An experiment in async/parallel array functions for JavaScript
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Asynchronous Array Functions in JavaScript and Oni

When writing JavaScript for web browsers, you have to deal with asynchronous functions a lot. Because the environment is single-threaded and event-driven, everything from DOM events to the HTML5 Database API requires the programmer to pass around callbacks and continuations. This is especially important on some handheld systems like Google Android, where the browser won't redraw the screen until the programmer returns control to the main event loop.

Each, Map, Fold

I most recently ran into this when writing an automated test-runner for our JavaScript application at work. Since our tests interact with the DOM, they need to run asynchronously and use callbacks to report their results. If I launched them in a for loop, they'd all run in parallel and interfere with each other.

So I wrote a generic method to loop over an array asynchronously:

 * Call f on each element of items, then call done_callback.
 * f should have signature f(item, next), and should call next() when it is done.
each_seq = function(items, f, done_callback) {
  var iter = function(i) {
    if (i < items.length) {
      var item = items[i];
      f(item, function() { iter(i+1); });
    } else if (done_callback) {

With that handy little function, I can easily run my tests in sequence:

each_seq([test1, test2, test3],
  function each(test, next) { callback() {
      console.log("test completed: " + test.status);
  function done() { console.log("all done!"); });

Just for fun, I decided to get even more generic and write an asynchronous fold:

var foldl_seq = function(step, zero, arr, callback) {
  var next = function(i, acc) {
    if (i < arr.length) {
      step(acc, arr[i], function(result) { next(i+1, result); });
    } else {
  next(0, zero);

Then I could implement map and each in terms of fold:

var map_seq = function(f, arr, callback) {
  foldl_seq(function(a, b, next) { 
      f(b, function(result) { next(a.concat([result])); });
    }, [], arr, callback);

var each_seq = function(f, arr, callback) {
  foldl_seq(function(a, b, next) { f(b, next); }, null, arr, callback);

Map and Each in Oni

Next, I wanted to try the same thing in the very cool Oni concurrency library. Oni is a functional language embedded in JavaScript (and potentially in other host languages) that hides the complexity of flow control for asynchronous code. For details, check out the excellent documentation and slides on the Oni site.

One nice thing about Oni is that choosing parallel or sequential execution is simple and declarative. I didn't use Fold this time because it doesn't parallelize. Writing Each was easy, but Map was a little more complicated:

 * EachWith(Par, F, [a,b,...]) -> Par(F(a), F(b), ...)
 * EachWith(Seq, F, [a,b,...]) -> Seq(F(a), F(b), ...)
var EachWith = function(Combinator, F, arr) {
  return Combinator.apply(this,;

 * MapWith(Combinator, F, [a,b,...]).run() -> [<F(a)>, <F(b)>, ...]
 * "Combinator" can be Par (to call F in parallel) or Seq (to call F sequentially).
var MapWith = function(Combinator, F, arr) {
  return Let({ result: [], arr: arr },
        Lambda(['i'], SetAt('result', 'i', F(GetAt('arr', 'i')))),

Writing them in Oni was a bit more work, but now they can be combined with Oni's other combinators to work with both synchronous and asynchronous functions, in parallel and in sequence. You can even call them with Alt if you don't care about getting all the results back. They're tricky enough that it would be nice to have version of them in the standard Oni library. (A version of Apply that takes its arguments as a JavaScript array would make the implementation more obvious, too.)


See async-map.js for the full source to both the pure JavaScript and Oni-based functions. Open test.html in your browser with a debugging console (e.g. Firebug) enabled to run the included tests.

My EachWith uses from JavaScript 1.6. You could provide a map implementation for browsers that don't have their own. See the source file for the definitions of GetAt, SetAt, and range, which are straightforward.