Formed in 2009, the Archive Team (not to be confused with the archive.org Archive-It Team) is a rogue archivist collective dedicated to saving copies of rapidly dying or deleted websites for the sake of history and digital heritage. The group is 100% composed of volunteers and interested parties, and has expanded into a large amount of related projects for saving online and digital history.
History is littered with hundreds of conflicts over the future of a community, group, location or business that were "resolved" when one of the parties stepped ahead and destroyed what was there. With the original point of contention destroyed, the debates would fall to the wayside. Archive Team believes that by duplicated condemned data, the conversation and debate can continue, as well as the richness and insight gained by keeping the materials. Our projects have ranged in size from a single volunteer downloading the data to a small-but-critical site, to over 100 volunteers stepping forward to acquire terabytes of user-created data to save for future generations.
The main site for Archive Team is at archiveteam.org and contains up to the date information on various projects, manifestos, plans and walkthroughs.
This collection contains the output of many Archive Team projects, both ongoing and completed. Thanks to the generous providing of disk space by the Internet Archive, multi-terabyte datasets can be made available, as well as in use by the Wayback Machine, providing a path back to lost websites and work.
Our collection has grown to the point of having sub-collections for the type of data we acquire. If you are seeking to browse the contents of these collections, the Wayback Machine is the best first stop. Otherwise, you are free to dig into the stacks to see what you may find.
The Archive Team Panic Downloads are full pulldowns of currently extant websites, meant to serve as emergency backups for needed sites that are in danger of closing, or which will be missed dearly if suddenly lost due to hard drive crashes or server failures.
ArchiveBot is an IRC bot designed to automate the archival of smaller websites (e.g. up to a few hundred thousand URLs). You give it a URL to start at, and it grabs all content under that URL, records it in a WARC, and then uploads that WARC to ArchiveTeam servers for eventual injection into the Internet Archive (or other archive sites).
To use ArchiveBot, drop by #archivebot on EFNet. To interact with ArchiveBot, you issue commands by typing it into the channel. Note you will need channel operator permissions in order to issue archiving jobs. The dashboard shows the sites being downloaded currently.
What exactly is the heat death of the universe and where can I find out more?
Asked by: Richard Hobbs
The 'heat-death' of the universe is when the universe has reached a state of maximum entropy. This
happens when all available energy (such as from a hot source) has moved to places of less energy
(such as a colder source). Once this has happened, no more work can be extracted from the
universe. Since heat ceases to flow, no more work can be acquired from heat transfer. This same
kind of equilibrium state will also happen with all other forms of energy (mechanical, electrical,
etc.). Since no more work can be extracted from the universe at that point, it is effectively
dead, especially for the purposes of humankind.
This concept is quite different from what is commonly referred to as 'cold death.' 'Cold death' is
when the universe continues to expand forever. Because of this expansion, the universe continues
to cool down. Eventually, the universe will be too cold to support any life, it will end in a
whimper. The opposite of 'cold death,' as you can see, is NOT 'heat death,' but actually the 'big
crunch.' The 'big crunch' occurs when the universe has enough matter density to contract back on
itself, eventually shrinking to a point. This shrinking will cause the temperature to rise,
resulting in a very hot end of the universe.
Discussions of the concept of 'heat death' can be found in some thermodynamics textbooks.
The ideas of 'cold death' and the 'big crunch' can be found in textbooks on cosmology, such as The
Early Universe by Kolb and Turner. Or, if you prefer and less technical discussion, you might want
to try Black Holes and Time Warps by Kip Thorne.
Answered by: Andreas Birkedal-Hansen, M.A., Physics Grad Student, UC Berkeley
The heat death of the universe will only occur if the universe will last for an infinite amount of
time (i.e there will be no big crunch).
It will occur because according to the second law of thermodynamics, the amount of entropy in a
system must always increase. The amount of entropy in a system is a measure of how disordered the
system is - the higher the entropy, the more disordered it is..
It is sometimes easier to imagine if you think of an experiment on earth. A chemical reaction will
only occur if it results in an increase of entropy. Let us imagine burning petrol. We start of with
a liquid that contains atoms arranged in long chains - fairly ordered. When we burn it, we create a
lot of heat, as well as water vapour and carbon dioxide. Both of these are small gaseous molecules,
so the amount of disorder of the atoms in their molecules has increased, and the temp. of the
surroundings has also increased.
Now lets think what this means for the universe. Any reaction that takes place will either result
in the products becoming less ordered, or heat being given off. This means at some time far in the
future, when all the possible reactions have taken place, all that will be left is heat (i.e
electromagnetic radiation) and fundamental particles. No reactions will be possible, because the
universe will have reached its maximum entropy. The only reactions that can take place will result
in a decrease of entropy, which is not possible, so in effect the universe will have died.
I found that a good book on the subject is called 'The Last Three Minutes' by Paul Davies. He
describes how the universe might die a heat death, and also argues that it may be possible that a
big crunch will occur instead.
Answered by: Sarah Al-Assam, Student at Tiffin Girls' School, Kingston UK
'Every creative act involves ... a new innocence of perception, liberated from the cataract of accepted belief.'