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PACIFIC COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER SUPPLEMENT, DEC. 17.
"is i:x-Ei.i.nxrY vr. n. akiim i:osi.
lltt Hawaii Majxtt rf.vi.wi-u rr
To Ilia ExcxLLnrr II. A. P. Caitm.
PfittUnt if lh Hoard if InvrugraU-in.
Si : On tr... UtS of Jinmrj Iit. I wa in-
tructi hj y m i,, innmiii r. i t cmwi li .n wuli
Il Mj.-tj (ratel tri;ui.J it.e ri I. the uv
jct of lutiotrati n, anJ j u iirr t - i tuy attn
tiwn t.j l he f. tkwir) pint fr cfrlul .",vr
ti .q :
i irl.- TLat ff securing a cl. ' nu'miatit-
Kmgl jra, a iii at the rime t.ta-? furui-h fl.e I-r
wLiel U reiju.rJ.
SfexO'l Tlut .f orreftirj the dnfwit in
tfi f r.p..rt i jo of td aiu .in, tr. ll-unn
thirl. ILC tf -:ur.n,j a sufficient an J tr
liiiM surtlj of U'rer.
Kiurf J. 1 bt oNt,inins 'li"tiC' r. n.
f nn:iti.n on thi uSii.-ct of luiuiirti itt
I 1 Ti-j,.,rt a4 fl-w :
I busts liwitl jArnn. (,'liici.i. the? Milaj I'enin
!.. th Nriu ul.?iif.:."" the Km lt.Iu-4,
ouv? of tf? Lurof'-nn cnui.tri- r-jec-UIl I.r
tu il aol in eacl o.untry hc invtitcl ii-e
uhji:t of eml.rttion t tli kn I (Ui. Vi m
H Lnrin oa tint juenti..r l laVr arl or
tl? juett o of p uUti'.n. '1 official fi
tt'tt, wLkl I hell ax rn.tuf)r of Hi
AIijej' tuit. wo cxccllctit f.iciliUi- in
rijiJIy juruir2 my in? cxtition. It eit.tMi
. uif t uMitin intrfiewt wjih jcr-xn' in hilt
authority. ar) t i jlt.iiii aict; t recurl-t without
iltl.iy. Thi w.v tliff cui eci.!Iy io InJia.
'1'Im G )f rnrBr-nl in t'nicott i Ixiving h-o iiJonac
of llw Mijmty'a jrofHjoe i viait. arJ lii- deire to
obuin inforoj ition on the subject of trroiratton
without JcUy, mije auc'i arran-etuenta that on
hia arrif il th oCoial ajr were Heel before
tat for full examination. anl the persona win
wore b-ttt ahte t c;ie tu reti .Me information
were in atteniuore. S orJiallj ail fully wm
thia inforuiati n pien tht my short itaj in lnlia
wiai nu(5rintty t en.M me to obtain the
fart which mainly determine the ijucfttiun of
inuui jtrar i,,n.
I will runnier the iul.j-ct of rU.tt Indian or
cihjIio labor Crut. b-cau-e i ha4 fx-n more ro
tumently hefore the Hawaiian j linter.
I doitire h-re to utate that I concur fully in the
iwwi an-1 :ntiont- t r-nted by tu in your
reply. d-ttl March 'J, lill, to a Memorial on
K.Mt Indian Kiuiratior ' excepting only the
tateiueoi madrf by yon that the Indian liafcrn
tuent ta nprmnol to emigration. Kecent int-r-iiwi
with that f eminent convince m-' that
they will not oppowe it, if conducted under strict
trettie and convention. I b.-Iieve that there
ha L:?n, latterly. chans of opinion in this
respect. Ire all other U teliicnts Uiad ? in your
rrply I rc with y i. nd will avoid u repetition
ol the matters considered by you.
Lefore learhin India I louod that the subject
of coolia Iabjr wa fami'iar to Koglmh statewinen
io the riant. In Singapore the tubjt prtfonted
a very intrrtin phae, owin j to a difference of
upninn Iwiwtrn the Colonial liovernor and tle
eereiary of State for India. Singapore is the
leading n of the Strait Settlement.' Sir
Frederick Weld ia the (Jjvcrnor. Adjoininic thi
olonv are several I'rotecteiJ Statee,'' i t .Matea
which allow, by convention, an Knglitb omcial to
remde near ita (ovrrnment, and act aa an ad
viter." It iu.iy l readily inferred that the
advice " of llie Ilenident regarded aJ a Com
mand. Thene Protected States " are aurcly in
ne of laborer. With a view to obtaioing
Indian eooltt-a the Uovernor of Sincapore induced
the 4!oTrnor ol Madras to send Mr. M'tiresor,
the Protector of Kmigrtnta in the Madras 'resi
dency, to th- States w!tl dire Claris to fully in
vestigate the subject of emigration. He did so,
ail made an elaborate report, urinj tlte pro-
Eriety, safety, and neccMity of immigration,
'pon tlii the (Jovernor of Singapore, Sir F.
Weld, wrote to Iord Kimberley, Secretary of
State for the Colonic, er.djrm the views of
Mr. M"Grejrr, and nrgin the great benefit
which would arie to these State if immigration
waa attoweil. He said : My opinion is that
there i no reason why the interest and welfare
ul the Indian emigrant should not be n writ
secured in the native Protected State under Iheir
present administration as within our own settle
meats." Ird Kimberly, under date of Novem
ber 3), I3"0, say : There is no doubt that the
ratterial prusperitf of the native State woul I be
advanced by such an increase in the supply of
labor aa could be ai7rdd by a vteii)alc immi
gration of Indian coolie; but looking to the
acrtou dilScuIlle in the way of securing pror
treatment of the coolie io the State which are
Bo nritioh territory, I do not feel jot.fied in
recommending to the Secretary of State for India
that the experiment should be tried.
You will, therefore, perceive that the views
taken by the Colonial Department, and thoe
taken by the Indian Department d not coincide.
