Full text: ru
27 Latvia In force 23/05/1996 29/01/1997
28 Lithuania In force 18/02/2002 11/11/2002
29 Malaysia In force 06/09/1997 20/01/2000
30 Moldova, Republic of In force 21/11/1995 17/01/1997
31 Netherlands In force 14/03/1996 01/07/1997 Full text: en
32 Oman In force 30/03/2009 20/08/2009 Full text: en
33 Pakistan In force 13/08/1992 15/02/2006 Full text: en
34 Poland In force 11/01/1995 29/04/1995
35 Portugal In force 11/09/2001 14/03/2010 Full text: en | pt
36 Romania In force 06/06/1996 30/05/1997 Full text: ro
37 Russian Federation Terminated 22/12/1997
38 Russian Federation In force 15/04/2013 14/01/2014 Full text: ru
39 Saudi Arabia Signed (not in force) 06/06/2011
40 Singapore In force 15/07/2003 23/11/2003 Full text: en
41 Slovakia In force 16/05/1995 04/02/1999 Full text: sk
42 Slovenia In force 07/10/2003 18/05/2004
43 Spain In force 28/01/2003 03/12/2003 Full text: en
44 Sweden In force 29/05/2001 01/10/2001 Full text: en
45 Switzerland In force 16/04/1993 05/11/1993 Full text: en | fr
46 Turkey In force 28/04/1992 18/05/1995 Full text: en
47 Turkmenistan In force 16/01/1996 02/08/1996 Full text: en
48 Ukraine In force 20/02/1993 06/06/1994
49 United Arab Emirates In force 26/10/2007 22/04/2008 Full text: en | ar
50 United Kingdom In force 24/11/1993 24/11/1993 Full text: en | uz
51 United States of America Signed (not in force) 16/12/1994 Full text: en
52 Viet Nam In force 28/03/1996 06/03/1998