Review
Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) bioactive compounds and peptide nomenclature: A review

Under a Creative Commons license
open access

Highlights

Flax compounds; linatine, cyanogenic glycosides, Cd and mucilage are discussed.

The difficulty in attributing bioactivity to flaxseed compounds is discussed.

A systematic nomenclature of 21 flaxseed orbitides (cyclolinopeptides) is proposed.

The biological activity and ribosomal origin of flaxseed orbitides are reviewed.

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an oilseed used in industrial and natural health products. Flaxseed accumulates many biologically active compounds and elements including linolenic acid, linoleic acid, lignans, cyclic peptides, polysaccharides, alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, and cadmium. Most biological and clinical studies of flaxseed have focused on extracts containing α-linolenic acid or lignan. Other flaxseed compounds have received less attention and their activity is not well described. The benefits of consumption of whole flaxseed fractions such as oil, mucilage and protein indicate that consideration of the entire portfolio of bioactives present is required to associate biological activity with specific compounds.

Abbreviations

CLs
cyclolinopeptides
ALA
α-linolenic acid
TG
triglyceride
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
FFAs
free fatty acids
CsA
cyclosporine A
MeOH
methanol
HPLC
high-performance liquid chromatography
NMR
nuclear magnetic resonance
Met
methionine
MetO
methionine S-oxide
MetO2
methionine S,S-dioxide
bw
body weight

This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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