While piiAin; by the Strait Settlements I met
otTkial and planters who were familiar with
Indian coolie labor in the Settlement, the e
Coolie bem generally free emigrants," though
there are many w rkin under contract," and
protected by I'ritish laws. The coolie do not
understand the do tie of the protector." They
believe be i put in of!!ce to back them up in any
complaint 'the planter are draped off to dis
tant Court on frivolous j retences, and t tj ure
tliat they arc at the mercy of a dewpot. Hut they
Accept thJ situation, as they can obtain latxir
from no other place. Thee planters gcnetally
tild the opinion that Cbioce labor i much
superior to Indian ; some say that one China
tuan I equal to three coolie." Vit they are
rather afraid of the Chin. -sc. because t!ey refuse
to make Ion; cntract. and. moreover, are in
Iractablt?. 4)n my arrival in Calcutta, Mr. Micauley, one
f the Secretaries of the l- nil (iovcrnment, at
one put hi servi.'e at the diial of Ilia
Majesty, and brought me in coromunioation with
Jr. tirant. the authonx-1 Protector of Kiui
grant" under the Indian laws. It i the buti
dcmi of the Protector to tee that the Law regard
in.' euiJf iti''" r enforct-d. I)r. (irant's expe
rie"ne evcrcd every joint on the subject of cootie
amigtation. Hi report on this subject are of
ertat value, clear, and exhaustive. 1-jth Mr.
Pioauley and Pr. (irant encouraged, instead of
dicouraj5d. emirati.n V thee island. I'ut I
4ta inlarmed that no step could be taken by us
4 i ward securin emigrant until we bad enteral
jo to a convention " with the I to trial (iovern
aent in Kngland. the Indian tivernmenl did
(tot enter into direct relation with lurcign llo
eernmcot. Oo reaching Kngtand. I wa promptly
ACtrorded ar interview with Sir louis Millet.
L'nder Secretary of State fr India. He inform-
me that there was no ohjeetion to the emigrti.n
of coolie to the Hawaiian lland-, but that it
it would be necessary to enter into a c.neii
ttoa on the suj-ct," a other countries had d .ne ;
that io order to do so, law should be pned by
the Hawaiian Government similar to thuoe pa-ed
oihcr countries ; that trre tw w uii ie
submitted to the Indian
( vernmcrl ; and. if
reirarde-i a rati factory, a convention
entered into. oe of the permanent secretaries
of tlrf India Otfice r-iU d my attention to the fact
thai the subject bad already been di-n-u-rd witli
foa when jou reprcsentcl our ti.vernnunt at
the Coutt ol St. Jaine. and that a similar state
eaaoi bal beo made to you ; but that no intima
tioo bad jet been mado that such law bad t en
rai-e l- On my ii'X "hat in view of the
kind treatment accorde-l by u to emigrant
Utnirers. such an e UN .rat cnventno might be
dispense'! wth ur ce' 1 va promptly in
rorlned tnat the neces.iiy for uch a c nventi..n
wa imperative ; that the Imperial iovernuient
did not consider thi requirement harsh r un
kind : tbat on!." there wa such a convention
and rrotectioo ' the most salutary laws might
remain without force, and Ilriti-b subject be
uada the ohjee u " inhuman treatment ;
that if f-jreign eountrie wiheij t employ large
cumber of Uriti-ta subj ct. it wa only reason
able that a I'ritish representative should be
rreent to that the law were enforced.
It will b evident to J u that any modification,
io our favor, of tb rciuircmenU of the present
contention exiting between Great I.r.ta.n and
' other eountri.-. would be imaied lately followed
by a demand for modification by other countries ;
thai the kin.L treatment now a -coided to emi
crant might not be continued ; that tlx Indian
doolie are weak and ignorant, and are cn-Uered
tb " wrJ " ol the Lntisb nation, and that the
aettled tvliey of a Krrat anl powerful nation will
o b chansed at the request of the Hawaiian
aJoTernmcnt. Moreover, the trict law demanded
tt the Imperial Ootermeot, indoding the " pro
Xactor " protiaion. extend to th Britib colon
acl any excertion made jo favor of the Hawaiian
fiovernmcnt wouli be quite inconsistent. The
Hawaiian (ovcrncjtat m-ilc c diiticcti js in
fiv. r r fmr nation, in the matter ol native fca-
m-'n, I ,x it cr.iJer it law- on that fjbj.-ct ji-t
Sj the Iir-cnal v;rnu:'.r.t
cor.si 1- r the
countries, as a
term it exicti fr jra f -reign
Conl;iivn of obtaining woak anl
h ub:;Ct, ai i-:t ar.l ri-ar.aM"?.
Tub '.r Iwm as Lbulr?.
There iv a great d.fTercuce of ojiriioa on the
value of Inl.an cooiie labor; but I Ih:1.cc the
prevailing i pini ,n i-t, that the 'bin-c are
ri r t In liir.s at the satu.: t;toe thi c lie
lib .r i u-J with p r-Et in Kiary countries, anl
it ungbt le ued with jr:Ct here. All of the
Chinese are fcot urirtj all the It.liat. ; but
the emigrant laborer fr .m Ch:na ar rithtrt-n-ferior
Ij the emigrant labor r froui Indi. Th.-i
i owing to a d.?ererce in thesocial ar.d rtl.gi i:-
thought ol the twj Cjuntrie. Th-naliv of
the Cor Jimndel c at. who d Work on the tUr.-
tatiwii of the Malay
f Peninsula, receive double the
Uengalei c-whe in the atne
vu'i given to the
rla:e. Hot tie; native Iroui CoroUjanJel will n 't
remain 1 ng in the Malay Country. H" return
home at toe enJ ol six months. It i so in Hor
mah. where thou-ai. Jt of o.lie emigrate fr tn
Inlia. work a few m .r.ih. and return l uc
1 ho flat Indian are nt an emigrating p t o j ie.
'Iheyarenot dip.a-J t move from one art of
India to another, or from India to l .rc:gn
countries. Great tfj,rt have been nin ic t j toove
them from crowded jart t the sear.tily sc-ttl'.-d
p.rti .r.s. but with little effect. I he tea j 1 inters
in the district of Amdi have great difficulty io
getting laborer, anl already find that the high
c ol of getting them is making, in many instance,
the cultivation cf the tea plant quite unr rofihibl-.
The Indian i reftrs uflering and fatuin? at hotne
to a removal even t j another tart of India. (See
Indian Famine lie port.) I)urin the re. -tut gr-.-.t
and dintressing fuunnc no considerable number
oflercd to leave, or vtere willing to leave, their
borne. A few living near the eeaporU cOl-rcd to
Aero the liay of Bengal is IJurmah, one of
the very richest of the Indian dependencies. The
demand there for labor U very great, and the
wages high. It is fro scantily pnipulatel that ten
millions of oplo cou'd readily Cnl t-upport
within it boundaries. I'ut the Indian coolie,
though fully p rotcctcJ, refu-9 to settle there,
! --referring rather to cros the Iiy of Bengal,
abor a lew month-, and return to India vnd live
at home till all bis money i cpent. The planter
in the Malay Peninsula are rely precd for
lafor in working the sugar, coffee, and gambier
lantalion. So are the planters of Sumatra, and
oinparalively high wage are offered, but the
demand i scantily supplied. My own observa
tion on this subject arecjnfirmed by Mr. Collard
in hii rep-irt, published in the Hawaiian linzette,
June 27, 131. The statistics puhliohsd by the
Indian iovcrnment for the year 1379 offer strong
roof on tLi-J point. There are nine foreign
a-mcic fjr obtaining emigrants in India. TIicm;
are located in Calcutta, and represent DeiuarHra,
Trinidad. Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Mau
ritius. Natal, Fiji, Surinam, anl (iuaiaIou.
Kach agent, bv the requirements of the Indian
laws, must be a salaried officer (Sec. 5). The
agents employ recruiters " to scour the country,
and theee are licensed by the Indian Government.
During the year 1S79-SO the 23G " recruiter
obtained 15,U00 persons who registered oa emi
grants in the different districts. Of thete 3), 000
only 18.CKX) came into tho depots at Calcutta.
Ten per centnm abandoned their contract. These
3G recruiters " were paid $l.o0 for every
emigrant finally entered in the depot. The pay
ment of thi comparatively large sum shows the
difficulties of obtaining emigrants.. Although the
agencies are located in Calcutta, the capital of
the province of Bengal, which bold thirty mil
lion of people, there were only three hundred
and six (200) emigrants from that province.
Central India, comprising the great district of
Indore, Majporo Jubblepore, liayjiore, Kcwah,
and Gwalior, furnished ooly one hundred and
twenty altogether. Now here, in an empire of
two hundred and fifty millions of people, in per
haps the poorest country in the world, famine
prevailing somewhere nearly every year, the rate
of wage not reaching five cent a day in some
places, the peojlc must be solicited and begged
to emigrate, and only 20.000 are obtained in one
year from these million. Moreover, the Iieenes
of one-evcnlb part or the "recruiter" wire
cancelled in this one year for fa!c representation
to the proposed emigrant, showing that the re
cruiters resort to most questionable means to
secure people. The coolie i unwilling to go.
Miserable and starving a tb.e rreet chi-wcs ore,
they are not greatly tempted by a ri-o in wage
Ir.ui 4 toil cents per day. Kx pet iciiee show
that social, religious, and financial reason, by no
mean creditable to the coolie, are quite a- in
fluential a the prospect ol increa.cJ wages. No
Indian, a a rule, who has any prospect " at
home seem willing to leave. Many who are
sickly try emigration, but are refused. The
returns to the Imperial Government from the
Island of Jamaica show that -the medical attenJ
ance on the coolie in that most healthy country,
average $12 oO per head per annum. During
the year 137S-9, Demarara, Granada, and St.
Lucia did not secure ihe small number of emi
grant they required. (See official report to the
Indian Government.) At the same time Dema
rara i quite popular with tbe returning emi
grant. It mutt be remembered that these loreign
Mate arc working for emigrant in India, with
well-constructed depots, and tho buMiic- is
inmagcd by men highly paid, ar.d who are ert-crienet-d
in all the best and nioet successful
method of inducing the people to leave home.
A about 20.000 people do emigrate every year,
the question arises, from what cla.-s do the Come ?
If the people generally are not disposed to emi
grate, is it not quite safe to conclude that tho-e
who d emigrate are not the most desirable ? Dr.
Grant informed me that, as a rule, they are from
the lowest, the most servile caste in India.
With rcpcct to the expenses connected """with
Indian emigration, the rates of wages allowed,
the term of service required, I will hereafter
present such detailed repsrt as you may require.
1 will state, however, that in the competition for
obtaining coolies, Surinam, for instance, requires
only five days' work in the week, seven hour
each day. and gives a return parage at the end
of fie year. 1 be oSoial returns from the Island
of Jamaica show that the cost of necuring the
emigrant, of defraying hi passage to and fro.
amount to 2X0.
Kar Imu3 as a Basis or Poitlation.
In considering this branch of the subject it
w mi l be necc-ary to enter into a mo-t c ireful
consideration of the moral, physical and intellect
ual Condition of the class of Fast Indian from
which the emigrant come. 1 ansumc that you
and tho interested in this Question ate familiar
witn the literature on the subject. I shall, there
I re, present only a few fact, which in my opin
ion should settle thi question. The lImdoj
ate divided into tatlrs. The lines between thee
eate are strictly drawn. Kvery Hirjoo efiil i
i born in one or the other ot them ana remain
so for life. The higher castes boll the intelli
gence and wealth ol the country. A you dc
- -..,! throu h the lower castes wealth and intelli
gence deereae until the lowet i readied, which 1
contain the ignorant and those with the leat
mora! an 1 intellectual rower. Ages of s-x-ial. ,
religious and political despotism have kept tin :
I est caste in such a miserable c m inion tint J
thev have become the least valuable stjelc
the Indian population
N w the majority
of tho emigrating
Cotne from this Cia.
Low as the Indian rank
be de the European, the emigrating In dim Come
rrom the lowest clas. No doubt sjiiic of the up
per caste Iliad xsdj emigrate, but I am informed
they are generally under a cloud.
1 d not believe that much can be said in favor
of the moral condition of these Hindoo. Their
religion consist in the worship of numerous hid
eous, anl in many case grossly indecent looking
idil. Monkeys are worshiped, and temples arc
constructs! f r, and are filled with th. c ""-ii-uan
divinitir. The j-eople in great crowds worship
them. I entered a Hindoo temple in Benares,
the sacrc-. city. Its dark recesses a well a the
open spaces were filled with the most bide u and
grinning idols, made of wood and bronte. B-.fore
an altar tb pavement was clotted with the blood
of butchered cot. In the court-yard were sev
eral sacred well." A crowd of men and wom
en were drawing out and using the fiithy water,
l'nder the porticoes stood tbe " sacred" bull and
cows, standing and receiving the worship of the
vast crowd of people who thronged the place,
while women gathered saered" urine ;n cup.
Fat. sleek Brahmin priest stood about receiving
offering or money. 1 do not believe that these
religious rites are in advance of the ancient Hi
waiTan idolatry. If the Indians are to betaken
as a basis of population in these Island, they
must be taken in tbeir low intellectual ni moral
j cond:ti jn ar. l with all their revolting ceremonies,
! An attemt t to build up a nation in these dj
with eu-.v. t..a:tr.al wuIJ nt oh't be cfTensivc l
! ti e civ.l z. i worli. bat would b even luJicrou.
i ll.ey r. w n.tbir.g of our f-
jiineal system, and
w juII reTiir-i vears of careful instruction txfjre
tley cjuli iini"er?tacd it. As those people arc
f rotectel by Lritisti laws in the eiercise ol
rei:-,u rite, however revoltirg they are,
w j-all Lave t j be j r .tectcd here.
I r..ay be sa 1 ti. it theic p , !e .ull be'-ab-BJrtcd"'r
asi::.i!i:el" h--rc, and t!:eir heath-
t r..:i ractice w ju. l s .-n u.sar pear. ioj n i
Lr.jW wl.er the j-mtr of assimilation lies, t er
tiry n t in the Hawaiian fjr it is generally ad-
loif.eJ that nceJs ail anj suptjri inmeii
Nr i th.-re t jwer in the foreign race, the Furo-
tean. to recjo-truct the H.nJo until it La
greatly increase 1 it numbers. In the American
.tites the great vig r of the Acglo-Saxjn stock,
and tbe hrge pjjulati.n, has assimilated, jar
tially, the fiuiiier.us emigrant from alien states.
but it ha not been without dinner. Here there
Coii-ervativo piwer, anl any larg influx
,1 loreine rs
of i.ric race, woul I in time t-otaoiis.i
ir.:"ii'.-nee. which would nees-r-sanly
a c .titroilirig
;iry ana even revolutionize our roiiueai in.-ii-.r.s.
F-tecially would this be the case if the
I.eW toj u
' it mn r.'ifivi-l t!i ri .'.t of'iiflra(e. and
h il a ma
rity of Votes.
- . . - -
1 he character of the women who stiould etui
crate is of the utmost imt-ortance. Now it would
har l!y be exjected that the women of the cla?s
w!, Jj emigrate from India would be very desir
able as the mother of our future nation. Ke-sp.-etable
women of the llmJoo class dj not ap-I-
iriii t'ublie, escettifi' onlv those ltlonging to
the menial clas
I heir religion forbids them to
cr ss the -ca, and public exposure on shipboard
w juM be deemed a gruss act of indelicacy. The
f r.-.-cnt emigration laws of India require forty
women to necompany one hundred men. It does
not reouire that marriage should c-xit. The "re
cruiters' meet with very great difficulty in ob
taining the required number of women. In sev
eral instances the law was relaxed in order to
permit a large number of men to leave. The
late Protect r of Kuiigrants in India, says in bis
official rep .rt (1S7'J): "The clas. of women wil
ling to emigrate arc young widows, married or
single votii-n who have gone astray, and are
there-lore mo-t anxious to avoid their homes and
conceal their antecedents."' Those familiar with
Hindoo custom know that widows are outcasts,
w luen who leal miserable lives and are hardly
t-.Ierated in Hindoo society. 1 arked the resent
Protect r of Immigrants how many women out of
the f'.rty who emigrated were decent or respecta
ble w. men. He said "hardly ten." While a
few women do necompany their husbands, tho
larger number are recruited ns single women,
brought d rvn to tho depot and turned loose with
the men, and herd together like cattle. It would
hardly he po-fible to predict a very brilliant fu
ture lor a otul:itioti coming from such women.
It up-ars, also, by the otlicial reports in India
that next to the Hindoos, the Mobammcdens rank
next in number as emigrants. While their re
ligious ceremonies are not as revolting ns those of
the Hindoo, they are objcctional to us, inasmuch
as polygamy is a strong feature in their social
life. Besides this they are nggresive in their
tendencies, and might, us they arc well united,
make a dangerous element in the State. I re
peatedly a.-ked this question of Kuropean who
have long resided in India, "If a better class of
Hindoos and Mohammedciis should be willing to
emigrate to a foreign country, and they were
frankly told that idol worship and polygamy
would nst be tolerated in the countries to which
they proposed to go, what would bo the effect? '
I was told in reply that " hardly one person
would emigrate." No doubt they might be se
duced or trap jed into emigrating ; but any de
sirable scheme of populating the Islands must
start with giving the proposed emigrant a correct
statement of the political and social condition of
the country which invite them. It is well known
that the most extravagant inducements are now
held out to invite emigration, one of the most
common being that the coolie can marry a white
woman with a large fortune.
In addition to the above statements, I desire
to copy an extract from a document presented to
the Governor-in-Chicf of Jamaica, and by him
submitted to the I mis-rial Government in Kng
land, being a part of the memorial of the North
Cornwall Association of Baptist Churches in the
Island or Jamaica, representing sixteen Congrega
tions, numbering about 12,000 persons. It says:
" Your memorialists have repeatedly eipreswid
and published their concurrence with the opinion
of the 11 m. C. C. Bravo, that before n country
can receive general material benefit Irom the in
troduction of population, the bulk of the individ
uals emigrating t that country must have on or
the other of the foil owinj qualifications: rrtig-i-u
ami ivii iil tiluration, tmlustry, rnrgy, t itter
..?, manufacturing skill, tJucatcJ intelligence or
money capital, and your memorialists positively
affirm that the coolies who have been introduced
year after year into these Islands do not fulfill
nny one of these "important conditions. ' These
men were not srwculating on what coolie may
be. They arc men who are face to face with the
coolie laborer. It woul" hardly be wise to cast
aside tin positive testimony, especially aa it
comes from men who from a religious standpoint
have no selli-h ends to serve.
As you have not defined the term "population"
in your instructions, I have allowed myself some
latitude in discussing the question. Tho stand
ard by which the moral, intellectual and physical
character of the proposed populati n is to be de
termined has not been fixed. The geographical
position of the Islands will jlaco it population
between two immense, energetic and relentless
civilizations, the American nnd the Chinese. It
would be a political blunder to initiate the growth
ofa new j-cople here, which cannot hold their
own in every way against these forces pushing
hard from the Hist and the West No nation
ramo out of barbarism with less friction than the
Hawaiian, n fJ'ple ever received such tender
care from the fierce, powerful and often brutal
races which now mainly rule the world. But in
spite of giving it the best political wisdom of the
world, and in i-pite of the most intelligent Chris
tian attention and watchfulness, the race leels
its. lf in a hard ctruggle for existence To put
beside this race another that cann t hold its own,
would be to sin against light and would involve
those who did it in a gross blunoW. Only those
so ul l become the basis of population here, who
are, or may become capable of fronting and
standing effectually before the stronger races
whi.-h arc now here. With this standard before
us, and after reviewing the facts hearing on the
Fist Indian emigration, I do not hesitate to re
port that the Fast Indians are not suitable or de
sirable as emigrants.
Japanese are not an emigrating race
though Japan is nearer to takiornia than China,
anl the Japatie-e not only h-ive none of the preju-dici-s
again-t foreigners, which the Chinese tiavc.
but nisi have a great fdmiration and respect
for them, there is still r.o disposition to venture
ini California, or sifter State in large numbers.
Nor is u f.,4.i want -if kniwledge ol the oppor
tunities offered in foreign countries. The high
late of wag- pai l in California and in Australia
are w.-ll known to them. The people make no
iff.rt to emigrate. Japan i not over- opulated;
only ttic-tcnth of the soil is under cultivation,
tin the i-lanl of Yexzo are vast tracts of land
lyin idle. There is a Colonial Department in
the Japanes- G ivernm-nt, and considerable in
ducnien! are offered to pp-le living in the more
crw i-.-l p arts t ni jvc ii'-on these waste lands;
T,nr far. there ha been little success in get-
tm emigrants. The Japanese are not a thrifty
I cjj !e. In spite of the line climate and rich soil
thev ar por. No dubt that political condi
ti .n have has much to dj with their poverty;
but it still remain that they are not a tbrivir.g
people, in spite of the great resources of tho
country. Dr. J. C. Hep. burn, now and for many
y--ar are-i lont missionary in Yokohama, an-1 the
author ol the F:g!ish-Japancse dictionary, told
me that he preferred and eni loyc 1 Chinese labor.
He said that there were industrious J ipaneso, but
a a rule they were not; that the people were
c intent with rue an 1 fish, and did not show the
encrzy o" Chin. e My own observati n showed
me that the Chinese were entering the country
and were showing themselves superior O the na
tive in the business of merchandising. No doubt
a gardener the Japanese rank high. 1 do not
say the lab..r-r would not meet the wishes of our
ilaoter. but 1 believe they are njt equal t3 la
i. .r.-r from other r ces. Morality is low through
out Jaj an, and perhaps much lower tlian in
China or the Fist Indies. White observers
describe it as very low. I do not believe that their
opinions are altogether trustworthy. The last
census returns in Japan show that the males out
cumler the females by about five thousand. It
is impsossiblc to fortell what a well-organized
scheme for immigration to tbese Islands might
accomplish. While the opinions of forcigucrs
resident in Japan is against it, and the high offi
cials of the Em j ire, though xA opposed to it. be
lieveitcaDnotsaccccd.it is still possible, that
with crcat care, energy, tact, a considerable num
ber of emigrants mieht he obtained. But it must
be remembered that there is really little more
rrcssure on the Japanese to leave Japan, than
there is uron Hawaiian to leave these Islands
and emigrate to Peru. If a Japanese wishes to
obtain land he cvo get it. Hi mjtive for going
abroad would not be that which come from great
need, but rather the desire to get money rapidly
and return home to sp-enl it. Accoraing to th
oScial report ol Consul-General an Bureo the
average rate of wages paid to the agricultural
laborer is $4.50 per month.
Under the present circumstances I will not
consider this branch of the subject, but will.
hereafter, make a separate report upon it.
Singapore, at the sjuthern extremity of the
Malay Peninsula, affords the best advantages for
studying this branch of the subject. Io 1319
this place was a village, but it has since become
a colony of about 140,000 inhabitants. It has
afforded the Malay race every chance to show its
character, both as regards laoor, ana htnees lor
civilized society. The people of that race meet
at thi place, coming from the Peninsula country
on the north, and the great Islands on the south
and west. I n to tbe i.rescnt time this race has
made no mark in the colony. Fvery opportunity
has been given it to make a permanent settle
ment there; but it has neither the thrift or
energy to establish itself as a social, financial, or
political force. In the colony the Klings "
from India take its place as farmers, while the
Malays do some business as petty traders, and
make good servants in tho care f horses ; as a
rule they give way to the Chinese in all occupa
tions requiring thrifty habits and steady industry.
Throughout the Malay Peninsula, in Java, and
Sumatra, laborers are needed, but tho Malays do
not supply the demand. Tbe -Maharajah of
Johore, one of the Malay States adjoining Singa
pore, has lately undertaken to cultivate coffee and
gambier. He informed me that his own people
were too idle and thriftless to bo depended upon,
and be was therefore looking to China and the
Fast Indies for laborers. It was in part in behalf
of this sovereign that the Governor of Singapore
made application to the Colonial Office for Indian
coolies, and was refused. It is well known that
the Dutch authorities will not permit emigration
from their own vast possessions. There is a vast
amount of land lying Idle in the countries in
habited by the Malays. If the people of this
race will not build themselves up in communities
while under the protection of the British Sag, or
will not supply the labor demand in their own
States, it would be idle for us .to hop that they
might become valuable laborers or citizens of
these islands. If the planters of the Malay States
are looking to India and Cluna for laborers, it is
idle for us looking to the same Malay Stales for
1 will not consider the character of the Portu
guese emigrant, for the Hawaiian planters have
already bad full opportunities to judge of the fit
ness of this race, both as regards labor and popu
lation. While in Lisbon 1 obtained mucb infor
mation regarding the emigrants from the Island
of St. Michaels. Mr. Seemann, Vice-Consul for
the United States, came especially from that
island to meet His Majesty, and as he acted for
some time as the agent of Mr. lloffnung of Lon
don in procuring emigrants, his knowledge was
accurate and interesting. The number of people
on the island is about 160,000. For several, I
think five years, the orange has failed owing to a
blight upon the trees. Besides this the increas
ing orange crop of the Mediterranean has brought
about low prices, consequently the people are in
distress, und arc now willing to leave tbeiriiomes.
As a rule they p. refer t go to Brazil. They like
its climate, and their friends are there. But
they cannot pay the passage money, and the
Brazilian planters are not in need of laborers at
present. The payment of passage by the Ha
waiian Government is the inducement to enter on
a long voyage to these islands. While the in
habitant hear favorable reports from their friends
here, I do not think they would be greatly dis
puted to follow them if they could labor nearer
home. Limitations upon tho number of children
retards thi emigration. Married men only can
leave freely. Ihe unmarried only after a term
of service. Tbe long contract system ol labor is
not popular. It looks to them like a species of
slavery. But they accept it. Probably a supe
rior clurs to that now emigrating would leave if
there wns more freedom allowed in making labor
contracts on arrival here. The Portuguese Gov-
vernment is encouraging emigration to its settle
ments on the African coast. At the present
moment a large immigration may be obtained
from the Island of St. Michaels and elsewhere ;
but it may be terminated instantly by order of
the Portuguese Government. The emigration
laws ol Portugal are very strict, and any vigorous
enforcement of them would embarrass the immi
gration. It is most desirable that arrangements
be made as quickly as possible with a viewio
placing this business on a more satisfactory foun
dation. H these Portuguese are desirable, it is
of tho utmost importance that as many as possible
be obtained at once, and before unforeseen events
shall stop them from immigrating. The fact that
no treaty exists between this country and Por
tugal that the emigration laws of that country,
if enforced, might abrubtly terminate emigration
that this Kingdom is at present entirely de
pendent upon this immigration for laborers who
bring women with them ; that the Government
has no representative there of bigb diplomatic
standing who is able to meet emergencies which
may arise, either from the Portuguese or from
tho emigrants themselves; that tho whole busi
ness is in the hands of contractors who may
abandon it at any moment if interfered with ;
and that . every possible precaution should be
adopted to forestall any difficulties, urge me to
impress upon the Government the necessity of
sending eomo competent person, without delay,
to that country for the purpose of establishing
permanent diplomatic relations, and at the same
time of putting the immigration business on a
more satisfactory basis. Other important reasons
I have communicated directly to the Minister of
General Flkopean Immigration.
While in FDgland and on the Continent 1 in
vestigated this subject, and came to the conclu
sion that immigrants could be obtained from
several of the countries of Northern Furope.
Generally the Germans, the Scandinavians, and
the English laborers prefer to emigrate to those
countries which arc already settled by their own
countrymen. But there is in every nation a con
siderable class who desire change of some kind,
and will always bo attracted to the tropical
countries. This class can be reached by our
agents. Whether these immigrants could be re
tained in the country, after immigration, is a
very serious question. The bigh wages paid on
the Pacific Coast will tempt the Northern Euro
peans away, while the Portuguese would not be
disposed to leave.
There are in Europe large numbers of artizans,
tradesmen, and manufacturers who have not been
very successful in business, or are restless in dis
position ; or believe that in some distant country
they will be sure to prosper. Many of tbese
made application to His Majesty, and also to me,
requesting, in nearly every instance, that money
should be furnished them for payment of passage,
aad p romises be made securing them " lucrative
offices " on arrival here. I discouraged this kind
I believe it will be difficult if not impossible,
to bring into these Islands many of the best emi
grants belonging to the best races. The L'nited
States, Canada, Australia and South America
offer to the most desirable emigrants that which
they desire and will have, the bomstead. Tbe
emigrant wishes land, and a fee simple tenure.
Nothing is so repulsive to him as a tenancy.
While these other countries are offering great in
ducements to emigrants in -the way of abundant
and rich lands, at very moderate prices, these Is
lands, or this Kingdom is offering nothing but
contract labor.' We shall obtain only those
who cannot pay their way to the countries which
oner luem just wnai tney want, it becomes a
serious matter in considering the future of this
Kingdom, that while there is now a population
of about CO, CK0 only, and while it is estimated
that a population of over 700,000 may be com
fortably supported here, there is little or no pub
lc land, or land which is subject to immediate
entry and occupation by emigrants. I have no
doubt that this fact will greatly influence the
social and political condition of tbe Kingd, in
On the subject of tbe immigration of wou h
only, with a view of supplying the deficiency oi'
Hawaiian women, I report that it is not possible,
at preMnt, to obtain women for that purpose.
In Japan there is now a deficiency of women.
China des not furnish what is needed. In the
East Indies they cannot be got for reasons which
I have already given. In the Malay countries, it
would be impossible to induce them to leave.
They are Mohammedan, by religion, and will not
forsake the people of their'own faith. Even in
the moet enlightened countries, single women
though in wast and misery at borne, seldom emi
grate. There are a few instances when such
women, in considerable numbers, have left home
for new countries, but in these cases it was only
to reach tbe t-eople of a kindred race. It would
hardly be expected that ignorant women, without
knowledge of the existence of these Islands, their
pswple, customs and language, would abandon
relatives and friends to enter a distant and foreign
tate to unite in marriage with men of whom
they know nothing.
In view of the fact that the foreign races in this
rvinguom owe important duties to the Hawaiian
race; that every means should be adopted to pre
serve, strengthen and increase it ; that the polit
ical institutions of the country should be so pre
server or mouinea as to secure its integrity and
perpetuity, I strongly recommend that, in intro
ducing immigrants, great care be taken to exclude
an adventurous, restless, idle or criminal class,
which would be the first to crowd upon, abuse
and injure the Hawaiian people, and in the end
eeriousiy jeopariuzo ttieir rights.
'Ihe forgoing is respectfully submitted.
Wm. N. Armstrong,
Commissioner of Immigration.
Dated Honolulu, Nov. 7th, 18S1.
31 civ nmti.srmfut.s.
Christmas Is Coming I
AND LOVING PARENTS, DEAR
Relations and Kind Friends, are be
ginning to think of and look out for
Holiday Gifts for tho.-se who are Near
and Dear to them. And now is the
the Time, for you Dealers, who have
Choice Articles for Presentation, to
make them known through the News
paper, especially the One with the
L ARG EST CIRCULATION a n d
the Pacific Commercial Advertiser
being found Everywhere ; in every
House, Shop or Saloon ; even read as
is well-known, in the Homes of its
Opponents, offers the very best
Opportunity to make known any
Rarity or Speciality For Sale.
Call early with your Ads at
the ".P. C. A." Office, opposite the
Notice to All British Subjects.
Her Britaoolc Majesty's Consulate General,
Honolulu, ev. 20, 1881.
IS COMFOKMITV WITH IXSTRUC-
TIO.NS received from Iter Majety' Government, I
hereby request all British subjects who were iu these Islands
oq the 4th ol April last, to transmit to the Consulate General
the names and ages of themselves and ot ih.:ir families.
JAMES il. WODEIIOUSK,
no26 lm II. B M.'s Coniminsionrr and Cousulale General.
TO THE PUBLIC I
VE HAVE RKOEXThV OPKMCD THE
V premises at No. 1 8 Nuunno stmt, imeodinir to carry
oa business as
PLUMBERS, GAS FITTERS
Copp ersmit las.
Our tons; experience as MECHANICS warrants us in sav
ing that our new venture will meet a want long felt in this
All Orders we may be Favored With,
Attended to under our own Personal
And executed in a thorough, onipelent and workmanlike
manner, on Ihe most approved Sanitary Principles.
BY STRICT APPLICATION" to BUSINESS
WE TRIST TC MERIT A
SHARE OF PUBLIC PATRONAGE !
And we shall at all times endeavor to give our I'atrons
the utmost satisfaction, bolh in perfection ol
Work and Moderate Charges.
BATHS, WATKtt CLOSETS, WASfl BOWLS, Etc.,
ALWAYS OS HAND.
Special Attention given to the titling up of the SPRING
FIELD OAS M.VUUINE.
BROWS fc PHILLIPS,
Plumbers, Gas Fitters and Coppersmiths.
Opposite V. T, Lenehan & Co., No. 13 Nuuanu St. de3 3m
New Boot & Shoe Store !
BV THE UXDERSIGXED.
Sin of llic Oolclcii Root
At N'. 144 Fort Street, ppsi.it c the
Just received a well selected assortment of Ladies', Gents
Coots, Shoes and Slipper.s !
New styles, fine workmanship, at prices that defy
competition. He also manufactures
Dress Boots, Riding Boots, Water-Proof
Boots, Shoes and Gaiters in the
Lotl lea' Leather Wear, a Speciality.
Repairing done at lowest rates. Good workmanship guaran
teed. All orders faithfully executed.
Plenae Give Me a Cnll.
JAS. G. HAYSELDEN,
ARCHITECT & BUILDER,
IIONOIUIU, II. I.
Detail Drawings !
Made on application and at short notice.
Estimates Given on all Work
Connected with tbe
Whether it be in
IRON, STONE, BRICK, CONCRETE.
BRIDGE OR WOOD WORK.
Will visit any part of the other Islands to ESTIMATE
aud DRAW FLANS lor proposed
Mill Works, Bridges or Residences
Modification of Old Buidiityi a Speciality.
First Class Work Guaranteed
CHARGES MODERATE !
AUDKr.: JAS. G. HAVSELIJEX.
Care of Architect & Builder,
8 U. Wi. rtB tc Co., Honolulu. U. I. noifl ly
IRON TANKS !
EX HIGHFLYER. NEARLY NEW, AND
IN GOOD ORDER. FOR SALE BV
X..k 1,81 JAME3 I. DOWSETT.
juani' of .
.ISI" O I2E3
tii nriTFiie ty m
1U IJU.lLiLlUJ J
m mm tm k
I I i I I I
FIVE PEE CEISTT DISCOUNT
Cash Purchasers of -25 Pounds and Upwards !
7-4 HOTEL STR EET.
Having Oreatly Hnlarg-cri Working Facilities,
Is iYow Prepared to Turn Out Front-
600 TO 1,0 00 POUMBS
STRICTLY PURE CANDIES DAILY!
AND WILL SELL HIS
FEESH JjSTJ PUKE GOODS !
AT THE FOLLOWING WHOLESALE PRICES,
TTUliich. arc Below
.CREAM CHOCOLATES, lVr round..
Hand-made Creams, "
Mould Creams, 14
rancy ljozenges, "
Peppermint Lozenges (triple strong), per pound
Almonds. Smooth and Imperials. ier pound
" Roasted, I'ink and II row u. per
Corrinder, Caraway and Anis Seed. jer
Sugar-coated Cuhebs, per (ound
tium urops strawberry, Rose and Lemon, per pound....
uuocoiaie caromeis, per pound
Lemonade or Acidulated Lemon Drops,
Chocolate Pastilles, per pound
Marsh Mellows, Plain and Cry9talized,
jrysianzeu liquor isouoons, per pound
Chewing Candies Rose, Lemon and Honey, per pound
Caromel Clear Figures, per pound
Cocoanut Candies in variety, per pound
Figures In Conserve and Fancy, per pound
Macnine urops in great variety and llavors, per pound 2'JJ
Stick Candy in great variety and flavor, per pound ir,
Broken Candy, per pound i)
Rock Candy, White and Pink, per pound 3.5
Pop Corn Balls, per dozen : 4.',
Pop Corn, White, Pink and Salted, per quart 10
Peppermint Drops, Transparent, ier pound.. srt
i'asiines 01 an navors, per iouni..
And many other articles in tho Confectionery
13T GUARANTEED that all Goods Manufactured by mo aro
And flavored with the finest Kseentinl Oils and Spices, and tbe Best Materials.
Wedding Cakes & Pastries of all Descriptions
MADE OX THE SHORTEST NOTICE AND
Finest White, Family, Graham and Venna Milk Bread.
Fresh Every Day Noon, ad Delivered
HT. B.-HTo thing Less
Considered a Wholesale Purchase.
sml Prcsei-vccl Taiiiaritid,
Put up with the DEST REFINED CRUSHED SUGAR,
ubciui uu iuug
flREMEIBER THE yV.ITTMi:4 !
IF" - H
X3ijlo iojil Ooiil'ootioiioi- Ac J.-rt,l:ry Coolf,
Steam Factory, No. 74 Hotel street. Honolulu, H. I.
E. O. THOMAS.
BRICKLAYER & BUILDER.
DiRTlCCL.tR ATTENTION' I'A1I TO
M in v ii..m ttnitora VnrnBTM. Htlffr'i Ovens and
U m .11 l.:n.la f II mt inf. Anntritui Alan. Vftriprntf-d
Concrete Sidewalks. All Work entrusted lo me will he execu
ted promptly, and oa reasonable terms.
Addresstbrou h the Post Offlce )n 1 81
JU ZLVE !
H. EVI. MOORE,
JOB PRINTER ,
AND DKALEtt IS
STATIONER V. CIGARS, TOBACCO. kC.
123 FORT STREET.
CHOICE CALIFORNIA STOCK
FOR SALE TO ARRIVE,
SUPERIOR DURHAM COWS
12 Weil-Bred Fresh Calved Milk Cows,
NOW ON HAND AT THEKALIHI RANCH.
.... AL80 ....
THIRTY HEAD PLAMATIOX MILES.
IE CS IES
.11 l lllUILH IV uu II LUIlUliLIll
I JU. I l Klllkl'l II I
Importation Prices 1
and Cuko Business too numerous to nata
IN THE II IQ II EST STYLE OF THE ART. .
to An Part witbia the City Limits.
than 125 Pounds io
and WarranteJ to keep in any olimals. Very
O R M ,
IS II Kit EH V GIVEN. TII AT IIAVINU HE
turned lo il.e Kingdom, In personally suriul.nd uif
l.u-li.i l.er. t'jr revoke all Powers ot Aitornry rilatios; up
tu tlii. .Uif.
CILBKIIT WALL aH
Honolulu, fe. 2, 1U8I. fpM
Importer & Heme Manufactarer of Candies
OF ALL UCfCIUPTIONS,
o. 112 tort Strftt, Jat ! Haiti St.,
Has u.t made Isrire additiotia to his rsUbHstimrnt, and Is
ii w rrated tu furui.u to Ihe trade, lb licnoluls) pub
lic, and reorients on the oilier Islands, M. VKKV
FIVKST nf IIOMK-MADK k lJIPORTlIU CIMIKX,
or all IVserip lions, AT Vfc&Y REDUCED PttlCKH.
R-cf Iws Frh Candirs hj every arrival, fie Guraolra tka
purity of bis rls. THE CREAM CANOIKl
sre a specialty :i. I U. and arc mad by lbs best nana
Uciurers in California, and receireJ fresh by every steamer.
Soda Water, and all kindi of Iced Drinks
THE BEST ICE CREAM IN THE CITY.
The BKST URAND9 of CUOICK CIQARS al wajs on band.
Milliner and Dress Maker,
FORT STREET, HOXOLUM ,
IS CONSTANTLY IN RECEIPT OF ALL THE
Latest Novelties in Millinery 1
Comprising I be Newest Styles In
llat, Ribbon, Feathers, FUwtrR, Lacci, JU., .
Wlo-e taste and skill are too srell-koowti to require any
r-crnimendalion, is slill in charge of Ihe Millinery aud
Trimming Departments, which is a sufficient f aaraute that
work will be done in an art is lie manner.
THE DRESS MAKING
Will be under the immediate supervision of Mrs. Wllklnsu.
whose reputation for accuracy and neatness la well-knowa to
the ladies ot HoDolalu and tbe other Islands.
LADIES DRESS CAPS ON HAND,
Or made to order. Also,
Ladies' and Children's Beady Made Clothing, Zephyr Shawls,
Silesians, French Grenadines, Silk flocking., Lacs
U and kerchiefs, Japan Tidfes, Ve.j Ac.
A Fine Line of llourning Good.
M RS. V. hopea by strict attention to the wants est hat
patrons, moderate terms, and furnishing only first-class r la
des in her line, to merit abare of tbe public patronage.
- f -
fOK PALE tfi